Mediterranee

Online ISSN: 1760-8538
Print ISSN: 0025-8296
Publications
The literature on production systems in Italy evokes only rarely the question of international migration and that has led to a rather static approach to notions of territory and local development. Globalization phenomena and foreign presence in a territory have contributed to a reconfiguration of the production fabric in which the migrant has become a central actor as worker, entrepreneur and consumer. Multiple forms of economic complementarity between foreigners and Italians are noted. Italy, which has recently become a country of massive immigration, is a compelling example of the relationship between post-Fordism and international migration.
 
The economic development of Marseille relied on a family-based capitalism whose dynamism came from reinforcement and renewal from the outside. One kin-based structure in particular, the Imer, was important in this regard. This family, who arrived in Marseille in the early nineteenth century from the Jura region of Switzerland, managed to rapidly insert itself into the local economic scene. The Imer family implanted itself through a shrewd use of a double spatial dimension. It grasped the importance of the geographical position of Marseille at the crossroads between the Rhone corridor and the Mediterranean and benefited from its social space in a Protestant merchant class. In the face of economic changes, this family-based capitalism was able to rebound by playing the innovation card. Thus, in the second half of the nineteenth century, these kinship ties played a major role in the beginnings of the petroleum industry. Until the petroleum sector became concentrated in the hands of large multinational groups, the Imer had control of this enterprise that had become the main focus of port activities in the Marseille region.
 
Catalonia’s pioneering role in Spain in the industrialization process expanded beginning in the 1830s when local cotton industrialists began to rely on the use of the steam engine. This new technology, which required the development of a mechanical engineering industry capable of repairing machinery led entrepreneurs tied to colonial trade and the cotton industry to start in 1839 a workshop in Barceloneta. At first they had to depend on the technical abilities of an English engineer who they placed at the head of the establishment. This repair workshop was the forerunner of the Catalan mechanical engineering industry that advanced in the middle of the nineteenth century and which unquestionably contributed to the modernization of the textile industry, though without liberating it from its chronic dependency on outside technology
 
Like the whole of the southern Alps, the strong rural exodus in the Champsaur and Valgaudemar zones brought a major agricultural decline. These changes are manifested in a retraction of tilled land (ager) and a reduced use of pastoral lands. Other major changes in the landscape have been a great increase in wooded cover, lack of hedgerow maintenance, and decline in the range of crops. Agricultural and environmental measures put in place have slowed the effects of agricultural decline, though their landscape impact appears limited.
 
This article presents a history of the concepts and debates surrounding Italian industrial clusters. In the 1970s, sociologists and economists « discovered » this clustering when the economic crisis called into question the social organization of large enterprises. Several firms made decentralization their byword. G. Becattini introduced the terminology and others emphasized the vitality of the small enterprise as part of the small-is-beautiful debate instigated by E.S. Schumacher, G. Fuà and others, which gained wide acceptance. In the 1980s, historians extended these investigations to show the long-standing character of these industrial clusters, but also the specifically Italian nature of the radical changes which intervened in the years 1970-1990 when the number of small and medium firms exploded. The article concludes with a comparison of different clusters and a typology of its « ingredients »: the geopolitical and economic contexts, the social origins of the entrepreneurs, the roles of the local political culture, technology and the market. The clusters have been essential factors in industrial growth and revenues.
 
Les etudes sur le personnel politique local se developpent avec l’analyse des corpus de maires ou de conseillers generaux. Une enquete pionniere a ete conduite en 1986 afin de degager le profil des maires en France, du Consulat a la fin du xxe siecle, grâce a l’etude de 13 arrondissements repartis sur l’ensemble du pays (Agulhon et al., 1986). Notre etude se limite au departement des Basses-Alpes denomme Alpes-de-Haute-Provence a partir de 1970 considere dans son ensemble puis apprecie a l’ec...
 
La Syrie accueille depuis 2003 l'essentiel des Irakiens qui fuient leur pays en proie à l'insécurité et aux difficultés économiques. Les Irakiens s'installent par eux-mêmes dans les quartiers périphériques de la capitale syrienne, où ils se mêlent à la population locale et développe leurs espaces de vie sociale et économiques en exil, bénéficiant d'un statut de résidents temporaires, qui leur offre un asile temporaire, mais les prive de perspectives sur le long terme. Nombre d'Irakiens tentent d'émigrer depuis la Syrie vers l'Europe, l'Australie ou l'Amérique du nord, mais pour beaucoup le séjour en Syrie, à l'origine conçu comme temporaire se prolonge.
 
