Data were drawn from 845 males in the National Survey of Adolescent Males who were initially aged 15-17, and followed-up 2.5 and 4.5 years later, to their early twenties. Mixed-effects regression models (MRM) and semiparametric trajectory analyses (STA) modeled patterns of change in masculinity attitudes at the individual and group levels, guided by gender intensification theory and cognitive-developmental theory. Overall, men's masculinity attitudes became significantly less traditional between middle adolescence and early adulthood. In MRM analyses using time-varying covariates, maintaining paternal coresidence and continuing to have first sex in uncommitted heterosexual relationships were significantly associated with masculinity attitudes remaining relatively traditional. The STA modeling identified three distinct patterns of change in masculinity attitudes. A traditional-liberalizing trajectory of masculinity attitudes was most prevalent, followed by traditional-stable and nontraditional-stable trajectories. Implications for gender intensification and cognitive-developmental approaches to masculinity attitudes are discussed.
"One Man Can" (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health program implemented by Sonke Gender Justice Network (Sonke) in South Africa. The program seeks to reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS and reduce violence against women and men. To understand how OMC workshops impact masculinities, gender norms, and perceptions of women's rights, an academic/non-governmental organization (NGO) partnership was carried out with the University of Cape Town, the University of California at San Francisco, and Sonke. Sixty qualitative, in-depth interviews were carried out with men who had completed OMC workshops and who were recruited from Sonke's partner organizations that were focused on gender and/or health-related services. Men were recruited who were over age 18 and who participated in OMC workshops in Limpopo and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa. Results reveal how men reconfigured notions of hegemonic masculinity both in terms of beliefs and practices in relationships, households, and in terms of women's rights. In the conclusions, we consider the ways in which the OMC program extends public health research focused on masculinities, violence, and HIV/AIDS. We then critically assess the ways in which health researchers and practitioners can bolster men's engagement within programs focused on gender equality and health.
We demonstrate how an industry promoted and defined masculinity as a product of consumption. We analyze previously-secret tobacco industry documents and the content of two tobacco industry-produced magazines, Unlimited (from Philip Morris, makers of Marlboro) and Real Edge (from Brown & Williamson, makers of Lucky Strike), which were distributed to millions of young adult men from the late 1990s and early 2000s to promote their tobacco brands. We find that Unlimited and Real Edge exhibited similar themes previously reported to typify "new lad" magazines, but with risky behaviors in the forefront. We build upon the existing masculinity literature by providing insight into how corporations study and interpret cultural constructions of masculinity, and then use masculinity as both a vehicle and a product of consumption.
This special section of
Men and Masculinities speaks of gender, methodology, and anthropology. It is designed to open an interdisciplinary debate about crucial issues in social sciences and gender studies. Building on anthropologists' experiences, it takes ethnography as an entry point. For some time, feminist-inspired literature on gender and the fieldwork process has invited us to be aware of our own gender performances and sex ideologies in the field, as well as those of our interlocutors, to better understand the production of anthropological knowledge, and therefore to write better ethnographies. The present volume developed out of a panel at the 2005 meeting of the American Anthropological Association, in which the authors attempted to address one enduring stereotype about gender studies, namely the notion that a male fieldworker cannot engage with women or conduct worthwhile research on them. While the articles deal with ethnographers and their interlocutors, women and men, this issue's topic does not endorse simplistically essentialist dyads. So much about gender seems taken for granted, and anthropologists are not immune to these pitfalls. These articles attempt to stimulate discussion about the role of gender in our research endeavors, and perhaps more importantly, about our own assumptions of the role of gender in fieldwork. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Men's bodies and body image have attracted increasing attention from researchers and popular press journalists during the past decade. Arguably, Western culture tends to identify men's body image issues as heterosexual notions. Although research on gay men's body image has increased, a cultural myth remains that gay men are more susceptible to body image concerns and eating disorders due to the aesthetic-oriented gay culture. This article reports in-depth interviews with fourteen young gay men on issues of bodies and body identity, particularly regarding masculinity. The men, aged 18-25 and living in Adelaide, Australia, identify aspects of gay culture with the capacity to promote and reinforce body image concerns among gay males. A life historical perspective provides reflections on participants' bodies in school, including those of growing up young and gay. Current body-based issues are identified, highlighting the plight of many gay males regarding the physical-aesthetic-driven culture in which they exist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In this exploratory study, boys and men (aged 8 to 25 yrs) gave accounts of body shape ideals, body esteem, exercise, and diet in a series of focus groups. Men and boys in all groups presented discourses where being lean and muscular was linked to being healthy and fit. Being fat was related to weakness of will and lack of control by all age groups, and discourses of blame were used to describe those who were overweight. Sixteen-year-olds described peer pressure to be slender and muscular and two young men had experienced teasing about their body size. Adult men and teenagers explicitly linked having a well-toned, muscular body with feelings of confidence and power in social situations. Data are discussed in relation to recent suggestions that Western cultural attitudes to the male body are in a state of change and that men are becoming more concerned with body image. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Boys and men construct lives within specific social spaces. They occupy these niches by accident of race, class, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and personal history. Both particular niches and the dominant social context make a variety of offers for reward and status that are more or less obtainable and, in terms of which, boys and men labor to fashion viable identities. In this issue, we have collected a set of essays that explore and theorize how masculinities are constructed, performed, negotiated, and understood by boys and men in U.S. spaces radically distinct by virtue of class, race, ethnicity, and sexual politics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The “More doctors smoke camels” advertising campaign ran from 1946 until 1954. The campaign featured a series of advertisements centered around and celebrating the physician in American life. Neatly bookending the demise of the physician was the appearance, in 1955, of the Marlboro Man. The dominant figure in the Marlboro Man campaign was the cowboy. This shift away from the physician to the cowboy will be situated in the context of 1950s fears about smoking and health. The similarities and differences in the masculine virtues of the physician and the cowboy will be analyzed in terms of the relationship between men and health in mid-century America.
The author recounts his long personal involvement in the abortion drama of over 400,000 males annually found in the waiting rooms of over 400 clinics. He shares research findings from four waves of survey data from 1984 through 2004 involving 3,000 males. Highlights include the desire of almost all to stay with the clinic patient throughout the procedure and afterwards in the recovery room, though very few clinics allow this. A majority would like family planning education sessions, and some would appreciate personal counseling, though very few clinics offer these services. Clinics that pioneer in helping men could be honored, others pressured to do so, and laws considered to force reforms across the board. To date the Men's Movement has ignored the entire matter, and thereby missed a major opportunity to help many males claim a new and better manhood in what for many remains a secret and exceedingly trying matter.
U.K. studies have found that young people have a high tolerance of violence and abuse if committed within an interpersonal heterosexual relationship. This article draws on empirical data from a school-based study conducted with seventy-seven young people in Glasgow that explored their views and opinions of abuse and violence in interpersonal (heterosexual) relationships. A central finding is that there is profound contradiction in the views of the young people regarding what is interpersonal violence and about who is doing what to whom. The young people in this study were extremely ambivalent about acknowledging the predominance of men as the perpetrators of interpersonal violence, and where they did acknowledge this they constructed numerous justifications to explain it. This article presents these findings and explores the reasons for why these young people both resist accepting men as perpetrators of interpersonal violence and endeavor to justify it.
Despite their different immediate contexts of production and cultural affiliation, Seamus Heaney's Beowulf and Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club participate in a larger problematic concerning the fate of masculinity in the modern world. Heaney knowingly casts his task as a translator in terms of a test of manhood in which he strives to claim a place for an ancient, implicitly masculine wisdom in contemporary world culture. Palahniuk dramatizes a situation in which contemporary culture is made responsible for a crisis in masculine identity. However, although Fight Club's take on its protagonist's attempt to resolve this crisis is surely ironic, its logic implies that action is required against the effects of globalized capitalism, which should be understood not as emasculating but as dehumanizing and as requiring a response that goes beyond the merely cultural.
Despite the increase in recent decades in research on men's violence against women, few studies focus exclusively on men's verbal accounts of this violence. In this article, the author compares men's accounts offered to her as a researcher with those accounts reportedly given to female partners. Although the author expects men to attempt to excuse their violence when accounting to her as a researcher, men make overwhelming use of justifications. Somewhat as expected, they say they apologize to their partners following a violent incident, but surprisingly, they also refuse to account to their partners at times. A deeper look into these contradictory accounts reveals the creative ways men use verbal strategies as redress for various forms of masculinity they feel have been taken from them by their partners and/or agencies of the state and how hegemonic masculinity enables them to use certain accounts in the first place.
