Milli Folklor

Even though the studies related to the popular culture in Turkey started with the various activities of names such as Ziya Page, Namik Kemal, Sinasi, Ahmet Vefik Pasa in the second half of the century, Ziya Gokalp's the article named "Halk Medeniyeti-I that was published in journal of "Halka Dogru" is demonstrated as a beginning. Folklore, that the West has accepted as a discipline for nearly three hundred years, is named as "halkiyat" (folklore) in this article, and this study achieves the condition of a milestone that stimulates its successors. A hundred years is a remarkable period in terms of being able to follow the developments of a discipline and its branches, and evaluate the studies done. This period is a hard duration in terms of evaluating at the same time. These type of evaluations provide an important service to the staff of field. The studies that list the works done in the past and look critically are highly important in terms of lighting the way for the works to be done and that have to be done. Based on this idea, here we will try to assess the oral culture studies that are a significant branch of folklore in Turkey.
To use the power of the image for the purpose of understanding the history of culture, making sense out of it and transferring it to future generations, is not something we are used to in the land we live in. Visual folklore, which became popular in Europe during the 19th century, was noticed at a much later stage in Turkey. In this context, there is a need to review the history of folklore discipline, and the attention it paid to its visual concepts. In European folklore studies, the visual ethnology field was accepted as an exciting area of study from the outset. One of the reasons for this delay was not because we did not notice visual folklore but we ignored the ones who noticed it. Therefore, we need to re-read the history of folklore in Turkey taking into account the attention it paid to visual folklore studies. Malik Aksel was a painter and a folklorist who witnessed the early years of the Turkish Republic and who discovered the power of visuality. He and his work deserve to be reassessed. When we review Malik Aksel and his work we can see three main themes. First, he attracted attention to visuality when no one else was interested in folk pictures, religious pictures, and wall pictures. Secondly, he approached the relationship between art and folklore holistically. He did not look at this with an orientalist point of view and he Synthesized Eastern art with Western art. Thirdly, he was able to transform the traditional folk pictures and art to modern art by drawing Anatolian people, inside their houses, festival fields, and traditional occupations. Therefore his work has to be remembered as a resource for visual and critical studies of folklore.
Folklore is one of the social sciences whose subject matter is to study and to show how to carry from one generation to another the traditional culture in a region, a country or a wider area. Turkish folklore studies, which had begun with the introductory articles written by Ziya Gokalp, Fuad Koprulu and Riza Tevfik, has been carried on by the young folklorist educated in the folklore programs of the universities, mass education programs of the government and the programs established by several NGO's. Although the scientific level of those folklore studies in Turkey has been very high, most of the programs appear to be scattered, incomplete and the folklore studies in them have not been satisfying the demand and priorities of the country. Therefore, the folklore studies appear to be less scientific impact in the country. Departing from this point of view, it has become necessary to evaluate the 100th years old history of Turkish folklore studies, and in order to achieve the better folklore studies in the 21st century to determine the reasons for the problems and also suggest possible solutions for the determined problems. In this article, the most of important problems of Turkish folklore studies in 100th years are determined and discussed, and possible solutions are suggested.
There is a close relationship between folklore and the works of literature. Narratives, poems, and lyrics of mold in folklore are also among the concerns of literature. These works whose creators are no longer remembered and thus have become public property are called "oral literature". Apart from these works that are called "anonyms literature" there are also individual works of literature that are moulded by the connection of "folklore" and literature. Works of literature produced by the artists who compromise on the "ashik" (minstrel) type and also the ones produced by the artists who compromise on the "dervish" type obtain features which are concerns of the disciplines of "folklore" and "literature". These works whose creators are known are created in accordance with the traditions and performed within the traditions. The works of verbal cultural heritage called "Inconcrete Cultural Heritage" - including also the ones whose creators are known- are remoulded in every performance in congruence to the agreement with UNESCO. For this reason, it is be possible to make adjustments in the works of oral culture according to new social needs of society. In this article, while determining the fields of folklore and literature the aim is to make an evaluation about the features and staff of the literature branch, that we call "traditional literature", which appears at the junction of these two fields, namely folklore and literature. When these studies, dating be:A a 100 years ago, are examined we see that the field of folklore studies has been expanding and that some confusions with terms and the needs for new terms arise. Solution suggestions to some of these confusions with terms and searching for equivalents to some needs of the new terms are among the goals of this article.
The Dârü’l-Elhân (former name of the Istanbul Conservatory) is an important art institution that was established during the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey. The Dârü’l-Elhân has operated with the objectives of research and development from the date of its establishment up until the present-day. It has acquired the attribute of being the basic institution of Turkish music by providing theoretical and applied education – instruction as of 1927. As of 1930, the Dârü’l-Elhân has provided for the creation of the core staff of art institutions as the means of educating many researchers, academicians, performers and teachers from every generation, also including The Turkish Five, and many research studies have been produced. Whereas, in this study, the contributions, which have been neglected, to Turkish Folk Music of the Dârü’l-Elhân will be treated. As the result of the Turkism ideas, which appeared as of the 1900s in the Ottoman State, it was thought that folklore products were the most important raw material in the construction of the national identity that was desired to be formed and on this point, the first action came from the Dârü’l-Elhân in the foundation of the national repertoire for the national music that would constitute the collection of the folk songs. The Dârü’l-Elhân, which started its contribution with the collection of folk songs, continued in the context of performance, record recordings, recording the musical notes of folk songs, publishing the folk songs whose musical notes were recorded, giving concerts and in the establishment of the Folklore Research and Collection Committee and the Folklore Practice Group.
Kazakh Khanate, which competed against Ebu’l-Hayr Khan and Nogay Orda, was established instead of Ak Orda which ruled in vast Euroasian region between 1465-1466. As in every state, the Kazakh Khanate has periods of maturation, development, integration, strengthening, weakening and fragmentation. Among them, the period of power established by Yesim Han is important in Kazakh history. At the end of the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century, the administration system of the Khazak Khanate was fragmented based on tribalism. On the one hand, there was Tursun-khan, who “drank the blood” of his people for his own interests, on the other hand, the Kalmyks (Zhungar, Oirat), who attacked the Kazakh lands and also there was the Bukhara Khanate, which pursued a policy of robbery on the banks of the Syr Darya. In this period, Yesim Khan fought to consolidate all the Kazakh tribes, at the same time to expand their territory and tried to establish a Kazakh national state connected to the center. His struggle turned into a legend among the Kazakh people. In this work we have dealt with the political and cultural life of the folklore sources of the Yesim Khan period Kazakh dynasty, its efforts to unify the Kazakh people, and resistance to the Kalmuk attacks through civil wars. Yesim Khan’s struggle for power, the folklore resources of the Kazakhs living in China, 100 volumes of “Batırlar Jırı”, the sources of the present-day researchers. Most of the relevant information is based on Kazakh and Russian resources. These resources have been compared with each other and results have been evaluated.
Estate also known as legacy records- are records of deceased people's belongings which are written with their price and quantity under the supervision of woman. In some cities these registries were recorded in court records held by judges, and in some other cities they were recorded in special books. It is known that legacy records are very generous about providing data about the period in which they are written. Many analyses can be made with these data. Moreover, with the help of estate records one's house can be imagined and you can even have slight opinion about his clothes. Also with this feature, estate records Provide data for folklore studies. In the light of available data, we can get ideas about the clothes of women in Edirne in the middle of 17th century. Clothing culture in Ottomans can be examined under categories. Such as palace clothes, clothes outside of the palace, non-Muslim clothes, women clothes and men clothes. Data that we obtained belongs to the women outside of the palace. So our study has some boundaries. And these are registries in court records number 61 and clothes of Muslim women outside of the palace. Clothing consists of the combination of man:, elements. That is, underwear, casual wear and street clothes have separate functions and also they complete each other. Also, clothing action can be completed with accessories which are owned either because of necessary needs or just because of the concern of toilet. As the richness increase, accessories -related to people's buying power- become more expensive and more expensive jewelries are used in their make-up. Clothing is a fact that shows person's culture, social status and style. Clothing action which is done in order to protect ourselves from cold and hot weather and provide our cover need may include differences due to people's prosperity and culture. Some properties can be seen in general of the society, on the other hand some properties can only be seen in rich people or in different cultures. Or the material of the prosperity which is used for the same thing can change according to the rate of person's wealth. And this situation will be examined in our study.
The article deals with wedding customs and traditions of Presyrdariya Kazakhs by 1800's and early 1900's. Wedding traditions of Presyrdariya Kazakhs are differ from other regions Kazaks land. Even province to province, customs are varied in this region. Before the decision, which girl to be appropriate for his son, groom's father gathers his relatives for advice. Then he sends one of his relatives as a "Messenger" to the bride to be village to propose. After the approval, groom's father sends mahchinakers to bride's family to make up a marrige contract and determine the amount of the price will be paid for the bride. During this process, woman at the bride's village and matchmakers plays some games. This celebrations continious for a couple of days. The bride to be is ready taken to the groom's village, after the agreed price paid to her father. Wedding celebrations are held in the bride's village. Young bride hides behind a curtain, called "simildik", in the groom's house for three days. After three days, the bride introduced to groom's relatives with ceremony celled "Betasar". During this ceremony, bride has a scarf on her head, which covers her head and face, and this scarf is taken by a singer (who sing his blessing song along withhis "dombra") with a stick. These customs proceed according the tradition.
