In an attempt to study the effect of heterologous genes on the virulence of Vibrio cholerae 01 and non-01, rfb genes encoding biosynthesis of non-01 antigens were introduced by homologous recombination into the chromosome of V. cholerae 01 strain 569B (serotype Inaba, biotype classical). Recombinant strains were obtained which were not agglutinated with the diagnostic cholera 01 antiserum and were not sensitive to the cholera diagnostic bacteriophage, but produced as much cholera toxin as 569B and were highly virulent in the infant rabbit intraintestinal injection model. These data indicate that the rfb genes from the studied V. cholerae non-01 did not alter the virulence phenotype of V. cholerae 01. In contrast, cloned ctxAB genes from V. cholerae 01 encoding cholera toxin introduced into a non-pathogenic strain lead to efficient secretion of cholera toxin but to only low virulence in the infant rabbit model.
The genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the O1 polysaccharide from a human pyelonephritic Escherichia coli were cloned and expressed in a rfb-deleted E. coli K-12 strain. Deletion analysis of the clone demonstrated that a DNA fragment size larger than 6.7 kb and smaller than 10 kb is responsible for O1-antigen biosynthesis.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) can adhere to, invade and multiply in human epithelial cells. To define the elements required for bacterial invasion, we isolated from an 0111:H- EPEC a 6.6 kb plasmid that is capable of conferring to an avirulent, non-adherent E. coli K12 strain (DK1) the capacity to invade epithelial cells. With this system a dissociation was possible between bacterial invasion and adherence to epithelial cells. Bacteria containing this plasmid synthesise a protein of 32 kDa (pl 4.93) which seemed to be required for cell invasion. The results provide a new basis for strategies to prevent EPEC infections.
Mutants of Vibrio cholerae 01 strain 0395 (classical) mutated in genes encoding secretory or cell surface proteins were induced by TnphoA mutagenesis and were selected as blue colonies on L-agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Southern analysis of the total DNA from blue colonies showed that all mutants had TnphoA insertion in genomic DNA. These mutants were analysed for adherence, colonization and protein profile. Adherence to freshly isolated rabbit intestinal discs was affected in some mutants. The less adhesive mutants were examined for colonization of the intestine of infant mice. One mutant, designated T-87, was extremely poor at colonization and less diarrhaegenic than the parent strain. Analysis of T-87 by SDS-PAGE revealed that two proteins of 53 and 38 kDa were lacking. The 38 kDa protein was identified as OmpU. The 53 kDa protein was extracellular and cells treated with anti-53-kDa antibodies could not colonize the gut of infant mice. The expression of the 53 and 38 kDa proteins in T-87 was dependent of the growth medium. The data suggest that T-87 is mutated in a regulatory gene which regulates the expression of proteins involved in intestinal colonization.
The nucleotide sequence of a trans-acting P-fimbrial regulatory element obtained from the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain KS71 (04:K12) was determined. The regulatory element was found to contain an open reading frame of 231 nucleotide residues that showed 95.2% homology with papl, a functionally analogous regulatory gene of E. coli strain J 96.
High-affinity binding sites for P-fimbriated and for 075X-positive Escherichia coli were located in the human kidney. Frozen sections of normal human kidney were double-stained first with fluorochrome-labelled bacteria and then with fluorochrome-labelled nephron site-specific lectins or antibodies. The P-fimbriate recombinant E. coli strain used showed specific adherence to glomerular structures, to the lumen of proximal and sital tubules and to vascular endothelium but did not adhere to collecting ducts or to peritubular sites. Two E. coli strains having the 075X adhesin showed specific adherence to renal interstitium, to glomerular elements and to Bowman's capsule. The method described allows the detailed determination of tissue-substructure specificity of bacterial adhesion. Our results demonstrate tissue tropism in the adhesion of E. coli to human kidneys and suggest a pathogenetic role for X adhesins.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) 091:H21 strain B2F1, an isolate from a patient with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), produces elastase-activatable Shiga toxin (Stx) type 2d and adheres well to human colonic epithelial T84 cells. This adherence phenotype occurs even though B2F1 does not contain the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) that encodes the primary adhesin for E. coli O157:H7. To attempt to identify genes involved in binding of B2F1 to T84 cells a bank of mini-Tn5phoACm(r) transposon mutants of this strain was generated. Several of these mutants exhibited a reduced adherence phenotype, but none of the insertions in these mutants were within putative adhesin genes. Rather, insertional mutations within hns resulted in the loss of adherence. Moreover, the hns mutant also displayed an increase in the production of hemolysin and alkaline phosphatase and a loss of motility with no change in Stx2d-activatable expression levels. When B2F1 was cured of the large plasmid that encodes the hemolysin, the resulting strain adhered well to T84 cells. However, an hns mutant of the plasmid-cured B2F1 strain exhibited a reduction in adherence to T84 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that H-NS regulates the expression of several genes and some potential virulence factors in the intimin-negative B2F1 STEC strain and that the large plasmid is not required for T84 cell colonization.