In August 2010, the sixty-four-year-old Hollywood icon Sylvester Stallone premiered his latest project The Expendables, an action-adventure film starring a pantheon of “tough guys” from both past and present: Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dolph Lundgren, and Bruce Willis. To understand the resurrection of this vintage Hollywood cast, we take up the title theme of “expendability” within the climate of the economic recession of 2008 and map its representation of masculinity, physical labor, and ageing. We do this by looking at The Expendables as essentially a labor text. In doing so, we find a smorgasbord of working bodies and types of physical labor that reveal multiple intersections among discourses of masculinity, class, ageing, and race that simultaneously reflect the divisions of (physical) labor in the industries in which the stars work—Hollywood film and professional sports.
This article, which is part of a wider ethnographic study of constructions of self in the mediated world of men’s prisons, explores "manliness" as the prison coping strategy par excellence. That masculinity is likely to become more extreme in men’s prisons is unsurprising, but the origins and nature of the "hypermasculine" culture and the precise means by which hierarchies of domination are created and maintained have yet to be thoroughly explored. Indeed, although men constitute the vast majority of prisoners worldwide, most studies treat the gender of their subjects as incidental and assume that in men’s prisons, the normal rules of patriarchy do not apply. However, as this article demonstrates, the notion of patriarchy, although in need of refinement, is not irrelevant to the predominantly male environment, and it is now widely accepted that men can be its victims as well as its perpetrators.
This article presents a new scale to measure adolescent boys’internalization of masculine norms as evidenced by their attitudes and beliefs about what constitutes appropriate behavior for males within interpersonal relationships. Framing masculinity ideology within a relational paradigm, the theoretical foundations of the Adolescent Masculinity Ideology in Relationships Scale (AMIRS) emphasize that it is through and within relationships that masculine norms become personally meaningful and directly consequential to adolescent boys. Designed specifically for use with adolescents, the AMIRS derives from adolescent boys’narratives about their perceptions and experiences of masculinity, particularly in their peer relationships. Correlation and regression analyses indicate a negative association between the AMIRS and self-esteem, suggesting the double-edged sword of masculinity. That is, despite the advantages of status, alignment with hegemonic masculinity may hinder adolescent boys’ psychological health, for instance, by limiting the ways that they are able to express themselves and engage in their interpersonal relationships.
During World War II, the American public was inundated with photographs of war. This article examines the iconography of war as revealed in photographs from the Pacific arena, identifying four primary motifs: the transformation of boys into warrior men, the fetishization of weaponry, the spectacle of death, and the quest to penetrate and dominate nature. War is a territorial game played by men to enact dominance, a social performance that inscribes gender identities on human bodies. War, like masculinity, is predicated on the subjugation of the feminine, which is encoded in the body and territory of the enemy, an inscription even more extreme when the enemy is of another race. These photographs enact the play of domination and subjugation through the imagery of impenetrability and rapability, thus contributing to the propagandistic construction of the enemy and extending the voyeuristic pleasures of domination to those not able to experience it firsthand.
In postapartheid South Africa, a “crisis of masculinity” has become the most prominent explanation for high rates of violence against women and the gendered nature of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This article offers a critique of such an analysis, and suggests that the sexualization of politics in the postapartheid era allows both state actors and impoverished community members to manage and negotiate the paradoxes of postcolonialism. Combining a discourse analysis and ethnographic study, the article analyzes the various ways in which the tropes of “modernity” and “traditionalism” are deployed (and resignified) in and through discursive struggles over masculinity and sexuality. Overall, the article argues that gender has become a primary terrain upon which colonial and postcolonial conflicts are played out. As such, rather than a “crisis of masculinity,” the sexualization of politics signifies and masks deep-seated concerns about the “success” of liberation.
There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences in the United Kingdom, but the links between social connectedness and the health experiences of men have been a neglected focus for research. Findings were drawn from a parent study that examined fathers' experiences of health and social connectedness, but findings presented in this article were unforeseen. Specifically, findings presented here indicate that African-Caribbean and white working-class fathers, in the United Kingdom, were involved in solitary ways of feeling, thinking, and acting to deal with the vulnerability associated with health concerns, the psychological experience of stress, and difficulties in personal relationships. Those solitary experiences were associated, within men's stories, with conservative and complicit forms of masculinity. Challenges and qualifications to men's solitary and conservative discourses and practices are also identified within men's stories. These challenges were linked to crisis situations, the uncertainty associated with gender, social class and racism, and the experience of fathering, in particular. The significance of gender, ethnicity, and social class for policy, practice, and future research regarding working-class fathers' experiences of vulnerability is identified.
