Memory & Cognition

Published by Psychonomic Society
Online ISSN: 1532-5946
Print ISSN: 0090-502X
This study examined the question of whether young and older adults differ in their representation or utilization of the generic knowledge contained in scripts. In Experiment 1, young and older adults generated scripts for routine daily activities, such as grocery shopping, going to the doctor, and writing a letter to a friend. No evidence was found for age-related differences in the way that stereotypical action sequences are represented in semantic memory. In Experiment 2, young adults were found to recall and recognize new instantiations of scripts better than did older adults. However, adults in both age groups displayed similar effects of action typicality on retention, suggesting that there are no age-related differences in drawing inferences from generic knowledge. The implications of these findings for processing-resource hypotheses about memory and aging are discussed.
Three studies examined whether the specificity with which people retrieve episodes from their past determines the specificity with which they imagine the future. In the first study, suicidal patients and nondepressed controls generated autobiographical events and possible future events in response to cues. Suicidal subjects' memory and future responses were more generic, and specificity level for the past and the future was significantly correlated for both groups. In the second and third studies, the effect of experimental manipulation of retrieval style was examined by instructing subjects to retrieve specific events or summaries of events from their past (Experiment 2) or by giving high- or low-imageable words to cue memories (Experiment 3). Results showed that induction of a generic retrieval style reduced the specificity of images of the future. It is suggested that the association between memory retrieval and future imaging arises because the intermediate descriptions used in searching autobiographical memory are also used to generate images of possible events in the future.
Proportions of participants using various time anchors in reporting when they heard the news in the September group as a function of when they completed the questionnaire. The 5-min and 1-min divisions of the clock are combined.  
College students were asked about their personal memories from September 11, 2001. Consistency in reported features over a 2-month period increased as the delay between the initial test and 9/11 increased. Central features (e.g., Where were you?) were reported with greater consistency than were peripheral features (What were you wearing?) but also contained a larger proportion of reconstructive errors. In addition, highly emotional participants demonstrated poor prospective memory and relatively inconsistent memory for peripheral details, when compared with less emotional participants. Highly emotional participants were also more likely to increase the specificity of their responses over time but did not exhibit greater consistency for central details than did less emotional participants. The results demonstrated reconstructive processes in the memory for a highly consequential and emotional event and emotional impairment of memory processing of incidental details.
The mirror effect in recognition memory refers to the fact that, with several different classes of stimuli, performance on new items from each class mirrors (is correlated with) performance on the corresponding classes of old items. Classes of stimuli that are accurately recognized as old when old are also accurately recognized as new when new; those that are poorly recognized as old when old are also poorly recognized as new when new. The statement above is shown not to be a tautology. A survey demonstrates that the effect holds for several types of variables (ways to classify stimuli)—word frequency, concreteness, meaningfulness, and others. The survey includes a total of 80 findings. The theoretical implications of the effect are considered.
There is a rich variety of semantic relations in natural languages. Subjects’ perceptions of similarities among relations were studied for a wider variety of relations than had been used in previous studies. Forty subjects sorted 31 cards bearing five example pairs of each of 31 semantic relations. Subjects were able both to distinguish the relations and to perceive their similarities. A hierarchical clustering analysis of the sorting data indicated that the subjects perceived five families of semantic relations (contrasts, class inclusion, similars, case relations, and part-wholes). The five families were distinguished in terms of three properties of semantic relations: contrasting/noncontrasting, logical/pragmatic, and inclusion/noninclusion. Within each family, relations also were sorted in ways consistent with their defining properties. Relations were therefore viewed not as unanalyzable primitives, but in terms of the relational properties that distinguished them.
Distributions of (A) age and (B) education in the Dutch sample. Both are compared with the distribution of both variables in the general population of the Netherlands (source: In accordance with statistical convention in the Netherlands, education was classified by highest attained educational grade.
Two-year retention curves for the 4AFC and the open questions for the Dutch sample (Experiment 3). Continuous lines correspond to the fits of a two-store MCM with decline parameters shared by 4AFC and open questions, with parameter values fitted only on the first year of retention. 
A retention study is presented in which participants answered questions about news events, with a retention interval that varied within participants between 1 day and 2 years. The study involved more than 14,000 participants and around 500,000 data points. The data were analyzed separately for participants who answered questions in Dutch or in English, providing an opportunity for replication. We fitted models of varying complexity to the data in order to test several hypotheses concerning retention. Evidence for an asymptote in retention was found in only one data set, and participants with greater media exposure displayed a higher degree of learning but no difference in forgetting. Thus, forgetting was independent of initial learning. Older adults were found to have forgetting curves similar to those of younger adults.
Retention interval was manipulated in two recognition-memory experiments in which subjects indicated when recognizing a word whether its recognition was accompanied by some recollective experience ("remember") or whether it was recognized on the basis of familiarity without any recollective experience ("know"). Experiment 1 showed that between 10 min and 1 week, "remember" responses declined sharply from an initially higher level, whereas "know" responses remained relatively unchanged. Experiment 2 showed that between 1 week and 6 months, both kinds of responses declined at a similar, gradual rate and that despite quite low levels of performance after 6 months, both kinds of responses still gave rise to accurate discrimination between target words and lures. These findings are discussed in relationship to current ideas about multiple memory systems and processing accounts of explicit and implicit measures of retention.
