Modern Applied Science

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Online ISSN: 1913-1852
Print ISSN: 1913-1844
Publications
PSNR Results for Synthetic Test Images
Advances in wavelet transforms and quantization methods have produced algorithms capable of surpassing the existing image compression standards like the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) algorithm. The existing compression methods for JPEG standards are using DCT with arithmetic coding and DWT with Huffman coding. The DCT uses a single kernel where as wavelet offers more number of filters depends on the applications. The wavelet based set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm gives better compression. For best performance in image compression, wavelet transforms require filters that combine a number of desirable properties, such as orthogonality and symmetry, but they cannot simultaneously possess all of these properties. The relatively new field of multiwavelets offer more design options and can combine all desirable transform features. But there are some limitations in using the SPIHT algorithm for multiwavelet coefficients. This paper presents a new method for encoding the multiwavelet decomposed images by defining coefficients suitable for SPIHT algorithm which gives better compression performance over the existing methods in many cases.
 
To overcome the disadvantage of determining artificially the class number, fuzzy C means clustering is introduced to fuzzify the continual attribute, and the best minute class number is obtained by cluster validity analysis. The relationship of glass composition and its application is excavated using data mining method in this paper.
 
This paper presents a simple mechanism for quantifying the value which a network creates based upon the way in which its connected. The mechanism is grounded in a process of information sharing by nodes and is, in a sense, an extension of Bonacich!?s (1972) centrality measure
 
Polarization parameters and EIS parameters for mild steel in 1.0 M HCl with different concentrations of thiourea
The influence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The efficiency of EDTA was compared with thiourea. Primary results obtained revealed that EDTA performed as good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid media comparing with thiourea. Polarization curves show that the behavior of EDTA and thiourea are mixed-type inhibitors. EIS shows that the control step for corrosion process is a charge transfer mechanism.
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 11, November 2009, all in one file
 
Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I) to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From the results of 14C the direction of groundwater movement is found to be from South to the North and turned to North West of Jakarta at Jakarta Center. From radiotracer method (131I) the direction of shallow groundwater in the rainy is observed to be from the disposal site to the surrounding area and the Ciketing canal which flows to the North. For the dry season from the disposal site to the surrounding area. The results from environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry analysis indicate that the pollutants from the site have given an impact to the surrounding area of disposal site which was shown by migration of nitrate. It is recommended that the decision maker should give high priority to the geology, geohydrology and environmental pollution studies for consideration of disposal site for the safety of sanitary landfill.
 
Total deposition of 137 Cs in soil as determined in 2006 at various sampling sites
The transport of fallout 137Cs within the Nigerian soil has been studied in this paper by a compartment model. The measured concentrations of the radionuclide in the soil layers were examined by the model in order to estimate the transport parameters of residence half-time and the migration velocity of the radionuclide in the soils. The residence half-times were observed to be short and decreased with soil depth with a mean ranging from 0.3 years at 0 – 2cm soil depth in Akure site to 1.4 years at 10-15cm depth in Igbeti site. The migration velocity , calculated from the residence times with the consideration of the different thicknesses of the layers were observed to decrease slowly with depth at all the sampling sites with a range from 3.62 cm y-1 at Igbeti site to 8.21 cm.y-1 at Ikogosi site. The migration velocities obtained are quite higher than those reported in literature for global fallout.
 
Effect of mycelia age on percentage of decolorization  
The aim of the present study is to analyze the ability of the white rot fungi Coriolus Versicolor (MTCC 138) in the decolorization of Cibacron Yellow S-3R, a recalcitrant azo reactive textile dye. The influencing parameters that affect the percentage of decolorization rates are optimized in batch mode. The optimal values of the parameters such as mycelia age, temperature, pH, initial dye concentration and carbon source concentration are found to be 7 days, 30°C, 5.4, 100 mg/l and 2 mg/l respectively. The maximum percentage of decolorization at the optimized conditions is found to be 90%. It is also conferred that there is substrate inhibition to fungal decolorization when initial dye concentration is greater than 100 mg/l.
 
A study of the reaction between trans-[Pt(15NH3)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 and glutathione (GSH) was undertaken to confirm the identity of the products formed. In alkaline solution, the platinum products observed were mononuclear species, while in acidic solution, the oligomeric products were products obtained. The mass spectrometry of the reaction in alkaline solution showed a sulfur-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) species, trans-[{Pt(SG)2(15NH3)2}2(SG)]+ giving m/z 1380 and the lost of two ammines was observed.
 