Because male athletes have exhibited aggressive tendencies in a variety of settings, they may be at risk for using violence both within and beyond their sports involvement. Five former college/professional hockey players were interviewed to determine their perspectives on the nature of aggression and violence in sports competition as well as in social relationships.The informants were asked aboutathletes’violence and aggression toward teammates, acquaintances, and female intimates. This analysis includes participants’ experiences, observations, and explanations of the instances of violence in hockey culture. The study findings yield (1) a greater understanding of the ways in which hockey socialization and athletes’notions of masculinity combine to create a culture of aggression and violence and (2) two major factors—consumption of alcohol and the objectification of women—that contribute to exporting violence outside the athletic arena.
The complex relationships between linguistic expression, body, self, and emotions assume a central role in shaping the illness narratives of Israeli and American homosexual men who suffer from AIDS. Drawing on recent sociological work on the “dilemmatic” features of illness as a moral performance, the authors study forty “inspiration stories” published by Israeli and American virtual support centers to elucidate how notions of homosexual manhood take shape, as participants narrate their experience with a highly stigmatized disease. They show how narrators mobilized hegemonic imagery in ways that intentionally broke with their origin and created new contexts of speech. While Israeli narrators stressed the importance of fraternal friendship as a fundamental characteristic of their masculine identity, American narrators emphasized individual accomplishments. Hence, this study sheds light on the mutual effect of nationalistic and gendered ethos on the performance of personal life practices.
In the United States and internationally in recent years, a great deal of attention, particularly within popular publications, has been paid to boys, their rearing, and their education. While much of this concern has clearly had conservative aims or at least conservative overtones, even the more progressive elements of the concern over boys have been “pulled into” the conservative camp. Indeed, the entire advocacy position for boys has often been (discursively, at least) relegated to conservatism. This article examines why this happens and, more important, shows how this occurs on a small scale. The author focuses here on how conservatives “pull in” rather than how the Left “pushes out.” Using frameworks laid out by Apple, Bernstein, Bourdieu, and others, the author shows how an unlikely artifact—a toy catalog—might serve as a case study for the methods conservative groups use to pull the debate, as well as those teachers and parents who are intimately affected by its outcomes, under the “umbrella” of conservative modernization. These techniques include mobilizing general similarities to the boys debate, appealing to the tastes of particular class fractions, using recontextualizing processes, appealing through visual forms, accounting for dissonances, creating the constitutive outside, and perhaps most important, providing a possible solution to the “problem” of boys. I discuss implications of these techniques and advocate a reclaiming of the debates by progressive forces.
This article reviews major studies carried out in recent decades on Latin American men as engendered actors—products and producers of gender relations. The materials analyzed are organized around the principal themes within which studies of masculinity in Latin America have been framed, namely the construction of masculine identity, fatherhood, practices and representations, homosocial spaces of masculinity, reproductive health, and masculine sexuality. Through an examination of the current literature, the aims are to provide information on some of the current debates that have emerged on masculinity in Latin America, to identify some of the unexplored themes, and to raise questions about the ways in which masculinity has been understood and studied.
Two popular entertainments, the South Park cartoon show and The Blue Man Group theatrical performance, are analyzed as symptomatic of a new configuration of masculinity in the contemporary United States. This masculinity is shaped by young men's ambivalent resistance and accommodation to the consumer culture. It manifests itself in an expulsive anality unlike the bourgeois character traits described by Freud or the polymorphously sensual scatology that Bakhtin ascribes to folk culture. Not the breadwinner masculinity of the post-World War II era, this market masculinity is simultaneously childish, creative, homoerotic, homophobic, racist, cynical, and paranoid. It reflects young men's difficulties in maintaining individual autonomy both against the impersonal authority of the law of the father and against the more seductive power of corporate advertising, which might be called the market of the mother. This analysis furthers feminist efforts toward socially contextualized, nondualistic understandings of masculinity.
