Mitteilungen der Osterreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft

Massenfluß in U Cephei. (Vortrag am 7.9.1978 auf der AG-Tagung in Tübingen). In: Mitteilungen der Astronomischen Gesellschaft 45 (1979), S. 177-178.
Text in German ; summaries in English and French. 11 maps on folded leaves in pocket. Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Hamburg, 1972. Bibliography: p. 148-158.
The volcano Hekla in Iceland is, compared with other volcanoes there and in the rest of Europe, of specific interest due to very numerous explosive and fierce eruptions. In historical times Hekla erupted at least 18 times, most recently in 2000. All of these eruptions produced vast amounts of tephra covering a considerable part of Iceland. In case of specific meteorological conditions tephra was even transported for hundreds of kilometers. Especially during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times various direct and indirect effects of an eruption ever present brought death and destruction for human beings and animals. Because of this ever present potential threat Hekla was considered to be the "Door to Hell" or "Entrance to Hell" soon after the first historical eruptions in the 12th century. This superstition was kept up for several centuries and was sort of nourished by eruptions occurring every few decades. Growing knowledge in natural sciences eventually improved Hekla's reputation, and nowadays its volcanic activities are even used as an advertising medium, e.g. as "Hot Hekla". This paper is not focusing on geological and geomorphological aspects of Mount Hekla. It discusses two topics related to man-volcano interaction: firstly, the relationship of man and volcano in terms of human perception and its changes over the past about 1100 years and, secondly, the types of hazards and damages observed in connection with the 18 known historical eruptions. Thus, this paper combines historical, art-historical, theological and geoscientific aspects.
Albrecht PENCK (1858-1945) essentially contributed to the development of geomorphology as a scientific branch of geography. As professor of physical geography at the Vienna University, he was one of the first university geographers who introduced systematic academic training with cartographic tutorials and regular excursions. He founded the "Vienna School of Physical Geography", which gained great international reputation even beyond Austria-Hungary. The article investigates how the institutionalisation and teaching of geographical fieldwork contributed to the emergence of a geographic practice culture. The focus is on the reconstruction of the "field" as the central place of geographic knowledge generation and the contextualisation of the sociocultural and material conditions of the epistemic process of fieldwork. Using the examples of Albrecht PENCK's excursions, the article will analyse the converging contradictions between a critical and comparative geomorphological and an increasingly affirmative cultural-geographical observational practice.
The investigation of the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (= NAO) on the winters of the Northern Alps is based on a detailed analysis of the winters. This great number of data, with diagrams for each of the 100 winters, facilitated a contrasting of the courses of the temperatures and snow covers with the indices of the NAO during that period. The first result was that the parallelism of extreme temperatures, which, as H. MALBERG had been able to demonstrate, existed between the winters of Berlin from 1929 to 1996 and the NAO, was also present with the course of temperatures in Mitterberg. The high indicative value of the NAO indices were proven by the example of the extreme winters in Mitterberg and were found to be convincing. The periods of winters in Mitterberg from 1901 to 2000 were identical with the decadic variations of NAO. It was finally possible to show that the rhythm of change between winters with of snow and those with less as ascertained at Mitterberg since 1965 is in agreement with the NAO variations also in respect of amounts of snow. Not only the results of the analyses of Mitterberg (1992) were confirmed, but an approach toward a prognosis of winters to come could be attempted. Through the proven relationship with NAO the problem of Alpine winters receives a global dimension, a bearing on oceanography and polar research.
