Military Technical Courier

Online ISSN: 0042-8469
Publications
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a new method for multisensor background extraction and updating aimed at surveillance and target detection applications. The background scene extraction is based on robust multisensor change detection of moving objects in the scene. An iterative mechanism updates the background estimate using this information thereby ignoring transient objects but allowing for slow changes in scene illumination. A new multisensor confidence framework is proposed that combines change information from all available sensors to greatly improve the reliability of true scene change detection therefore the reliability of the background image estimate. The proposed method is demonstrated on several sets of registered multisensor images.
 
Example of positional inaccuracy Рис. 1-Пример позиционной погрешности Слика 1-Пример положајне нетачности 
PAAT tool Рис. 3-Инструмент PAAT Слика 3-Алат PAAT 
Diagram of the CMAS values Рис. 4-Диаграмма значений CMAS Слика 4-Дијаграм вредности CMAS 
Diagram of the LMAS values Рис. 5-Диаграмма значений LMAS Слика 5-Дијаграм вредности LMAS 
Article
The paper describes the results of the positional accuracy assessment of digital topographic maps at scale 1: 25 000 produced by the Serbian Military Geographic Institute (MGI). The test for the horizontal and vertical accuracy compliance of map sheets is done by comparing the planimetric and height coordinates of the ground points to the coordinates of the same points as determined by a check survey of higher accuracy. In this research STANAG 2215 standard was used and the methodology of its use is discussed in detail. The results of positional accuracy assessment for the digital topographic maps at scale 1: 25 000 produced by the Military Geographic Institute have confirmed the highest level of accuracy defined by STANAG 2215 standard.
 
Article
U radu se iznose iskustva pri izradi i oblikovanju vojne topografske karte razmera 1: 250 000. Karta se izrađuje u Vojnogeografskom institutu, po NATO standardima i u digitalnom obliku. Iskustva drugih država u kreiranju vojnih topografsko-kartografskih sistema i karata mogu se uporediti sa našim. Postupci izrade i ažuriranja vojnih topografskih karata su informatički podržani uz veliki stepen automatizacije pojedinih faza njihove izrade i osavremenjavanja. / The paper presents the design of the 1:250 000 military topographic map in the Military Geographical Institute (MGI) in accordance with NATO standards and in a digital form. Other states' experiences in designing military topographic and cartographic systems and maps can be compared with those of the MGI's. The procedures of producing and updating military topographic maps are computer aided while particular phases are automated to a great extent.
 
Article
Abstract: Logistics is a set of activities for planning and implementingthe relocation of materials. Since sources of raw materials, factories and outlets are not usually in the same locationit is therefore necessary to conduct a series of logistics activities for supplying products or services to end users. Logistics manages the flow of data from suppliers, movement of materials through various operations within the organization as well as the flow of materials to final customers. Integrating these logistics activities is performed through supply chains which provide opportunities for cost saving and offering better services to customers. The supply chains in the Macedonian Army are an important factor in the planning and implementation of logistics support. Key words: supply; servicing; planning; materials; logistics; implementation; activity.
 
Article
This paper developed a mathematical model of the gas dynamic fluid flow around the sphere. There are three areas of different mechanisms of the interaction of moving spheres and stationary gaseous environment. It has been proved that shear flow plays a decisiverole at sphere low velocities, while at sphere velocities close to the speed of sound the critical role is exerted by the impact interaction of the sphere with the center in the front hemisphere. The shear flow behind the sphere makes a cone with stationary gaseous environment. The principle which defines the size of the cone has been established.
 