From citation rates for over 85,000 articles published between 1950 and 2004 in 56 psychology journals, we identified a total of 500 behavioral cognitive psychology articles that ranked in the top 0.6 % in each half-decade, in terms of their mean citations per year using the Web of Science. Thirty nine of these articles were produced by 78 authors who authored three or more of them, and more than half were published by only five journals. The mean number of cites per year and the total number of citations necessary for an article to achieve various percentile rankings are reported for each journal. The mean number of citations necessary for an article published within each half-decade to rank at any given percentile has steadily increased from 1950 to 2004. Of the articles that we surveyed, 11 % had zero total citations, and 35 % received fewer than four total citations. Citations for post-1994 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles have generally continued to grow across each of their 3-year postpublication bins. For pre-1995 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles, citations peaked in the 4- to 6- or 7- to 9-year postpublication bins and decreased linearly thereafter, until asymptoting. In contrast, for the top-500 articles, (a) for pre-1980 articles, citations grew and peaked 10-18-year postpublication bins, and after a slight decrease began to linearly increase again; (b) for post-1979 articles, citations have continually increased across years in a nearly linear fashion. We also report changes in topics covered by the top-cited articles over the decades.
Implicit serial learning occurs when indirect measures such as transfer reveal learning of a repeating sequence even when subjects are not informed of the repeating sequence, are not asked to learn it, and do not become of aware of it. This phenomenon is reminiscent of an experiment by Hebb (1961), who studied the repetition of sequences in a serial recall task. Two experiments investigated the relation between implicit serial learning and ideas about learning forwarded by Hebb and others who used his method. The experiments showed that implicit serial learning occurs even when the repeating sequence is intermixed with randomly generated sequences instead of being repeated continuously, that the organization of the sequence into regularly or irregularly grouped subsequences determines the extent of learning, and that the repetition effect observed does not depend on subjects' ability to recognize the repetition.
We partially replicate and extend Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins's (1961) classic study of task difficulty for learning six fundamental types of rule-based categorization problems. Our main results mirrored those of Shepard et al., with the ordering of task difficulty being the same as in the original study. A much richer data set was collected, however, which enabled the generation of block-by-block learning curves suitable for quantitative fitting. Four current computational models of classification learning were fitted to the learning data: ALCOVE (Kruschke, 1992), the rational model (Anderson, 1991), the configural-cue model (Gluck & Bower, 1988b), and an extended version of the configural-cue model with dimensionalized, adaptive learning rate mechanisms. Although all of the models captured important qualitative aspects of the learning data, ALCOVE provided the best overall quantitative fit. The results suggest the need to incorporate some form of selective attention to dimensions in category-learning models based on stimulus generalization and cue conditioning.
Performance on tests in which there is control over reporting (e.g., cued recall with the option to withhold responses) can be characterized by four parameters: free- and forced-report retrieval (correct responses retrieved from memory when the option to withhold responses is exercised and when it is not, respectively), monitoring (discrimination between correct and incorrect potential responses), and report bias (willingness to report responses). Typically, researchers do not examine all these components in cued-test performance; blanks are sometimes counted the same as errors, meaning that the (free-report) performance index is contaminated with report bias and monitoring ability. In this research, a two-stage testing procedure is described that allows measures of free- and forced-report retrieval, monitoring, and bias to be derived from the original encoding specificity experiments (Thomson & Tulving, 1970). The results show that their cue-reinstatement manipulation affected free-report retrieval, but once report bias and monitoring effects were removed by forcing output, retrieval was unaffected.
This paper presents a database of all published studies based on the recognition failure paradigm, which involves the study of pairs of items followed by a recognition test of the second item of each pair and a recall test of the same target item with the first item of each pair provided as a context cue. The paper also identifies, on the basis of a quantitative analysis, exceptions to the recognition failure function encompassing most data in the database. The database includes reference information about each study and a short description of materials and the manipulations made in each of the 302 experimental conditions reported. The database also includes information about the total number of observations for each condition, the overall hit rate in free or forced choice recognition, the overall probability of recall, the observed probability of recognition given recall, the predicted probability of recognition given recall, the difference between observed and predicted values, and the critical ratio between these difference scores and their overall standard deviation.
Crowder (1978) has proposed a theory of the suffix effect based on lateral inhibition among echoic representations of the list and suffix items. The theory was prompted by, and derives its principal support from, the counterintuitive finding that the effect is smaller with multiple suffixes than with a conventional single suffix. In this paper, we describe four experiments, each of which fails to replicate this finding. In addition, we note a prediction of the theory and show that it is contrary to available evidence. It is argued that the details of the suffix effect are too complex to be captured by a theory of peripheral mechanism, even one as ingenious as Crowder’s.