Bodo was a distinguished teacher and author of a famous book on the Burgenland, and he wrote much for teachers. He became a lecturer at the College of Education of Wiener Neustadt, and an important worker on the atlas for Lower Austria.- D.J.Davis
Dieser Artikel setzt sich mit der geopolitischen Kartographie in Osterreich zwischen 1917 und 1937 auseinander. Anhand von vier Beispielen (Erwin Hanslik, Zeitschrift „Grenzland“, Wehrgeographie und Karl Springenschmid) wird gezeigt, dass geopolitische Karten damals nicht einheitlich definiert waren. In der Regel waren die Karten durch ein einfaches Kartenbild, ihre Gestaltung in Schwarz-Weis, eine suggestive und propagandistische Wirkung und ihre Kombination mit politischen Gesichtspunkten gekennzeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu heutigen Karten fehlten zum Teil dynamische Gestaltungselemente (Pfeile, Keile), die eine Bewegung versinnbildlichen. Daher gehoren die meisten dieser Karten einem Ubergangsbereich zwischen Politischer Geographie und Geopolitik an. Die kartographischen Ansatze erstreckten sich von einer natur- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Konstruktion diverser Raume uber die deutsche Volks- und Kulturbodentheorie bis hin zu einer wehrwissenschaftlichen Betrachtungsweise.
Migration, integration and citizenship in Austria since 1918 The article describes the history of Austrian migration, integration and citizenship policies from the beginning of the First Republic. It reveals that many political attitudes of the Second Republic had their predecessors in the First. But it also shows that by the dominance of the so-called "Social Partners" in the fields of labour market as well as migration policies a new significant element emerged and remained influential for the whole post-war period. It was not before the proceeding of European integration and Austria's membership in the European Union that it was replaced by an again more active role of both government and parliament. Regulations ruled by the European Union, however, had in the meantime taken over the command. It also reveals that the focus of discussion in this wide field has only relatively lately been shifted from the problems of the labour market to integration of migrants into the receiving society. Today, migration policies have turned into a game at several levels: the levels of the European Union, of its member states, of provinces and communes as well as of "Social Partners", who have, however, essentially lost in importance. Under these conditions radical changes of paradigms have become unlikely and gradual modifications of policies are favoured. It is therefore expected that in the longer run Austrian migration and integration policies, like in other EU member states, will try to be directed towards a combination of both a rather restrictive control over new migration influx and more openness for cultural diversity. It has also become more likely that it will develop into a rather consensual field of politics.
The Brenner border, which was drawn after World War I, is a superimposed boundary. This boundary cut the close socio-economic interdependence which characterized this region. While Austria did not secure the new border militarily, Italy built a defence line ("Linea Badoglio") south of the border. This line with its military buildings has been dismantled in the last decades. Barracks and other complexes have been transformed into trendsetting projects for regional development (i.e. the barrack in Wiesen is now used as a residential building). A military road up to the mountain range at the border can now be used as a challenging mountain bike track. Most of the buildings that were used by border control have been sold to private investors. In 2007 an outlet centre was opened at the site where the Italian tollhouse was situated. For a long time the state border limited the mobility of the local population significantly. Within the last decades the social contacts across the border have increased. At the same time the name of the valley "Wipptal" has been re-introduced as the official name for this region. The price differential between the two states has promoted small border traffic in the village of Brenner. Most of the customers have been returning even since Austria's EU accession in 1995. Since the construction of the DOB (Designer Outlet Brennero) the village tries to position itself as a future centre of retailing. The differentiation within the economic area north and south of the border has intensified in the course of this modern change of structure. However, as census statistics show, the border region has not developed as dynamically as the centres in the Wipptal. Since Austria's EU accession a lot of public institutions and buildings are no longer needed. The local authorities in Brenner reclassified the empty spaces for retail usage in order to generate new jobs. Retailing characterizes most of the border town of Brenner today.
Fritz Bodo - Atlas Cartography in the 1930s and early 1940s In the 1930s Fritz BODO's (1893-1978) main activity focused on producing the "Burgenlandatlas" (together with Hugo HASSINGER, 118 map sheets, 50 pages of accompanying text, 1941 published), a multidisciplinary project of the "South-east German Research Association" with over 50 contributors. The work mainly involved scientists of the Vienna University, but also officials of the provincial government of Burgenland, teachers and amateur local historians. Moreover, it is quite evident that the evaluation of statistical data had been immensely stepped up for the production of this atlas if compared to earlier atlas projects; likewise, the methods used to implement the project had become much more complex than in the years before 1930. Publication before the National Socialist takeover failed on the one hand due to financial problems caused by the economic depression and on the other hand due to political differences. In fact, the atlas project was greeted with some apprehension, as it established links with National Socialist Germany and several project collaborators were NSDAP members. In autumn 1940, Hugo HASSINGER and Fritz BODO started to prepare a "Gau Atlas of Lower Danube". Like the Burgenland Atlas, the cartographic work on the "Gau Atlas", too, was deliberately organised in a multidisciplinary fashion by involving numerous scientists from many different institutions and disciplines. The completed atlas was to be composed of approx. 120 maps; however, its publication was not possible during the National Socialist regime. Only a few sketches of this work have remained. But it is possible that a few preparatory efforts were integrated into the Atlas of Lower Austria.