Article
In the field of transmission and power transformation from the power engine to the working machine, gear pairs, are mostly used in mechanical engineering due to their compactness of the structure, high reliability and capacity. One way of improving the performance characteristics of gear pairs, and thus the gear transmitters, is to increase the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth, or increasing the transverse contact ratio. To this end, this paper analyzes in detail the partial and simultaneous influence of the number of teeth and tooth profile shapes, moving through shifting coefficient and pressure angle, to the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of teeth. The obtained results allow us to define the optimum parameters of cylindrical gear pairs, in terms of the size of the transverse contact ratio. Introduction The kinematic indicator of the existence of the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement is the total contact ratio. In order to achieve the transmitting continuity of a rotary movement, the total contact ratio must be higher than one. Based on the total contact ratio, the information on the number of simultaneously meshed pairs of the teeth which rotate during the contact period is obtained. For example, if the – one and two pairs of teeth alternately take turn, and if the – two and three pairs of teeth alternately take turn, etc. It should be noted that the is a necessary but not sufficient condition for achieving multiple meshes. The next condition to meet is the compatibility between the accuracy of teeth production, the teeth rigidity and the intensity of the total load of the teeth pair. The influence of the addendum coefficient on the transverse contact ratio is shown in the paper (Li, 2008). It is shown that changes in the addendum coefficient in conjunction with the corresponding values of the shifting coefficient and gear ratio can achieve the transverse contact ratio value higher than four. The paper (Imrek, 2009) showed that the appropriate structural solution of the form of the teeth of spur gears can achieve a double mesh of the teeth at all points of the lenght of the line of action, when the value of the transverse contact ratio is less than two. The mathematical model of the transverse contact ratio This section presents a mathematical model (equations from 1 to 4) and the algorithm (Fig. 1) to determine the transverse contact ratio. The effect of the pressure angle and the number of teeth on the transverse contact ratio This section analyzes the effect of the pressure angle and the number of the teeth meshed on the transverse contact ratio using equation 4. Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show the effect of the pressure angle and the number of the teeth meshed on the size of the transverse contact ratio when the shifting coefficient and , and when the number of the teeth on the pinion is in the interval from . The analysis shows that the influence of the number of the teeth on the transverse contact ratio is much more pronounced at smaller values of the pressure angle. It can be concluded that the transverse contact ratio increases with the number of teeth and with a reduction in the pressure angle. The gradient of enhancement of the transverse contact ratio is more expressed at lower values of the gear ratio and at lower pressure angles. The effect of the pressure angle, the number of teeth and the shifting coefficient on the transverse contact ratio This section analyzes the effect of the pressure angle, the number of teeth meshed and the shifting coefficient on the transverse contact ratio using equation 3. Shifting coefficients This section shows the influence of the pressure angle and the number of the teeth meshed on the size of the transverse contact ratio when the shifting coefficients are and when the number of the teeth on the pinion is in the interval from (Figs. 5, 6 and 7). The influence of the number of the teeth on the transverse contact ratio is significantly higher when the shifting coefficients are higher than zero, but at the same time the value of the transverse contact ratio is lower. Shifting coefficients and This section shows the influence of the pressure angle and the number of the teeth meshed on the size of the transverse contact ratio when the shifting coefficients are and , and when the number of the teeth on the pinion is in the interval from (Figs. 8, 9 and 10). When the shifting coefficients of the pinion are positive and the shifting coefficients of the gear are negative, the influence of the number of the teeth on the transverse contact ratio is lower than in the case when both shifting coefficients are positive. At the same time, the interval number of the teeth of the pinion is increased, when the triple mesh is achieved. Also, the value of the transverse contact ratio is increased. Shifting coefficients and This section shows the influence of the pressure angle and the number of the teeth meshed on the size of the transverse contact ratio when the shifting coefficients are and , and when the number of the teeth on the pinion is in the interval from (Figs. 11, 12 and 13). When the shifting coefficients of the pinion are negative and the shifting coefficients of the gear are positive, the influence of the number of the teeth on the transverse contact ratio is much lower compared to the case when both coefficients are positive or when the shifting coefficient of the pinion is positive, a the gear's one is negative. At the same time, the interval number of the teeth of the pinion is increased, when the triple mesh is achieved. In this case, the highest values of the transverse contact ratio were obtained. The interval of the pressure angle was increased when the triple mesh of the teeth is achieved. The change of the transverse contact ratio by changing the addendum coefficient The paper (Li, 2008) analyzed the impact of the addendum coefficient () on the transverse contact ratio of the cylindrical gear pair. The analysis was conducted for two gear pairs, when the gear ratio and , and when the shifting coefficients . What was shown in both variants is that the transverse contact ratio increases with the growth of the addendum coefficient. To perceive the simultaneous influence of the addendum coefficient and the shape of teeth profiles on the transverse contact ratio, the shifting coefficient was changed in the paper, and the results are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Conclusion Higher values of the number of teeth meshed gears and higher values of the gear ratio correspond to higher values of the transverse contact ratio. In contrast, the lower values of the pressure angle correspond to higher values of the transverse contact ratio. Thereby, the gradient of the influence of the number of teeth and the pressure angle on the transverse contact ratio depends on the value of the shifting coefficient. This gradient has the highest value when the shifting coefficients of the pinion and the gear are negative. The negative values of the shifting coefficient of the pinion and the positive values of the shifting coefficient of the gear cause the smallest gradient influence of the number of teeth and the pressure angle on the transverse contact ratio. At the same time, the combination of shifting coefficients causes the highest value of the transverse contact ratio. The analysis has shown that by varying the number of teeth of the gear pair, the pressure angle and the shifting coefficient, the value of the transverse contact ratio higher than three cannot be accomplished. This means that during the contact period only a double and triple mesh of teeth can be achieved. For achieving the quadruple mesh of teeth, it is necessary to change the addendum coefficient.
 