The relation between memory and attention has been of long-standing interest. Eich (1984) made an important discovery of implicit but not explicit memory for contextually determined homophones (e.g., taxi-FARE) presented in a channel to be ignored within a selective listening procedure. However, his slow rate of presentation of shadowing task materials may have allowed frequent attention shifts to the allegedly ignored channel. With a direct replication of Eich's timing parameters, we reproduced his results, but when the attended channel was presented twice as fast as Eich's, implicit memory for the to-be-ignored words vanished. Our results contradict claims of extensive semantic processing of unattended auditory information in this task.
Recently published research has suggested that, in a pattern masking task, semantic activation caused by the target may continue to exist even though subjects cannot detect the target. The experiments are reassessed as an exceptional case of the more general rule that subjects are able to use residual semantic activation to actually detect targets. Furthermore, residual graphic information is far less effective at supporting near-chance target detections.
Natural taxonomies consist of categories that vary in level of abstraction. Categories at the basic level, such as chair and apple, are preferred in a broad range of situations (Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, & Boyes-Braem, 1976). Several studies have revealed qualitative differences between the basic level and other levels. For example, Tversky and Hemenway (1984) presented evidence that parts proliferative at the basic level; they proposed that parts link the appearance of category members with their functions. Although not taking issue with these findings, Murphy (1991) investigated whether parts are necessary or sufficient for a basic level. In an attempt to demonstrate that parts are not necessary, Murphy used artificial stimuli that did not capture the essential features of natural taxonomies. These discrepancies preclude any conclusions based on his studies. Murphy's data also do not support his claim that parts are not sufficient for a basic level. Finally, it is unlikely that pursuing questions of necessity or sufficiency will produce insights into human categorization.
Cummins (1995) offers an analysis of causal and truth-functional sufficiency and necessity to predict and explain the effects on conditional inferences of two pragmatic factors: alternative causes and disabling conditions. However, the justification of these predictions is inconsistent. This note offers a modified analysis which puts her predictions on a sounder base: it is proposed that alternative causes and disabling conditions affect judgments of argument validity under three different models for the causal conditional.
Percentage of Individuals at Each Education Level 
Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations for Young Adults, Older Adults, and the Web-Based Sample for the Same Set of Words 
Simultaneous Regression Analyses for Subjective Frequency Estimates and Toglia and Battig's (1978) Familiarity Estimates as a Function of Subject Group Predictors Beta t value p < Semipartial 
Subjective frequency estimates for large sample of monosyllabic English words were collected from 574 young adults (undergraduate students) and from a separate group of 1,590 adults of varying ages and educational backgrounds. Estimates from the latter group were collected via the internet. In addition, 90 healthy older adults provided estimates for a random sample of 480 of these words. All groups rated words with respect to the estimated frequency of encounters of each word on a 7-point scale, ranging from never encountered to encountered several times a day. The young and older groups also rated each word with respect to the frequency of encounters in different perceptual domains (e.g., reading, hearing, writing, or speaking). The results of regression analyses indicated that objective log frequency and meaningfulness accounted for most of the variance in subjective frequency estimates, whereas neighborhood size accounted for the least amount of variance in the ratings. The predictive power of log frequency and meaningfulness were dependent on the level of subjective frequency estimates. Meaningfulness was a better predictor of subjective frequency for uncommon words, whereas log frequency was a better predictor of subjective frequency for common words. Our discussion focuses on the utility of subjective frequency estimates compared with other estimates of familiarity. The raw subjective frequency data for all words are available at
Levelt (2002) argued that apparent effects of word frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) reported in recent picture naming studies might actually be confounded effects operating at the level of object recognition, rather than relevant to theories of lexical retrieval. In order to investigate this issue, AoA effects were examined in an object recognition memory task (Experiments 1 and 2) and a word-picture verification task (Experiment 3) and compared with those found in naming tasks using the same pictures. Contrary to Levelt's concerns, the results of the three experiments show that the AoA effect on picture naming has a lexical origin and does not simply result from a possible confound of object identification times.
Proportion of correct responses as a function of block, recall direction, and phonological similarity in Experiment 1B. Errors bars represent 95% confidence intervals 
Analyses of variance for the combined analyses in Experiments 1-4 
When participants are asked to recall lists of items in the reverse order, known as backward recall, several benchmark memory phenomena, such as the word length effect, are abolished (Bireta et al. Memory & Cognition 38:279-291, 2010). Bireta et al. (Memory & Cognition 38:279-291, 2010) suggested that in backward recall, reliance on order retention is increased at the expense of item retention, leading to the abolition of item-based phenomena. In a subsequent study, however, Guérard and Saint-Aubin (in press) showed that four lexical factors known to modulate item retention were unaffected by recall direction. In a series of five experiments, we examined the source of the discrepancy between the two studies. We revisited the effects of phonological similarity, word length, articulatory suppression, and irrelevant speech, using open and closed pools of words in backward and forward recall. The results are unequivocal in showing that none of these effects are influenced by recall direction, suggesting that Bireta et al.'s (Memory & Cognition 38:279-291, 2010) results are the consequence of their particular stimuli.