In this essay it is aimed to publish the three Turkish dead complaint texts from Adana, those the execution of the sons from Kibarogullari, a Turkish family, due to the Turkish-Armenian fight in the year 1909. The dead complaint texts composed by a relative of Kibarogullari named Bahar Savas from Adana recorded by one 95 years old person and are published for the first time here. There are 6 versions to this dead complaint, of which three are shown here as comparison material: the version of Ismail Gorkem is the most extensive. Those the dead complaint underlying Turkish-Armenian fight of 1909 is here checked by further historical documents. A consistent counterpart for the verbally delivered dead complaint texts, exactly the same as Oztunas remarks form the memory-moderate excessive quantity of the memoirs of Cemal Pasa and Veron Dumehjian as a parallel to those from a German history dictionary. The dead complaint "Kibarlarin Destani" proves innocence of the Turks who are executed and criticizes the attitude of the governor Cemal Pascha and the policy of the government at that time.
There are seven UNESCO conventions on the safeguarding of culture and cultural heritage. While four of these conventions focus on the protection of tangible heritage, the other three conventions are devoted to the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage. Among these conventions, one regarding the tangible and the other on intangible heritage have international heritage lists. The preliminary examination of the nomination files proposed to the heritage lists is made by consultative institutions and bodies which deliver their advisory opinions to the related Committee. ICOMOS in the field of cultural heritage, IUCN in the field of natural heritage and ICCROM in the field of preservation and restoration have undertaken the responsibility to present their opinions on the files with regard to 1972 Convention. As to 2003 Convention, instead of such international or intergovernmental institutions, advisory mechanism for nomination processes have been formed with three transitory structures as Subsidiary Body, Consultative Body and Evaluation Body. While Subsidiary Body examined nomination files proposed to the Representative List between 2008-2014, Consultative Body analyzed nomination files on Urgent Safeguarding List, Register of Good Safeguarding Practices and International Assistance Requests between 2010-2014. Thereafter, this dual structure was abandoned in 2014 and a new advisory body was formed by the name Evaluation Body. The fact that the advisory bodies of 1972 Convention are international or intergovernmental institutions might, on the one hand, facilitate the transmission of institutional memory and experiences among experts, on the other hand, this might lead to authoritativeness. Occasionally, there might arise some divergences between advisory bodies and World Heritage Committee, which is the decision maker for inscriptions to the list, or state parties proposing their files. Nevertheless, these conflicting fields haven’t damaged the valuableness of the World Heritage List yet. In the case of 2003 Convention, election of the members of advisory bodies according to quotas and balances and inability of each member to serve more than two or four years hinder the formation of institutional memory and transmission of experiences. On the other side, it is possible to elect experts who aren’t competent enough academically or scientifically or don’t have the knowledge of the Convention due to the fact that 6 members are elected on behalf of their governments out of 12 members and the rest six members are the representatives of NGOs. Therefore, this might cause some disputes over the accuracy of advises and on the other hand, it might give way to frailty of authority as it may not be possible to hold the efforts of the committee members to include the elements with unfavorable opinion in the list. In order to prevent this, the inclusion of universities, research centers, institutes, UNESCO chairs and Category 2 Centers into advisory mechanisms may be proposed. Furthermore, in contrast to 2003 Convention, 1972 Convention have the mechanism enabling the experts to see the heritage sites in situ. For this reason, accuracy rate of the advises go down. So that, instead of evaluation of files, evaluation of heritage in situ might be more beneficial. Thus, a strong and assuring advisory mechanism might contribute more to the valuableness of the Convention and credibility of the lists.
Bride price is a tradition in effect in various parts of the world. As a contentious subject, it is a traditional institution with centuries of history behind it in the Middle East. It played a role in social life in Nestorian, Circassian, Yezidi and Armenian communities in the 19th Ottoman Empire. The amount and value of the price paid for the bride in these communities was a source of pride and an indicator of social status. While it was payable in goods such as property, grains etc. in some locations, it used to be paid in cash in others. Regardless, the quantity of the bride price went up or down depending on the social status, civil standing and the residence of the bride's family in all of the communities. The importance accorded to the tradition and its application across these communities shows the shared material perspective they employed in regards to women. To prevent blood feuds arising from incidences of elopement that occurred due to excessive bride price requests, Yezidis implemented a practice known as "berdel". If the bride was to die or if she eloped, the price paid for the bride used to be returned to groom's family. As levels of education rose and owing to social conflicts, the practice of bride price waned. This article focuses on what bride price meant to the communities in question and sheds light on the similarities and differences among them in regards to the practice. In addition, it considers the impact of the perceptions about women on the meaning attributed to the bride price tradition.
The location of a significant part of the Kazakhs returning from China to Tarbagatai region between 1955-1963 creates a certain ethnographic appearance in this place. When these ethnographic characteristics are analyzed and classified, it is possible to reveal the real scale of Kazakh culture and historical and cultural relations between neighboring countries; the causes and consequences of a change can be determined. In the course of the study, problematic chronological, comparative and historical methods were used as one of the effective methods of local ethnographic research. In particular, the systematization of comparative information, the link between the local ethnic group and other ethnic representatives who are in ethnic communication with other ethnic groups close to it, and its influence, are the basis for determining the consequences. Based on the available information, the system of rituals associated with the ceremonies of the Kazakhs of the Tarbagatai region was evaluated in three main stages. These are rituals of funeral preparations, secondly, rituals of the deceased on the way to another world, and the last one is ceremonies of remembrance. While implementing the study, we managed to show the practical survival with the Tarbagatai Kazaks of the same customs and traditions, as with neighboring peoples, among which are Turkic-speaking peoples of Siberia and Central Asia. There are also differences in-between, which our study treated with the analysis. The ways in which these traditions arise and their meanings also clarify the subject. The Tarbagatai Kazakhs was found to have a genetic and cultural similarity to other Turkic peoples and Mongolian peoples, and today they are innovative. Ethnographic traditions are largely preserved in this Kazakh group, which has been isolated for many years in the northern part of Tarbagatai and is not affected by Russian culture.
The Ottoman Empire experienced the transition from oral and written culture to print culture in the 19th century. It is not possible to comprehend the dynamics of Ottoman literature in full, unless the effects of this transition are sufficiently questioned. Furthermore, literary interactions among various ethnic and religious Ottoman communities played an important role in the making of literature. In folklore, the interaction gains yet more importance. In the histories of the 19th century Ottoman literature hitherto written, it can be observed that neither the characteristics of print culture are paid enough attention, nor adequate tools are produced that would help question transitions among literary genres. The monochrome perspective that literary genres are divided from each other distinctively, obstructs a deeper understanding of qualities inherent in the Ottoman literature. In fact, similar to the communities in the 19th century, there is a close interaction between literary genres that we accept as separate today. In the production and dissemination of modern fiction, the evolution of classical and traditional genres played an important role. In this study, setting off from works printed by various Turcophone communities of the Ottoman Empire, the interaction and diversity among Ottoman millets in the 19th century in the context of literary folk productions are examined. Meanwhile, the relationship between oral culture and print culture, and the conditions that foster the development of modern literary genres are discussed. As a result, it is observed that diverse works of folk literature from one-page poems to folk tales are transformed from oral and written culture to print culture. The fact that the transformations are made in Armenian and Greek script as well as in Arabic script revealed the depth and width of folkloric interactions between the Ottoman communities. The role of folk literature in shaping the attitude and habits of modern reader of print culture is also highlighted.
The Journal of National Folklore (JNF) has been indexed by the Art& Humanities Citation Index since 2007. This study examines the Journal of National Folklore and bibliometric features of its articles. The research carried out covers 174 articles between the years 2007-2009. The following research questions have been addressed: 1) Is multiple authorship a prevalent feature of the articles?) 2) What are the institutional affiliations of the authors of the articles? 3) Which types of sources (journal articles, monographs, etc.) get cited most often in the articles? 4) What are the most frequently cited journals in the JNF 5) What is the rate of literature obsolescence in folklore?6) How is the status of JNF between the18 journals indexed by A&HCI? The publications of JNF have also been indexed in Scopus, CSA Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, EBSCO Publishing, Genamics JournalSeek, IBSS International Bibliography of the Social Science, MLA Modern Language Association of America, TA Türkologischer Anzeiger. JNF is published in four issues (Spring, summer, autumn and winter)) per year. The journal was first published in 1989. The present research covers a total of 174 articles published between the years 2007-2009. To examine publications of the JNF, an online search in the A&HCI database has beenperformed on January 23, 2010, using the "publication name" field that is available. A total of 206 publications have been identified. Each record provided information about the author names, author addresses, publication titles, publication years, languages, document types, number of references included in the publication, and citations that the publication received as of January 23,2010. In addition, reference lists of publications have been used to identify the cited sources. Editorials (n = 15),Bibliographca litems (n=10) and book reviews (n=7) have been excluded in this study. An average article was 8 pages long (SD=3, min.=1, maks.=24). Except for three articles, all of the articles published in the MF were in Turkish. The total number of individual authors contributing to the 174 articles was 169. Nebi Özdemir is the most prolific author with five articles. M. Öcal Oǧuz, R. Asli{dotless}han Aksoy Sheridan ve Gökhan Tunç were conduced with four articles. The total number of references included in the 174 articles was 2744 In this study, 174 citations that had no publication year information were left out of evaluation. After this elemination the total number of references dropped to 2570. Of all the citations in the 70.5% (n = 1814) were frombooks. Hence, the study has shown thatbooks are very important sources for scholarly communication in folklore. The authors of JNF made a citation to journal 535 times. The most frequently cited journal was Journal of National Folklore with 81citations. The JNF has been publihed in four issues in a year. Foreign researchers have not been interested in publishing articles in the JNF. Except of the three articles, all of the articles in that appeared in the JNF were in Turkish.