Article
The article draws attention to the development of science and technology in 19th and 20th century, biology and chemistry in particular, and its relation with the green revolution of the middle of 20th century and the gene revolution of the end of 20th century. These two revolutions have resulted in significant changes in food production and integrated agriculture into high technology-based economy.
 
Article
This paper presents problem solving using heuristics and operational research in order to make appropriate decisions in emergency situations with a particular emphasis on the application of a heuristic model of team training for emergency situations. It is intended for military command and teaching personnel as well as for civil defense personnel (Department of Emergency Management) and local government authorities (administrative district chiefs and mayors - commanders). The heuristic approach to problem solving should enable adequate decision making for command staff from the local to the national level after the proclamation of emergency and a state of emergency in some regions or the whole territory of Serbia.
 
Article
There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather) parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact). Usage of satellite remote research in monitoring natural phenomena The images taken from Remote Sensing have helped men to use the environment and natural resources in a better way. It is expected that the developement of new technologies will spread the usage of satellite images for the welfare of mankind as well. Besides monitoring the surface of the Earth, the satellite monitoring of the processes inside the Earth itself is of great importance since these processes can cause different catastrophes such as earthquakes, volcano eruptions, floods, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring atmospheric phenomena The launch of artificial earth satellites has opened new possibilities for monitoring and studying atmospheric phenomena. A large number of meteorological satellites have been launched by now (Nimbus, Meteor, SNS, ESSA, Meteosat, Terra, etc.). Since these images are primarily used for weather forecast, meteorologists use them to get information about the characteristics of clouds related to their temperature, the temperature of the cloud layer, the degree of cloudness, the profiles of humidity content, the wind parameters, etc. Meteosat satellites Meteosat is the first European geostationary satellite designed for meteorological research. The use of these satellites enabled the surveying in the visible and the near IR part of the spectrum as well as in the infrared thermal and water steam track. Based on these images, it was possible to obtain data such as: height of clouds, cloud spreading and moving, sea surface temperature, speed of wind, distribution of the water steam, balance of radiation, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring floods Satellite images are an excellent background and an initial phase for preventing severe catastrophic events caused by floods. Due to satellite images, it is possible to manage overflown regions before, during and after floods. This enables prevention, forecasting, detection and elimination of consequences, i.e. demage. Satellite images are of great help after the withdrawal of water, for the estimation of damage and flood recovery. Usage of satellite images in detectingearthquakes Remote sensing is widely used in the procedure of detecting and locating earthquakes. Earthquakes can be detected by the combination of geophysical methods with multispectral and radar images. By combining these nethods, we can monitor the conditions of seizmic areas. The obtained information can be computed and sent to information centres in stationary stations where the modelling of earthquake-affected terrains is carried out. Usage of satellite images in monitoring volcanos Remote sensing has been used ifor examining a large number of active vulcanos. Monitoring is performed several times, during and after eruptions. The modelling of volcanic areas enables the definition of lava-effusion zones,and potentially dangerous zones, which is further used for planning the protection of affected areas. Usage of satellite images in monitoring fire (blaze) One of important methods of investigating, forecasting and monitoring forest fires is remote sensing. Satellite images are valuable in discovering fires and in mapping affected areas within the geographical-information system (GIS), as well as in the estimation of demage caused by fire. Satellite images can also be usedto estimate the temperature on the Earth surface. Conclusion Remote sensing becomes an increasingly important and unavoidable method of the acquisition of data on geospacein general. The importance of thus obtained data is invaluable in all phases of monitoring catastrophic events, from detecting their onsets through monitoring their spreading and effects to the phase of recovery. New generations of sensors enable systematic monitoring, recording and measuring different data important for detecting changes and processes in the sea, on the ground and in the atmosphere. The procedures of remote sensing enable surveying (recording) and registration of different natural phenomena. Thus acquired data can reveal ongoing activities in these environments and, moreover, predict posssible catastrophic scenarios in the nature..
 