In a classic 1978 Memory & Cognition article, Geoff Loftus explained why noncrossover interactions are removable. These removable interactions are tied to the scale of measurement for the dependent variable and therefore do not allow unambiguous conclusions about latent psychological processes. In the present article, we present concrete examples of how this insight helps prevent experimental psychologists from drawing incorrect conclusions about the effects of forgetting and aging. In addition, we extend the Loftus classification scheme for interactions to include those on the cusp between removable and nonremovable. Finally, we use various methods (i.e., a study of citation histories, a questionnaire for psychology students and faculty members, an analysis of statistical textbooks, and a review of articles published in the 2008 issue of Psychology and Aging) to show that experimental psychologists have remained generally unaware of the concept of removable interactions. We conclude that there is more to interactions in a 2 × 2 design than meets the eye.
Learning curves. The four plotted curves show item scoring for free recall with varied presentation order (FR–varied [item]), free recall with constant presentation order (FR–constant [item]), and serial recall (SR [item]) conditions, and relative order scoring for serial recall (SR [order]).  
Associative contiguity effects. The left panels (A–C) show the conditional response probability as a function of lag (lag–CRP) across each of the five study–test trials (columns 1–5) and for each of the three conditions: A1–A5, free recall with varied presentation order (FR–varied); B1–B5, free recall with constant presentation order (FR–constant); C1–C5, serial recall (SR). To further quantify the changes in contiguity effects across trials and conditions, we fit the power function CRP(lag) a | lag | b to individual participant lag–CRP functions. The rightmost panels (D–F) show the mean power function exponents, b, as a function of trial number for each of the three conditions: D, FR–varied; E, FR–constant; F, SR. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.  
Serial position curves. (A) First-trial serial position curves for each of the three conditions: free recall with varied presentation order (FR–varied), free recall with constant presentation order (FR–constant), and serial recall (SR). (B) Second-trial serial position curves. (C) Third-trial serial position curves. (D) Fourth-trial serial position curves. (E) Fifth-trial serial position curves. In all cases, serial position curves are based on item scoring (see the text for details).  
Multitrial free and serial recall tasks differ both in recall instruction and in presentation order across trials. Waugh (1961) compared these paradigms with an intermediate condition: free recall with constant presentation order. She concluded that differences between free and serial recall were due only to recall instructions, and not to presentation order. The present study reevaluated the relation between free and serial recall, using Waugh's three conditions. By examining recall transitions and the organization of information retained across trials, we conclude that presentation order is an important factor, causing participants to exhibit the same temporal associations in serial recall and in free recall with constant presentation order.
Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 but used Swahili–English word pairs instead of obscure facts. Having three test/study opportunities for Swahili– English word pairs enhanced the degree of learning compared with having three study opportunities, but this effect was not significant. Having three test/study opportunities for Swahili–English word pairs significantly reduced the rate of forgetting compared with having three study opportunities. The smooth curves represent the mean of the 44 individual subjects' forgetting curves.  
Subjects were given a test with feedback (test/study) or a restudy opportunity (study) for each fact. Recall of these facts was tested after 5 min or 1, 2, 7, 14, or 42 days; in Experiment 1, recall was tested following just one test/study or one study opportunity (results shown in panel a); in Experiment 2, it was tested following three test/ study or three study opportunities (results shown in panel B). The points represent the average proportion of facts recalled from test/study versus study at each of the six retention intervals. The power function y 5 a(bt 1 1) c was fit to each subject's data to yield a degree-of-learning parameter and a rate-of-forgetting parameter. Having just one test/ study opportunity increased the degree of learning and reduced the rate of forgetting over having just one study opportunity (a), but these effects did not reach significance. Having three test/study opportunities significantly increased the degree of learning and significantly reduced the rate of forgetting over having three study opportunities (B). The smooth curves represent the mean of the 55 individual subjects' forgetting curves in Experiment 1 and the 57 individual subjects' forgetting curves in Experiment 2. in all three experiments, the curve-fitting procedure produced a few extreme parameter estimates for degree of learning and rate of forgetting. These extreme values did not affect the visual display of the graphs, but they did affect the mean parameter estimates. The parameter estimates in the equations, therefore, are medians rather than means.  
In three experiments, we investigated whether memory tests enhance learning and reduce forgetting more than additional study opportunities do. Subjects learned obscure facts (Experiments 1 and 2) or Swahili-English word pairs (Experiment 3) by either completing a test with feedback (test/study) or receiving an additional study opportunity (study). Recall was tested after 5 min or 1, 2, 7, 14, or 42 days. We explored forgetting by means of an ANOVA and also by fitting a power function to the data. In all three experiments, testing enhanced overall recall more than restudying did. According to the power function, in two out of three experiments, testing also reduced forgetting more than restudying did, although this was not always the case according to the ANOVA. We discuss the implications of these results both for approaches to measuring forgetting and for the use of tests in promoting long-term retention. The stimuli used in these experiments may be found at
To investigate the properties that make a word easy to recall, we added to existing norms for 925 nouns measures of availability, goodness, emotionality, pronunciability, and probability of recall in multiple-trial free recall. Availability, imagery, and emotionality were found to be the best predictors of which words were recalled. This result, which is stable across recall data collected in three separate laboratories, argues for the importance of availability as a predictor of recall and questions the role of the correlated variables of word frequency and meaningfulness. Consistent with earlier work on a smaller sample of words, six factors describe the numerous properties of words studied by psychologists. The six factors are composed of variables based on orthography, imagery and meaning, word frequency, recall, emotionality, and goodness.
