Metals - Open Access Metallurgy Journal

Online ISSN: 2075-4701
In this paper, the mechanical properties and tensile failure mechanism of two novel bio-absorbable as-cast Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu alloys for endovascular medical applications are characterized. Alloys were manufactured using an ARC melting process and tested as-cast with compositions of Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu, being 98/1/1 wt.% respectively. Nanoindentation testing conducted at room temperature was used to characterize the elastic modulus (E) and surface hardness (H) for both the bare alloys and the air formed oxide layer. As compared to currently available shape memory alloys and degradable as-cast alloys, these experimental alloys possess superior as-cast mechanical properties that can increase their biocompatibility, degradation kinetics, and the potential for medical device creation.
The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical semiconductors, stress transfer, additives with low thermal PMC processing and new coating possibilities.
(a) High resolution TEM micrographs and a fast Fourier transform pattern of twins observed in ?-TiAl lamellae of TNM alloy deformed at 25 ?C; a schematic model showing twinning evolution of the ?-TiAl phase in the TNM alloy; (b1) original state of the material; (b2) nucleation and propagation of twins; (b3) the thickening and boundary migration of twins.
In order to investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior of TiAl alloys and promote their application in the aerospace industry, uniaxial compression of Ti-44Al-4Nb-1.5Mo-0.007Y (at %) alloy was conducted at a temperature range from 25 to 400 °C with a strain rate of 2000 s‒1. Twinning is found to be the dominating deformation mechanism of the γ phase at all temperatures, and the addition of Nb and Mo has a chemical impact on the alloy and reduces the stacking fault energy of the γ phase. The decreased stacking fault energy increases the twinnability; thus, the deformation is dominated by twinning, which increases the dynamic strength of the alloy. With the temperature increasing from 25 to 400 °C, the average spacing of twins in the γ phase increases from 32.4 ± 2.9 to 88.1 ± 9.2 nm. The increased temperature impedes the continuous movement of partial dislocations and finally results in an increased twin spacing in the γ phase.
Mechanical properties of TC7.
Evolution of the surface roughness against different depths of cut (cutting speed of 50 m/min, feed rate of 0.1 mm/r).
In this paper, TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were used to machine titanium alloy Ti-6Al-0.6Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Si-0.01B under dry conditions in order to investigate the machining performance of this cutting tool. Wear mechanisms of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were studied and compared to the uncoated cemented carbide tools (K20) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The effects of the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on tool life and workpiece surface roughness of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were studied with a 3D super-depth-of-field instrument and a surface profile instrument, respectively. The results showed that the TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were more suitable for machining TC7. The adhesive wear, diffusion wear, crater wear, and stripping occurred during machining, and the large built-up edge formed on the rake face. The optimal cutting parameters of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools were acquired. The surface roughness Ra decreased with the increase of the cutting speed, while it increased with the increase of the feed rate.
SEM images of the as-cast microstructure (a) and microstructures after heat treatment at 1340 • C (b), 1360 • C (c), and 1400 • C (d) for 30 min followed by water-quenching, the corresponding x-ray diffraction patterns of the above microstructures are shown in (e). 
SEM images of the microstructures after heat treatment at 1340 • C for 30 min (a) and 2 h (b) followed by water-quenching; the arrowheads indicate the boundaries of the former α 2 phase at high temperature. 
It has been widely reported that the microstructure refinement of TiAl alloys can be achieved by massive transformation and subsequent annealing in α2 + γ two phase field. To achieve this goal, several heat treatment parameters must be adjusted, including the heat treatment temperature around single α phase field, the annealing temperature, and the annealing time for the precipitation of α2 phase. Thus, a systematic study is needed for each alloy with different compositions. In this study, the heat treatment parameters for grain refinement via massive transformation of a high Nb-containing TiAl are investigated. Precipitation of α2 phase during annealing is observed by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that 30 min at single α phase field is appropriate for the massive transformation; a full, massively transformed microstructure cannot be obtained by oil or water quenching. A short annealing time can result in a refined microstructure, whereas the sizes of the precipitated α2 phase increases with the increase of annealing time. The α2 phase can form at the interface of twin boundaries of the γ phase, following the Blackburn orientation relationship with both sides. The Vickers hardness is measured for the annealed samples, which remains relatively stable for different annealing times.
The effect of Er-rich precipitates on microstructure and electrochemical behavior of the Al–Zn–In anode alloy is investigated. The results showed that with the increase in Er content, the microstructure was refined, the amount of interdendritic precipitates gradually increased, and the morphology changed from discontinuous to continuous network gradually. With the addition of Er element, the self-corrosion potential of the Al–5Zn–0.03In–xEr alloy moved positively, the self-corrosion current density decreased, and the corrosion resistance increased. When the Er content was less than 1 wt.%, the addition of Er improved the dissolution state of the Al–5Zn–0.03In–xEr alloy, and increased the current efficiency of the Al–5Zn–0.03In–xEr alloy. When the Er content was more than 1 wt.%, the current efficiency was reduced. The major precipitate of the alloy was Al3Er. According to the element composition of Al3Er in the Al–Zn–In–Er alloy, the simulated-segregated-phase alloy was melted to explain the effect of Al3Er segregation on the electrochemical behavior of alloys, and the polarization curve and AC impedance spectrum of the simulated-segregated-phase alloy and the Al–Zn–In alloy were measured. The results showed that Al3Er was an anodic segregation phase in the Al–Zn–In–Er alloy, and the preferential dissolution of the segregation phase would occur in the alloy, but the Al3Er phase itself was passivated in the dissolution process, which inhibited the further activation of the dissolution reaction of the Al–Zn–In–Er alloy to a certain extent.
TEM images of carbides microstructure of S1 (a) and S2 (b) after aging 5000 h at 580 • C.
Chemical composition of the steels.
Grain boundary segregation number of elements of P, S, Mg, and Ca in S1 and S2 samples aged at 580 • C for different time.
In order to investigate the effect of Mg addition on the embrittlement of Cr-Mo steels, the 2.25Cr1Mo steel plates containing Mg, P contents were refined with vacuum induction furnace and rolled with double-stick reversible rolling mill. The impact toughness evolution and microstructural characteristics of these steels after aging at 580 °C for up to 5000 h were systematically investigated. The grain boundary segregation behaviors of P, S, and Mg before and after aging were analyzed with auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and the microstructure characteristics of the steels were detected with optical electron microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The research results show Mg addition can improve the impact toughness of the 2.25Cr1Mo steel to a certain extent even with 0.056 wt.% P doping. It was clarified that Mg can segregate to grain boundary during the aging process, and its strong segregation tendency can reduce the grain boundary segregation of P to some degree. The effects of Mg on the impact toughness after subjecting to 580 °C ageing, including element segregation behaviors at grain boundary, ferrite formation, prior austenite grain characteristics, and carbides at grain boundary were also identified and discussed.
Mechanical properties of foil the alloys under different conditions.
Electrochemical parameter of the alloys with different La content.