Laughing is a human-specific reaction and all humans are born with the capability to laugh. This reaction evolves from a chuckle to laughter to smile. Laughter is created in two ways, with the presence and lack of feeling within a person. One of the ways that laughter is created is through a physical reaction. The other way that laughter is created is through a reaction to humor. Although the reaction of laughter is not always dependent on humor, humorous factors may always make a person laugh. On the other hand, how did the Turks use humor? After the 10th century AC (After 10 AC) there are written sources of how the Turks use humor, but before the 9th century there are no studies on the relations of Turkish people with humor, in their lives. Therefore the time before the 9th century is chosen as the period of the study and the traces of humor before the 9th century will be investigated. The factors related to humor will be chosen from the Turkish mythology, the Kokturk monuments, old Turkish texts and the Chinese sources. The factors related to humor from these sources are used to construct a whole in relation the context of the theories of humor. As a result of the research before the 9th century vocabulary that bears humorous factors were found in mythology, dance, story, gravestones, communication through letters, practices and rituals casts and many areas, places and narrative styles with the functions of entertainment, relief, and irony.
In Persian language the idiom, Deste gol be âb dâden, that comes from three base stories, can be used with its more than one hundred different meanings. Therefore; "speech forms" are not "remnant elements of language remaining us from our ancestor" as functionalists say. Forms of expressions are more than simple reminders and they have sophisticated functions. All words, as speech forms, in daily language consequently base to experiences in factuality. It is not only attributed meanings to words but also value such as all forms. This result matches up with Foucault's thesis placing "expression", which is the atomic part contains value, to the center of discourse analysis. By this act, meaning research moves from analytic and conceptual level to hermeneutic and phenomenological level. Although folklore studies have ignored yet, hermeneutic and phenomenological methods are using in current linguistic arguments. However; that kind of studies are also still predicated on "word" and with the continuous strong effects of semiology and structuralism "speech forms" are investigated by being divided to words. Whereas, speech forms and all the other expressions are essential atomic units of language that carry all characteristics of it.
The turbulent political period of the 19th century gave way to social change, transformation and cultural dissolution in Ottoman soil as well as in Europe. The shared reflex of intellectuals who recognized the change in the melting pot was one based on nationalism and it entailed embracing folkloric products that they viewed as bearers of cultural codes and at once setting out on an enterprise of discovering and collecting in order to protect them. When the two hundred year old history of folkloric studies in Turkey is taken into account, it will be seen in the works of thinkers such as Ziya Paga, Ignacs Kunos, Ziya Gokalp, Fuat Koprulu, Riza Tevfik Bolukbasi, who penned the first texts on folklore during the period between Tanzimat and the Republic, that the issue of "cultural preservation" is treated with this reflex, and the focus of action is adjusted on "discovery and collection". In this work, by inquiring into Abdulaziz Bey (1850-1918), a contemporary of the early period thinkers, though very rarely cited in the history of Turkish folklore, and his work titled "Adat ye Merasim-i Kadime, Tabirea ye Muamelat-i Kaymiye-i Osmaniye", his approach to the concept of "cultural preservation" and his views that from a teleological perspective draws him to or differentiates him from today's thinkers are examined. Abdiilaziz Bey, while for the most part viewing the issue of cultural preservation with focus on "discovery and collection", also at times draws on today's current conception of cultural preservation with his views indicating "representation and presentation". From this point of view, it can be said that Abdillaziz Bey, with one foot in the past and one foot in the future, is a prominent thinker at the onset of cultural preservation approaches. Furthermore, there being no mention of Abdiilaziz Bey and his work in the resources in Turkey about the historical process of folklore makes it necessary that this work be researched in terms of "Turkish Folklore History" and studied from today's perspective.
The political rhetoric of President Barack Obama of the United States is informed to a considerable degree by proverbs and proverbial expressions. This is true in particular when he addresses native English speakers at home, but he also draws on this folk wisdom when speaking to audiences abroad. The use of proverbial language gives his speeches a colloquial and metaphorical expressiveness that enables him to communicate effectively with people of different ethnic and social backgrounds. This was certainly the case when he delivered major speeches at Berlin, Ankara, Cairo, and Oslo. Stressing the common humanity of people in Europe and throughout the world, Obama used a number of national and international proverbs to bring his message of hope and moral values across in a world where globalization draws humanity ever closer together. As he strives for peace and for the eradication of war, deprivation, and disease, he sees his guiding moral principle in the universal proverb Do unto others as you would have them do unto you that is known throughout the world by all religions and philosophies as the golden rule of humankind.
Dramatic village plays are facilities which involve features of Turkish culture in terms of cultural aspects with the values they bear from the past till today and carried out in very different regions of Anatolia for long years. These plays should also be commented with the information concerning the formation and development of belief systems as they have practices used in the past for worship and rituals due to their sources. Specific practices and images which have figurative narration in some samples of dramatic plays associate with different meanings. In this respect, dramatic village plays are products of folk literature which have subtext including different meanings and ideas beyond what is seen. It will be possible to see the relation of the games with the past besides the current structure of the games more clearly with the analysis of these subtexts rightly. While examining the plays, by explaining what today’s performers expect from the plays, not being limited to this figurative structure, it can be possible to show the change and the transformation of the plays clearly. In this article, the implementation and the contributions of the play ‘Hibibim’ which is a dramatic village play involving fruitfulness symbolism, education and entertainment and whch are available in ‘Söpet’ meetings held traditionally in Pamukçu town of Balıkesir will be explained and the perspective on the plays in the past and today will be evaluated. Also by expressing the uses and the purposes of the various images within this play, subtect of the play and the meanings people ascribe to these plays will be examined. Information will be given about the traditional village meetings in the region with the selected play, it will be stated that the province of Balıkesir also exists in such meetings continuing at various regions throughout Turkey. By this way, it is aimed to create a specific resource for the researchers for future when wished to prepare a map of traditional meetings in Turkey.
Works titled Acâibü’l-Mahlûkât (The Wonders of Creation) discuss phenomena that astonish people such as stones, seas, mountains, cities, plants, animals, angels, and genies. Due to the large scale of their subject matters, these works are rich sources for the studies of geography, astronomy, medicine, literature, folklore and history. There are many works, written and translated, under the title Acâibü’l- Mahlûkât. The most frequently translated works among them into Persian and Turkish are Kazvinî’s Acâibü’l-Mahlûkât ve Garâ’ibü’l-Mevcûdât (The Wonders of Creation and Creations of Bizarre Nature). The first work of the genre to be known in Turkish literature belongs to Ali bin Abdurrahman, which is a translation of Kazvinî’s work. Some of parts of the work deal with the heavens, anâsır-i erbaa (the four elements: earth, water, air and fire), months, and seasons. In his work of translation, Ali bin Abdurrahman includes verses and hadiths from the Koran. In addition, he supports the wondrouses Kazvinî talks about with a number of folk stories.This feature of it makes Ali bin Abdurrahman’s work worthy to be examined by scholars of literature and folklore. In Ali bin Abdurrahman’s work, the part that deals with cities not only covers a considerable place in the book but it is also the most remarkable part of it. This part consists of seven sections and includes information about cities such as Edirne, Bursa and İstanbul, which Kazvinî’s work leaves out. In his work, Ali bin Abdurrahman tells about a city which is believed to exist somewhere between Alexandria and Senteriyye. According to the author, this city which is called “Senteriyye” had once existed but it had then been made invisible to the eyes of the people by means of a spell. Ali bin Abdurrahman tries to support these rumors about the city with four folk stories. This study will focus on these folk stories and examine the motifs of these narratives according to Stith Thompson’s method.