The face inversion effect is the finding that inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than other inverted objects. The present study explored the possibility that eye movements have a role in producing the face inversion effect. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that the faces used here produce a robust face inversion effect when compared with another homogenous set of objects (antique radios). In Experiment 2, participants' eye movements were monitored while they learned a set of faces and during a recognition test. Although we clearly found a face inversion effect, the same features of a face were fixated during the learning and recognition test faces, whether the face was right side up or upside down. Thus, the face inversion effect is not a result of a different pattern of eye movements during the viewing of the face.
In five experiments, we examined how mental simulation of physical activities affected estimates of one's ability to perform the same activities. In Experiment 1, participants who simulated lifting aheavy object estimated that they could lift more weight than did participants who did not perform the simulation. In Experiment 2A, the frequency with which participants performed the simulation exercises was manipulated. In Experiments 2B and 2C, we manipulated the amount of weight that people simulated lifting in order to address potential alternative explanations of the inflation effect. In Experiment 3, mental simulations were manipulated within subjects. In all the experiments, the simulated events showed inflated estimates, as compared with nonsimulated events. These results were interpreted in the context of the misattribution-of-familiarity account of imagination inflation.
Effects of cognitive abilities on creative and conventional metaphors. The creative metaphor rating indicators are ordinal and, thus, do not have residual variances. Italicized values are not significant at p <.05. Abbreviated indicator labels for the intelligence factors represent the following tasks: Gf1 0 Cattell Series Completion, Gf2 0 Paper Folding, Gf3 0 Letter Sets; Gr1 0 Jobs, Gr2 0 Letter M Words, Gr3 0 “ Good ” Synonyms; Gc1 0 Extended Vocabulary, Gc2 0 Advanced Vocabulary, and Gc3 0 U.S. History. The correlations between Gf, Gr, and Gc were omitted for clarity. The correlation between Gr and Gf was .27, between Gc and Gf was .48, and between Gc and Gr was .38 
Correlations and descriptive statistics
Correlations between the latent variables
Summary of the regression effects
Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.
Structural equation modeling for fluid intelligence (Gf ) from Engle, Tuholski, et al.'s (1999) data set, with structural coefficients. For meanings of the abbreviations, see the note to Table 2. 
Structural equation modeling for crystallized intelligence (Gc) from Engle, Tuholski, et al.'s (1999) data set, with structural coefficients. For meanings of the abbreviations, see the note to Table 2. 
displays the SEM for SR. The model fit was χ 2 (5) 3.49, χ 2 /df 0.70, CFI 1, RMSEA .00 (range, .00-.09). The results show that the structural coefficient of STM over SR is much greater than that of WM (.58 and .09 [n.s.], respectively). When both coefficients were constrained to be equal, the result produced a significant change of fit [χ 2 (1) 9.483, p .002]. Therefore, individual differences in spatial relations are much better predicted by STM than by WM. Figure 5 displays the SEM for PS. The model fit was χ 2 (5) 2.97, χ 2 /df 0.59, CFI 1, RMSEA .00 (range, .00-.08). The results show that the structural coefficient of STM over PS is much greater than that of WM (.67 and .04 [n.s.], respectively). When both coefficients were constrained to be equal, the result produced a significant change of fit [χ 2 (1) 10.684, p .001]. Therefore, individual differences in perceptual speed are much better predicted by STM than by WM. Conway et al.'s (2002) data set: Gf. Conway et al. measured Gf in addition to WM and STM (see the EFA 
Schmid-Leiman (1957) Hierarchical Factor Matrix Obtained From Kane et al.'s (2004) Data Set Measure g F 1 F 2 F 3 
There is great interest in the relationships between memory span tasks and cognitive abilities. However, the causes underlying their correlation remain unknown. In the present article, five key data sets were reanalyzed according to two criteria: They must consider complex span tasks (so-called working memory [WM] tasks) and simple span tasks (so-called short-term memory [STM] tasks), and they must comprise cognitive ability measures. The obtained results offer several points of interest. First, memory span tasks should be conceived from a hierarchical perspective: They comprise both general and specific components. Second, the general component explains about four times the variance explained by the specific components. Third, STM and WM measures are closely related. Fourth, STM and WM measures share the same common variance with cognitive abilities. Finally, the strong relationship usually found between memory span tasks and cognitive abilities could be tentatively interpreted by the component shared by STM and WM--namely, the capacity for temporarily preserving a reliable memory representation of any given information.
This study aimed to evaluate how well fluid reasoning can be predicted by a task that involves the monitoring of patterns of stimuli. This task is believed to measure the effectiveness of relational integration-the process that binds mental representations into more complex relational structures. In Experiments 1 and 2, the task was indeed validated as a proper measure of relational integration, since participants' performance depended on the number of bindings that had to be constructed in the diverse conditions of the task, whereas neither the number of objects to be bound nor the amount of elicited interference could affect this performance. In Experiment 3, by means of structural equation modeling and variance partitioning, the relation integration task was found to be the strongest predictor of fluid reasoning, explaining variance above and beyond the amounts accounted for by four other kinds of well-established working memory tasks.