Article
The aim of the paper is to present selected examples of queueing theory applications to problems in the military and defence domain, to mark the 110th anniversary of queueing theory. The intention was to find and present more works from domestic authors published in a longer period in order to promote the theory in the domestic military and defence circles thus motivating future research related to waiting lines phenomena. In dealing with military queueing phenomena, researchers are usually faced with some specific requirements which involve a multidisciplinary approach. In the queueing theory community, it is recognized that solutions to queueing problems could be reached in three ways: by analytical, numerical and simulation methods. Not all queueing problems are solvable by analytics or by numerical mathematics and, for such problems in particular, simulation methodology is a resolving tool. / Целью данной статьи является представление выборки примеров применения теории массового обслуживания в военной области, в свете 110-го юбилея создания теории массового обслуживания. В работе приведено большое количество работ отечественных авторов, опубликованных в продолжительном периоде времени, с целью расширения представления об этой теории и продвижения ее применения в отечественных кругах военного дела. При исследовании проблем системы массового обслуживания в военной области необходимо преодолевать специфические требования, вызывающие необходимость междисциплинарного подхода. В профессиональных кругах массового обслуживания было выявлено, что решения задач о системах массового обслуживания можно найти с помощью следующих трех методов: аналитический, численный методы и метод имитационного моделирования. Однако следует учитывать, что не все теоретические модели массового обслуживания поддаются решению с помощью аналитического или численного методов, именно при решении таких задач необходимо применять метод имитационного моделирования. / U radu su prikazani odabrani primeri primene teorije masovnog opsluživanja u vojnoj oblasti, na 110. godišnjicu rođenja teorije masovnog opsluživanja. Namera je bila da se pronađe i prikaže više radova domaćih autora u dužem periodu kako bi se poboljšala promocija buduće primene ove teorije, pre svega u domaćim vojnostručnim krugovima. U bavljenju problemima sistema masovnog opsluživanja u vojnoj oblasti, istraživač se suočava sa specifičnim zahtevima koji uzrokuju potrebu za multidisciplinarnim pristupom. U stručnim krugovima teorije masovnog opsluživanja prepoznato je da se do rešenja u zadacima o sistemima masovnog opsluživanja može doći na tri načina: analitički, numerički i primenom simulacije. Ne mogu se svi teorijski modeli masovnog opsluživanja rešavati analitički ili primenom numeričkih metoda, pa se za takve probleme primenjuju metode simulacionog modelovanja.
 
Organization model with eight departments in CMC and MOI Slika 1-Organizacioni model sa osam sektora u CUK i MUP Рис. 1-Организационная модель, объединяющая 8 департаментов ЦКС и МВД 
The territorial division of the Republic of Macedonia Municipalities Slika 2-Teritorijalna podela Republike Makedonije po opštinama Рис. 2-Административно-территориальное деление Республики Македония 
Models of three monitor displays depending on the E-112 operator's needs Slika 8-Model prikazivanja događaja prema potrebi operatora Е-112 Рис. 8-Модели происшествий, выведенные на монитор диспетчера системы Е-112 
Article
Uvođenje evropskog broja za hitne događaje 112 u Republici Makedoniji treba da omogući poboljšanje, koje će biti implementirano, uređeno i u saglasnosti sa evropskom zakonodavnom regulativom. Dokaz za to jesu brojni benefiti ostvareni tokom višegodišnjeg postojanja broja 112 u državama članicama Evropske unije. Ovaj broj predstavlja integrisanu i jedinstvenu funkcionalnu i informatičko-komunikacijsku celinu. Njegovo uvođenje treba da bude podržano najnovijom tehnologijom informatičko-komunikacijskih rešenja, hardverske opreme, kao i softverskih rešenja prilagođenih uslovima države. Biće objedinjena sadašnja četiri telefonska broja za hitne događaje, koji su pod kontrolom Ministarstva policije (192), lokalnih protivpožarnih jedinica (193), Hitne medicinske pomoći (194) i Centra za upravljanje krizom (195). Predviđa se da brojevi budu zamenjeni uključivanjem u rad i potpunom implementacijom evropskog broja za hitne događaje 112 u integrisan informatičko-komunikacijski sistem. / The introduction of the European emergency number 112 in the Republic of Macedonia should provide benefits that will be implemented and regulated in accordance with the European legislative framework. This number has already provided numerous benefits to all member states of the European Union. Its implementation should be supported by the introduction of the latest technology information and communication solutions, hardware and software solutions tailored to the situation in the country. It will replace four current phone numbers for emergency calls that are a responsibility of the Ministry of Interior (192), local fire units (193), emergency care (194) and the Center for Crisis Management (195). These numbers are planned to be replaced by the European emergency number 112 together with its full implementation into the integrated information - communication center. / Внедрение единого европейского номера 112 по экстренным происшествиям на территории Республики Македония будет произведено в соответствии с европейскими стандартами и законодательными актами ЕС, с целью улучшения системы защиты населения. Преимущество внедрения единого номера 112 по экстренным происшествиям подтверждены Советом Европы и введением данной информационно-коммуникационной системы странами Евросоюза. Внедрение данной системы должно поддерживаться новейшими компьютерными технологиями и прогрессивным программным обеспечением, согласованными с возможностями государства. Необходимо объединить существующие телефонные номера по экстренным происшествиям, такие как: Министерство Внедрение единого европейского номера 112 по экстренным происшествиям на территории Республики Македония будет произведено в соответствии с европейскими стандартами и законодательными актами ЕС, с целью улучшения системы защиты населения. Преимущество внедрения единого номера 112 по экстренным происшествиям подтверждены Советом Европы и введением данной информационно-коммуникационной системы странами Евросоюза. Внедрение данной системы должно поддерживаться новейшими компьютерными технологиями и прогрессивным программным обеспечением, согласованными с возможностями государства. Необходимо объединить существующие телефонные номера по экстренным происшествиям, такие как: Министерство полиции (192), Пожарной охраны (193), Скорой медицинской помощи (194), Центра управления в кризисных ситуациях (195). Планируется заменить существующие номера по экстренным происшествиям единым европейским номером 112, интегрированным в общую информационно-коммуникационную систему Евросоюза.ны (193), Скорой медицинской помощи (194), Центра управления в кризисных ситуациях (195).
 