Wastewaters from textile industry contain various pollutants including a high content of organic matter, surfactants, additives and dyes. Dyes have obtained notoriety as hazardous substances, because most of them are toxic and considered to be resistant to biodegradation. Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have received considerable attention because it is possible to degrade organic compounds and color from wastewaters. This study was performed to investigate the removal of COD and color for Reactive yellow 16 using Fenton oxidation. The comparisons of removal efficiencies were made among Fenton, Photo Fenton and Sono Fenton process. Removal of COD and color of 80% & 90%, 90% & 98%, and 82% & 95% can be achieved by Fenton, Photo Fenton and Sono Fenton process. The results showed that H2O2/Fe2+/UV process was more effective in COD and color removal.
 
Advanced photocatalytic degradation of lignin and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was studied. The method used a newly developed supervibration-photocatalytic reactor based on the photocatalytic process combined with a supervibration agitator. Effects of operating conditions such as initial pH, UV intensity and supervibration frequency on removal efficiency were investigated. From the results obtained, removal efficiencies of lignin and 2,4-DCP were similar pattern. UV intensity and supervibration frequency in a low initial pH increased removal efficiencies of lignin and 2,4-DCP. The optimum operating condition for a supervibration-photocatalytic reactor was found at initial pH 5, 25.2mW/cm2 UV intensity and 50Hz supervibration frequency. Under the optimum treatment condition, the reactor could simultaneously remove lignin and 2,4-DCP up to 75.1% and 94.1%, respectively within 420min.
 
Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulphuric acid by aqueous extract of Ajowan (carom) seeds has been studied using chemical (HE and ML) and electrochemical (EIS and PDP) measurements at 30?C. The results indicated that Ajowan extract inhibit the corrosion process in 2.0M H2SO4 and the inhibition efficiency increase as concentration increased. Impedance studies showed that the charge transfer controls the dissolution mechanism of steel across the phase boundary in the absence and the presence of the inhibitor and potentiodyanaic polarization results indicate that Ajowan seeds act as mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency obtained from various employed methods is approximately in good agreement. Adsorption process of Ajowan molecules on steel surface is spontaneous and it obeys the Friuendlish adsorption isotherm.
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2007, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, September 2007, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, November, 2007, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, January 2008, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 2008, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, July 2008, all in one file, Part B
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2008, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 6, November 2008, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, September 2008, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, February 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, March 2009 , all in one file, Part A
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 10, October, 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 6, June 2009, all in one file, Part A
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 8, August 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2009, all in two files, Part A
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 9, September, 2009, all in two files, Part B
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 12, December, 2009, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, January, 2010, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 7, July 2010, all in one file
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, March 2010, all in two files, Part B
 
Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, February, 2010
 
Expe ; CPE, Custom S
Field data and calculations of measured and theoretical path loss
In Malaysia, the incumbent WiMAX operator utilises the bands of 2360-2390MHz to provide broadband services. Like all Radio Frequency (RF), WiMAX is susceptible to path loss. In this paper, field strength data collected in Cyberjaya, Malaysia is used to calculate the path loss suffered by the WiMAX signals. The measured path loss is compared with the theoretical path loss values estimated by the COST-231 Hata model, the Stanford University Interim (SUI) model and the Egli model. The best model to estimate the path loss based on the path loss exponents was determined to be the COST-231 Hata model. From this observation, an optimised model based on COST-231 Hata parameters is developed to predict path loss for suburban and open urban environments in the 2360-2390MHz band. The optimised model is validated using standard deviation error analysis, and the results indicate that the new optimised model predicts path loss in both suburban and open urban environments with very low standard deviation errors of less than 4.3dB and 1.9dB respectively. These values show that the model optimisation was done successfully and that the new optimised models will be able to determine the path loss suffered by the WiMAX signals more accurately. The optimised model may be used by telecommunication providers to improve their service.
 
Rectangle packing problems solved belong to NP-Hard Problems. It is complex combination optimization in nature. This, an adaptive hybrid algorithm is proposed, in order to deal with optimization Algorithm limitations. In the end, the high efficiency of the layout optimization strategy and reasoned conclusions is verified by simulation results.
 