Semantic priming is typically eliminated when participants perform a letter search on the prime, suggesting that semantic activation is conditional upon one's attentional goals. However, in such studies, semantic activation (or the lack thereof) is not measured during the letter search task itself but, instead, is inferred on the basis of the responses given to a later target. In the present study, direct online evidence for semanticactivation was tested using words whose meaning should bias either a positive or a negative response (e.g.,present vs. absent). In Experiment 1, a semantic congruency effect was obtained, with faster responses when the word meaning matched the required response. Experiment 2 replicated the congruency effect while, simultaneously, showing the elimination of semantic priming. It is concluded that letter search does not affect the initiation of semantic activation. Possible accounts for the elimination of priming following letter search include activation-based suppression and transfer-inappropriate processing.
Two experiments are reported that investigate whether the lexical and orthographic effects typically found in a simultaneous matching task are due to the facilitating effect of linguistic context on letter identification. The first experiment used a delayed matching task (2-sec SOA), with serial incremental display of the letters of the second stimulus (e.g., B, BR, BRA, BRAI, BRAIN). Lexical and orthographic effects were clearly demonstrated when the letters of the second stimulus were displayed rapidly (40 msec/letter), but these effects were absent at a slower speed (400 msec/letter). The same results were obtained in a second experiment, in which the letters of both stimuli were synchronously presented at either the fast rate or the slow rate. These results were interpreted in terms of a multilevel race model that assumes no interaction between levels of processing and attributes the effects to differing degrees of decision-processing lag.
Percentage of action phrases recalled, separately for enactment and verbal learning, for experimental action phrases for which objects were present as cues in one condition but not in the other and for marker phrases that were identical in both conditions. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means. Experiment 1 comprised nonsalient cues: Experimental phrases were office-related; marker phrases were food-related. 
Planned Contrasts Between Conditions Tested in Experiment 2, With Findings 
Verb-object phrases (open the umbrella, knock on the table) are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study (also called subject-performed tasks) than if they have merely been learned verbally (verbal tasks). This enactment effect is particularly pronounced for phrases for which the objects (table) are present as cues in the study and test contexts. In previous studies with retrieval cues for some phrases, the enactment effect in free recall for the other phrases has been surprisingly small or even nonexistent. The present study tested whether the often replicated enactment effect in free recall can be found if none of the phrases contains context cues. In Experiment 1, we tested, and corroborated, the suppression hypothesis: The enactment effect for a given type of phrase (marker phrases) is modified by the presence or absence of cues for the other phrases in the list (experimental phrases). Experiments 2 and 3 replicated the enactment effect for phrases without cues. Experiment 2 also showed that the presence of cues either at study or at test is sufficient for obtaining a suppression effect, and Experiment 3 showed that the enactment effect may disappear altogether if retrieval cues are very salient.
Mean Number of Correctly Recalled Words in Experiment 1 
Themood-congruity effect refers to facilitated processing of information when the affective valence of this information is congruent with the subject’s mood. In this paper we argue that mood may be a sufficient but not a necessary condition to produce the mood-congruity effect of selective learning. Two experiments are presented in which subjects learned lists of words with neutral, positive, and negative affective valences. In the learning task the subjects were instructed to behave as if they were depressed or happy. The mood-congruity effect was indeed obtained. The effect was stronger with subjects who “predicted” the relationship between mood and affective word valence than with subjects who were unaware of this relationship. The results are not simply attributed to task demands, but are interpreted in terms of a model of cognitive processes and people’s knowledge about mood states.
In two self-paced reading experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that information moves backward in time to influence prior behaviors (Bem Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100:407-425, 2011a). In two of Bem's experiments, words were presented after target pictures in a pleasantness judgment task. In a condition in which the words were consistent with the emotional valence of the picture, reaction times to the pictures were significantly shorter , as compared with a condition in which the words were inconsistent with the emotional valence of the picture. Bem Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100:407-425, (2011a) interpreted these results as showing a "retroactive priming" effect resulting from precognition. To test the precognition hypothesis, we adapted a standard repetition priming paradigm from psycholinguistics. In the experiments, participants read a set of texts. In one condition, the participants read the same text twice. In other conditions, participants read two different texts. The precognition hypothesis predicts that readers who encounter the same text twice will experience reductions in processing load during their first encounter with the text. Hence, these readers' average reading times should be shorter than those of readers who encounter the target text only once. Our results indicated that readers processed the target text faster the second time they read it. Also, their reading times decreased as their experience with the self-paced reading procedure increased. However, participants read the target text equally quickly during their initial encounter with the text, whether or not the text was subsequently repeated. Thus, the experiments demonstrated normal repetition priming and practice effects but offered no evidence for retroactive influences on text processing.