Over the course of recent years, merchandise traffic between Asia and Europe has recorded strong growth. In this economic geography, the organization of maritime and containerized transportation holds an important role, in particular in the localization and reorganization of terminals. The strategies of the main logistical global operators rest thus on the creation of numerous port terminals. Research attests to a growth of transit traffic volume in the Mediterranean and the Italian port situation is notably dynamic. Policies that draw a line of strategic development should designate among its priorities the port system in the Upper Adriatic where the logistical territorial platform of northeast Italy comprises the port systems of Trieste and Venice and its hinterland. Although at the present time, Italian ports, including those in the Upper Adriatic, suffer from delays in necessary investment, they could become feeder partners of the hub ports. To improve the system, we propose the development of the Piattaforma Logistica Venezia. In the years ahead, it could be one of the port systems of the northern Mediterranean that intercepts merchandise from the emerging economies in Eastern Europe and Asia. Objectives of the platform idea include growth in the value of he logistical system in the northern Adriatic port network; support for the logistical necessities of firms in the Italian Northeast; reuse for productive ends of a part of the expropriations made from the abandonment of industrial functions; and environmental requalification of the Porto Marghera zone.
 
Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and geochrono-logical (14C) analyses of cores from the southwest bay of the rock of Cuma provide palaeoenvironmental information of shoreline changes over the last 4000 years. During the Averno eruption, about 3700 BP, sea-level rise remodelled the rock of Cuma into an active cliff battered by the waves. By the time of the first Greek settlement, about 3200 years BP, a bayhead beach had formed against the southern promontory. Small vessels could be hauled onto the beach face. Up until Roman times, we have little data on local coastal progradation. Between the 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD, the shoreline extended beyond the middle of the bay. The bay hillside and beach were densely occupied, as attest the important remains of maritime villas within a sand dune context, and coarse sediments with anthropogenic remains. On the basis of this evidence, we refute Paget’s (1968) hypothesis which postulated the Roman harbour lay within a lagoon protected by a barrier beach. The final infilling of the bay and shoreline adjustment occurred during the Little Ice Age, due to a rise in the Volturno sedimentary budget.
 
Distribuzione dei depositi "Durece" nell'area di studio. (A) tratti vallivi in cui affiorano lembi residui di Durece; (B) conoidi alluvionali con evidenze di riattivazione durante l'evento Durece; (C) conoidi alluvionali con probabile riattivazione durante l'evento Durece; (D) foci fluviali dove è occorsa progradazione deltizia durante l'evento Durece; (E) affioramenti studiati e in parte citati nel testo.
During the 79 A.D. Plinian eruption, the Lattari Mountains (a carbonate ridge located 20 km south of Vesuvius) were covered by a pyroclastic layer, 1 to 2.5 m in thickness. As demonstrated by widespread remants of the volcanoclastic Durece deposits, rapid erosional processes driven by steep slopes subsequently reworked the soft and loose pyroclastic material leading to (1) tens of metres of valley filling, (2) alluvial fan growth, and (3) fan delta formation. Several archaeostratigraphic records scattered in the study area demonstrate that the reworking and deposition of the pyroclastic deposits occurred over many decades and was followed by a phase of incision. The data collected underline the importance of carrying out careful investigations on the catastrophic impacts of explosive eruptions in areas located several kilometres from volcanoes.
 