Evliya celebi, in his work Seyahatna me (Book of Travels), draws the reader's attention to certain narratives by repeated recourse to specific narrative genres. One such genre, which is important for appreciating Evliya celebi as a storyteller and understanding the fictional dimensions of his work, is that of "marvels and wonders" (acayib ii garayib). Considering the long-standing history of Act/ ib in the tradition of travel narratives, Evliya's use of this category seems to be a conscious decision based on the Islamic tradition of travel writing. To fully understand what Evliya finds to be "strange and wondrous" and why he does so, the narratives in question can be classified under certain concepts, such as talismans and spells, magic and witchcraft, dreams and prophecies, adventures, physical appearances, animals, different beliefs or cultures, landforms, architectural structures, and so on. These include most of the basic concepts in Evliya's travels, and indeed in his life. Thus, it is difficult to say that the narratives of "marvels and wonders" in the Seyahatname focus on certain restricted topics. The common characteristic of these texts is that they all evoke a feeling of "astonishment". Besides this, Evliya rarely places a totally fictitious, supernatural, or fantastic story under the title of acayib or garayib. Rather, in the majority of the texts, these terms refer more than anything else to the realm of reality, rather than to that of fantasy. In this study, focusing on acayib a garayib of Seyahatname, the concept of Actiib literature will also
As the utilization of mobile phones became widespread, people prevalently started to send short messages on special occasions like feasts and on the New Year's Eve in order to submit their messages of greetings and send their best wishes through "ready messages". These ready messages circulate among cell phones and they are accessible to masses in websites in great varieties. This article aims to investigate the materialization of acclamations that is "words of best wishes" through internet and mobile phones in the culture industry that became a part of our lives after advances in technology.
This study assessing the cult of heroic ancestors in the sample of evliya pilgrimage in the village Aci{dotless}su Sirac aims at disclosing in an interpretational approach how the relationship of Alevi system of values with the traditional Turkish culture has kept its presence by being encoded within the pilgrimage phenomenon. In other words, this paper intends to display the connection of Alevi system of values with the traditional Turkish culture in the context of the fact that evliya pilgrimage in the village Acisu Sirac has represented the cult of heroic ancestors in the traditional Turkish culture. The interpretational aspect of the study reveals that evliya pilgrimage in the village Acisu Sirac has represented the heroic ancestors' cult in the traditional Turkish culture. Another objective of this paper is to display the interaction of this pilgrimage ritual with sociocultural life, since a loss of function in any ritual informs us a kind of transformation in the socio-cultural life and system of values. In fact, that the jam ritual has not been performed in the village Acisu Sirac indicates the dissolution in Ali's divine characters, which means a kind of transformation in values of system. All these assessments on the socio-cultural life depend on the qualitative data of research obtained in Acisu in Zile, a town in Tokat, in 2009. The whole data has been collected by participant observation and depth-interviews.
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development generates a theoretical discussion floor and a roadmap regarding UNESCO conventions in culture-related disciplines. This text, which foresees a paradigm shift in development strategies, has come to the agenda of many different institutions. Although the concept of culture is weak within the development texts, it has been the subject of cultural studies for the first time. Therefore, it is significant to value all actors interrelated and identify the gaps in the big picture. First of all this article discusses the historical background of the sustainable development issue and then evaluates the relationship with UNESCO’s Convention on the Conservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage critically, which has established a substantial theoretical basis for the safeguardingcentered theories of heritage studies. The concern of this article is the historical development of sustainable development regarding the concept of cultural heritage, followed by United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SKH) and intangible cultural heritage relations. Accordingly, the connection between sustainable development and the concept of cultural heritage questioned, and subsequently, zothe relationship between the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations and intangible cultural heritage discussed. The link between the goals such as goal 4 (quality education for all) and goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities) and the fields of top priority and intangible cultural heritage has been examined with examples considering ethical principles. Firstly, the orientation process of the Convention with the sustainable development goals has been interpreted. On the other hand, the sustainable development goals have been evaluated together with the Convention’s focus on ethical principles and participation. The relation between intangible cultural heritage and sustainable development is of importance in the context of inclusion of community participation, transmission to next generations and cultural heritage’s forming an ethical basis for development as well. At first glance, it can be seen that among 17 sustainable development goals, there is no title directly linked to culture, but it is evident that culture is at the heart of the goals.
Among literary studies, joke is one of the most common types in our daily life. Jokes are sort of short stories which are frequently used in order to add a smile to daily conversations, to soften stressful work life or to exemplify a case. Especially "Temel Jokes" have a crucial place on account of the fact that they are continuously updated and printed versions are available. Furthermore, more than thousands of them can be found on websites. This proves that jokes are widely used. Although these jokes are called as Temel jokes, Temel has a companion whose name is Dursun. In this study, there will be shown the relationship between Temel and Dursun and there will be told about this bilateral heroism which doesn't exist in other jokes. There will be also shown the foundation of this situation on Traditional Turkish Theater and Dursun's role will be explained.
Adaptation is a multi-layered translation process which requires expertise of languages and cultures and based on breaking down original work and rewriting it with local language and culture. The adapter writer who is executer of this process needs to be multilingual and multicultural also and should also have personal writing style and creative power. Ahmet Vefik Paşa is a prominent name who fulfills these requirements in Turkish literature and gives direction to national literary system. The success of the author’s adaptations which fills in important gap in national literary system and gives direction to the successors related to author’s expertise in Turkish language and culture. Ahmet Vefik Paşa, who has served to the Turkish cultural history both with his plays and language and folklore studies, wrote valuable and pioneering books such as Müntehabat-ı Durub-ı Emsal and Lehce-i Osman. The purpose of this article is to discuss the question why Ahmet Vefik Paşa chose adaptation method and how he used this method in the context of language. The adaptation plays of Ahmet Vefik Pasha and the plays of Moliére, the source of them, have been reviewed within the scope of this article. In the analysis phase, the tables have been used on which selected pieces from these adaptations and the sources plays are given comparatively. As a result of these analysis, Ahmet Vefik Paşa determined with his works words and idioms of folk language which were regarded “common word” and worthless until that day and used adaptation method to bring in this wealth to the the language again. The rich material from folk diction and folklore that were obtained from the samples and analyzed in the study shows that Ahmet Vefik Pasha’s method of adaptation is largely based on his language localization strategy. He has chosen his period’s favorite playwright Moliére’s plays to adapt. When he drew foreign life and traditions out on these plays, he localized and simplified the language by using folk’s local words, proverbs and idioms. Thus traces of foreign authors and culture have been deleted. Adaptation method has given Ahmet Vefik Paşa the chance to show his personal writing skills and helped obtain his goal to reach folk by using folk language and culture.
Anadolu birçok medeniyete yurt olmakla kalmayıp bir o kadar da farklı kültüre sahip olmuştur. Türklerin yaşadığı bir bölge olan Sibirya’da -Altay dağları eteklerinde- Pazırık kurganlarında bulunan atlı kültür mensubu atalarımızın kullandıkları eşyalar ve bu eşyaların her bir ayrıntısındaki hüner, sanat ve incelik timsali nesneler bu kadim zenginliğin gün yüzüne çıkan en eski örnekleri olarak kabul edilir. Türk yaşantısının hâkim olduğu her bölgenin iklim özelliğine, insanların duygularına, yaşam biçimlerine bölgede yaşanan olay ve olgulara göre örücülük sanatının kendine özgü özellikleri tespit edilmiştir. Türk örme kültürünün en zengin örneklerini barındıran Anadolu halkın ürettiği zengin örücülük örneklerine sahiptir. Bu örme türlerinden geniş bir konu, üslup ve teknik çeşitlilik sunan el örücülük sanatı, Türk kültürünün yaşatılmasında önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Türk kültürünün en önemli ögelerinden olana el sanatları gelenek, görenek, yaşam kültürünün gelecek nesillere aktarılmasında ve gelişerek devam etmesinde önem taşımaktadır. Örücülük sanatında önemli bir yeri olan el örgüsü çoraplar; bireylerin bilgi ve becerilerine dayana, özellikle doğal ham maddelerin kullanıldığı elle ve basit araçlarla yapılan toplumun kültürünü, gelenek ve göreneklerini taşıyan bireylerin duygu, düşünce ve becerisini yansıtan ürünlerdir. Bu çalışmada amaç, Anadolu’da bireyler ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak, gelir sağlamak ve geleneksel yapıyı devam ettirmek için eşsiz güzellikte renklerin ve motiflerin iletişim sağladığı, el örgüsü çoraplar, günümüzde gereç ve motif açısından bozularak geldiğini ve kullanım özelliklerinin azaldığı tespit edilmiştir. Ancak kültürümüzün önemli bir ögesini oluşturan çoraplarımızın tanıtılması, yaşatılması ve örüldükleri yaşam alanlarında doğrudan tespiti ve kayıt altına alınması örücülük sanatının gelecek kuşaklar açısından da önemlidir.
The concern with how male and female characters are portrayed in television advertising has existed in the past three decades. This area has attracted attention of the most researches to particularly the portrayal of female characters in television commercials. Despite the abundance of research on female representations in general, most studies documenting representations of gender in television commercials have paid little attention to age as an important comparative factor. This study considers the role of age upon gender portrayals of television ads in the context of its relationship with socio-cultural variables. A content analysis of 4495 characters appearing in 2650 commercials aired during a composite week of prime-time programming on 6 major broadcast networks was conducted. The study compared images of female and male participants from childhood through the senior years. The findings indicate significant differences among same-age gender portrayals and same-gender age portrayals. As prior research has documented, male characters appeared most frequently as middleaged adults, while female characters appeared most often as young adults. For nearly every age group, female characters were less likely than male characters to work, have authority, be shown outdoors, and be associated with nondomestic products. Moreover, female characters in all age categories were more attractive, thin, and suggestively dressed than their same-age male counterparts. Results are interpreted within a social cognitive theory framework.