The relationship between coded code level and corresponding real variable
Equipment used in continuity test for anodic coating  
Schematic diagram for potentiostat equipment  
Values of experimental measured thickness for aluminum alloy (3003)
Aluminum alloy (3003) has been anodized using sulfuric acid solution. To study the characteristic of the anodic film of aluminum alloy (3003); four variables are examined in term of anodic film thickness, these are current density ranging between 1.5- 3.5 A/dm2, electrolyte concentration ranging between 10- 20 Vol.%, electrolyte temperature between 10- 30oC and anodizing time between 10- 50 min.The study shows that the time of anodizing and current density has positive dependence of great significance on the anodic film thickness of aluminum alloy (3003) while the other two studied variables (i.e. concentration and temperature of electrolyte) show little dependence on the film thickness. When conditional Hookes and Jeeves optimization method is used, optimum conditions of aluminum alloy (3003) in terms of maximum thickness are found equal to: Current density (A /dm2) 3.5 Acid concentration (Vol. %) 10 Electrolyte temperature (oC) 19 Time of anodizing (min.) 50 Aluminum alloy (3003) specimens at optimum conditions are anodized and comparison studies between anodized and un-anodized specimens are carried out in terms of: 1) the roughness and hardness of anodic film. 2) the corrosion rates in 3.5% NaCl solution by: a) immersion test. b) polarization curves. 3) examining microstructure before and after anodizing of both types and their corrosion specimens by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.In general, it is found that the surface roughness and hardness values for the anodized specimens are greater than that of un-anodized specimens because of the very much thicker oxide coating compare with the natural oxide (atmospheric oxide) whose improved physical and chemical properties. Also, the corrosion rates for anodized specimens are lower than that for un-anodized ones. The polarization behavior for anodizing alloy shows that the breakdown potentials are shifted to more noble direction than bare metals due to anodizing.The study also shows that the Breakdown of passive film and pitting formation occurred at (-661mV) for un-anodized alloy, while (-410 V) for anodized alloy. The observed pits are clearly not deep and small in size in large numbers compared with the unanodized specimens.
 
The behaviour of mixture of acetophenone and benzene as a function of temperature and composition has been investigated by measuring sound velocity in conjunction with density at 303.15, 313.15and 323.15 K. Derived parameters computed from density (?) and sound velocity (U) have been used to determine excess molar volumes (VME), excess isentropic compressibilities (KSE) and excess inter molecular free length (LfE).The excess functions have been discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions between the components of binary mixture. The validity of various theoretical approaches of liquids has been tested for the system by comparing theoretical sound speeds with those experimentally determined over the entire composition range in the temperature range 303.15-323.15K. The computed results have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to estimate the smoothening coefficients and standard deviations for this system. The validity of various theoretical approaches of liquids has been tested for the system by comparing theoretical sound speeds with those experimentally determined over the entire composition range in the temperature303.15-323.15K.
 
Diacetone alcohol, benzene and chlorobenzene mixtures at 303.15 K
Diacetone alcohol, benzene and chlorobenzene mixtures at 323.15 K
Measurements of thermodynamic and transport properties have been adequately employed in understanding the nature of molecular systems and physico-chemical behavior in liquid mixtures. These properties are important from practical and theoretical point of view to understand liquid theory. In the present study density (?) and viscosity (?), have been measured for a binary liquid mixture of Diacetone alcohol with benzene and chlorobenzene, over the entire composition range at 303.15 K, 313.15 K and 323.15 K and the evaluation of different excess properties. The viscosity values and excess values were fitted to respective models. It was found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The molecular interactions existing between the components and comparison of liquid mixtures were also discussed.
 
The studies of ultrasonic velocities, refractive indices and surface tension are being increasingly used as tools for investigation of the properties of pure components and the nature of intermolecular interactions between the liquid mixture constituents. Refractive indices (nD), ultrasonic velocities (u) and surface tension (?) have been measured for the binary liquid mixture of Anisaldehyde +benzene over the entire composition range at 323.15 K. This study involves the evaluation of different thermo acoustical parameters along with the excess properties. The Redlich-Kister model was used to correlate the measured properties. It was found that in all cases, the experimental data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The molecular interactions existing between the components were also discussed.
 
A high power density integrated electronic ballast for low wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamp based UCC3305 is proposed in this paper. The UCC3305 integrates all of the functions required to control and drive one HID lamp. A highly efficient and reliable topology full-bridge inverter is adopted to supply the lamp with low-frequency square-wave positive and negative current avoiding acoustic resonances. The UCC3305 special microcontroller for HID ballast is used to raise control performance and simplify the control circuit. The presented circuit was verified with experimental results. A prototype of 35W digital HID ballast has been built with the whole efficiency of 89%.
 
Based on the small parameter asymptotic homogenization theory, this article adopts the technology of digitized cell-based finite element method (DCB-FEM) to establish the digital cell-based mechanics analysis model of three-dimensional 4-directional braided composite material, analyzes and calculates the equivalent elasticity performance of 3D braided composite material using homogenization method, and the results show a good agreement with the experimental data.
 