L'EXPLOITATION DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DANS LA PLAINE DU FUCINO. 1-plaine du Fucino (dépôts alluviaux et lacustres actuels) ; 2-dépôts détritiques actuels ; 3-dépôts alluvio-détritiques anciens (Pleistocène) ; 4formations silico-clastiques (aquiclude) ; 5-aquifères des roches carbonatées ; 6-stations climatiques ; 7-principales sources ; 8-sources linéaires (apports directs dans le lit des cours d'eau) ; 9-champs de puits pour l'irrigation ; 10-id., pour l'eau potable ; 11-direction de l'eau souterraine.
– GRAPHIQUE DE L'ÉVOLUTION DES CULTURES, EN %, DE 1959 À 1999, METTANT EN ÉVIDENCE LA CROISSANCE DE L'ACTIVITÉ HORTICOLE ET DE LA CULTURE DE LA CAROTTE  
GRAPHIQUE REPRÉSENTANT L'ÉVOLUTION DU NIVEAU PIÉZOMÉTRIQUE DU PUITS ÉQUIPÉ D'UN APPAREIL D'ENREGISTREMENT (PAS DE TEMPS : UN JOUR) Ce puits se trouve dans l'aire de Trasacco, sur la marge méridionale du bassin du Fucino, à proximité des plus importants champs de puits du Fucino : du Consorzio Acquedottistico, du Consorzio de Bonifica, du Nucleo Industriale et de l'ARSSA. Les variations naturelles correspondent à des fluctuations sur un cycle annuel, avec généralement des maxima de mai-juin et des minima de novembre-janvier. À cette périodicité se superpose l'effet du prélèvement pour l'irrigation, révélé par des pics négatifs pendant l'été. La dépression induite du niveau piézométrique détermine des risques importants pour l'environnement : appauvrissement progressif des aquifères, risque de pollution des nappes.  
PHOTO 1-L'IRRIGATION DE LA PLAINE DU FUCINO Le jaillissement des eaux d'un forage réalisé récemment, utilisant des moteurs de tracteurs actionnant les pompes pour l'irrigation. Cliché : E. BURRI, 2002.
Nel 1875, con il drenaggio totale delle acque del lago Fucino e l’inizio delle attività di bonifica idraulica, l’ampia superficie derivata dall’originario alveo lacustre viene destinata, come da progetto, ad una intensiva attività agricola. La riforma, attuata nel 1951 dopo l’esproprio dell’intero possedimento Torlonia, comporterà la ricomposizione fondiaria delle originarie 29.000 particelle esistenti, su una superficie di 11.050 ha. Vennero così create più 9.000 particelle ed assegnate, nella maggior parte dei casi, ad ex-affittuari che già coltivano quelle terre. Se gli effetti positivi della riforma non hanno tardato a manifestarsi, con un notevole aumento del reddito netto, ad esempio, bisogna comunque rilevare che, secondo le più recenti tendenze, l’interesse dei coltivatori si è sempre più spostato, verso colture orticole più redditizie quali la carota, le insalate, il radicchio, il finocchio, il sedano ed altre. A questa soluzione concorrono circostanze favorevoli quali la resa unitaria molto elevata, l’abbondanza di mano d’opera a basso costo e di provenienza extra-comunitaria, la meccanizzazione delle pratiche colturali, l’aumentata capacità imprenditoriale degli agricoltori e la possibilità di ripetere due/tre cicli colturali sullo stesso terreno. Questa tendenza ha comportato due grossi problemi di natura ambientale con l’impiego massivo di pesticidi e fertilizzanti e una richiesta idrica che supera di gran lunga la disponibilità naturale. Le ultime indagini, rapportando il ciclo colturale degli ortaggi con l’utilizzo di alcuni pozzi hanno infatti evidenziato il preoccupante impatto dei prelievi irrigui sulle falde regionali, in termini di abbassamenti piezometrici.
 
The refurbishment of Naples’ historical harbour zone provides an opportunity to replace the Military establishments that are situated there in the citadel zone around the Acton Dock. The latter was built in the second half of the 17th century and a number of additions, such as the basin and the dry dock were added in the neighbouring area throughout the 19th century, when the San Vincenzo Pier was built and which the Navy continued to use. All the military buildings are currently in situ, but are not being used to their advantage. This highlights their potential for civil and touristic purposes, considering their proximity to the town centre. The objective of this article is to evaluate the historical Neapolitan waterfront reconstruction project based on the agreement between the Port Authority and the Architectural and Environmental Surintendence of Naples. This project, based on a historical survey and a thorough analysis of the built-up sea-front and coastal environment, was an appropriate starting point for a completely new reorganization of the citadel and a new connection between the town and the port in the years 2000.
 