The toxigenic element of Clostridium difficile strain VPI 10463 is identified by establishing boundaries between toxigenic sequences and those sequences shared by nontoxigenic and toxigenic strains. The toxigenic element is chromosomal, 19.6 kb in length, and comprised of five open reading frames which include the toxin A and B genes. Four of the open reading frames are contiguous and are transcribed in the same direction. The fifth is downstream from the others and oriented in the opposite direction. One of the open reading frames, located 5' to the toxin B gene, is previously unknown. Both upstream (5') and downstream (3') boundaries for the toxigenic element were examined in six toxigenic strains which vary considerably in toxigenicity to determine if there were variations among their respective toxigenic elements. The toxigenic element is highly conserved in these six strains. In the three nontoxigenic strains examined, a short fragment (127 bp) occupies the same chromosomal location as the large 19.6 kb toxigenic element.
While there is a growing consensus on the understanding that the immune system plays an important role in facilitating the spread of prion infections from the periphery to the central nervous system, little is known about the key players in the first steps of the infection and about the sites of the disease development. Owing to their subepithelial location and their migratory capacity, macrophages could be early targets for prion transportation or propagation during the later stages of disease. In order to investigate the role of macrophages, we studied in vitro the effect of exposing primary peritoneal macrophages to a synthetic peptide homologous to residues 106-126 of the human prion protein (PrP), PrP 106-126. As shown by MTT assay, macrophage viability treated with less than 50 microM PrP 106-126 for 72 h was not inhibited but slightly stimulated at 10 and 25 microM, while there was significant decrease when exposed to 100 microM PrP 106-126 for 72 h. The expressions of PrP at mRNA and protein level were up-regulated following treatment with PrP 106-126 for 72 h. Cytokine TNF-alpha production were elevated by the PrP peptide in a time-dependent manner, which demonstrated a proinflammatory response linked to the presence and progression of prion disease took place in macrophages. These findings suggested that macrophages may play roles in the transportation and replication of the infectious agent.
Infection of susceptible weaned pigs with oedema disease strains of E. coli is associated with bacterial adhesion to the small intestine. F18 fimbria (previously named F107) was the first colonisation factor described on oedema disease strains, and its genetic determinant was cloned. In the present study, genes fedE and fedF were positioned in the F18 gene cluster, downstream of the major structural subunit gene fedA. Two fedE and two fedF mutants were identified that had lost their capacity to adhere to isolated porcine villi. Moreover, these mutants produced significantly longer fimbriae. In vitro adhesion tests, electron microscopy study, transcomplementation tests, and nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that proteins FedE and FedF are F18 minor subunits essential for fimbrial adhesion and effecting fimbrial length.
The impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on porcine alveolar macrophages (Mo) was examined by differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). A PRRSV-induced expressed gene tag (EST) was used to isolate and identify a single cDNA clone from a library prepared from porcine peripheral blood. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was employed to clone a 1.5 kb fragment at the 5' end of the mRNA. DNA sequencing identified an open reading frame (ORF) of 2820 bp. Deduced amino acid sequence revealed the eight conserved domains characteristic of the DEAD/H box protein superfamily. The putative porcine RNA helicase induced by virus (RHIV -1) showed 84% amino acid similarity to human retinoic acid-induced gene (RIG-I). Porcine RHIV -1 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in various pig tissues, while in PRRSV-infected pigs, higher expression was observed in several tissues persistent for PRRSV. These data indicate the association of PRRSV genome replication with enhaced host cell RNA helicase gene expression. Finally, the RHIV -1 gene was localized on porcine chromosome 10q13 between markers SSC25A02 and SWR334 via somatic cell panel and radiation hybrid (RH) mapping strategies.