Article
The introduction of the European emergency number 112 in the Republic of Macedonia should provide benefits that will be implemented and regulated in accordance with the European legislative framework. This number has already provided numerous benefits to all member states of the European Union. Its implementation should be supported by the introduction of the latest technology information and communication solutions, hardware and software solutions tailored to the situation in the country. It will replace four current phone numbers for emergency calls that are a responsibility of the Ministry of Interior (192), local fire units (193), emergency care (194) and the Center for Crisis Management (195). These numbers are planned to be replaced by the European emergency number 112 together with its full implementation into the integrated information-communication center.
 
Article
The article presents the basic information about overal results, significance, international programme committee and working areas of the 16th International Conference on Dependability and Quality Management ICDQM-2013 and 4th International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering and Management, held under the same acronym ICDQM-2013. This year conference has had the biggest number of papers so far. The number and structure of papers of both conferences are given, as well as a review of the papers presented only by the participants from the Armed forces and the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia as plenary lectures and in Sections: Quality Engineering, Reliability Engineering, Concurrent Engineering, Systems Engineering and Military Engineering.
 
Article
Worldwide experience has shown that MI-8/17 helicopters are on the top of the middle class list of high performance multipurpose helicopters, flying at high altitudes in complex meteorological conditions. The paper addresses their development, transport, as well as rescuing and combat capabilities. The excellent technical characteristics of flight and their capabilities for uninterrupted and smooth performance of tasks demonstrate the reason why the Armed forces of the FYR of Macedonia decided to use Mi-8/17 helicopters and are determined to invest in their modernization and improvement of their technical capabilities. The modernization of the resources of armies is a continuous process, which is a part of all modern military security structures. Most armed forces do not economize the funds allocated for this purpose, due to the fact that they aspire to achieve the planned capabilities, so that they would attain the ultimate preparedness in terms of capabilities of the security forces regarding technology and trained personnel. / Практика в эксплуатации вертолетов МИ-8/17 в целом мире показала, что они являются лидерами между многоцелевыми вертолетами среднего класса высокого эксплуатационного качества с высоким порогом высоты полета при тяжелых метеорологических условиях. В данной работе большое внимание посвящено изучению развития транспортных, поисково- спасательных и боевых характеристик данных вертолетов. Превосходные технические характеристики в полете и их возможности непрерывного и качественного выполнения задач подтверждают правильность решения об инвестировании в модернизацию этих вертолетов, которое приняли Вооруженные силы БЮР Македонии, а также об инвестировании в повышение их технических характеристик. Модернизация средств в армии всегда является длительным процессом в любой современной структуре военной безопасности. Большинство армий не экономит средств на осуществление целей в усовершенствовании возможностей своей техники, для того чтобы впоследствии оказаться на вершине технологической безопасности и подготовленности своих кадров. / Iskustva iz celog sveta su pokazala da su helikopteri MI-8/17 na vrhu liste višenamenskih helikoptera srednje klase sa visokim performansama za visoko letenje u složenim vremenskim i meteorološkim uslovima. Cilj ovog rada je da se prouči njihov razvoj, kao i transportne, spasilačke i borbene mogućnosti ovih letelica. Odlične tehničke karakteristike za letenje i njihove sposobnosti za neometano i kvalitetno izvršavanje namenjenih zadataka pokazuju zašto je Vojska BJR Makedonije odlučila da ulaže u modernizaciju ovih helikoptera i usavršavanje njihovih tehničkih sposobnosti. Modernizacija sredstava u jednoj armiji je kontinuiran proces u svakoj savremenoj vojnobezbednosnoj strukturi. Veliki broj armija ne štedi sredstva namenjena za ove ciljeve, kako bi ostvarile osposobljenost snaga i obučenost ljudstva u skladu sa tehnologijom.
 