This article deals with African refugees and asylum-seekers who have been crossing the border from Egypt to Israel clandestinely in vast numbers since 2005. It is going to look at this situation from both a diachronic perspective, which situates them in relation to non-Jewish migrants to Israel (in particular the former African working migrants) and a synchronic perspective, which examines their specificities in relation to other migrants in Israel today. If the asylum-seekers are integrating into the Israeli urban landscape as well as into the existing communities of migrants, reproducing similar models of territorialization, economic integration and communal organization, they are also demonstrating new forms of visibility in the public space and in civil society and are using a discourse as victims mirroring the Jewish past, which is reconfiguring the Israeli migratory landscape.
 
-Le dème de Trigono et les territoires environnants  
Tableau 1 : Mariages mixtes dans le dème de Trigono (1999-2006)
The presence of Bulgarian emigrants in a rural bordering region of Greece: dimos of Trigono-Evros countyNumerous immigrants (about 15% of the country’s workforce) originating from Asia and Eastern Europe and recently installed in Greece have contributed to the revitalization and restructuring of the agriculture and rural economy while offering solutions to the everlasting problem of the sparse and expensive agricultural labor force. We study a specific form of the bulgarian emigration towards the Trigono municipality, a little greek rural region located near the bulgarian and turkish borders. The migration process is seasonal and organized in the frame of bilateral conventions between states. Following field researches, we investigate the transformations inherited from the immigrants integration into the local agricultural productive systems, the social work organization and generally speaking the socio-economic structures of the rural community. Through an anthropological approach, the everyday relations between emigrants and indigeneous populations are also treated as well as their perceptions and representations of “the other”.
 
This article shows the disregard that agriculture has had within the large natural areas by comparing the measures taken to protect Saint-Victoire and the Alpilles and the consequences of that for the two communes of Puyloubier and Eygalières. Whereas an integrated management plan would increase the value of both the natural site and the farms, pressures in favor of urban development have opposed it. Whereas protection has taken shape in the natural areas, the management of agricultural land has depended on the local actors. Large natural areas protect few agricultural lands.
 
Land Use Structure (2003), by regions
Characteristics of Landholding Households, All Households and Sub-Groups.
Prior to World War II, the majority of Bulgarian farms were very small, fragmented, and produced predominantly for their own consumption. By 1989, however, Bulgarian agriculture was organized in large-scale, mechanized farms, producing for national and international consumption. Many observers expected further radical changes after 1989, with wide-spread distribution of property rights in land, and market liberalization, leading to the emergence of western-style family farms.In this paper, we outline overall changes in patterns of land use, and then use survey data from the World Bank to examine patterns of agricultural land use by rural households. We find a small group of families engaged in limited commercial farming, and a small group which appears to have returned to subsistence agriculture. But the largest share of landholding households carry on the activities developed under socialism : they produce for personal consumption, to supplement some employment income. In conclusion, we consider some factors which might explain the lack of expansion of market production, in the context of unused land and labor.
 
The rise of agrotourism and organic farming in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence has nuanced the general demographic and agricultural decline in this department. These new farms also mark a sociological revolution in which a different rural identity has taken the place of the traditional alpine peasantry and where an agriculturally based professional mobility has made its appearance. A trend now apparent is that this new agricultural orientation is taking the place of conventional agriculture.
 
Lentils, an almost universal legume, are consumed for the most part in southern countries where they are grown or else destined for sale in a highly competitive world market. European agriculture recognizes several differences in this crop, among which is the green lentil of Le Puy which has its own controlled appellation. Also cultivated here and there is the yellow lentil, an item of particular importance on Ustica Island 60 km north of Palermo and also on the basaltic plateau of Saint-Four in Cantal. These specialties, though grown for a limited customers, are well received, for they have a real taste character. Demand for the yellow lentil has also increased the value of the volcanic terroirs on Ustica and in Cantal. Special lentil varieties benefit from the support of the Slow Food movement, an association of Italian origin, which has strived to protect and sustain traditional agricultural products with a reputation for high quality.
 
Nearby the « geographic indications model », sometimes linked to it, other territorial quality initiatives are manifolding, using various references to “terroir” and, more generally, to territory. Based on diversified case studies, we propose to organise this initiatives diversity around three producers and consumers « poles » of expectations and around five territorial quality « models ». Then we precise the reasons why the « geographic indications model » may meet some risks and opportunities : converging or diverging, territorial quality initiatives are continuously changing and each time the place dedicated to “terroir” is reassessed..
 