This article studies the gendered meanings of Galician national discourse with particular focus on the notion of masculinity. The first part of the article analyzes cultural writings in the early stages of Galician regionalism and establishes how the metaphor of Galicia as feminine (and, as a consequence, of Galician manhood as marked with the notions of sentimentality and submissiveness) gradually became an important stumbling block for nationalism’s emergence as a viable political movement. In the second section, the author studies how the early texts of Galician political nationalism reacted against such metaphors by means of a heightened masculinist discourse bent on recasting national insurgence as a question of virility. Finally, the author analyzes Ricardo Carvalho Calero’s Historia da literatura galega contemporánea (1963/1981) in line with this rhetoric of national virility and as an example of what the author will call the masculine excess present in the seminal texts of Galician cultural nationalism.
This essay argues that a refusal of dominant masculinity is central to the literary project of the Peruvian novelist and anthropologist José María Arguedas (1911–1969). In making this argument, I hope to lay the groundwork for a reassessment of the significance of gender in Arguedas’s work. In particular, the author argues that our understanding of the explicit politics of language and culture in Arguedasis is enhanced and enriched by a consideration to the more implicit (and quite likely unconscious) politics of masculinity in his writing.
Aspects of masculine socialization among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and potential corresponding influences on high-risk sexual behaviors are explored in this study. Individual interviews were conducted with 29 Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia. Findings included (1) formative masculine socialization experiences marked by an absence of biological fathers and Black male role models, (2) negative perceptions of “gay” identities and communities, (3) race and racial identification as intersecting influences on masculine and sexual identities, (4) the influences of masculine socialization and beliefs on partner selection and sexual behaviors, and (5) general themes of trust, control, “heat of the moment” sex, and low self-love as primary factors influencing condom use. Implications for future research and HIV prevention efforts targeting Black MSM are discussed.
Epidemiological data indicate that men are overrepresented in mortality rates attributed to both natural causes (e.g., ischemic heart disease) and certain deaths caused by external causes (e.g., motor vehicle accidents). Men's health behaviors are consistently linked to their poor health outcomes, and diverse explanations about what underpins men's health behaviors have been presented by commentators and researchers alike. Recently connections between men's behaviors and dominant ideals of masculinity have provided empirical snapshots about the intersections of gender and health and specific illness events. This study uses a retrospective life course method to describe the connections between health behaviors and masculinity across time among three Anglo-Australian men who were born in the 1920s and 1930s and grew up in Victoria, Australia. The findings from this study illustrate how health behaviors intersect with shifting social constructions of masculinity and are mediated by factors including age, history, social class, culture, and illness.
Employing a national sample of over 800 same-gender-loving black men, we explore the relative impact of community-level support/comfort and the importance of sexual orientation and racial identity on two dependent variables—sociopolitical involvement within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities and sociopolitical involvement within people of color (POC) communities. Findings indicate that feelings of connectedness to LBGT communities is the most important predictor of sociopolitical involvement within both LGBT and POC communities; while, counterintuitively, being comfortable within the LGBT community had a negative impact on the sociopolitical involvement of these men. Further, the impact of the importance of identity was negligible.
The chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanc, composed by Joanot Martorell between 1460 and 1464, very clearly epitomizes an alternative to constructions of masculinity in the genre. The hero, Tirant lo Blanc, often performs a challenge to archetypes of masculinity in Medieval Iberia. The author’s objective is to analyze several episodes where Tirant is depicted as “queer” or effeminate and discuss the implications of placing such episodes in a text of a genre usually viewed as a paradigm of masculinity. This article will examine these instances and seek to demonstrate that preconceived ideas about Hispanic archetypes of being a man constructed in modern times often have distorted early modern male behavior.
Policing is an occupation that is gendered and sexualized. Ideals of heterosexual masculinity inform practices and social interactions within policing. This study explores how police officers manage a homosexual orientation within this organizational environment. Using qualitative survey responses from a sample of “out” and “closeted” gay and lesbian police officers in a Midwestern city, the authors examine (1) how heterosexual, masculine police organizations inform their experiences; (2) how officers construct multiple identities of sexual orientation, gender, and race-ethnicity; and (3) what strategies officers utilize to manage their homosexual orientation in the workplace. The authors are interested in how multiple identities involving race-ethnicity, gender, and “out” versus “closeted” status shape officers’ strategies for surviving in a potentially hostile work environment. The findings suggest that these officers support a more humane approach to policing and see themselves as particularly qualified to work within marginal communities. Despite the structural barriers of homophobia and sexism that tempered these officers’ full acceptance and access to the police subculture, lesbian and gay officers struggled to balance job demands with their sexual orientation, gender, race-ethnicity, and other dimensions of their identities.