– Overview of the papers of the Serbian Army and MoD members and the overall number of papers at the ICDQM 
Article
U ovom prikazu date su osnovne informacije o ukupnim rezultatima, znacaju, međunarodnom programskom odboru i oblastima rada 17. međunarodne konferencije „Upravljanje kvalitetom i pouzdanoscu” ICDQM-2014 i 5. međunarodne konferencije „Upravljanje i inženjerstvo životnog ciklusa” (radovi su na engleskom jeziku), koja je održana pod istim nazivom ICDQM-2014. Navedeni su broj i struktura radova obe konferencije, a prikazani samo radovi pripadnika Vojske i Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije u sekcijama: vojno inženjerstvo, inženjerstvo kvaliteta, inženjerstvo pouzdanosti, industrijsko inženjerstvo, sistemsko inženjerstvo i energetska efikasnost. Na ovoj konferenciji, objavljeno je najvise radova pripadnika Vojske i Ministarstva odbrane Republike Srbije do sada.
 
Article
Introduction/purpose: For the purpose of monitoring the COVID-19 epidemic in every single country in the world, this team has developed a specific system that consists of the following diagrams and mathematical models: а) epidemiological curve, b) histogram of infected people, c) histogram of infected people in last five days, d) double logarithmic curve for monitoring the speed of the epidemic, e) epidemic pipeline, and f) Gaussian and Boltzmann S curves. As it is shown in this paper, monitoring an epidemic is like flying a plane using instruments. Methods: The most complex model is the calculation of the truncated Gaussian curve, and this model will be discussed in more detail in this paper. Also, there is time coincidence between the Gaussian curve and the S-curve. The input data were found in the World Health Organization daily reports. The full set of data consists of: the Gaussian curve, the double logarithmic curve and the epidemic curve. In some cases, using only one of the three specified parameters in not enough. Results: For the purpose of proving specified methodology, the paper has dozens of results in the form of diagrams. Conclusion: The Gaussian curve was formed, and the end of the epidemic was calculated. But, in some cases, the epidemic curve was not well formed (the end of the epidemic is not clear since many countries did not declare the number of recovered people in a proper way). This is the reason why we must include a flow of the double logarithmic curve into consideration. Only a combination of these three diagrams can give a right insight into the right decision.
 
-Histogram of the infected people on a daily basis in China in January 27-April 15, 2020
-INSTRUMENT 3: ECDC coefficient for each European country Vaccination Vaccination started in December 2020. Until June 11, 2021, 208 countries started with vaccination (Kočović et al, 2021b). Monitoring vaccination is an especially hard task because no authority is collecting data. The authors developed a special crawler to collect such data from the National Health Bodies from every single country. Few websites such as Our World of Data (Our World in Data, 2021) are collecting data about vaccination but there are small differences in the number of vaccinated people with the first or second dose.
-INSTRUMENT 5: Israel vs the UK vs Serbia. Every line is two-factor regression data calculated for every single day. The period shown in the Figure is February 25-June 1, 2021. The arrows represent the points when Israel and the UK reached 33%, 44% and other important days in both countries when the mentioned countries removed special lockdown measures. In the case of Serbia, the arrows represent the dates when the country reached 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the immunized population. (Note: Astra Zeneca takes 12 weeks between the first and second dose, Sinovac takes 4 weeks after the second dose. All other vaccines need 3 weeks after the second dose to reach full immunization.)
-Outbreaks of SARS, H1N1, MERS, and Covid-19 and their relation with the sunspot numbers and the 11-year intervals
-INSTRUMENT 6: Sunspot numbers in the period 2004-2021. The blue line represents the number of days with sunspots. Note that a cycle of rising and declining in the number of sunspots is approximately 11 years.
Article
The authors of the article mentioned in the title received a Letter to the Editor submitted by Mr. David Pokrajac, on June 11, 2021. (Pokrajac, 2021). Mr. Pokrajac and the wider public and readers must take into consideration the following facts: 1. This paper was submitted for printing on April 30, 2020, 2. A pre-final version was submitted about 15 days before the final submission, and 3. Some mathematical models, originally developed by the authors, were not published in this article nor on the website of the team of the authors, because the model did not show stability at the time of publishing. During the process of writing this paper, we expected that some data for relevant countries would show better fitting, but this did not happen until April 15, 2020. (Petar Kocovic, Zoran kocovic, Vladimir Kocovic, 2021)
 