-Liste des variétés de pêches dans un tableau de Bartolomeo Bimbi (XVII e siècle)  
In order to cataloguing the tuscan traditional agrifood products by ARSIA (Regional Agency for Agricultural and Forest Development) the Rural Land Historical Memory Research Group of the University of Florence has organized a research itinerary about connections between agrifood products and their original land. The main guidelines of this work are: the traditional agrifood products as expressions of economic and cultural connections; the historical memory of rural land as a basic componentof local culture; local culture as the basis of sustainable development processes. In order to increase interest in cultural heritage some itineraries have been organized. Here particularly the Orange of Massa (Province of Massa Carrara) is pointed out.
 
-HOLOCENE FOSSILE SEA-LEVEL INDICATORS BETWEEN ANDRIAKE AND ALANYA  
-BEACHROCK AT THE MOUTH OF RIVER GÖKSU  
FOSSILE CORROSION BENCH AT LARA RELATED TO AN ANCIENT SEA-LEVEL LOCATED 0.5 M ABOVE THE PRESENT ONE
-SUBMERGED ANCIENT QUARRY OF ANDRIAKE  
-HOLOCENE FOSSILE SEA-LEVEL INDICATORS AT GUVERDJINE KAYA (Adapted from DALONGEVILLE et al., 1993 ) 4: Old cemented beach, now a beachrock; 4a : Profile of the beach, linked to the beachrock; 3: Biostrom containing Vermets (1890 ±55 BP), linked to a corroded surface, +0,60 m level; 2: Coating of beach sediments cemented on the surface of the cliff (dated 3590 ±70 BP to 2945 ±55 BP) corresponding to an undefined marine level (+1,20 m ?); 2d: Profile of the dune, associated to the coating of beach sediments; 2m : Profile of the beach, associated to the coating of beach sediments; 1: Biostrom containing Vermets  
Evidence of Holocene shorelines from Kemer to the border of Syria has been previously shown (Erol, 1963; Kelletat, 1975; Dalongeville and Sanlaville, 1977, 1979). In the context of the programme entitled «Evolution of coastal landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean along the last six millennia», Remi Dalongeville gave us the opportunity (Fouache et al., 1999; Fouache, 2001), to revisit this question on the section of coastline between Andriake and Alanya. The objective was to resume an inventory of coastal formations and systematically prioritize three types of markers, the geomorphological markers (notch, beachrock, bench), the vermetid bioconstructions, and the archaeological markers (partially submerged quarries, harbour structures), in order to reconstruct the variations of the Holocene shore. Harbours, both ancient and medieval, are numerous throughout this section of the coast and incompletely studied (Blackman, 1973a and b, 1982a and b). The authors’ study is also an opportunity to try and understand the possible consequences of the relative sea level on the functioning of the better-known harbours.
 
Le câprier est l’une des rares espèces arbustives qui présente autant de qualités avec de nombreux usages. Plante spontanée, xérophyte et héliophile, elle est très répandue dans le bassin méditerranéen. Elle tolère les conditions climatiques contraignantes des zones arides et semi-arides ainsi que des températures extrêmes. Elle peut donc jouer un rôle écologique très utile, dans ces régions, pour la protection contre l’érosion. Mais le câprier est aussi cultivé. Il fournit un condiment recherché, la câpre, qui correspond au bouton floral de la plante. Il est utilisé également comme fourrage, plante mellifère et ornementale. Surtout, il possède des qualités médicinales importantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle. La culture de cette capparidacée remonte à l’antiquité (Noailles, 1965). Ses boutons floraux, ses jeunes pousses et jeunes fruits tendres sont utilisés dans l’alimentation humaine (Couplan, 1986). Au Maroc, le câprier possède une importance économique indéniable. Il est cultivé dans les régions de Fès, Safi et Marrakech. Les câpres en conserve ou semi-conserve sont exportées vers l’Italie, l’Espagne et la France notamment. Le Maroc est le premier exportateur mondial de câpres. En revanche, en Algérie, le câprier n’est pas ou peu cultivé, mais la population rurale algérienne a tissé des liens solides avec cette plante, car elle présente de nombreuses propriétés thérapeutiques qui sont décrites minutieusement lors des enquêtes locales. Les boutons floraux des câpriers contiennent de la rutine très utilisée dans l’insuffisance veineuse (Dorvault, 1982). Le bilan géographique et écologique préliminaire des travaux effectués décrit un schéma écologique qui pourrait avoir une implication dans les domaines de la thérapeutique
 