In this article, we utilized the lumped damage mechanics method to implement the damage analysis to the 3D frame structure under impulsive load. First, take the damage parameters as the interior variable of the system, and based on the finite unit, combine continuum mechanics, fracture mechanics and plastic hinge to analyze the mechanical behaviors of the structure, and finally implement numerical simulation analysis to the frame structure with two layers, and compare the result with the computation result of ABAQUS to validate the feasibility.
 
The economic value on network capacity has made it a major determinant in the design of any generation of mobile technologies. For any multi-user cellular system, the measure of its economic usefulness is the peak load that can be supported within a given quality and service (QoS) availability. In this paper, we improve upon the existing Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) user capacity expressions in single and multi cell environments for the uplink, by integrating new parameters that affect the system. Specifically, we study and report the effect of multi-user detection and adaptive antenna gain on WCDMA users’ capacity in the presence of loading, voice activity, sectorization, power control factor and bandwidth efficiency.
 
The total and -wave cross sections ( T and   [Å 2 ]) as functions of k [Å-1 ] for concentration x = 5%, . 0 P r  The upper scale [m/s] represents the corresponding velocity v of a projectile atom on a stationary target atom
The Ramsauer-Townsend velocity v [m/s], the relative energy E [K] and total cross section  T [Å 2 ], for
The peak velocity v [m/s], the relative energy E [K] and total cross section  T [Å 2 ], for two values of
The total and viscosity cross sections of 3He-3He collisions in HeII are calculated. The basic achievement of the paper is the prediction of the Ramsauer-Townsend effect in this mixture. The RT minimum appears as a result of a balance between attractive short-range and repulsive zero-range interactions. In the low- energy limit the cross sections are dominated by S-wave scattering. In this limit, these cross sections are strongly modified by many-body effects. The influence of S-scattering decreases with increasing pressure and concentration because of the overall repulsion of medium effects. The effect of the P-wave scattering appears as a resonance-like behavior (peak structure) in the total cross section. This peak structure increases with pressure and concentration. For high energies, these cross sections are independent of pressure and concentration. This indicates that the high-energy behavior is dominated by the self-energy contribution; and the medium effects can be neglected.
 
At present, many shuttleless looms in Chinese enterprises still use the mechanical let-off and take-up machine, and to fulfill the requirements of modern textile technology and consider the factor of saving cost, most enterprises begin to alter their old looms. Taking the rapier loom SAURER400 as the research object, the original let-off and take-up machine of loom SAURER400 was analyzed in the article, and the electric let-off and take-up system was designed, and the revs of the let-off input end and the take-up input end were respectively computed, which could provide some references for the alteration of future electric let-off and take-up control system.
 
The microstructure and creep behaviour of as-cast beta phase contained gamma titanium aluminide with nominal composition of Ti-48Al-4Cr (at.%) was investigated. Constant load tensile creep test were performed at temperatures between 600-8000C and initial stresses from 150-180MPa. Data indicates that the alloy exhibit both steady state and minimum creep behaviour depending upon the temperature and stress. Microstructure before and after creep deformation were examined using scanning electron microscopy techniques. The possible reason for the transition from steady state to minimum creep behaviour was suggested.
 
This article introduces the advantages of new material PHAs (Polyhydroxyalkanoates) and its application in the medical domain, expatiates on the weaving method and machining technology of weaving the tube blank of 4mm artificial blood vessel by this material, and the measures to improve the penetrability according to the porosity.
 
The investigations were carried out to assess surface chemistry, morphology and depth profile of Hg for gas processing pipe steel coupon of API 5L-X52 after adsorption with elemental Hg at 25 0C in the presence of air. The effect of Hg adsorption periods and surface Hg levels were investigated as well as characterization of Hg depth profiles. No reasonable correlation was observed between surface Hg levels and Hg adsorption periods. Forms of Hg found on the top surface and in the depth profile were in oxide and elemental forms, respectively. However, most of Hg present was superficial and did not penetrate below the surface. The lowest concentration of 0.2 Molar of iodine and 2.0 Molar of potassium iodide was significantly found to work well with all ranges of Hg contamination with the final surface Hg levels of less than 0.1 atom% of Hg by the XPS analysis with relative percentage of Hg removal of about 99%.
 
Top-cited authors
Weng Marc Lim
  • Sunway University
Ding Hooi Ting
  • Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Djwantoro Hardjito
  • Petra Christian University
Ismail Abdul Rahman
  • Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Mahmoud Omid
  • University of Tehran