The increasing application of lithium-ion batteries has led to higher requirements being imposed on the performance of current collectors. In this work, the effect of La content on the microstructure and properties of Al-0.2Fe-0.06Cu alloy was invested through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical/electrical/electrochemical performance tests. Experimental results indicated that the addition of La was beneficial to grain refinement and promote the formation of La-containing compounds. However, excessive La addition weakened the refinement effect. Grain refinement played a major role in affecting the mechanical properties of the alloy, but had little effect on the conductivity. In comparison with Al-0.2Fe-0.06Cu, the La-containing alloys had lower corrosion potential, which indicated that the addition of La element could improve the corrosion resistance of the Al-0.2Fe-0.06Cu alloy. The addition of La improved the mechanical properties of the alloy at room temperature and 50 °C. When the La addition was 0.1wt.%, the alloy had the best mechanical properties. The corrosion resistance of the alloy continued to improve with increases in the La content.
Al hot-dipped carbon steel: (a) Etched cross-sectional OM image; (b) EDS concentration profiles along the spots 1-22 marked in Figure 1a; (c) XRD pattern taken from the air-side; (d) XRD pattern after grinding off the Al topcoat.
Ellingham diagram of oxides and sulfides that can form on the Al hot-dipped steel.  
High-temperature corrosion of carbon steel in N2/0.1% H2S mixed gas at 600–800 °C for 50–100 h was studied after hot-dipping in the aluminum molten bath. Hot-dipping resulted in the formation of the Al topcoat and the Al-Fe alloy layer firmly adhered on the substrate. The Al-Fe alloy layer consisted primarily of a wide, tongue-like Al5Fe2 layer and narrow Al3Fe layer. When corroded at 800 °C for 100 h, the Al topcoat partially oxidized to the protective but non-adherent α-Al2O3 layer, and the interdiffusion converted the Al-Fe alloy layer to an (Al13Fe4, AlFe3)-mixed layer. The interdiffusion also lowered the microhardness of the hot-dipped steel. The α-Al2O3 layer formed on the hot-dipped steel protected the carbon steel against corrosion. Without the Al hot-dipping, the carbon steel failed by forming a thick, fragile, and non-protective FeS scale.
Two industrially processed low-alloyed martensitic tool steel alloys with compositions Fe-0.3C-1.1Si-0.81Mn-1.5Cr-1.4Ni-1.1Mo-0.13V and Fe-0.3C-1.1Si-0.81Mn-1.4Cr-0.7Ni-0.8Mo-0.14V (wt.%) were characterized using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and atom probe tomography (APT). The combination of methods enables an understanding of the complex precipitation sequences that occur in these materials during the processing. Nb-rich primary carbides form at hot working, while Fe-rich auto-tempering carbides precipitate upon quenching, and cementite carbides grow during tempering when Mo-rich secondary carbides also nucleate and grow. The number density of Mo-rich carbides increases with tempering time, and after 24 h, it is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the Fe-rich carbides. A high number density of Mo-rich carbides is important to strengthen these low-alloyed tool steels through precipitation hardening. The results indicate that the Mo-rich secondary carbide precipitates are initially of MC character, whilst later they start to appear as M2C. This change of the secondary carbides is diffusion driven and is therefore mainly seen for longer tempering times at the higher tempering temperature of 600 °C.
Metallic materials have a significant number of applications, among which Al alloys have drawn people's attention due to their low density and high strength. High-strength Al-based alloys, such as 7XXX Al alloys, contain many alloying elements and with high concentration, whose microstructures present casting voids, segregation, dendrites, etc. In this work, a spray deposition method was employed to fabricate an Al-8.31Zn-2.07Mg-2.46Cu-0.12Zr (wt %) alloy with fine structure. The hot deformation behavior of the studied alloy was investigated using a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator and electron microscopes. The microstructure evolution, variation in the properties, and precipitation behavior were systematically investigated to explore a short process producing an alloy with high property values. The results revealed that the MgZn2 particles were detected from inside the grain and grain boundary, while some Al3Zr particles were inside the grain. An Arrhenius equation was employed to describe the relationship between the flow stress and the strain rate, and the established constitutive equation was that: ε = [sinh(0.017σ)]4.049exp[19.14 - (129.9/RT)}. An appropriate hot extrusion temperature was determined to be 460 °C. Hot deformation (460 °C by 60%) + age treatment (120 °C) was optimized to shorten the processing method for the as-spray-deposited alloy, after which considerable properties were approached. The high strength was mainly attributed to the grain boundary strengthening and the precipitation strengthening from the nanoscale MgZn2 and Al3Zr precipitates.
Cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the solder joints aged at 150 °C. (a-c) The interface morphologies of S1 after aging for 250, 500 and 1000 h, respectively. (d) Dense Ni3P layer on the interface of S1. (e-g) The interface morphologies of S2 after aging for 250, 500 and 1000 h, respectively. (h) Dense Ni3P layer on the interface of S2.
The left-hand and right-hand side columns show the fracture morphologies of S1 and S2 after aging different time at 150 °C. (a) Macroscopic fracture image of S1. (b-e) Microscopic The left-hand and right-hand side columns show the fracture morphologies of S1 and S2 after aging different time at 150 • C. (a) Macroscopic fracture image of S1. (b-e) Microscopic morphologies of fractured S1 after reflow and after aging for 250, 500, 1000 h, respectively. (f) Macroscopic fracture image of S2. (g-j) Microscopic morphologies of fractured S2 after reflow and after aging for 250, 500, 1000 h, respectively.
Sn–Sb system solders and ENIG/ENEPIG surface finish layers are commonly used in electronic products. To illustrate the thermal reliability evaluation of such solder joints, we studied the interfacial microstructure and shear properties of Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENIG and Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENEPIG solder joints after aging at 150 °C for 250, 500 and 1000 h. The results show that the intermetallic compound of Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENIG interface was more continuous and uniform compared with that of Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENEPIG interface after reflow. The thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compounds of the former was significantly thinner than that of the latter before and after aging. With extension of aging time, the former interface was stable, while obvious voids appeared at the interface of the latter after 500 h aging and significant fracture occurred after 1000 h aging. The shear tests proved that shear strength of solder joints decreased with increasing aging time. For the Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENEPIG joint after 1000 h aging, the fracture mode is ductile-brittle mixed type, which means fracture could occur at the solder matrix or the solder/IMC interface. For other samples of these two types of joints, ductile fracture occurred inside of the solder. The Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENIG solder joint was thermally more reliable than Sn-4.5Sb-3.5Bi-0.1Ag/ENEPIG.
Standard heat treatment of martensitic stainless steel consists of quenching and tempering. However, this results in high strength and hardness, while Charpy impact toughness shows lower values and a large deviation in its values. Therefore, a modified heat treatment of 0.1C-13Cr-3Ni martensitic stainless steel (PK993/1CH13N3) with intercritical annealing between Ac1 and Ac3 was introduced before tempering to study its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties (yield strength, tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact toughness). The temperatures of intercritical annealing were 740, 760, 780 and 800 °C. ThermoCalc was used for thermodynamic calculations. Microstructure characterization was performed on an optical and scanning electron microscope, while XRD was used for the determination of retained austenite. Results show that intercritical annealing improves impact toughness and lowers deviation of its values. This can be attributed to the dissolution of the thin carbide film along prior austenite grain boundaries and prevention of its re-occurrence during tempering. On the other hand, lower carbon concentration in martensite that was quenching from the intercritical region resulted in lower strength and hardness. Intercritical annealing refines the martensitic microstructure creating a lamellar morphology.