A number of different techniques were used to analyse classic and atypical serogroup O:11 Aeromonas isolates. Five of seven atypical O:11, S layer-negative strains lacking a homogeneous LPS side-chain pattern exhibited varying degrees of mouse pathogenecity. One virulent atypical strain (AH-77) synthesized a surface array protein (SAP) but was unable to anchor it to the cell surface in an intact form, presumably due to a defect in its LPS architecture. Proteinase K digestion to remove the SAP, or growth at elevated temperatures (42 degrees C) to reduce the proportion of SAP synthesized from classic O:11 S layer-positive strains, did not alter their LD50 values in outbred mice. In addition, a spontaneous mutant, AS-180-1, that was S layer-negative was as virulent as the parental S layer-positive strain in the mouse model. These results suggest neither the SAP nor the characteristic serogroup O:11 homogeneous LPS side-chain pattern are directly involved in mouse pathogenicity.
This study involves the comparison between the exoproteomes of two different strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants. In a previous study, based on a gel-free system (TPP-LC/MS(E)), 70 exoproteins for the strain 1002 and 67 for the strain C231, totaling 93 different extracellular proteins for C. pseudotuberculosis, were identified. In the present work, we have used 2D gel electrophoresis to resolve the extracellular proteins of both strains, which were then digested with trypsin, analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and identified with the software MASCOT(®). A total of 45 extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by this approach. The comparative analysis between the strains 1002 and C231 identified 13 and 3 strain-specific proteins, respectively, 11 of which are novel. These newly identified proteins may play an important role in the physiology and virulence of C. pseudotuberculosis.
Since it has been reported that a single amino acid mutation of Gly-->Arg in the CAGYC region of the beta chain of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) was responsible for congenital isolated TSH deficiency, and that the same amino acid substitution in this site of hTSH and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in loss of activity, the authors studied the role of glutamic acid at position 11 (Glu-11) from the N-terminus of the B subunit of cholera toxin (CT), which corresponds to the glycine in the CAGYC region of the beta chain of hTSH and hCG. A mutant CT constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in which Glu-11 was replaced by Arg (CT-E11R) did not induce either morphological changes or accumulation of cytosolic cyclic AMP in Chinese hamster ovary cells, although it formed the holotoxin AB5, retained the ability to bind to GM1-ganglioside and showed ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Weak assembly of the B subunits in mutant CT-E11R demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-heating conditions might explain the loss of biological activity.
To determine the role of hemolysin(s) in virulence and immunoprotection, non-hemolytic mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, strain J45, were isolated following chemical mutagenesis. One mutant was selected for extensive characterization. Differences in capsule content, or in lipopolysaccharide or membrane protein electrophoretic profiles of the parent and mutant were not detected. A predominant, calcium-inducible protein of 110 kDa was present in culture supernatant of the parent, but absent from the mutant. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis confirmed that the 110 kDa protein was absent in culture supernatant of the mutant, but few, if any, minor differences could be detected in whole-cell proteins between the parent and mutant. The mutant totally lacked extracellular hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Lysates of whole cells of the mutant contained weak hemolytic activity, and the 110 kDa protein could be detected by immunoblotting. Neutralization titers were negative in pigs immunized with the mutant or purified, denatured hemolysin, although enzyme-immunoassay titers were detected. Four additional independently isolated non-hemolytic mutants were avirulent in pigs and mice at doses greater than 10 times the lethal dose of the parent. Neither pigs nor mice were protected against lethal infection following immunization with the non-hemolytic mutant. We conclude that the 110 kDa hemolysin plays an important role in bacterial virulence and the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia, and that sufficiently high levels of neutralizing antibodies to the 110 kDa hemolysin may be required for protection of pigs against disease.
It has previously been reported that the relative rate of synthesis of K88 fimbriae was influenced by the growth phase of Escherichia coli K88. Consequently, the effect of growth phase on the adhesive capacity of the K88 bearing cells of E. coli strain Bd 1107/7508 (K88ac) has now been investigated. The adhesion process was studied in terms of adhesion to and affinity for the immobilized piglet ileal mucus, the latter by applying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The amount of K88 fimbriae per cell was determined by both the ELISA technique and by quantitative 1D-gel electrophoresis. The adhesion to, as well as the affinity for the mucus receptors was shown to be rather constant throughout growth. In agreement with these findings the cells collected at the different growth phases were found to be equally fimbriated. From these results it is concluded that, although the relative synthesis rate of K88 fimbriae varied during the growth cycle, the amount of K88 fimbriae expressed on the E. coli cell surface and the adhesive capacity of E. coli strain Bd 1107/7508 is largely constant throughout growth.