Attributes of words can be known even when the words are not currently retrievable. Although repeatedly demonstrated for semantic and contextual dimensions, the evidence is ambiguous for structural characteristics. The present research demonstrates significant above-chance first-letter knowledge across four ordinal levels of retrieval confidence for nonretrieved words-tip of the tongue (TOT), high familiar, low familiar, unfamiliar. Contrary to prior research, there was minimal evidence for syllable number knowledge, even at highest confidence levels. Initial letter recognition in the absence of retrieval resembles the recognition without identification in episodic memory (Cleary, Current Directions in Psychological Science 17: 353-357, 2008), and such implicit familiarity may contribute more generally to confidence assessments of word knowledge in both semantic and episodic memory domains. Furthermore, this outcome suggests that word feature priming in the form of partial phonological activation may occur to some extent for all words during a retrieval attempt, and even for ones that are judged to be unknown.
According to classical dual-route theory, effects of associative priming and frequency on the naming of printed words arise from lexical access and should be weak or absent when word names are assembled prelexically. Assembled naming would be more likely in a shallow orthography, especially in the presence of nonwords. This hypothesis was examined with the shallow Serbo-Croatian orthography. Interactions between association, frequency, and stimulus quality were also examined in both Serbo-Croatian and English. Contrary to classical dual-route theory, both lexical effects were found for naming words in Serbo-Croatian, with or without nonwords. Neither interaction was significant in Serbo-Croatian and only association x quality was significant in English. Discussion focused on (a) the claim that lexical effects on naming in a shallow orthography constitute prima facie evidence against either prelexical phonology or the orthographic depth hypothesis, and (b) the possible factorization of frequency and active associative knowledge in naming words.
After viewing a list of single-word answers to general knowledge questions, participants received a test list containing general knowledge questions, some of whose answers were studied, and some of whose were not. Regardless of whether participants could provide the answer to a test question, they rated the likelihood that the answer had been studied. Across three experiments,participants consistently gave higher ratings to unanswerable questions whose answers were studied than to those whose answers were not studied. This discrimination ability persisted in the absence of reported tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states and when no information about the answer could be articulated. Studying a question's answer did not increase the likelihood of a later TOT state for that question, yet participants gave higher recognition ratings when in a TOT state than when not in a TOT state. A possible theoretical mechanism for the present pattern is discussed, as are relevant theories of familiarity-based recognition and of the TOT phenomenon.
In the traditional Sternberg (1966) paradigm, response latency increases linearly with increases in the size of the positive set (the set-size effect). The results of four experiments converge on the conclusion that this set-size effect depends on a delay before the presentation of the memory probe. In Experiment 1, subjects were required to respond as soon as a repetition occurred in a series of digits. Despite the similarity of this task to memory-search tasks that invariably show set-size effects, there was no increase in response latency with increasing series length. Neither the inclusion of negative trials (Experiment 2) nor the explicit designation of the test digit (Experiment 3) resulted in the typical set-size effect. However, the introduction of a 1-sec preprobe delay (Experiment 4) resulted in a set-size effect of 31 msec/item.
Mean Search Time Per Item (in Milliseconds) and Mean Error Rate (in Parentheses) in Experiment III
Search Time Per Item (in Milliseconds) for Displays With the Critical Item Absent, by Trial Block
The present study attempted to eliminate the word superiority effect found in letter search by holding the target letter fixed across trials. The expectation was that the target would thereby become so familiar and salient that the subject would "see" only that letter during search. Even with the target-letter held fixed (Experiment I), however, search was still faster through words than through nonwords, indicating that nontarget letters had been "seen" as well. Search also remained faster through words than through nonwords when the number of exposures to the target was further increased by having the subject search for the absence rather than the presence of the target letter (Experiment III). In line with the notion of "proofreader's errors," however, search became relatively more accurate on nonwords than on words when it required detection of the "mutilation" produced by substituting an F for an E, e.g., BASKFT, BAKFRY (Experiment IV).
In two experiments, metamemorial differences between prospective and retrospective memory performance were examined. Participants in Experiment 1 were recruited through newspaper advertisements and comprised middle-aged women who experienced exceptional problems in prospective remembering. Experiment 2 involved self-reporters and nonreporters of retrospective memory problems, who were selected from a large population-based sample of middle-aged adults. In both experiments, memory performance was assessed by using a variety of tasks, including five retrospective memory tasks and three prospective memory tasks that varied in level of realism and retrieval support. In both experiments, there were selective differences in memory performance, so that participants who experienced (retrospective or prospective) memory problems showed impaired performance in prospective, but not in retrospective, memory tasks. These findings suggest that memory for future intentions provides a more sensitive task criterion than does memory for past events for assessing individual differences in self-reports of episodic memory problems. Task-specific differences in reliance on frontally mediated executive processes might underlie these differences.
Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.
Illustrations of the Relative-Strength Model and Recovery Threshold 
Ex-Gaussian Fits of Latency Distributions (Figure 2) 
Ex-Gaussian Fits of Latency Distributions for 16-Word Experiment (Figure 8) 
Subjects studied either an 8- or 16-word list and later recalled the items while a voice key recorded each response latency. The trials were partitioned by recall total in order to examine the means and distributions of both latencies and interresponse times as a function of recall total. Each analysis was consistent with the view that an item's absolute strength determines whether it is recalled whereas an item's relative strength determines when it is recalled. In addition, mean latency was effectively proportional to study list length yet independent of recall total. All of the analyses were consistent with the view that the set of study items is sampled according to a relative-strength rule until all items are found and that a sampled item is recovered into consciousness only when its absolute strength exceeds a fixed threshold.