This study consists of the experimental and numerical analysis of the phase transformations of 5Cr-0.5Mo.0.1C steel after heat treatment. The microstructure of the as-received steel comprised ferrite and bainite, which is in agreement with the microconstituents predicted by the Calphad-calculated TTT diagram. Calphad-based precipitation calculations show that the cooling stage of normalizing treatment did not cause carbide formation. In contrast, tempering at 700 °C for 15 min promotes the intergranular precipitation of Fe3C, M7C3 and M23C6 carbides, which is consistent with experimental results. Aging at 600 °C for short periods caused the precipitation of both M7C3 and M23C6 carbides; however, M23C6 is the dominant phase after prolonged aging. This is in agreement with experimental results. A rapid decrease in the steel hardness was observed after short aging, which is attributable to bainite transformation. Further reduction in hardness is associated with the diffusion-controlled coarsening of M23C6 carbide.
X-ray pole figures of the hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and annealed sheets.
Chemical composition (in wt.%) of the studied alloys.
Thermodynamic calculation results of the Ca concentration in matrix at 420 °C under an equilibrium condition, using the FactSage software. Gray shaded area indicates the alloys with the TD-split texture component.
The effects of the Al content on the texture evolution of Mg-xAl-1Zn-0.1Ca-0.2Y alloy sheets fabricated via hot rolling, cold rolling, and subsequent annealing were systematically investigated. A lower Al content led to a higher number of free Ca solute atoms that contributed to co-segregation with Zn, delaying the recrystallization of the cold-rolled sheets during annealing and changing the basal pole figure shape of the annealed sheets. A quadruple basal texture, in which the positions of the four basal poles were developed at tilt angles of ±25° to the rolling direction (RD) and ±40° to the transverse direction (TD) from the normal direction, was obtained in the annealed Mg sheets. A smaller amount of Al caused an increase in the intensity of the main peaks along the TD but a decrease in the intensity along the RD. As a result, the texture of the annealed sheets gradually changed from RD-split to diamond and TD-split in the (0002) pole figure, as shown by the relative comparison of pole intensities in both directions. This texture change strongly affects the Schmid factor for the basal slip. For the alloys with an off-basal texture investigated in this study, as the maximum intensity of the basal poles increased, the average Schmid factor of the basal planes also increased, making the basal slip easier.
The objective of the study is to investigate the corresponding microstructure and mechanical properties, especially bending strength, of the hypereutectic Al-Si alloy processed by selective laser melting (SLM). Almost dense Al-22Si-0.2Fe-0.1Cu-Re alloy is fabricated from a novel type of powder materials with optimized processing parameters. Phase analysis of such Al-22Si-0.2Fe-0.1Cu-Re alloy shows that the solubility of Si in Al matrix increases significantly. The fine microstructure can be observed, divided into three zones: fine zones, coarse zones, and heat-affected zones (HAZs). Fine zones are directly generated from the liquid phase with the characteristic of petaloid structures and bulk Al-Si eutectic. Due to the fine microstructure induced by the rapid cooling rate of SLM, the primary silicon presents a minimum average size of ~0.5 μm in fine zones, significantly smaller than that in the conventional produced hypereutectic samples. Moreover, the maximum value of Vickers hardness reaches ~170 HV0.2, and bending strength increases to 687.70 MPa for the as-built Al-22Si-0.2Fe-0.1Cu-Re alloys parts, which is much higher than that of cast counterparts. The formation mechanism of this fine microstructure and the enhancement reasons of bending strength are also discussed.
EBS image (a) and EBSD map (b), showing the UFG structure of the Al-0.1Mg alloy after 15 passes ECAE processing at room temperature. The extrusion direction (ED) is vertical.
EBS images showing the microstructures on the TD plane obtained after PSC to a true strain of 2.1 at 215 K (a,b), 130 K (c,d) and 77 K (e,f). The compression direction is horizontal.
Estimated boundary migration rate at steady state (assuming that constant grain coarsening is responsible for the steady state grain size) as a function of temperature.
Grain aspect ratio after PSC as a function of temperature and strain.
The deformation structures formed in an Al-0.1Mg single-phase aluminium alloy have been studied during plane strain compression (PSC) down to liquid nitrogen temperature, following prior equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) to a strain of ten. Under constant deformation conditions a steady state was approached irrespective of the temperature, where the rate of grain refinement stagnated and a minimum grain size was reached which could not be further reduced. A 98% reduction at −200 °C only transformed the ECAE processed submicron grain structure into a microstructure with thin ribbon grains, where a nanoscale high angle boundary (HAB) spacing was only approached in the sheet normal direction. It is shown that the minimum grain size achievable in severe deformation processing is controlled by a balance between the rate of compression of the HAB structure and dynamic recovery. The required boundary migration rate to maintain a constant boundary spacing is found far higher than can be justified from conventional diffusion-controlled grain growth and at low temperatures, a constant boundary spacing can only be maintained by invoking an athermal mechanism and is considered to be dominated by the operation of grain boundary dislocations.
An investigation has been carried out into the microstructures developed during the early stages of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) in a polycrystalline single-phase Al-0.13Mg alloy, with emphasis on the substructural alignment with respect to the die geometry and the crystallographic slip systems, which is essentially related to the grain refinement and texture development during deformation. The material was processed by ECAE at room temperature to three passes, via a 90° die. Microstructures were examined and characterized by EBSD. It was found that dislocation cell bands and microshear bands were respectively the most characteristic deformation structures of the first and second pass ECAE. Both formed across the whole specimen and to align approximately with the die shear plane, regardless of the orientation of individual grains. This confirmed that substructural alignment was in response to the direction of the maximum resolved shear stress rather than to the crystallographic slip systems. However, a significant fraction of material developed preferred orientations during deformation that allowed the coincidence between the crystallographic slip systems and the simple shear geometry to occur, which governed texture development in the material. The third pass deformation was characterized with the formation of a fibre structure with a significant fraction of high angle boundaries, being aligned at an angle to the extrusion direction, which was determined by the total shear strain applied.
The effect of pulse laser welding parameters and filler metal on microstructure and mechanical properties of the new heat-treatable, wieldable, cryogenic Al-4.7Mg-0.32Mn-0.21Sc-0.1Zr alloy were investigated. The optimum parameters of pulsed laser welding were found. They were 330–340 V in voltage, 0.2–0.25 mm in pulse overlap with 12 ms duration, and 2 mm/s speed and ramp-down pulse shape. Pulsed laser welding without and with Al-5Mg filler metal led to the formation of duplex (columnar and fine grains) as-cast structures with hot cracks and gas porosity as defects in the weld zone. Using Al-5Ti-1B filler metal for welding led to the formation of the fine grain structure with an average grain size of 4 ± 0.2 µm and without any weld defects. The average concentration of Mg is 2.8%; Mn, 0.2%; Zr, 0.1%; Sc, 0.15%; and Ti, 2.1% were formed in the weld. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the welded alloy with AlTiB was 260 MPa, which was equal to the base metal in the as-cast condition. The UTS was increased by 60 MPa after annealing at 370 °C for 6 h that was 85% of UTS of the base alloy.
Structure characteristics and microhardness of AA6082 alloy and AA6082-0.2 wt % Al2O3 composite after casting and subsequent combined rolling. 