In the field of folklore studies, the relationship between oral culture and media is mostly examined on the basis of the ways and reasons of using oral culture in media. However in most of these studies, modern communication techniques are investigated with the tools of folklore theory, instead of investigating oral culture with the instruments of communication theory. In these investigations, folklore theory examines the connection between oral culture and tradition by emphasizing that the oral culture is used by media. However not only the role of media in the evanescence of oral culture but also the difference between the traditionalizing nature of oral culture and the de-traditionalizing nature of media should be taken as important as the ways of using or regenerating oral culture in the field of communication. In this paper, the continuities, similarities or differences between the political / sociologic effects of oral culture and written-visual culture are not studied. In the field of folklore studies, the "tradition" generating and preserving function of oral culture is generally accepted as a "positive" property; and here, it is aimed to show some missing parts of folklore studies, which is not adequately focused on media. Correspondingly, in this paper, as the subheadings of oral and visual culture, the relationship between advertising and proverbs is analyzed, and it is also aimed to show that using proverbs as advertising slogans does not carry the tradition of speech, on the contrary it dissolves the tradition of speech and the users of speech.
The function ascribed to the stereotyped, conventional and popular phrases of praise in the oral media, with a view to acting on the target audience, constitutes the focal point of this article. Conventional phrases of praise, just like the catch phrases used in advertisements meant to attract consumers' attention, are seen to be short, to the point, easy to remember and therefore generally rhymed. Thus, these set phrases of praise in question have drawn advertisers' attention and are being widely used in publicities. In these advertisements, the functional relationship between the positive effect that praise creates on the addressees and the main use of publicity, i.e. the psychological inducement of the consumers to buy the relevant goods and the construction of a good image is observed to stand out. It is on these grounds that, conventional phrases of praise are found out to be a convenient tool for he advertising business, both for its formal features and its effects on the target consumer audience. Yet, these phrases are also seen to be transformed and to be therefore apt for an analysis in terms of "secondary orality", a term put forward by Walter J. Ong.
Nouns are words that used as separate from similar entities and make them specialize. The action of distinction and privatization lies beneath the desire of classification. The world has become even more livable for mankind, which has classified and named the entities around it. At first, the act of naming which we thought to have emerged with the desire to classify the entities turned into a cultural element over time, and various beliefs and rituals developed around this element. These beliefs and rituals have also been renewed in line with the historical processes of societies. This study includes determinations about the relation between naming beliefs and traditions and ancestral aspirations, which is an element of mythic imagination, generally in the context of the world, in particular in the context of the Turkish people. The “Ancestor Cult” is a belief system of the Turkish people, and referred to by names such as “Sky God Religion, Kamlık Religion and Shamanism” in the literature. People who were afraid of the souls of their ancestors who had died in ancient times developed respect for these spirits based on fear and desperation and developed ways of satisfying them. The beliefs of the Turks against their ancestral spirits seem to have disappeared at the end of the last hundred years. However, the fact that the names of dead ancestors are given to the newborn members of the family reveals the opposite situation. Though the names of dead ancestors today are given to the newborn members of the family, they are considered to be based entirely on respect, but the cultural background of this situation lies in the history of fear-based respect in ancient times. Today’s Turks are trying to keep their ancestors’ souls alive, just like their ancestors, while adding the names of their dead ancestors to the sacrifices they had presented before them. In this context, the psychological, folkloric, sociological, mythological and theological aspects of the name formation will be examined before the study of the name formation, and then the naming and naming traditions will be evaluated in the context of mythical beliefs (shamanism, ancestral spirit etc). After these reviews and evaluations, analysis of the examinations and determinations made from the previous studies will be carried out.
ÖZ Türkü; halkın sevincini, üzüntüsünü, arzularını, isyanlarını kendi kültürüne ait motiflerle ve bir ezgiyle söylediği halk edebiyatı ürünüdür. Konu sınırlaması olmayan türkülerde toplumu etkileyen her şey türkünün konusu olabilir. Bir Türk yurdu olan Afganistan’ın güneyinde yaşayan Türk topluluklarına ait türkülerin konusu da Türkiye sahası türküleri gibi çok çeşitlidir. Yaklaşık bir asır önce ata vatanlarını terk etmek zorunda kalan Türkmenler sonradan yurt edindikleri Afganistan coğrafyasında varlıklarını devam ettirebilmelerini tüm zorluklara rağmen yaşattıkları kültürleri ve dillerine bağlı olmakla sağlayabilmişlerdir. Türkmen kültürünü, tarihini, örf ve âdetlerini yansıtan halk edebiyatı türlerini Türkmen halkı ve ozanları hafızalarında taşıyarak günümüze kadar getirmişlerdir. Türkmenistan toy aydımları ölenler ya da yar-yar aydımlarıdır. Afganistan’daki Türkmen kadınlar tarafından icra edilen ve noy noy adı verilen toy aydımları Türkmen toy aydımlarından bazı şekil ve muhteva özellikleri bakımından farklıdır. Genellikle dörtlüklerden oluşan noy noylar az da olsa altı dizeden oluşmaktadır. Her dizenin sonunda noy noy şeklinde nakaratlar olduğu için bu toy aydımlarına noy noy denilmektedir. Eğlenme amaçlı olarak düğünlerde ve gelin alma esnasında söylenen noy noylar vasıtasıyla gelinin ya da annesinin ağlatılması, hiciv yoluyla kızdırılması amaçlanır. Herhangi bir müzik aletini çalmasına müsaade edilmeyen Afgan kadınları kapalı ortamlarda kendi aralarında yalnızca düğün günü eğlenebilmektedir. Türkmen kadınları noy noyları teprek çalarak icra eder. Gruptaki her bir kadın ayrı ayrı ya da birlikte teprek eşliğinde noy noy söyler. Türk dünyasında ve Anadolu sahası folklorunda rastladığımız, kimi zaman atışma şeklinde, düğünlerde, toplantı vb. yerlerde söylenen düğün türkülerine kısmen benzeyen noy noylar muhteva ve şekil bakımından Türk dünyasındaki diğer düğün Türkülerinden bazı farklılıklar gösterir. Türkmenistan foklorunda göremediğimiz noy noy aydımları Afganistan’da yaklaşık kırk-elli yıl önce ortaya çıkmış yeni bir toy aydımıdır. Bu türün araştırılmadığı ya da bir folklor türü olarak incelenmediği görülür. Birçok toplumda mahrem olarak kabul edilen, toplumsal ve aile içi rollerini çoğunlukla erkeklerin belirlediği kadınlar, aslında kültürel mirasın taşıyıcısı olarak toplumların ayakta kalmasına da hizmet eder. Afganistan’da yaşayan Türkmen kadınları diğer Afgan kadınları gibi toplumsal hayatta birçok haktan mahrum edilmiş, söz sahibi olamamıştır. Oysa ki Türkmen folklorunun, özellikle Türkmen aydımlarının yaşatılmasında kadınların tarih boyunca şüphesiz önemli bir rolü vardır. Çalışmada kullanılan sözlü kültür ürünü olan noy noylar Afganistan’ın kuzeyinde yaşayan Ersarı boyuna mensup Türkmenler arasından derlenmiştir. Kadınların kendi aralarında söyledikleri bir türkü çeşidi olan noy noylarla zengin bir foklora sahip olan Türkmen sözlü geleneği üzerine yapılan çalışmalara kaynak oluşturmak amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca Afganistan Türkmen folklorunun yeteri kadar araştırılmadığı düşünüldüğünde noy noy aydımlarının kayıt altına alınarak yaşatılması, bilim dünyasına tanıtılması amaçlanmaktadır.
Q. What is your primary community of be- longing? (Multiple answers possible)
This research is analyzing two deported diasporas in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. By using Korean and Ahiska Turkish diasporas in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan as cases, this study aims to present the cultural and identity preservation of the two diasporas and their cultural revitalizing activities since the independence of titular nation in 1991. Thus the article examines their survival and the existence of the diaspora nationalism in the nationalizing Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. In order to examine these issues, this article focuses on: diaspora movement and the formation of diaspora organizations, territorialization in titular states, language revival and education, and finally the socio-economic situation of the Ahiska Turkish and Korean diasporas. To explore the survival and the existence of the diaspora culture and diaspora identity this work carried out in-depth interview and field research among the Korean and Ahiska Turkish diasporas in Central Asia. Consequently, it tried to reveal actual dynamism and cultural revitalization among these two peoples.
The mi'raj as an important religious event in the world of Islam has been depicted in different eras and regions according to its differing history and cultural approaches. The Timurid and Ottoman mi'raj paintings have become a worthwhile pretty good field of comparison in terms of different viewpoints and perceptions. While an expression in which Asian influences were more vivid and vibrant was adopted in the Timurid mi'raj paintings, an expression more closely following the rules of the Sunni understanding were preferred in the Ottoman mi'raj paintings. However,, the mi'raj depictions of Ahmadi's Venice Iskandar-nama as an Ottoman work of art are the exceptions to this generalization. One of the illustrated copies of the Iskandar-nama, written by Ahmadi, is found in the Venice National Library. It is agreed that this work of art, dated 1440-50, was illustrated by artists of Timurid-Turkoman origin in the Ottoman Edirne Palace. In this study, two mi'raj paintings within the Venice Ahmadi Iskandar-nema bearing features different from the traditional Ottoman mi'raj painting will be analyzed. The Timurid influences and the Ottoman synthesis within the symbolic fiction of these two mi'raj paintings will be further discussed in this article.