A DNA sequence, homologous to the cfaD gene of CFA/I region 2, was identified on CFA/I region 1. This sequence is designated cfaD'. It differs from the cfaD gene in containing two deletions and a stop codon. The cfaD' sequence therefore can only encode a truncated CfaD-like protein. The CfaD protein may be a DNA binding protein and functions as a positive regulator of CFA/I fimbriae expression. A regulatory function for the cfaD' is not likely since deletion of the cfaD' sequence does not affect production of CFA/I fimbriae in E. coli K-12 strains. That the cfaD' sequence is present on CFA/I wild-type plasmids isolated from CFA/I strains of different serotypes, obtained at various geographical locations, suggests, however, that this DNA region is not completely without a function.
The immunodominant 120 kDa protein (p120) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was demonstrated to be exposed on the surface of purified whole ehrlichial cells examined by immunoelectron microscopy with a rabbit antibody against a portion of the domain containing tandem repeat units. In the intracellular location, the 120 kDa protein was detected by immunoelectron microscopy in the outer membrane of the cell wall of dense-core forms of the ehrlichiae in infected canine macrophage-like cells and as a component of the intramorular fibrillary matrix. No 120 kDa protein was detected in the cell wall of ehrlichial reticulate cells. Recombinant Escherichia coli with a plasmid containing the entire 120 kDa protein gene, but no bacteria with non-recombinant plasmid, attached to the surface of HeLa cells as visualized by electron microscopy. Some of the recombinant 120 kDa protein expressing E. coli invaded the HeLa cells as determined by gentamicin protection assays and by intravacuolar localization ultrastructurally.
In this study we compared the host response to Listeria monocytogenes in 129 REJ mice with listeria-resistant (C57Bl/6j) and susceptible (Balb/c) mouse strains. In all experiments mice were inoculated by the i.p. route. 129 REJ mice and Balb/c mice were sensitive to listeriosis whilst C57Bl/6j mice were relatively resistant to i.p. infection. Relatively large numbers of viable bacteria could be detected in the spleens of 129 REJ mice as early as 6 h following i.p. inoculation suggesting that dissemination of listeria from the peritoneal cavity is rapid in this mouse strain. This contrasted with Balb/c mice which exhibited an early lag phase during which only low numbers of bacteria could be isolated from the spleens of infected animals. In response to both proteose peptone and live listeria, 129 REJ mice demonstrated a greater capacity to recruit neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity than Balb/c and C57Bl/6j mice. In addition, inflammatory phagocytes from 129 REJ mice were as bactericidal in vitro as phagocytes from the Balb/c and C57Bl/6j strains. However, in vivo, inflammatory neutrophils elicited by proteose peptone prior to i.p. infection with L. monocytogenes were not protective in the three mouse strains tested. Despite the apparent inadequacy of peritoneal neutrophils in controlling early bacterial proliferation, depletion of neutrophils in 129 REJ mice severely exacerbated i.p. infection with L. monocytogenes. The results indicate that neutrophils provide an inefficient but essential means of controlling early outgrowth of listeria in the peritoneal cavity of 129 REJ mice. The excessive inflammatory response seen in 129 REJ mice may facilitate the early dissemination of L. monocytogenes from the peritoneal cavity to peripheral sites.
A quantitative and kinetic study of the release of the hematopoietic cytokines IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF, the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-12 heterodimer (and its p40 subunit) and IL-13 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with the superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic (erythrogenic) exotoxin A (SPE A) from Streptococcus pyogenes is reported. PBMC were stimulated in parallel with heat-killed group A streptococcal cells, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with concanavalin A (Con A) in certain experiments for comparative purposes. The cytokines were assayed in the supernatant fluids by ELISA. IL-13 expression was also determined by a quantitative competitive PCR. IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-12 p40, IL-12 heterodimer and IL-13 expression was induced by SPE A in a time- and dose-dependent manner in rather substantial amounts except the IL-12 heterodimer, which was released in small quantities. In contrast to SPE A, IL-3, IL-5 and IL-13 were not or poorly elicited by streptococcal cells or LPS whereas these two stimulants induced relatively high amounts of GM-CSF. Interestingly, both IL-12 p40 and IL-12 heterodimer were released in much higher amounts by streptococcal cells. Con A induced IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF and IL-13 production in amounts comparable to those elicited by SPE A. The possible pathophysiological relevance of the elicitation by SPE A and streptococcal cells of these cytokines is discussed.