Recent events in a ruling-class boys' boarding school college in Sydney prompted public discussion about "bullying." Debate ranged between those seeing an endemic problem to be cured and those who saw minor, unfortunate, and atypical incidents in a system where bullying is under control. It is argued here that such a practice is inherent in ruling-class boys' education. It is an important part of making ruling-class men. Using life-history methods with available biographical material, the article shows that ruling-class schooling of boys in boarding schools involves "sending away" and initial loneliness, bonding in groups demanding allegiance, attachment to tradition, subjection to hierarchy and progress upward through it, group ridiculing and punishment of sensitiveness and close relationships, severe sanctions against difference, brutal bodily discipline, and inculcating competitive individualism. Brutalization and "hardening" are essential to all these processes and are characteristic of ruling-class masculinity.
How might we understand young men’s sexual embodiment at school? This article is concerned with the body as a site for the intersection of masculinities and sexualities at school. In a bid to contribute to existing narrative analyses of young men’s sexualities in educational contexts, this research employs visual methods in order to “picture” these intersections. Findings are drawn from an exploratory study in two secondary schools, where photo diaries and photo elicitation were undertaken with twenty-two students aged sixteen to eighteen years. It is argued that, the idea of boys as “sexy bodies,” that is, bodies that are experienced and viewed as sexual, is missing. This omission occurs in two ways; as a focus for school-based research and as an understanding of young men’s schooled experience. Through an analysis of enfleshed bodies captured by photo methods, the ways in which male sexuality is corporeally manifested as active, desiring, heteronormative and “sexy” are explored.
The article explores the premarital all-male stag tour made by groups of British men to an Eastern European city as a homosocial bonding ritual. Homosocial groups help sustain hegemonic masculinity and play a significant role in establishing accepted forms of masculinity. Male friendships have been characterized as lacking in intimacy and typically channeled through alternative social relations such as competition. The article draws on qualitative data from participant observation with stag tour groups. Although bonding through shared activities and overt expressions of heterosexuality are common to stag tourist behavior, groups were seen as largely noncompetitive. Expressions of intimacy and emotion were frequent and a high value was placed on group cohesion and fostering a sense of togetherness. The performance of a loss of homosocial friendship was apparent and this links to wider social changes in men’s lives. This suggests both the significance of men’s friendships and possible patterns of change.
A figurational framework is employed to analyze aspects of the phenomenon of mass nonelite road running in Britain, using data derived primarily from a series of 48 in-depth interviews with a range of participants. More particularly, the article explores the motivations of nonelite runners in the context of social change over their life course. It argues that many changes in Britain since the 1950s have involved shifts in power ratios to the relative disadvantage of the middle-class men in their thirties and forties, who dominate the entry at many events and have undermined traditional bases of masculine identity in work and the home. The data indicate that many nonelite runners, male and female, believe they enjoy the respect and admiration of nonparticipants through a demonstration of physical prowess that running long distances involves, a capacity traditionally more closely associated with the male.
In this article, I attempt to deepen feminists’ understanding of the power dynamics in the practice of client-prostitute relations by exploring how clients (in Mandarin, Piao-ke) make sense of their relationships with prostitutes. On the basis of tens of online and in-person interviews with Taiwanese Piao-ke, I explore the diverse and subtle details that surface in the clients’ narratives and that might otherwise have been neglected. Instead of totalizing Piao-ke as problematic, I suggest a postmodernist feminist understanding of the practice, namely, one founded on a distinction between acceptable from dominant practices and discourses that should be targeted.
We explore the paths related to college men’s involvement in all-male antirape prevention groups using in-depth interviews conducted with twenty-five male college students who are active members of such groups from eleven campuses located on the East Coast of the United States. Major themes deriving from analysis of the interviews were all related to the engagement of the participants with the programs on four different levels. These themes, which are developmentally related, are (1) a disclosure which makes sexual assault a personal issue at the same time that it reveals a lack of knowledge and skills on the part of the respondents, (2) the evaluation of the approach of individual programs, (3) the evaluation of the relative effectiveness of the approacher, and (4) the creation of a social context which the engagement facilitates. Overall, we find that when the men in our study were approached in a nonconfrontational, alliance-building fashion by other men, they reported that their knowledge related to sexual assault, their empathy toward sexual assault survivors, and their motivation to actively engage in the prevention of sexual violence all increased. Thus, we see evidence of a pathway to behavioral change represented by the recruitment and participation of men to these programs.