It’s known that yashnama’s are works written in prose and versification about human kind’s birth, his life and life hereafter. The first samples of yashnama’s in the written literature after Orkhon monuments are met in the 11-th century. Ahmed Yasawi and Yusif Khas Hajib are authors of the first yashnamas. Ahmed Yasawi is the author of the first yashnama based on tasawwuf motives. His yashnama was an archetype model for the next samples. Starting from Ahmed Yasawi’s yashnama, in other works created on this genre we meet lots of archetypes. In his yashnama, the second archetype alongside with the archetype of a process of hero being individualized is a wise man. The paradigms of the wise man, indicated as an archetype of spirit by G. Jung as regards Ahmed Yasawi’s yashnama are as follows: Spirits, prophets, Chilten, Khizir, Piri, Mugan, Ulu. These initial images which are among various forms of the archetype of wise man have some mission in growing, gaining wisdom and finally his return to the next world. The mentor is the greatest helper of darvish in process of the spirit’s gaining wisdom. The paradigms of the archetype of a wise man mentioned by us plays the role of a mentor and carries out his functions in the process of perfection of the hero. This article deals with an analysis of Vujudname implying wise sayings in the context of application of archetypes. The archetype of wise man plays an important role in way of life from real into the other world. The various paradigms of the perfection process played vital role and functions in spiritual perfection of Yasawi being encountered by him in different ages. As to the giving of a cup of love by the wise man to drink, it includes important functions of this archetype from the point of view of tasawwuf. The people giving this cup of love to Yasawi are Chilten and Khizir. As a rule, the most important paradigm of the wise man archetype in Vujudname is Khizir. This personage characterized as a “wise man” by Gustav Jung was with him along his way of life from the age of four. According to the framework of traditions of art of minstrel, Piri Mugan begins to recite wise sayings of Yasawi after having a wine as heroes reciting poems after a cup of love. As we know based on information related to the ascetical life of Ahmed Yasawi, Arslan Baba, who found and mentored him when he was seven years old, was contemplated in Vujudname as another paradigm of the “wise man”.
Yakın dönem Türk düşünce ve edebiyat tarihinin öne çıkan isimleri arasında yer alan Baha Tevfik, kısa ömrüne pek çok yayın faaliyeti sığdırmıştır. Bugüne kadar onun hakkında yapılan araştırmalarda az sayıda mensur şiirinin ve hikâyesinin var olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ancak onun Ahmet Nebil ile birlikte kaleme aldığı Nasreddin Hoca başlıklı revü türündeki oyunu, yayımlanmamış olması ve bir süre İstanbul’da sahnelendikten sonra Osmanlı hükümetince yasaklanması nedeniyle literatürde genellikle gözden kaçmıştır. Birkaç istisna haricinde kaynaklarda varlığına dair herhangi bir kayda rastlamadığımız Nasreddin Hoca’nın rika ile kaleme alınmış yazma nüshası ise parçalar halinde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Arşivleri Başkanlığı Osmanlı Arşivleri (BOA) evrakı içerisinde tarafımızca tespit edilip incelenmiştir. Bu makalede, öncelikle metne nüfuz etmek amacıyla biyografik ve tarihsel eleştiri perspektifinden Nasreddin Hoca’nın hangi koşullarda vücuda geldiği, neden sahnelenmesinin yasaklandığı gibi hususlar üzerinde durulacak, oyun bugüne dek yayımlanmadığı için ve ilk defa burada ele alınacak olduğundan eserin muhtevası ile tarihsel göndermeleri hakkında ayrıntılı çözümlemeler sunulacaktır. Sonraki başlıklarda ise oyun türsel açıdan değerlendirilip tiyatro tarihi, modern edebiyat ve folklor ilişkisi bakımından söylemlerarasılık, metinlerarasılık, medyalararasılık gibi bağlamlar etrafında değerlendirilecektir. Nasreddin Hoca, sadece folklor ve edebiyat araştırmaları değil aynı zamanda siyaset tarihi için de önemli sayılabilecek bazı bulgular sunmaktadır. Bilhassa Baha Tevfik’in tartışmalı olan siyasi kimliğine ve onun Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası (OSF) ile ilişkisinin gerçek mahiyetine dair önemli ipuçları bu oyunda mevcuttur. Nasreddin Hoca’nın muhtevası genel itibariyle Baha Tevfik’in o dönemdeki birtakım polemikleri ile siyasal, toplumsal ve edebi eleştirilerini yansıtmaktadır. Nasreddin Hoca’nın fıkraları ve nükteli söylemi ekseninde kurgulanan revünün folklor araştırmaları açısından başta gelen özelliği, folklorik öğelerin güncellenip evrenselleştirilmesi girişimlerinin modern dönemdeki ilk örneklerinden biri olmasıdır. Oyunda komiğin temel kaynağı Nasreddin Hoca’nın söylemidir. Güldürü kimi zaman onun meşhur fıkralarına yapılan göndermelerle, kimi zaman da o andaki olgular karşısında Nasreddin Hoca’dan beklenecek tarzda yorumlar ve nükteler aracılığıyla sağlanır. Bu tercih, kuşkusuz Nasreddin Hoca imgesinin canlılığı, etkinliği ve toplumun her tabakasına hitap etmesi dolayısıyladır. Diğer yandan tespit edebildiğimiz kadarıyla bu oyun, doğrudan Nasreddin Hoca’nın başrolde karakterize edildiği ilk modern tiyatro eserlerinden biri olarak tarihteki yerini almıştır. Nasreddin Hoca revüsünde, söylemlerarası, metinlerarası ve medyalararası boyutlarıyla özgünleşen girift bir yapı izleyiciyi/okuyucuyu selamlar. Bir tarafta sahne üzerindeki sözel aktarım ve anıştırmalar, diğer tarafta oyunun metinleşmesi, hem söylemlerarası hem metinlerarası ilişkilerin eşzamanlı ve bir arada tezahür etmesine imkân tanır. Folklorik olanın tiyatroya aktarılması ile de medyalararası bir uzam tesis edilir. Tiyatro tarihi açısından baktığımızda da oyun, o dönem için henüz dünya genelinde yeni sayılan revü türünün Türkçedeki ve İstanbul sahnelerindeki ilk örnekleri arasında yer almaktadır.
The endeavours of establishment or foundation of open air museums have gradually accelerated in Turkey. Starting from the last developments about to subject in study, ongoing studies in Turkey will be listed. Establishing open air museum in this context of the description of open air museum, finding out open air museum principles, and producing projects for Turkey's conditions especially by academic circles since mid 20th century. Scientific meetings in the same topic have been hold to look for a response why an open air museum couldn't be established for along time in Turkey. In this article it is focused on pioneer developments about open air museum such as institutions resembling or transferring open air museum and theirs alternative creation ways in Turkey instead of thinking why there is no open air museum in Turkey as many scientists do. In this context the relevant embodiments have been given some of them for instance, Anatolian Open Air Museum in Beypazari, The Village Park Open Air Museum in Ankara and, The Warehouse Open Air Museum in Samsun are in progress. In addition to these new formations, to illustrate Yasayan Museum which continues to work in according to principles of open air museum give an idea how it has been done and will be done in Turkey. Along with these projects and initiatives linked to museums, there are also some other initiatives and institutions emerging from taking the center of traditional and rural life, and village cultural configuration, and preserving traditional architecture and living inside which are the basic principles of open air museum. In this paper it is asserted the contrary that there was not establisted or founded any open air museum in Turkey up to the present. In this regard, at this article at the centenary year of the useage of the folklore term on these land, the possibilities of establishing open-air museums in our country for a relatively long time, was mentioned in the context of the conditions that occurs both in Europe and in Turkey.
Aizanoi is accepted as a cultural heritage to Unesco World Heritage Tentative List in April 12, 2012. In this study, the children of Çavdarhisar will be given cultural heritage education with the help of archeology, art and a local tale to contribute to the conservation and sustainability of Aizanoi and Cavdarhisar. The group selected for the study consists of 30 children from Cavdarhisar between the ages of 7-12. While 15 of the children were being trained, second group only visited the ancient city and attempted to determine the positive/negative outputs of the research without being included in the other stages. The preferred items in education are the tombstone with the inventory number A11.MP.372 in Aizanoi, the local tale of “Fatmacık Yusufcuk “ which was collected in the Aizanoi SOKÜM Project and kinetic bird sculpture. The disciplines included are archeology, folklore and art. The reason for choosing Aizanoi for the ruins where the study was conducted is the combination of ancient and rural touches in the ruins. Aizanoi located in Phrygia Epiktetos region in ancient times with its Zeus temple, stadium theater complex, Macellum structure, Kybele sanctuary, columned street, Roman bridges, 2 baths, tombs and findings in the necropolis is an example of tangible cultural heritage. Cavdarhisar, founded on the settlement and continuing its life with the ancient buildings, exemplifies the rural texture, the way of life, the customs and the cultural codes which are transmitted from the past day by day and therefore it stands as an example of intangible cultural heritage. In this respect, it is a special cultural heritage, in which both the antique and the rural Turkish civil architectural texture and the ongoing preservation are still necessary. One of the tools and subject elements for studying cultural heritage education is the local tale of “Fatmacık Yusufcuk” which is collected in the Aizanoi Intangible Cultural Heritage project. Although the tradition of oral tales has a rooted tradition of thousands of years extending from Homer to Dede Korkut in these lands, it has also begun to bear the risk of increasing disappearance due to some negative effects of globalization, and it is also important that these local tales are collected and transmitted to future generations.