In the present study, attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) O45 isolates from post-weaning pigs with diarrhoea were examined for the presence of the LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) using various DNA probes derived from the LEE of human enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69. The LEE fragment was conserved among the eae -positive pig isolates. The attaching and effacing activity of PEPEC (pig EPEC) O45 isolates is highly correlated with the presence of the LEE. Nevertheless, for some PEPEC isolates, the insertion site of the LEE is different or has diverged during evolution. The presence of the LEE fragment in PEPEC isolates provides further evidence that the LEE region is conserved among AEEC of different animal origins. In addition, the nucleotide sequence of the region containing the eae gene and esp genes of a pig AEEC isolate, strain 1390, was determined. Among examined Eae proteins, Eae of strain 1390 showed the highest similarity with Eae belonging to the beta intimin group such as the Eae of rabbit AEEC. Moreover, all pig strains that produced attaching and effacing lesions in piglets and pig ileal explants belonged to the beta intimin group. The deduced amino acid sequences of the EspA, EspB and EspD proteins of strain 1390 showed particularly strong homology to those of AEEC strains presenting a beta intimin allele. Thus, pig AEEC possess the LEE sequences, and for the strain 1390, sequences of the eae and esp regions are related to those of other AEEC, in particular, strains presenting a beta intimin allele, such as the rabbit AEEC.
Three clones from a strain of Salmonella choleraesuis (serogroup C1) were lysogenized with phage 14 (P14) which converts the O-antigen of serogroup C1 salmonellae from O-6,7 to O-6,7,14. The lysogens were compared with their parental non-lysogenic clones with respect to the following properties: average length of O-antigen polysaccharide chains, sensitivity to normal human serum, and mouse-virulence. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of lipopolysaccharides extracted from these bacteria showed that samples from lysogens consisted mainly of long-chained molecules whereas those from non-lysogens contained mainly short-chained molecules. The O-antigen polysaccharide from a lysogen was estimated by chemical analysis to be six times as long as that from a non-lysogen. Lysogens were serum-resistant whereas non-lysogens were serum-sensitive. About 10 times more colony forming units of a lysogen than of a non-lysogen were recovered from the livers and spleens of mice on day 1 and 3 after intraperitoneal inoculation of equal doses. By comparison with S. choleraesuis, lysogenization of S. typhimurium with phage P22 or phage A4 did not affect the chain-length distribution of O-antigen polysaccharide. Our data suggest that phage 14-coded determinants increase efficiency of O-antigen biosynthesis in S. choleraesuis leading to increase in average length of O-polysaccharide chains. Increased serum resistance and mouse virulence are logical consequences of increase in average length of O-polysaccharide chains and represent phage-conferred selective advantage not previously described in Salmonella.
In this study, we first assessed the effect of intragastric infection of pregnant mice with Listeria monocytogenes on relative expression of select genes associated with T cell subsets. Relative gene expression was moderately increased in placental tissues for IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17a, IL-22, CD3, and FoxP3. To assess the roles of IL-17a and IL-22 in resistance to listeriosis during pregnancy, we compared the severity of maternal and fetal infection in IL-17a((-/-)), IL-22((-/-)), and IL-17a((-/-))/IL-22((-/-)) mice with that of wild type C57BL/6 mice. Intragastric infection with modest numbers of bacterial cells (10(5) CFU) caused reproducible maternal and fetal infection in all four mouse strains. We recovered greater numbers of CFU from the bloodstream of pregnant IL-22((-/-)) mice than pregnant wild type mice. Otherwise we found no significant difference in bacterial load in maternal or fetal tissues (spleen, liver, fetoplacental units) from pregnant IL-17a((-/-)), IL-22((-/-)), or IL-17a((-/-))/IL-22((-/-)) or wild type mice. Nor did we observe histopathologic differences in severity of inflammation in maternal or fetal tissues from the various groups of mice. Although IL-17a and IL-22 are up-regulated in placental tissue, our study suggests that antibacterial resistance and the host inflammatory response are not dependent on IL-17a or IL-22 during infection of mice with L. monocytogenes at 10-14 days of gestation.
Tissue susceptibility and resistance to infection with the yeast Candida albicans is genetically regulated. Analysis of the strain distribution pattern of the C. albicans resistance gene (Carg1) and additional gene and DNA segment markers in the AKXL recombinant inbred (RI) set showed that 13/15 RI strains were concordant for Carg1, Tcra and Rib1. Therefore, Carg1 is probably located within a 17 cM segment of chromosome 14, within approximately 4 cM of the other two genes.