-Data fit: the number of cases with respect to the number of days Рис. 1 -Совпадение данных: число случаев в соотношении с числом дней Слика 1 -Уклапање података: број случајева у односу на број дана
-Extrapolation of the number of cases for the next future Рис. 2 -Экстраполяция числа случаев на ближайшее будущее Слика 2 -Екстраполација броја случајева у блиској будућности
Fit for parameters a, b and c Таблица 1 -Ввод по параметрам а,b и c Табела 1 -Уклапање за параметре а, b и c
Estimated time t for the end of the disease spread based on the value
Article
Introduction/purpose: At the end of 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified first in the Hubei province of China and then it spread over the world causing the coronavirus pandemic. The virus has given very different outcomes in different countries up to day - at the time of writing, Italy has a record number of deaths caused by coronavirus (Google, 2020). Methods: A mathematical model is applied to describe the behavior of number of cases with respect to time, the obtained data is compared and some predictions given. Results: The model chosen to represent the evolution of the spread of the disease allows making some projections for the future. Conclusions: Sound projections could be created with accurate numbers provided the current situation is not perturbed by other external influences. / Введение/цель: В конце 2019 года Коронавирусная инфекция (COVID-19) первоначально была обнаружена в китайской провинции Хубэй, а затем распространилась по всему миру, вызвав пандемию коронавируса. Вирус проявлялся в разных странах по-разному, на сегодняшний день, пока мы пишем данную статью, в Италии зарегистрировано рекордное количество умерших от коронавируса (Google, 2020). Методы: Вышеописанная прикладная математическая модель, фиксирует поведенческие особенности случаев в отношении времени, выполнено сравнение с полученными данными и приведен прогноз на будущее. Результаты: Данная модель представляет эволюцию расширения заболевания, и дает возможность создать соответствующие условия в будущем. Выводы: Звуковые проекции могут дать точные числа, но только при условии, если текущая ситуация не будет нарушена другими внешними воздействиями. / Uvod/cilj: Krajem 2019. godine, infekcija koronavirusom (COVID19) identifikovana je najpre u kineskoj provinciji Hubei, a zatim se proširila po svetu uzrokujući pandemiju. Različit je broj zaraženih ovim virusom u zemljama širom sveta. U trenutku pisanja ovog teksta u Italiji je zabeležen najveći broj smrtnih ishoda prouzrokovanih koronavirusom (Google, 2020). Metode: Primenjen je matematički model koji opisuje karakteristike broja slučajeva u odnosu na vreme. Izvršeno je poređenje sa dobijenim podacima i prognoziran dalji tok obolevanja od infekcije koronavirusom. Rezultati: Ovaj model, koji predstavlja evoluciju širenja bolesti, omogućava da se izvrše određena predviđanja širenja koronavirusa u budućnosti. Zaključci: Pouzdano se mogu predvideti tačne brojke broja umrlih i inficiranih pod uslovom da se na trenutnu situaciju ne odraze drugi spoljni uticaji.
 
Article
Introduction/purpose: A comparison of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza to the 2020 COVID–19 pandemic could shed some light on the evolution of the latter. Method: A mathematical method previously applied to the description of the behavior of the spread of COVID–19 in time is used this time to the 1918 influenza. Results: The obtained results were compared and some conclusions made about some possible forecasts for the next waves of COVID-19. Conclusions: Some further waves of the 2020 pandemic should be expected in the future.
 