This research explores the career development of men who cross over into the historically female occupation of physical therapy, drawing from a critical feminist perspective on sport, work, and the gender order. Data gathered from thirty-two semistructured interviews with early- and mid-career men indicate that a traditional emphasis on athleticism shaped men's career entry and early specialty choices. Men in physical therapy described a “good physical therapist” as displaying both stereotypically masculine and feminine traits. Although athleticism shaped men's abilities to comfortably accept alternative masculinities in the form of caring work, early-career specialty choices reinforced hegemonic patterns of occupational segregation. Implications for gender equality at work are discussed and limitations to feminist perspectives are noted.
Approximately 1,000,000men currently care for spouses with cognitive impairment after leaving market-economy careers through normative or early retirement. In the process, they made the difficult transition from work in the public arena to the private, largely invisible world of family care. This article explores how elderly men caregivers adapt to such drastic changes in social location, what resources they call upon to ameliorate the impact of those changes, and what we can learn from their experiences that will inform future research and practice. Data are from a qualitative study of thirty elderly men care-givers in Rochester, New York. Two major themes emerged, demonstrating both struggle and success. The most significant struggle was coping with the isolation of home care; by contrast, many men were able to successfully make the transition through the use of a style of caregiving that incorporated a combination of management and nurturing skills.
This article takes as its starting point Tim O'Brien's famous essay, “The Things They Carried,” a fictional evocation of tangible and intangible items that Vietnam War soldiers hauled around with them in the field. “The Things We Carry,” by contrast, analyzes the theoretical ideas and various components of social identity that anthropologists bring with them to the communities in which they carry out research. This article focuses especially on the author's status as a young married male conducting fieldwork in the part of southern Spain known as Andalusia. Access to field data did not depend in this case solely on the social structure and prevalent ideology of the community itself. Rather, the social and intellectual attributes of the author—that which he carried with him—proved crucial in guiding the research outcome.
Using feminist approaches to life writing and subjectivity elaborated by Sidonie Smith, Leigh Gilmore, and Marlene Kadar, this article examines George Orwell's Homage to Catalonia as an example of complex and conflicting negotiations of masculinity in the extreme situations of war and political trauma. Orwell's constructions of male subjectivity reveal both complicity and resistance to traditional discourses of militarism and are less monolithic than usually assumed in feminist interpretations of his work. Orwell's male subject is viewed as a site of contradictory interpellations of ethnicity, class, and physicality of the body. Finally, it is argued that through his rhetoric, Orwell manipulates hegemonic and nonhegemonic notions of manhood and sacrifices a heroic potential of his war narrative to increase his political credibility in the cause of a socialist revolution.
This article explores the potential of the men's movement to inform the education of men enrolled in single-sex colleges, and to engage men students in the study of gender and an exploration of masculinity. Much of the traditional focus of the men's movement is of little direct interest to eighteen- to twenty-three-year-old male undergraduates. The field of men's studies has two foci of great interest to college men, however. These include men's relationships with women—with a particular emphasis on the impact of gender on intimacy, communication, and sexuality, and men's relationships with other men. Issues of greatest importance to men in their relationships with other men include friendship and intimacy, competition and aggression, shared developmental experiences, perspectives on fathering, and the role of drugs and alcohol in their lives. Issues related to feminism and homophobia are more difficult to explore but are also of great interest and importance.
As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men’s antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into antiviolence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men’s engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men’s identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs’ experiences in community and national contexts.
This article analyzes characterization (of the monster and the “Final Girl”) and identification (of the male audience) in the slasher film. The author engages in a critical dialogue with key theories of gender in the horror film, particularly Carol Clover's work, arguing that these films, despite their formal deviance from Hollywood (gender) formulas—such as positioning a female figure at the center of the narrative—do not usually depart from that cinema's patriarchal signification. Indeed, most slasher films are violently misogynist and homophobic—punishing female sexuality, equating feminity with victimhood, and portraying the killer/monster as a queer figure. It is also argued that the male audience does not straightforwardly identify with the Final Girl. Instead, slasher films rely on primary identification and offer empathy rather than identification. Moreover, insofar as secondary identification with the female protagonist does occur, its aggressive impulses are projected onto the monster.