The influence of combined (helical and pass) rolling on the structure, residual porosity, and microhardness of an AA6082-0.2 wt % Al2O3 composite produced by casting with ultrasonic processing was evaluated in comparison with the matrix alloy. The nanosized alumina particles resulted in a more homogeneous and fine-grained structure of the composite after deformation with higher microhardness in comparison with the matrix alloy. However, the residual porosity of the AA6082-0.2 wt % Al2O3 composite was retained even after combined rolling on the level typical of alloys produced by the method, which may be a result of relatively low stresses and strains introduced during deformation.
The mechanical properties and degradation behavior of both as-cast and extruded Mg(100−7x)Zn6xYx alloys (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 at %) were systematically studied in this paper. The results indicated that with the increase in x value, the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the Mg(100−7x)Zn6xYx alloys were improved. The extruded Mg95.8Zn3.6Y0.6 alloy exhibited excellent mechanical properties, showing a tensile strength of 320 MPa, yield strength of 240 MPa, and elongation of 16%, which is much higher than that of commercially extruded AZ31 alloy. The weight loss experiment presented a higher degradation rate for the extruded Mg95.8Zn3.6Y0.6 alloy compared with the wrought AZ31 alloy, indicating a good bioactivity and biocompatibility. More detailed and long-term studies for evaluating and further controlling the degradation behavior of Mg–Zn–Y-based alloys remain to be performed.
The transformation behavior and microstructural evolution during continuous cooling within the heat affected zone between the weld beads of a 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V all-weld metal and the corresponding 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V base metal were investigated by means of dilatometer measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, macro-hardness measurements were conducted and the ferrite phase fraction was analyzed from optical microscopic images using an imaging processing program. Thereupon a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram for the 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V base metal and three welding CCT diagrams with different peak temperatures were constructed to realistically simulate the temperature profile of the different regions within the heat affected zones between the weld beads of the multi-layer weld metal. The microstructural constituents which were observed depending on the peak temperature and cooling parameters are low quantities of martensite, high quantities of bainite and in particular lower bainite, coalesced bainite and upper bainite as well as ferrite for the welding CCT diagrams. Regarding the base metal CCT diagram, all dilatometer specimens exhibited a fully bainitic microstructure consisting of lower bainite, coalesced bainite and upper bainite. Only the slowest cooling rate with a cooling parameter of 50 s caused a ferritic transformation. Nevertheless, it has to be emphasized that the distinction between martensite and bainite and the various kinds of bainite was only possible at higher magnification using scanning electron microscopy.
The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of Ti-45Al-8.5Nb-0.2W-0.2B-0.3Y (at %) alloy has been investigated through hot compression tests. The tests were executed at a temperature range of 1000–1200◦C and a strain rate range of 0.001–1 s⁻¹ under a true strain of 0.9. It was found that the α2 phase which is produced during heat treatment is reduced during hot compression due to thermo-mechanical coupling. The value of the activation energy is 506.38 KJ/mol. With the increase in deformation temperature and the decrease in strain rate, DRX is more likely to occur, as a result of sufficient time and energy for the DRX process. Furthermore, the volume fraction of high angle grain boundaries increases to 89.01% at a temperature of 1200◦C and the strain rate of 0.001 s⁻¹, meaning completely dynamic recrystallization. In addition, DRX is related to the formation of twin boundaries. The volume fraction of twin boundaries rises to 16.93% at the same condition of completely dynamic recrystallization.
Direct microscopic observation of the isothermal bainite evolution in terms of nucleation events, the location of the nuclei, as well as their growth is very valuable for the refinement of models predicting the kinetics of bainite transformation. To this aim, the microstructural evolution in a Fe-0.2C-1.5Mn-2.0Cr alloy during isothermal bainite formation at temperatures between 723 K and 923 K is monitored in situ using high temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Both the nucleation and the growth kinetics of the bainitic plates are analyzed quantitatively. Bainitic plates are observed to nucleate on three different types of locations in the grain: at austenitic grain boundaries, on newly-formed bainite plates and at unspecific sites within the austenite grains. Grain boundary nucleation is observed to be the dominant nucleation mode at all transformation temperatures. The rate of nucleation is found to vary markedly between different austenite grains. The temperature dependence of the average bainite nucleation rate is in qualitative agreement with the classical nucleation theory. Analysis of plate growth reveals that also the lengthening rates of bainite plates differ strongly between different grains. However, the lengthening rates do not seem to be related to the type of nucleation site. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the growth rate shows that the lengthening rates at high temperatures are in line with a diffusional model when a growth barrier of 400 J mol−1 is considered.
It is important to control the deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) up to the latter part of the deformation to improve the uniform elongation (U.El) through the TRIP effect. In the present study, tensile tests with decreasing deformation temperatures were conducted to achieve continuous DIMT up to the latter part of the deformation. As a result, the U.El was improved by approximately 1.5 times compared with that in the tensile test conducted at 296 K. The enhancement of the U.El in the temperature change test was discussed with the use of neutron diffraction experiments. In the continuous DIMT behavior, a maximum transformation rate of about 0.4 was obtained at a true strain (ε) of 0.2, which was larger than that in the tensile test at 296 K. The tensile deformation behavior of ferrite (α), austenite (γ), and deformation-induced martensite (α′) phases were investigated from the viewpoint of the fraction weighted phase stress. The tensile test with a decreasing deformation temperature caused the increase of the fraction weighted phase stress of α and that of α′, which was affected by the DIMT behavior, resulting in the increase in the work hardening, and also controlled the ductility of α and α′, resulting in the enhancement of the U.El. Especially, the α phase contributed to maintaining high strength instead of α′ at a larger ε. Therefore, not only the DIMT behavior but also the deformation behavior of γ, α, and α′ are important in order to improve U.El due to the TRIP effect.
SEM micrographs of hot-rolled 6Mn and 8.5Mn steels after quenching from different temperatures. (a) 6Mn, 650 °C; (b) 6Mn, 700 °C; (c) 6Mn, 750 °C; (d) 6Mn, 800 °C; (e) 8.5Mn, 650 °C; (f) 8.5Mn, 700 °C; (g) 8.5Mn, 750 °C; and (h) 8.5Mn, 800 °C.
Comparisons of medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels.
High strength/high elongation continues to be the primary challenge and focus for medium-Mn steels. It is elucidated herein via critical experimental analysis that the cumulative contribution of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and microstructural constituents governs high strength/high elongation in 0.2C–3Al–(6–8.5)Mn–Fe steels. This was enabled by an effective heat treatment involving a combination of intercritical hardening and tempering to obtain high strength/high ductility. An excellent combination of high ultimate tensile strength of 935–1112 MPa and total elongation of 35–40% was obtained when the steels were subjected to intercritical hardening in the temperature range of 700–750 °C and low tempering at 200 °C. The intercritical hardening impacted the coexistence of austenite, ferrite, and martensite, such that the deformation behavior varied with the Mn content. The excellent obtained properties of the steels are attributed to the cumulative contribution of the enhanced TRIP effect of austenite and the microstructural constituents, ferrite and martensite. The discontinuous TRIP effect during deformation involved stress relaxation, which was responsible for the high ductility. Lamellar austenite, unlike the equiaxed microstructure, is envisaged to induce stress relaxation during martensitic transformation, resulting in the discontinuous TRIP effect.
Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy was synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum and used to modify commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The microstructure and tensile properties of commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy with different additions of Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy were investigated. The results show that the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce alloy was composed of α-Al, granular TiC, lump-like TiAl3 and block-like Ti2Al20Ce. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min) can significantly refine macro grains of commercial pure Al into tiny equiaxed grains. The Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 30 min) still has a good refinement effect. The tensile strength and elongation of commercial pure Al modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min) increased by roughly 19.26% and 61.83%, respectively. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min) can significantly refine both α-Al grains and eutectic Si of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The dendritic α-Al grains were significantly refined to tiny equiaxed grains. The morphology of the eutectic Si crystals was significantly refined from coarse needle-shape or lath-shape to short rod-like or grain-like eutectic Si. The tensile strength and elongation of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min) increased by roughly 20.53% and 50%, respectively. The change in mechanical properties corresponds to evolution of the microstructure.
The nucleation kinetics and morphology of Cu6Sn5 IMCs at the interface between a Sn-0.7Cu-0.2Cr solder and Cu substrate were investigated in this study. A Sn-0.7Cu solder was utilized as a reference to elucidate the impact of Cr addition. The mechanical properties of the solder joints were determined via ball-shear tests. Cu coupons were dipped in the molten solders for 1 and 3 s at 240–300 °C, and the morphological analyses were conducted via electron microscopy. Both the solders contained scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMCs. The smallest Cu6Sn5 IMCs were observed at 260 °C in both the solders, and the particle size increased at 280 and 300 °C. The IMCs in the Sn-0.7Cu-0.2Cr solder were smaller and thinner than those in the Sn-0.7Cu solder at all the reaction temperatures. The thickness of the IMCs increased as the reaction temperature increased. Inverse C-type nucleation curves were obtained, and the maximum nucleation rate was observed at an intermediate temperature. The shear strengths of the Sn-0.7Cu-0.2Cr solder joints were higher than those of the Sn-0.7Cu solder joints. This study will facilitate the application of lead-free solders, such as Sn-0.7Cu-0.2Cr, in automotive electrical components.
The XRD of pre-sintered and as-extruded composites (a), high magnification of XRD (b); SEM images of pre-sintered composites (c), composites extruded at 800 °C (d), composites extruded at 900 °C (e), composites extruded at 1000 °C (f).
IPF mapping of alloys extruded at (a) 800 °C, (c) 900 °C, (e) 1000 °C and composites extruded at (b) 800 °C, (d) 900 °C, (f) 1000 °C; (g) histogram high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) counts of asextruded alloys and composites.
(a) IPF mapping, discrete plot and texture of alloy extruded at 800 °C; (b) IPF mapping, discrete plot and texture along extrusion direction (ED) of composite extruded at 800 °C; (c) highlighted mapping of (a,b); (d) grain orientation spread (GOS) mapping of (c).
Histogram size counts of (a) alloys extruded at 800 °C, (b) composites extruded at 800 °C, (c) alloys extruded at 900 °C, (d) composites extruded at 900 °C, (e) alloys extruded at 1000 °C, (f) composites extruded at 1000 °C.
Room temperature tensile curves of (a) alloys extruded at 800, 900 and 1000 °C, (b) composites extruded at 800, 900 and 1000 °C; SEM of the longitudinal sections of the tensile test specimen of composites extruded at 1000 °C far away from the fracture surface (c), near the fracture surface (d).
In situ synthesized TiB whiskers (TiBw) reinforced Ti-15Mo-3Al-2.7Nb-0.2Si alloys were successfully manufactured by pre-sintering and canned hot extrusion via adding TiB2 powders. During pre-sintering, most TiB2 were reacted with Ti atoms to produce TiB. During extrusion, the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) of β grains was promoted with the rotation of TiBw, and CDRXed grains were strongly inhibited by TiBw with hindering dislocation motion. Eventually, the grain sizes of composites decreased obviously. Furthermore, the stress transmitted from the matrix to TiBw for strengthening in a tensile test, besides grain refinement. Meanwhile, the fractured TiBw and microcracks around them contributed to fracturing.
Morphology parameters of the steadily solidified DS alloys.
Dendritic growth morphology parameters.
Morphologies of the initially solidified dendrite of the quenched zone of the DS Ti-44Al9Nb-1Cr-0.2W-0.2Y alloy at different growth rates: (a) V = 10 μm/s; (b) V = 15 μm /s; and (c) V = 20 μm/s (D: primary dendrite growth direction; S: secondary dendrite growth direction; θ: The angle between the primary dendrite and secondary dendrite growth direction). 
Ti-44Al-9Nb-1Cr-0.2W-0.2Y alloys were directionally solidified (DS) at different growth rates varying from 10 to 20 μm/s using a modified liquid metal cooling (LMC) method. The results show that an increase in the growth rate leads to both a decrease in the size of the columnar grains in the directional solidification stable growth zone and a deterioration of the preferred orientation of the α2(Ti3Al)/γ(TiAl) lamellar structure in the columnar grains. The growth direction of the primary dendrite in the quenching zone gradually deflected along the axial direction as the growth rate increased. At the same time, the morphology changed from dendrite to a cystiform dendritic structure, with considerable B2 phase segregation in the dendritic core. Correspondingly, the tensile properties of the alloy decreased at 800 °C with a gradual increase in the cleavage fracture area. These findings show that the low growth rate is beneficial for the preferred orientation and the mechanical properties of the alloy. The content of the B2 phase and the change in the lamellar orientation are the main limiting factors for the tensile properties of the materials at high temperatures.
Microstructures of the (a) LC and (b) MC samples: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images taken at (a-1,b-1) low and (a-2,b-2) high magnifications, and (a-3,b-3) bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the grain boundaries.
SEM images for pits formed in the (a) LC and (b) MC samples after potentiodynamic polarization in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. (a-1,b-1) Initiation and (a-2,b-2) propagation of pitting corrosion.
SEM images for pits formed in the (a) HC-1 and (b) HC-2 samples after potentiodynamic polarization in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. (a-1,b-1) Initiation and (a-2,b-2) propagation of pitting corrosion.
NMI analysis results: volume fraction, size, and chemical composition.
In this study, the resistance to pitting corrosion of Fe-18Cr-9Mn-5.5Ni-0.3(C + N) austenitic stainless steel γ-SSs (in wt%) with different C/(C + N) ratios (0.02, 0.29, and 0.60) was evaluated. It was found to be difficult to form a γ-matrix without precipitation, because the Cr23C6 precipitation rate in the γ-SSs with the C/(C + N) value of 0.60 was too fast. Thus, it was recommended to maintain the C/(C + N) ratio below 0.6 in Fe-18Cr-9Mn-5.5Ni-0.3(C + N) γ-SSs. As a result of the potentiodynamic polarization tests, the γ-SS with a C/(C + N) ratio of 0.29 showed the highest resistance to pitting corrosion, and the resistance level of this alloy was superior to that of the AISI 304 γ-SS. Analysis of the passive film and matrix dissolution rates revealed that a higher C/(C + N) ratio of γ-SS increased the protective ability of the passive film and decreased the growth rate of the pits. Therefore, it could be concluded that partial substitution of C for N was advantageous for improving the pitting corrosion resistance of Fe-18Cr-9Mn-5.5Ni-0.3(C + N) γ-SSs, as long as C and N existed in a solid solution state.