-Sites in Kosovo and Metohia that were targeted by DU ammunition based on NATO data (Ajdačić & Jakšić, 2001, p.341) Рис. 2 -Точки в Косово и Метохии, пораженные снарядами с обедененным ураном на основе документов НАТО (Ajdačić & Jakšić, 2001, p.341) Слика 2 -Мeстa нa КиМ којa су гaђaнa муницијом сa ОУ базирано на НАТО документима (Ajdačić & Jakšić, 2001, p.341)
-Deployment of international forces after the signing of the Kumanovo Agreement (Ocić, 2019) Рис. 3 -Дислокация международных сил после подписания Кумановского соглашения (Ocić, 2019) Слика 3 -Распоред међународних снага после потписивања Кумановског споразума (Ocić, 2019) shows that the KFOR's Italian and French battalions were deployed in the area that was within the area of responsibility of the 125th Motorized Brigade. Some members of the KFOR international forces, soldiers from the Italian Battalion, fell ill with malignant tumours
-DU rounds used in the territories of the FR of Yugoslavia in 1999, exhibited at the Military Museum in Belgrade Рис. 4 -Фотография снарядов с обедненным ураном, поразивших СР Югославию в 1999 году, выставлены в Военном музее в Белграде Слика 4 -Метак са ОУ којим су гађани простори СР Југославије 1999. године, изложен у Војном музеју у Београду
Article
Introduction/purpose: The paper indicates the radiation doses the military personnel of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were exposed to, and in particular the military personnel of the motorized brigades in the territory of Kosovo and Metohia on the Albanian-Yugoslav border. Methods: Gammaspectrometry measurements have confirmed that round penetrators contained depleted uranium, and the presence of alpha, beta and gamma radiation was determined by the method of dosimetric measurement. Results: The use of ammunition with 238U depleted uranium, with added plutonium, pollutes the environment, water, and soil in the long term, causing various disorders and diseases, primarily malignant ones. The radioactivity of 239Pu, compared to its toxicity, is several thousand times higher and the inhalation of plutonium dust is harmful and causes cancer. Uranium is a pyrophoric metal, toxic, radioactive and easy to ignite. Its oxides are toxic and partially soluble in water. After ignition, the round releases radioactive aerosol particles which burn in contact with the air causing short or long term damage wheninhaled. In Kosovo and Metohia, a large amount of radioactivity was measured during the NATO aggression against the FR Yugoslavia. In Metohia, radioactivity was 1,100 times that of natural background radiation. Conclusion: During the war, the Army of the FR Yugoslavia was exposed to high radioactive doses, so that among the members of the army after the war there was an increased incidence of various malignancies, many of them lethal.
 
Article
Introduction/purpose: The paper presents the mode of operation of the CBU-102(V) 2/B cluster bomb, weighing about 340 kg and containing bomblets with electrically conductive fibers for disabling power plants. Methods: Physical and chemical analyses of the fibers were performed. The following test methods were used for fiber characterization: a binocular microscope for determining fiber thickness and a qualitative XRF analysis performed on an XRF-MiniPal spectrometer, PANalytical. The XRFanalysis aimed at qualitative detection of the present elements, which was confirmed by a quantitative chemical analysis. Results: The semi-quantitative XRF analysis determined the content of gallium (0.007%), the peak of which was detected on the spectrum. Gallium nitride is a material that can be used as a semiconductor. The chemical analysis was performed on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Analyst 300, Perkin Elmer. Conclusion: The instrument for differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), NETZCH STA 409 EP (operational range from 20°C to 1000°C), confirmed that the sample was of 50% silicate origin, non-toxic and with heavy metal content in traces. The rest of the sample is aluminum whose presence in soil can cause decline in soil fertility thus leading to decline in crop yields.
 
Article
This paper presents a review of three datasets, namely KDD Cup ‘99, NSL-KDD and Kyoto 2006+ datasets, which are widely used in researching intrusion detection in computer networks. The KDD Cup ‘99 dataset consists of five million records, each containing 41 features which can classify malicious attacks into four classes: Probe, DoS, U2R and R2L. The KDD Cup ‘99 dataset cannot reflect real traffic data since it was generated by simulation over a virtual computer network. In the NSL-KDD dataset, redundant and duplicate records form the KDD Cup ‘99 dataset are removed from training and test sets, respectively. The Kyoto 2006+ dataset is built on real three year-network traffic data which are labeled as normal (no attack), attack (known attack) and unknown attack. The Kyoto 2006+ dataset contains 14 statistical features derived from the KDD Cup ‘99 dataset and 10 additional features.
 
Article
Na Kopaoniku je od 8. do 11. marta 2009. godine održana XV jubilarna međunarodna konferencija iz oblasti infomacionih i komunikacionih tehnologija (ICT) – YU INFO 2009. Konferencija je održana pod okriljem Informacionog društva Srbije – udruženja za informacione sisteme i računarske mreže. To je neprofitna i nevladina organizacija koju čine stručnjaci iz računarskih i telekomunikacionih oblasti, kao i predstavnici vodećih domaćih IT kompanija. Bavi se popularizacijom savremenih tehnologija, širenjem informacija iz ove oblasti, organizovanjem simpozijuma, konferencija i različitih načina obuke, kao i učešćem na projektima koji se bave IT problematikom. Članovi društva su IT eksperti iz poslovnih, akademskih i naučnih krugova, kao i stručnjaci iz sektora državne uprave. Glavne aktivnosti ovog udruženja su, pre svega, povezane sa organizovanjem konferencija i seminara, od kojih je najznačajnija YU INFO konferencija.
 
Top-cited authors
Dragan Pamucar
  • University of Belgrade
Stojan N Radenović
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Belgrade Serbia
Darko Božanić
  • University of Defence
Danijela Protic
  • Center for Applied Mathematics and Electronics, Belgrade
Samed Karovic
  • Vojna akademija Beograd