Ajâib is a term used to express the feelings of astonishment that were arose from natural and/or supernatural objects, people, attitudes, and events. One of the literary genres that the ajâib frequently found itself a place is the travelogue. This article discusses the ajâib in the Turkish travelogue texts that were penned in the sixteenth century. It refutes the “ajâ’ib literature” thesis that tends to imply the existence of a specific genre in Arabic literature. Instead, it argues that, along with a similar line to Shrinx von Hees, there are different literary genres contained ajâib and according to these genres ajâib may also differentiate and diversify. To demonstrate this point, this article firstly summarizes the discussion around the “ajâib literature” thesis. Then, it attempts to give a definition of the ajâib and shows how it was used in the sixteenth century Turkish travelogue texts. To exemplify the diversity of the texts and the usage of the ajâib this article also provides some extracts from the Turkish travelogue texts that intersected with different literary genres such as geography, commemorative texts (sergüzeştnâme), and bondage literature (esâretnâme). It is argued that such extracts will be particularly useful as original accounts and observations of the Arab geographers and travelers in the Middle Ages and how they were translated and transferred to the sixteenth century Ottoman mentality.
In the literature of traditional narratives the Turkish words “acayip” and “garip” refer to narratives in which strange events and circumstances of the universe, the world, countries, cities, people, animals, mountains, seas, in short all living and non-living things are told. These supernatural narratives have been known since ancient Greek civilization. These kinds of narratives were translated to Arabic by Arabs later and from this channel Turks transferred them to their literature. In some books, which are about geography, history, cosmology, biography or travel, and in some chapters of some books, there exist these kinds of narratives. Writers tend to tell stories or anecdotes to make narratives more attractive and dynamic, and to make readers more excited, curious or surprised. These narratives are generally about things or events that haven’t been seen or heard before, and they tell myths that spread among people. However, the nature of these narratives changes in the 17th century. In this era, even under same kind of titles the narratives are more about extraordinary things and people that are seen in daily life of the society. Our article examines the similarities between Arabian supernatural literature and Turkish narratives of the same kind, and particularly Üsküdarlı Sırrî’s (Sırrî of Üsküdar) masnavi called Hikâye-i Garibü’l-Âsâr is analyzed as it is a part of this tradition. In conclusion the significance and place of this story among supernatural narratives is discussed and evaluated.
After acceptance of Islam, Turks, in order to address their loyalty, had indited lots of poems and mawlids praising prophet Mohammad and Islam. In Turkish literature, beyond poems and mawlids praising prophet Mohammad, there are also lots of pieces about his life. One aspect of such pieces is interpretations about prophet Mohammad's age at exit, which is sixtythree (63). As known, prophet Mohammad had died at age of sixtyone (61) in terms of the Gregorian calendar, which is sixtythree (63) with respect to the Hegira calendar. We initially observe the special meaning for 63 year old in Ahmet Yesevi's life, a Turkish Sufi (Muslim Mystic), as 63 year old is the death age of Hz. Muhammed's. As a result of his adherence to Hz. Muhammed when he reached 63 year old, Hoca Ahmet Yesevi built an underground cell in the yard of his dervish lodge and lived there till his death. This attitude, which shows his loyalty towards Hz. Muhammed, has had influences on Turkomans and become a ceremony called as 63 year old "toy". The core of this study includes commemorative ceremonies regarding death of prophet Mohammad at the age of sixtythree, which being performed through Turkic communities, especially in Turkmenistan, and reflections of these in literary works. In first chapter, a brief information about life of a leading figure of Sufism, Hodja Ahmad Yasavi will be given. Then, wisdoms of Hodja Ahmad Yasavi about "sixtythird age" will be addressed in details. In second chapter, performance of "sixtythird age" ceremony which is endemic to Turkomans will be explained in parallel with scientific papers about this spesific topic and novel of a Turkoman writer, Berdinazar Hudaynazarov, namely "Sons of Karakum". Aim of this study is to introduce this Turkoman endemic ceremony to all Turkic communities and to help transferring of religious and cultural values to next generations using this specific ceremony regarding death of prophet Mohammad.
In the works of Sunay Akin, who is known as a poet, researcher, and story teller, there are plenty of elements reflecting the 'responsible identity' of a poet-who says "I couldn't be the president of the poem republic but my bother was to be able to be 'the caring president"-such as children, game, toy, human, life, past, warand peace are primariesof this. Sunay Akin has worked on these themes with the concept of 'children and their belongings' by this means he has provided to make the culturel elements continue. According to Akin, 'toy' is the symbol of 'life' and only a sensible poet can convey the necessary message to his readers by using this symbol. Only the poet/writer touching on everything about life in an excited and sensible way can mention about 'children and toys' in his works and articles. His aim is to convert the world into a place which is worth for living. Aim of this article, to present where the poet's world and children's world come together in our culture, what kind of a life it creates, and it also aims to present the role in this culturel transposability.
Amerikalı folklorcu Alan Dundes’ın 1960-2000 yılları arasında folklor üzerine yazdığı, yabancı der-gilerde ya da özel sayılarda basıldığı için erişimi sınırlı olan çeşitli makaleleri, ölümünden sonra Simon J. Bronner tarafından The Meaning of Folklore (Folklorun Anlamı) (2007) isimli kitapta bir araya getirilmiştir. Bu makalenin amacı, Alan Dundes’ın folklorik gerecin incelenmesi ve bu inceleme sonrasında folklorun anlamına, amacına ve işlevine ulaşabilmek için kullandığı iki temel yaklaşımı ortaya koymaktır. Alan Dundes, biçimsel sorgulamaları, dolayısıyla biçimsel işleyiş konusunda Rus biçimcilerden, özellikle Vladimir Propp’un biçim bilgisi teorisinden, Çek yapısalcılardan ve Claude Lévi-Strauss’un mit çözümlemeleri konusunda uyguladığı biçimiyle yapısalcılığın verilerinden yararlanır. Folkloru Ferdinand de Saussure’un tanımladığı biçimiyle gösteren düzlemine indirgemekle yetinmeyip aynı zamanda gösterilen düzleminde, bir başka anlatımla anlamsal ve içeriksel olarak sorgularken psikanalizin verilerini de kullanır. Dolayısıyla, bu çalışmada bu iki düzlemde (yapısal ve psikanalitik) Alan Dundes’ın kendine özgü yaklaşımı ve aralarındaki olası bağlar ortaya konulacaktır. Yapısalcı bir tutuma bağlı kalarak gerçekleştirdiği incelemesinde Alan Dundes, Propp’un hikâye anlatımında sıralı ve değişmez yapıları inceleyerek “işlev” terimiyle ifade ettiği en küçük birim için dilbilimci Kenneth Pike’den uyarladığı motifeme terimini kullanır ve bu birimleri, hem kültüre has olan “emic birim” hem Claude Lévi-Strauss’un ikili karşıtlıklar teorisi ile inceler. Psikanalitik incelemesinde, özellikle bilinçaltına bastırma gibi Freudyen kavramları uyarlayarak “yansıtma” kavramını kullanır. Ayrıca, simgesel anlamlara cinsel kimlik üzerinden ulaşır; erkeklerin erilliklerini ispat etme dürtüsü içinde rakiplerini kadınlaştırmalarını, “diğeri” algısı gibi kolektif kurgu içinde toplumun ve kültürün bastırıl-mış kaygılarını ve korkularını simgesel anlamlar bağlamında inceler. Bu bağlamda, Alan Dundes, folklorik incelemesinde yapısalcı ve psikanalitik yaklaşımları bir araya getirerek “tanımlama” ve “yorumlama” basamaklarını önerir. Tanımlama basamağında yapısalcı incelemenin verilerini kullanarak gereci saptar; yorumlama basamağında ise psikanalitik incelemenin verilerini kullanarak açık anlam yanında örtülü anla-ma ulaşır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışmada Alan Dundes’ın erkek-kadın ikili karşıtlığını içeren erkek oyunlarının rekabetçi yapısını horoz dövüşü örneği üzerinden tanımlama basamağında yapısal olarak incelemesi, yo-rumlama basamağında ise psikanalitik verilerle yorumlaması; tanımlama basamağında ortaya çıkan simgesel eşleşmelerin yorumlama basamağında simgesel anlamlarına ulaşması üzerinde durulacaktır. Alan Dundes’ın folklor alanına önemli bir katkısı da hem yapısalcı hem psikanalitik yaklaşımda folklorik materyali sosyal ve kültürel ifadeler yani tüm sözel ve sözel olmayan türler olarak değerlendirerek Propp’un halk hikâyesi, Strauss’un mit sınırlaması içinde kalmamasıdır. Alan Dundes, yapısalcı ve psikanalitik incelemele-rini başlıca türler olan mit, atasözü, bilmece, halk hikâyeleri, halk şarkıları yanında ikincil türler olan halk dansı, çocuk oyunları, alışkanlıklar, jestler, bulmaca, argo, dua, kutlama ve batıl inanç üzerinden de yaparak hem simgesel anlamlara ulaşır hem de türler arası analiz yöntemiyle türler arasında simgesel eşdeğerlik kurar.