EBSD-Image Quality maps for the microstructure of the tested steel with different rolling schedule in SHR process.(a) S-p3-70%, (b) S-p5-90%, (c) S-p7-90% and (d) S-p10-90%. Red line indicate the anealing twin boundary, black line indicate the large angle grain boundary, green line indicate the Σ9 grain boundary, yellow line indicate the Σ27 grain boundary.
The present work investigates the annealing twins of Fe-20Mn-4Al-0.3C austenitic steels in symmetric hot rolling (SHR) and asymmetric hot rolling (ASHR). The average grain size is 26 (±9.6) μm and 11 (±7.0) μm for the tested steel in SHR and ASHR processes. The density of high angle grain boundary (HAGB) and annealing twin boundary increase with the decrease of grain size. The annealing twin is obviously higher in ASHR than in SHR. The linear relation model between the logarithm of twin boundary density and the logarithm of the grain size is established. The grain boundary migration is continuously generated during recrystallization in SHR process. The coincident site lattice (CSL) boundary proportion increases with local grain boundary continuing bugling and the migration direction of bugling grain boundary constantly changes. The tensile property of the tested steel is improved due to the effective grain refinement and high density of annealing twins caused by the severe strain in the ASHR process. The purpose of high density HAGB for austenitic steels is helpful to an improvement in mechanical properties.
The present work is aimed at refining the grain size in the Co–28Cr–5Mo–0.3C (wt%) cast alloy using particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN) of recrystallization. It is pointed out that PSN resulted in considerable grain refinement (≈80%) of the as-cast structure, leading to an increased yield and tensile strength (around 30%). Partial solutionizing is associated with the formation of γfcc and athermal martensite. During PSN, the intensity of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase increases due to the formation of isothermal martensite. It appears that new dynamic recrystallized (DRX) grains are formed around coarse undissolved particles (≈10 μm in size), especially where these particles are present in large clusters. The high-resolution TEM image shows the formation of heavily faulted regions and subgrains, with maximum misorientation near the carbides providing the driving force for the nucleation of new grains.
The tensile properties of rare-earth containing Mg-1.9Mn-0.3Ce alloy sheet along the rolling direction were experimentally investigated within the strain rate and temperature ranges of 0.001–1300 s−1 and 213–488 K. The obtained stress-strain responses of the alloy sheet indicate that both yield strength and strain-hardening rate increase when the strain rate increases, whereas they decrease with increase of temperature. Microscopic examination results show that basal slip, prismatic slip, and {101¯2} tension twinning take place in the tensile plastic deformation, while the occurrence of twinning is not obviously affected by the rate and temperature. Tensile samples tend to fracture in a ductile mode with increasing strain rate and temperature.
The poor corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is one of the major obstacles to their widespread applications in the engineering field and the medical field. A hot deformation process is the main way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In the present study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the micro-galvanic corrosion behavior and film protection mechanism of hot-rolled Mg-2Zn-2Er-0.3Zr-0.3Mn under 25%, 50% and 75% thickness reductions in Hank’s solution. The results revealed that the best corrosion resistance was obtained in the alloy under a 75% thickness reduction, with a corrosion rate of 0.85 mm/y. The improvement in anti-corrosion was due to the coupling effect of a refined microstructure and dense degradation film on the large deformation hot-rolled alloy. Furthermore, the elements Mn and Er participated in the film formation and stabilized the film structure.
EDS analysis of Figure 1.
The microstructure of Ti-44Al-4Nb-4V-0.3Mo-Y alloy after heat treatment at different temperature following water quenching: (a) 1210 • C; (b) 1240 • C; (c) 1260 • C.
Volume fraction of γ-phase, α-phase, and β-phase at different temperatures. Volume fraction of γ-phase, α-phase, and β-phase at different temperatures.
In this study, the effect factors on the formation of lamellar structure for Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-Y alloy and Ti-44Al-4Nb-4V-0.3Mo-Y alloy is discussed in detail. During heat treatment in different procedures, temperature was the common factor influencing the formation of lamellar structures of Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-Y and Ti-44Al-4Nb-4V-0.3Mo-Y alloys. In the range of 1230 °C and 1300 °C, the volume fraction of lamellar structure in Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-Y alloy was proportional to the annealing temperature. However, between 1210 °C and 1260 °C, the volume fraction of lamellar structure in Ti-44Al-4Nb-4V-0.3Mo-Y alloy deceased when temperature was located in the α + γ + β triple phase field and then increased when temperature was in the α + β binary phase field. Besides the influence of temperature, the lamellar structure formation of Ti-44Al-4Nb-4V-0.3Mo-Y alloy was also affected by the β-phase stabilizing element.
Microstructures in the as-welded and PWHT joints: (a) overall cross-section observation of the as-welded joint; (b) OM of BM in the as-welded joint; (c) OM of NZ in the as-welded joint; (d) OM of HAZ in the retreating side of as-welded joint; (e) OM of HAZ in the advancing side of as-welded joint; (f) overall cross-section observation of the PWHT joint; (g) OM of BM in the PWHT joint; (h) OM of NZ in the PWHT joint; (i) OM of HAZ and BM in the PWHT joint; and (j) OIM map of HAZ in the PWHT joint. 
Hardness profile along the transverse direction in the as-welded and PWHT joints. 
Temperature variation of the HAZ in the FSW joint and the welding thermal simulation specimens. 
The abnormal grain growth in the heat affected zone of the friction stir welded joint of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N steel after post-weld heat treatment was confirmed by physical simulation experiments. The microstructural stability of the heat affected zone can be weakened by the welding thermal cycle. It was speculated to be due to the variation of the non-equilibrium segregation state of solute atoms at the grain boundaries. In addition, the pressure stress in the welding process can promote abnormal grain growth in the post-weld heat treatment.
Reducing pollutant emissions and improving safety standards are primary targets for modern mobility improvement. To meet these needs, the development of low-density steels containing aluminum is a new frontier of research for automotive applications. Low-density Fe-Mn-Al-C alloys are promising. In this regard, an alloy with high aluminum content and niobium addition belonging to the Fe-Mn-Al-C system was evaluated to understand the possible phase transformations and thus obtain a transformation diagram by continuous cooling to help future processing. Dilatometry tests were performed in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator with different cooling rates (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 °C/s). Chemical analyses carried out simultaneously with dilatometry tests showed the presence of proeutectoid ferrite (αp), δ-ferrite, retained austenite, and niobium carbide (NbC). In the case of low cooling rates (1 and 3 °C/s), lamellar colonies of the eutectoid microconstituents were observed with a combination of α-ferrite and k-carbide. For higher cooling rates (5 to 50 °C/s), martensite was observed with body-centered cubic (BCC) and body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structures.