Mean percentage of items recalled during the prejudgment recall test and at final test as a function of the JOL delay, with hypothetical forgetting curves connecting data points within each JOL delay condition.  
For only items recalled during pre-JOL recall: Mean percentage of items recalled during final test (top panel) and median percentage of items recalled during final test (middle panel) as a function of the magnitude of JOL (i.e., predicted percentage likelihood of recall) for items in each of the three conditions (JOL0, JOL5, JOL50). The bottom panel contains the comparison of JOL0 versus JOL5 in terms of the frequencies of participants whose percentage of final recall on JOL0 items was closer to perfect calibration than their percentage of final recall on JOL5 items at a given magnitude of JOL (top row), and vice versa for the second row; the third row expresses the entry in the first row as a percentage of all participants who contributed to the first and second rows; the fourth row contains the statistical reliability of the difference between the entry in the third row versus 50% (the null hypothesis) based on a sign test on the frequencies in the first and second rows; and the fifth through eighth rows contain the corresponding entries for the comparison of JOL5 versus JOL50.  
Mean percentage predicted recall (JOL) and mean percentage actual recall as a function of the JOL delay.  
A version of the PRAM methodology that permits an analytical evaluation of judgment of learning (JOL) accuracy was used for the first time to assess absolute accuracy (specifically, calibration). Results are reported from a new experiment in which Swahili-English translation equivalents were studied, followed sometime later (either immediately, approximately 1 min, or approximately 8 min) by pre-JOL recall and JOLs, and followed eventually by final recall. The calibration accuracy for predicting final recall decreased as the delay between study and JOL increased, with the decrease being most dramatic when only items that were recalled at the time of the JOL were considered. In contrast, relative accuracy (as measured by an overall gamma) improved as the delay between study and JOL increased. Participants appear insensitive to the combined effects of the recallability of the items at the time of the JOLs and of the delay between JOL and testing on the accuracy of JOLs.
Word frequency can produce opposite effects on recognition and order memory: Low-frequency words produce greater recognition accuracy, whereas high-frequency words produce superior order memory. The present experiments further delineate the relationship between word frequency and order memory. Experiment 1 indicates that low-frequency words produce worse performance on a measure of absolute order memory but not on a test of relative order, which is consistent with the idea that different forms of information underlie different types of order judgments (Greene, Thapar, & Westerman, 1998). Experiment 2 contrasted high-, low-, and very low-frequency words on recognition memory and absolute order memory. In comparison with high-frequency words, low-frequency words enhanced recognition, whereas very low-frequency words did not. Both low- and very low-frequency words, however, produced worse memory for absolute order. Thus, the relationship between frequency and item memory is an inverted U-shaped function, whereas the relationship between frequency and absolute order memory is direct. This implies that the item-enhancing effects of lower word frequency may be dissociated from its order-disrupting effects.
Proportion of errors on critical positions that were protrusions in Experiment 2. (Calculated from weighted log-odds, n=17.) 
Evidence suggests that short-term memory for serial order includes information about the positions of items in a sequence. This information is necessary to explain why substitution errors between sequences tend to maintain their position within a sequence. Previous demonstrations of such errors, however, have always used sequences of equal length. With sequences of different length, both transpositions between groups (Experiment 1) and intrusions between trials (Experiment 2) are shown to respect position relative to the end as well as to the start of a sequence. These results support models in which position is coded by start and end markers, but not models in which position is coded in temporal or absolute terms. Possible interpretations of an end marker are discussed.
The question of how novice and expert computer programmers represent and use programming concepts is addressed here. Lines of programming code forming three complete programs were presented one at a time and in random order in a multitrial free recall procedure. Qualitative and quantitative measures revealed clear but different subjective organization in the two groups. The novices used a syntax-based organization, whereas the experts used a more abstract hierarchical organization based on principles of program function.
Department of Educational Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 This study is a report of an investigation of the interaction between imagery ability and processes employed for facilitating recall. The tasks were assumed to involve contrasting processes through the use of imaginal or verbal mediators and concrete or abstract jingles (mnemonic aids) in memorizing two concrete and two abstract lists of 10 words in each list. The dependent variables were latencies in arriving at an association, number of errors and omissions on immediate recall, and number of errors and omissions on delayed recall. The main effects of imagery ability, favoring high imagers, and of kind of lists favoring concrete lists were significant. In delayed recall there was a significant interaction of mnemonic aid and kind of list. Imagery ability interacted with mediators to influence Ss' recall. The results were discussed as supporting Paivio's two-stage association model.
Serial recall of lip-read, auditory, and audiovisual memory lists with and without a verbal suffix was examined. Recency effects were the same in the three presentation modalities. The disrupting effect of a suffix was largest when it was presented in the same modality as the list items. The results suggest that abstract linguistic as well as modality-specific codes play a role in memory for auditory and visual speech.
Top-cited authors
Henry Roediger
  • Washington University in St. Louis
Leda Cosmides
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
Keith E Stanovich
  • University of Toronto
Maggie Toplak
  • York University
Stephan Lewandowsky
  • University of Bristol