Somut olmayan kültürel mirasın korunması sözleşmesinin 2003 yılında yürürlüğe girmesinin üzerinden neredeyse yirmi yıl geçmiştir. Bu süre içerisinde Sözleşme ile ilgili pek çok değişim ve dönüşüm yaşlanmış ve tartışma alanları açılmıştır. Sözleşmenin aktörleri işleyiş, uygulama ve geliştirme konusunda sürekli bilgi ve belge üretmektedirler. Bunun da ötesinde çözüm odaklı bir yaklaşımla bütünsel koruma stratejileri geliştirmektedirler. Bu alanlardan biri de Sözleşme’nin temel ilkelerinden biri olan devresel raporlama (periodical reporting) sistemleri ile ilgilidir. Sözleşmenin sağlıklı bir biçimde işlemesini sağlayan başat mekanizmalardan olan Hükümetlerarası Komite Taraf Devletlerin her altı yılda bir sundukları devresel raporları inceleyerek geri bildirimde bulunur. Bu bildirimler ülkelerin iç dinamiklerini gözden geçirmeleri için iyi bir fırsat yaratmaktadır. Aynı zamanda söz konusu devresel raporların tam olarak gerçeği yansıtıp yansıtmadığı gündeme getirilmekte ancak sistemin kontrol edilmesi her zaman mümkün olmamaktadır. Bu da Sözleşme’nin ulusal ve uluslararası alanda layıkıyla uygulanamadığını düşündürmektedir. Sıralanan sebeplerden ötürü Sözleşme bünyesinde çalışan aktörler Sözleşme’nin işleyişi ile ilgili değişiklikler yapmaktadırlar. Bu değişikliklerden biri de 2020 yılında uygulamaya sokulan devresel raporlama sistemidir. Bu nedenle makalede, Somut Olmayan Kültürel Mirasın Korunması Sözleşmesi’nin işleyiş biçimini doğrudan etkileyen devresel raporlama sistemleri (periodical reporting) incelenmiştir. Öncelikle söz konusu raporlama sisteminin genel özellikleri irdelenmiş ardından Sözleşme yürürlüğe girdiğinden beri devresel raporlama sistemlerinin nasıl işlediği ve dönüştüğü ele alınmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra söz konusu değişim ve dönüşümün ulusal ve uluslararası alana nasıl yansıdığı da değerlendirilmiştir. Kurumsal ve insani kapasite, aktarım ve eğitim, envanter ve araştırma, politikalar, stratejiler, mevzuat, somut olmayan kültürel mirasın toplumdaki rolü ve yansıması, farkındalık arttırma, STK, grup ve birey katılımı ve uluslararası entegrasyon gibi Sekiz tematik alan ve yirmi altı gösterge etrafında şekillenen yeni raporlama sisteminin işleyişi hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Yeni uygulanmaya başlanan devresel raporlama sisteminin eski sistemden farklarından biri de rapor teslimlerinin bölgesel olmasıdır. Yeni sisteme göre hazılanan ilk raporlar 2020 yılında Latin Amerika ve Karayipler tarafından teslim edilmiştir. Ardından 2021 Aralık Ayında içinde Türkiye’nin de bulunduğu Avrupa grubu raporlarını teslim etmiştir. Bölgesel olarak teslim edilen raporların uluslararası işbirlikleri açısından da verimli olması beklenmektedir. Tüm bunların ayrıntılı olarak tartışıldığı makalede ayrıca bu sistemin bütünsel koruma yaklaşımları ve Birleşmiş Milletlerin 2030 kalkınma hedefleriyle ilişkisi gündeme getirilmiştir.
Evliya Çelebi's Book of Travels (Seyāhatnāme) is not simply a record of the journeys of a traveler, but also, in many ways, the memoirs of an Ottoman courtier. As such, it records a number of instances of courtiers in the act of performing at courtly gatherings, which were, to a great extent, oral gatherings where products of oral culture were exchanged in a living environment. In this article, I will be focusing on one instance of such a gathering; namely, the section of the third volume of the Book of Travels that Robert Dankoff has called "Tall Tales in Aleppo". This section is noteworthy in that it inscribes a back-and-forth oral storytelling exchange- specifically, an exchange of tall tales-that occurred during the course of a gathering of courtiers, Evliya Çelebi being one among them, and their lord. I will analyze this exchange in terms of the oral performative environment typically associated with tall tales, in an attempt to see what this might tell us not only about the oral environment of courtly gatherings, but also about certain of Evliya Çelebi's authorial (and hence, by implication, performative) strategies in composing the Book of Travels.
If we consider the studies on Köroğlu narratives, we see two types of Köroğlu. First type is a saga hero and the second type is a story hero. The text we have is fictionalised on Köroğlu type who is a story hero. It is a 60-minute tape record which takes us to the story text. According to the source people’s statements, this story has been recorded in a gathering, where his apprentice Âşık İbrahim was also there and story is put into words by Âşık Mehmet in Yeşilöz, Amasya in 1960. Âşık Veysel and Âşık İbrahim stayed in Âşık Mehmet’s house for three days in this village. Âşık Veysel exchanged his instrument (saz) with Âşık Mehmet who he appreciated his art and talent after his visit which he was really pleased. Âşık Veysel’s instrument is still protected by this family. When we study Köroğlu story that is put into words by Âşık Mehmet, it is seen that it correponds to Aleppo Variant which is from narratives of Köroğlu. One of these variants is Aleppo. The problem with this variant is that we couldn’t find it as a text, yet it is stated by name in source works. It is no doubt that the text we have is similar to Aleppo Variant. This work is moderate beginning from prose and verse. It will be to the point if we say “Amasya Variant of Aleppo Narrative” as Amasya dialect’s charachteristics are reflected on this work. The parts that are composed with verse creates a change, because how these parts is performed in company with the instrument, is reached from tape record. We think that our work will contribute to the studies on Köroğlu to some extent in this sense.
Ahmet Yesevî is prominent figure especially with his efforts to teach Islam to the Turkish tribes who were nomads and under the thumb of oral culture, and laying the foundations of Sufi Literature. Ahmet Yesevî who expressed his systematized religious and sufistic feelings with the help of the poems which he called “Hikmet” created a tradition of singing Hikmet in Central Asian Turkish Culture. In some of the Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Turkmen tribes in this region, Hikmets that belong to Yesevî are still being sung and conveyed traditionally. It is believed that Ahmet Yesevî who played quite efficient role among the Central Asian Turks was also influential on Anatolian Turks and their culture. Moving to Anatolia with the Turkish tribes who immigrated towards to the West, Yesevî continued his existence in different groups in this region. In respect to this, when we take a closer look at the religious ceremonies and beliefs of the Sects which showed up in Anatolia, we can see they came into existence with the effects of Yesevî philosophy. The Hikmets which were sung and conveyed by Yesevî Dervishes in the Central Asia formed a basis for the religious and sufistic poems later that found a chance to spread into Anatolia and the Balkans. To be brief, Ahmet Yesevî played an effective role in the emergence of the Sufi culture in Anatolia with its intellectual and literary aspects. This article investigates the role of the Yesevî Hikmets in the formation of poems called “Nefes” in Bektashism which were formed under the effect of Yesevî philosophy or carried the components of this philosophy. In other words, this article aims to reveal from which aspects the poems, which Yesevî Dervishes called “Hikmet”, effected “the Nefes poems of Bektashi”. In the article, the findings and assessments on the text and context properties of the Hikmet and Nefes poems have been brought out in the light of available information by comparing the Hikmet and Nefes traditions. At the end of the investigations, it has been determined that the Hikmets have effects on the Nefes poems in terms of the features of their performer and performing setting; moreover, the Nefes poems are under the influence of the Hikmets with regards to text properties.
For the first stage of the scientific research entitled as "The Traditional Folk Music Culture of the Alevi's Enclaves in Bulgaria", the musical products of religious and secular places of Deliorman region where Prestlavsi, Biserti, Sever, Midrevo, Yablanova villages bounded to Kubrat district of Razgrad's are tried to be determined. The folk culture of Deliorman disappears day by day; therefore some of the practices of Nauruz and Hidtrellez are tend to be forgotten. The study shaped according to the data from the field researches of Deliorman villages is divided into three parts. At this point, Nauruz and Hidirellez come up as the performance context. Through Natmuz and Hithrellez regarded as ritual based, seasonal gathering and entertainment, Bulgaria Alevis of Deliorman region are analyzed. After these two stages of the study, through the data gained from the field researches of the villages, Nauruz, "Mite days and Hidirellez are presented. At the conclusion part, the data from the written sources and field researches are compared with the practices in Anatolia.
Top-cited authors
Hayati beşirli
  • Gazi University
Özlem Karakul
  • Selcuk University
Hüseyin Aksoy
  • Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi
Haydar Yalçın
  • Ege University
Mustafa Sever
  • Gazi University