As promising materials for bipolar plates substrate, as-cold rolled Ti-0.3Ni (wt.%) sheets were heat treated with three different processes in this work. As-cold rolled sheets consist of α matrix and dispersed Ti2Ni intermetallic precipitates, and typical Widmanstatten microstructure can be observed after heat treatment. Lamellar Ti2Ni precipitates inside the colonies. Elongation of as-cold rolled sheets equals less than 7% while this value rises up to around 20%, and tensile strength decreases by more than 47% after heat treatment. Open circuit potentials of as-cold rolled sheets treated at 950 °C for 1 h followed by wind cooling (950 °C/1 h/WC), sheets aged at 500 °C for 3 h followed by air cooling (950 °C/1 h/WC + 500 °C/3 h/AC), and sheets treated at 950 °C for 1 h followed by furnace cooling (950 °C/1 h/FC) equals −0.536 V, −0.476 V, −0.486 V, −0.518 V, respectively. A potentiodynamic polarization test reveals that all of the specimens exhibit typical active–passive transition behavior. Sheets treated at 950 °C/1 h/WC possess the lowest corrosion current density (155.4 μA·cm−2). Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that 950 °C/1 h/WC treated sheets possess the largest polarization resistance (Rpol), 122.6 Ω·cm2. Moreover, steady-state current densities (Iss) increase in the order of 950 °C/1 h/WC, 950 °C/1 h/WC + 500 °C/3 h/AC, 950 °C/1 h/FC according to the results of potentiostatic polarization. This can be attributed to various amounts of Ti2Ni precipitation caused by different cooling rates.
Al-Mg alloys can reach medium strength without a solid solution and quenching treatment, thereby avoiding product distortion caused by quenching, which has attracted the attention of wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) researchers. However, the mechanical properties of the WAAM Al-Mg alloy deposits obtained so far are poor. Herein, we describe the preparation of Al-Mg-0.3Sc alloy deposits by WAAM and detail the pores, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the alloy produced in this manner. The results showed that the number and sizes of the pores in WAAM Al-Mg-0.3Sc alloy deposits were equivalent to those in Al-Mg alloy deposits without Sc. The rapid cooling characteristics of the WAAM process make the precipitation morphology, size, and distribution of the primary and secondary Al3Sc phases unique and effectively improve the mechanical properties of the deposit. A primary Al3Sc phase less than 3 μm in size was found to precipitate from the WAAM Al-Mg-0.3Sc alloy deposits. The primary Al3Sc phase refines grains, changes the segregated β(Mg2Al3) phase morphology, and ensures that the mechanical properties of horizontal and vertical samples of the deposits are uniform. After heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h, the WAAM Al-Mg-0.3Sc alloy deposits precipitated a secondary Al3Sc phase, which was spherical (diameter about 20 nm) and had high dispersity. This phase blocks dislocations and subgrain boundaries, causes a noticeable strengthening effect, and further improves the mechanical properties of the deposits, up to a horizontal samples tensile strength of 415 MPa, a yield strength of 279 MPa, and an elongation of 18.5%, a vertical samples tensile strength of 411 MPa, a yield strength of 279 MPa, and an elongation of 14.5%. This Al-Mg-Sc alloy is expected to be widely used in the WAAM field.
Microstructures of the forged alloy and extruded alloy. (a,b) optical microscope (OM) microstructure and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the forged alloy, (c) and (d) OM microstructure of the transverse section and SEM image of the extruded alloy.
Tensile mechanical properties of the forged alloy and extruded alloy.
Variations of the texture and corresponding (0001),{1010}, and{2110} pole figures in the forged alloy and extruded alloy. (a) and (c) forged alloy, (b) and (d) extruded alloy. RD and ND mean the rolling direction and the normal direction of the sample, respectively, and TD means the transverse direction. The analyzed planes were taken from the plane of RD and TD, which was perpendicular to ND.
The extrusion process with a large extrusion ratio (36:1) has a great effect on microstructure refinement and strength improvement of the Mg-10Gd-2Y-0.5Zn-0.3Zr alloy. The tensile yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation of the extruded alloy are 306MPa, 410MPa, and 16.3%, respectively. The causes of strength improvement of the extruded alloy are discussed in detail. The grain refinement is a main strengthening source, contributing ~67MPa to the tensile yield strength of the extruded alloy. Dense precipitation of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) and β′ phases on the matrix and transformation of texture type in the extrusion process also partly increase the strength. In addition, a small number of {10 1 ¯ 2} twins during tensile test is another factor improving the strength of the extruded alloy.
The extruded and four pass extended tubes.
Reduction of thickness and area reduction percentage during deformation.
EDS results with the element atomic percentage of points in Figure 6b,d (at %).
Ultra-thin-walled tubes of magnesium alloys have received more and more attention in producing precision components for medical devices. Therefore, thin-walled tubes with high quality are desperately needed. In this study, the process of multi-pass variable wall thickness extrusion was carried out on an AZ80 + 0.4%Ce Mg alloy with up to five passes—one-pass backward extrusion and four-pass extension—to fabricate the seamless thin-walled tube with an inside diameter of 6.0 mm and a wall thickness of 0.6 mm. The average grain size decreased from 46.3 μm to 8.9 μm at the appropriate deformation temperature of 350 °C with the punch speed of 0.1 mm/s. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Vickers hardness (HV) tester were utilized to study the phases, microstructure, and hardness evolution. It can be observed that low deformation temperatures (240 °C and 270 °C) and low strain (1 pass extrusion and 1 pass extension) lead to twins that occupy the grains to coordinate deformation, and a slip system was activated with the accumulation of strain. The results of the Vickers hardness test showed that twinning, precipitation of second phases, twinning dynamic recrystallization (TDRX), and work hardening were combined to change the hardness of tubes at 240 °C and 270 °C. The hardness reached 93 HV after the third pass extension without annealing at 350 °C.
Surface nano-crystallization (SNC) of a conform-extruded Cu-0.4 wt.% Mg alloy was successfully conducted by high-speed rotating wire-brushing to obtain the deformed zone with dislocation cells and nanocrystallines. SNC promotes the anodic dissolution and corrosion rate of the Cu-Mg alloy in the initial stage of immersion corrosion in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The weakened corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to the higher corrosion activity of SNC-treated alloy. With extending the immersion time, the SNC-treated alloy slows the corrosion rate dramatically and exhibits uniform dissolution of the surface. The formation of the dense corrosion products leads to the improvement of overall corrosion performance. It indicates that the SNC-treated Cu-Mg alloy can function reliably for a longer duration in a corrosive environment.
Among newly developed TX (Mg-Sn-Ca) alloys, TX32 alloy strikes a good balance between ductility, corrosion, and creep properties. This study reports the influence of aluminum and zinc additions (0.4 wt % each) to TX32 alloy on its strength and deformation behavior. Uniaxial compression tests were performed under various strain rates and temperature conditions in the ranges of 0.0003–10 s−1 and 300–500 °C, respectively. A processing map was developed for TXAZ3200 alloy, and it exhibits three domains that enable good hot workability in the ranges (1) 300–340 °C/0.0003–0.001 s−1; (2) 400–480 °C/0.01–1 s−1; and (3) 350–500 °C/0.0003–0.01 s−1. The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in these domains was confirmed from the microstructural observations. The estimated apparent activation energy in Domains 2 and 3 (219 and 245 kJ/mole) is higher than the value of self-diffusion in magnesium. This is due to the formation of intermetallic phases in the matrix that generates back stress. The strength of TXAZ3200 alloy improved up to 150 °C as compared to TX32 alloy, suggesting solid solution strengthening due to Al and Zn. Also, the hot deformation behavior of TXAZ3200 alloy was compared in the form of processing maps with TX32, TX32-0.4Al, TX32-0.4Zn, and TX32-1Al-1Zn alloys.