Following Hungary's serious losses of territory after World War 1, geography became regarded as a major tool for the scientific substantiation of claims to territorial revision by the political elite. The discipline's position was strengthened, and the vast majority of geographers supported the political goals of the regime. After 1945, however, Hungary became a part of the Soviet occupation zone. After the violent establishment of the Communist system, geography was found guilty of having served the interwar political regime. The old 'reactionary' and 'bourgeois' geography was demolished and a new, Marxist-Leninist geography on Soviet principles was established. The latter was based on the concept of economic determinism: 'physical' and 'economic' geography were strongly distinguished. Geography became a part of national economic planning. State research institutes and those of the Academy of Sciences, and the Central Planning Office became the most important 'centres of calculation' where Soviet-type 'big science' was established. Several 'old' geographers were pensioned off or exiled from academia; others were driven to the periphery or forced to compromise with the system. In the meanwhile, all important positions were given to politically loyal 'newcomers'. The international orientation of Hungarian geography changed as well: former German and French influence was followed by a stable orientation towards 'friendly' Socialist countries, especially towards the USSR.
Innovations in the rural settlement areas of Poland differ depending on the structure of ownership, organisation of the economy and demographic characteristics. The concentration of rural settlements cannot be planned according to a schematic model since adjustment to local conditions and existing built up areas will be necessary.-from Author
Two important harbor complexes are situated at the Polish Baltic sea coast - Gdansk - Gdynia (1974; 64% trade) and Szczecin-Swinoujscie (1974: nearly 44%). The links between the ports and their hinterlands are sown by maps. The size of the fleet and docks have both increased. Important exports include coal and coke, Ships, ores, cereals, gypsum, rolled steel articles, timber, cement and food. Tourism in the coastal region is being developed though it is limited by a short season. Of crucial importance for the further development is the protection of the environment keeping the Baltic pollution free.-from Author
Poland is one of the largest producers of mineral resources in the world. The production is based mainly on the following mining districts: pit coal of Rybnik, brown coal of Konin and Turoszow, sulphur of Tarnobrzeg, copper of Legnica-Glogow, brown coal at Belchotow and pit coal at Lublin. All of these resource areas having been developed after WWII have helped to change the spatial structure of economics and settlement in Poland. As a result industy was decentralised while formerly it was agglomerated in the old mineral resource areas of Upper Silesia and in the large cities. The new mineral resource areas are located in regions which have been under-developed economically till that time. Industrial investments have definitely contributed to an economic progress.-Author
After the World War II the reconstruction and industrialization of the country required a scientific approach to national planning. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was reorganized and from 1949 many scientific institutions were founded by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The object of research is to study the physical, social and economic potentials to assess and evaluate the productivity of the economy, and to study the distribution of settlements and the living condition of the population. The assessments of the physical and economic regions of the country are published in regional monographs. -English summary
This was the first meeting of DEUQUA in Austria. Held in Vienna, it was preceded and followed by excursions (Salzburg-Vienna, Tirol and West Hungary). Guests came from Eastern Europe. Excursions emphasised recent work: these are recorded. -D.J.Davis
Top-cited authors
Tomáš Havlíček
  • Charles University in Prague
Vít Jančák
  • Charles University in Prague
Pavel Chromý
  • Charles University in Prague
Miroslav Marada
  • Charles University in Prague
Georg Gartner