In this article, it is shown how a group of young schoolchildren rely on physicality in the production of masculinities. The authors draw from participant observational data gathered during two four-month time periods in the children's first- and second-grade years of a predominately Black, lower income, inner-city school. The production of a dominant and subordinate masculinity, as well as the children's struggles to define, to achieve, and to resist the dominant masculinity are described and discussed. Attempts to subordinate femininities and especially girls' physicality are highlighted.
Employing an interdisciplinary framework, this article attempts to “think” the history of men and masculinities in a transnational way by connecting the distinctive experiences of specific national cultures to the broader anxieties about modern civilization that exercised Westerners generally. As a contribution to a more comprehensive analysis of the male body, it argues that the consumption of food and other ingesta was thought to have considerable consequences for the masculinity of Western elites, whether aristocratic or bourgeois, in a manner that promoted the cultural construction (literally, the “incorporation”) of certain forms of manhood both as social representations and embodied experiences. It thus encourages a deeper understanding of how the male body is materially as well as symbolically constructed, and how this construction relates to various masculine norms.
Some research on male clients of female prostitutes argues that clients are simply seeking unemotional sexual release or looking for wild and varied sexual experiences. Yet other sex workers portray clients as lonely, vulnerable, and desiring of emotional connection with women. Rather than view this as an “either-or” scenario—in which all clients fit one profile—we construct two dichotomous models of masculinity for clients and explore their attitudes toward women and sex. Men in the fragile masculinities category feel uncomfortable around women, unattractive to women, and rejected by women in the sexual marketplace, while consumer masculinities men get excited by approaching a prostitute, seek a variety of partners, and do not want the responsibilities of a relationship. We find that fragile masculinities men may be more dangerous to women than consumer masculinities men.
In the last decades of the twentieth century, a major change has occurred in the public understanding of prostitution, with the focus shifting from the sex worker to the client. On the social scientific side, studies on clients have growingly shed light on motivations and behaviors of men who buy sex. On the juridical-political side, in many countries across the globe a trend has emerged towards the criminalization of clients, represented as responsible for the perpetuation and proliferation of the sex market and for its oppressive and victimizing effects on sex workers. The aim of this paper is to retrace this turn and to discuss its political and cultural meaning, showing how the discourse on male responsibility in prostitution involves the risk of unilateral stances and partial views on the sex market. What I argue is that new gender-sensitive thinking on prostitution is needed, context-rooted and free from prejudicial understandings.
A growing but still limited body of research has examined the views and experiences of clients of sex workers. The current study is based on a content analysis of 2,442 postings on a popular forum where clients review sex workers and discuss their interactions with them. The article explores the reported experiences of a sample of clients who become involved in extended relationships with escorts and the emotional aspects of these associations. Findings show that there is a spectrum of experiences, ranging from counterfeit intimacy to an authentic emotional bond between the two parties. Many clients struggle with the unanticipated demands of an evolving romantic relationship and experience ongoing tension between its instrumental and expressive dimensions.
This article examines religious practices in the United States, which govern modesty and other dress norms for men. I focus both on the spaces within which they most collide with regulatory regimes of the state and the legal implications of these norms, particularly for observant Muslim men. Undergirding the research are those “gender equality” claims made by many religious adherents, that men are required to maintain proper modesty norms just as are women. Also undergirding the research is the extensive anti-Islam bias in American culture today. The spaces within which men’s religiously proscribed dress and grooming norms are most at issue—indicated by First Amendment legal challenges to rights of religious practice—are primarily those state-controlled, total institutions Goffman describes, such as in the military and prisons. The implications of gendered modesty norms are important, as state control over religious expression in prisons, for example, is much more difficult to contest than in other spaces, although this depends entirely on who is doing the contesting and within which religious context. In American society today — and particularly within the context of growing Islamaphobia following the 9/11 attacks — the implications are greatest for those men practicing “prison Islam.”
In this clinical essay, we describe the experience of creating and delivering a group for men with eating disorders. We outline our motivation for developing a therapeutic intervention of this nature and describe the format that we established. We then focus on the dynamics of the group that evolved and the themes that emerged in relation to issues of masculinity. We consider implications and recommendations for people interested in establishing groups for men with eating difficulties.