Magnesium based nanocomposites, due to their excellent dimensional stability and mechanical integrity, have a lot of potential to replace the existing commercial Al alloys and steels used in aerospace and automotive applications. Mg-Al alloys are commercially used in the form of AZ (magnesium-aluminum-zinc) and AM (magnesium-aluminum-manganese) series in automobile components. However, the Mg17Al12 phase in Mg-Al alloys is a low melting phase which results in a poor creep and high temperature performance of the alloys. Rare earth additions modify the phase and hence improve the properties of the materials. In this paper, Ce and nano ZnO particles were added to Mg-Al alloys to attain a favorable effect on their properties. The developed materials exhibited promising properties in terms of thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), hardness, and tensile strength. Further, the ZnO addition refined the microstructure and helped in obtaining a uniform distribution, however without grain size refinement. The increased addition of ZnO and the improvement in the distribution led to an enhancement in the properties, rendering the materials suitable for a wide spectrum of engineering applications.
SEM BSE micrograph (a) and corresponding EDS map for the alloying elements (Al (b), Si (c), Er (d), Fe (e), Mg (f), Zr (g) and Ti (h)) in a sample of EZ353 alloy hold for 100 h at 300 °C.
Chemical composition (mass%) of the studied alloys.
In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the development of innovative Al-based casting alloys with improved high temperature strength. Research is often oriented to the investigation of the effects of minor element additions to widely diffused casting alloys. The present study focuses on Al-7Si-0.4Mg (A356) alloy with small additions of Er and Zr. Following previous scientific works on the optimization of heat treatment and on tensile strength, creep tests were carried out at 300 °C under applied stress of 30 MPa, a reference condition for creep characterization of innovative high-temperature Al alloys. The alloys containing both Er and Zr displayed a lower minimum creep strain rate and a longer time to rupture. Fractographic and microstructural analyses on crept and aged specimens were performed to understand the role played by eutectic silicon, by the coarse intermetallics and by α-Al matrix ductility. The creep behavior in tension of the three alloys has been discussed by comparing them to tension and compression creep curves available in the literature for Al-7Si-0.4Mg improved by minor elemental additions.
Tailoring the morphology and distribution of the Al2Ca second phase is important for improving mechanical properties of Al2Ca-containing Mg-Al-Ca based alloys. This work employed the industrial-scale multi-pass rotary-die equal channel angular pressing (RD-ECAP) on an as-cast Mg-3.7Al-1.8Ca-0.4Mn (wt %) alloy and investigated its microstructure evolution and mechanical properties under three different processing parameters. The obtained results showed that RD-ECAP was effective for refining the microstructure and breaking the network-shaped Al2Ca phase. With the increase of the ECAP number and decrease of the processing temperature, the average sizes of Al2Ca particles decreased obviously, and the dispersion of the Al2Ca phase became more uniform. In addition, more ECAP passes and lower processing temperature resulted in finer α-Mg grains. Tensile test results indicated that the 573 K-12p alloy with the finest and most dispersed Al2Ca particles exhibited superior mechanical properties with tensile yield strength of 304 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 354 MPa and elongation of 10.3%. The improved comprehensive mechanical performance could be attributed to refined DRX grains, nano-sized Mg17Al12 precipitates and dispersed Al2Ca particles, where the refined and dispersed Al2Ca particles played a more dominant role in strengthening the alloys.
Schematic diagram about the effect of GBPs on microcrack formation.
Number of cracks in specimens after crushing test and grade of crushing performance.
Average spacing and diameter of GBPs.
The effect of aging time on the crushing performance of Al-0.5Mg-0.4Si alloy used for safety components of automobile was investigated by tensile test and crush test. Moreover, the microstructure of the alloy was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the localized deformation ductility index, ΔAabs, which is defined as the difference between total elongation and uniform elongation, of Al-0.5Mg-0.4Si alloy is 6.5%, 7.0% and 8.5%, respectively, after being aged at 210 °C for 1, 3 and 6 h, and this tendency is the same as that of the crushing performance. The spacing of grain boundary precipitates (GBPs) from TEM results are found to be 94.9, 193.6 and 408.2 nm after being aged at 210 °C for 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, and this tendency is same to that of ΔAabs. A mechanism about the relation between the spacing of GBPs and the ductility index ΔAabs has been proposed based on localized deformation around GBPs. With the increase of GBPs spacing, the ΔAabs increases, and the crushing performance is improved.
Large strain rolling (LSR) has been conducted on the Mg-2Zn-0.4Y alloy. After the 1st rolling process at 250, 300, 350, and 400 °C, the alloy demonstrates a fully recrystallized microstructure. The grain size increases from 6, 8, 12, to 17 μm with an increasing rolling temperature. After the 2nd rolling process at 300 °C, twinning and shear bands were introduced. During the 3rd rolling process at 350 °C, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was observed and resulted in a more uniform microstructure. DRX occurred because of temperature increase and large dislocation density induced by LSR. For the room temperature tensile tests, the plates rolled at 300 and 350 °C in the 1st rolling process demonstrate higher strength and lower elongation due to twinning. The one rolled at 400 °C in the 1st rolling process, shows the most uniform rolling microstructure and the best combination of strength and elongation at room temperature.
SEM microphotographs of worn surfaces for samples oxidzed at different temperature for 3 h: (a) 1240 °C, (b) 1260 °C, (c) 1280 °C, (d) 1300 °C, (e) 1320 °C, (f) 1340 °C.
SEM microphotographs of worn surfaces for samples oxidzed at different temperature for 3 h: (a) 1240 • C, (b) 1260 • C, (c) 1280 • C, (d) 1300 • C, (e) 1320 • C, (f) 1340 • C. Metals 2020, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 12
Contents of major elements on surfaces of Fe-Cr-Al-Ti-Zr steel oxidized at different temperatures (wt %).
Thickness of oxide layers of the Fe-Cr-Al-Ti-Zr steel oxidized at different temperatures for 3 h.
A type of Fe-21.3Cr-3.5Al-0.5Ti-0.4Zr steel was produced for application of spot-welding location pins in automobile industry. The oxidation behavior at temperatures of 1220–1340 °C and wear performance were investigated. The morphologies and constituent phases of the oxide layers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The hardness and wear performance of the oxide layers were also measured. The results showed that the mass gain presented a stage characteristic with increasing temperature, i.e., a small increasing at 1220–1260 °C, a moderate increasing at 1280–1300 °C, and a great increasing at 1320–1340 °C. The oxide layer primarily consisted of Al2O3 phase and a small amount of ZrO2 phase. ZrO2 increased in amount with temperature rising from 1220 to 1340 °C. The oxidized surface exhibited an increase of hardness with increasing temperature, but the lowest wear loss occurred at the oxidation temperature of 1280 °C.
Top-cited authors
Maurizio Vedani
  • Politecnico di Milano
Riccardo Casati
  • Politecnico di Milano
Manoj Gupta
  • National University of Singapore
Peter Liaw
  • University of Tennessee
Bernd Friedrich
  • RWTH Aachen University