Comunicación presentada al Coloquio «Les territoires du périurbain des villes de la Méditerranée septentrionale». Aix-en-Provence, 28-30 septiembre 1992, organizado por Centre d’Etudes Géographiques des Transformations des Régions Méditerranéennes, Institut de Géographie, Université d’Aix-Marseille II Los procesos de periurbanización en Alicante y Elche se iniciaron con los años 1960 y desde entonces han mantenido una expansión continua y acelerada; están basados en la industrialización y el desarrollo terciario locales, sobre los que ha confluido una importante edificación turístico-residencial en la franja costera. Se distinguen tres tipologías de periurbanización según morfologías edificatorias y de usos: 1) turístico-residencial en la franja costera, para propietarios locales y foráneos: 2) con viviendas unifamiliares en los espacios no costeros, para propietarios locales; en su mayor parte esta periurbanización ha ocupado suelos agrícolas arbolados; 3) ejes industriales y terciarios sobre las carreteras principales que parten de las ciudades. Les processus de périurbanisation à Alicante et Elche ont commencé aux années 1960 et depuis ils ont poursuivi leur expansión accélérée; ils s’appuient sur l’industrialisation et le développement tertiaire local, sur lesquels une importante édification touristique-résidentiel dans la frange côtière s’est ajoutée. On distingue trois typologies de périurbanisation d’après les morphologies de l’edification et de l’utilisation: 1) touristique- résidentiel dans la frange côtière, pour les propiétaires locaux et d’ailleurs; 2) avec des pavillons dans les zones non côtières, pour les propietaires locaux; dans sa plupart cette périurbanisation a occupé des espaces agricoles arborisés; 3) les axes industriels et tertiaires sur les routes principales qui commencent dans les villes.
 
Localisation du site. Site location and presentation.
Morphologie du profil de Rousty et positionnement des pièges (flèches noires) durant la campagne du 27/02/2001. Rousty profile morphology and traps location (black arrows) during the experiments (27/02/2001).
Forçages météo-marins durant la campagne du 27/02/2001. a) niveau marin ; b) caractéristiques du vent ; c) caractéristiques de la houle. Le grisé indique l'inondation de la plage, les pointillés, les mesures par pièges à sables. Fig.3-Forcing agents during the experiments.a) sea level ; b) wind characteritics ; c) wave characteristics. The grey color indicate the beach flooding and the dotted lines the traps measurments.
Taux de transport sédimentaire éolien pendant une tempête de mer. a) le 27/02/2001 en début de tempête à 6h30 ; b) le 27/02/2001 en milieu de tempête à 12h00. Rate of aeolian sand transport during a storm. a) at 6h30 (beginning of the storm) ; b) at 12h00 (peak of the storm).
Transport éolien annuel potentiel. Les pointillées indiquent l'orientation du rivage (1) en Petite Camargue et à l'est des Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, (2) à l'ouest du Grau-de-la-Dent et (3) à l'est du Grau-de-la-Dent. Annual aeolian theoretical sand transport. The dotted lines indicate the shoreline orientation along (1) the Petite Camargue and the eastern part of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, (2) the weastern part of Grau-de-la-Dent and (3) the eastern part of Grau-de-la-Dent.
This paper aims to define if natural conditions (wind rose and beach morphology) are favorable to dune formation on Camargue beaches under erosion. First, aeolian transport has been measured with sediment traps at the beginning and at the peak of a storm. When the storm starts the beach is not yet flooded and the berm provides sand to the dune. The seaward dune face feeds the landward one. During the storm peak, the beach is flooded and the beach/dune aeolian sand transport is stopped. Second, the annual aeolian transport is further quantified theoretically for landward and seaward directions. Based on the field observations, two methods have been considered. The first one calculates annual aeolian transport and the second one deduces from the first calculation the periods when the aeolian transport is stopped due to the beach flooding. We therefore define an offshore net aeolian transport. We conclude that natural conditions, on the erosional beaches of Camargue are unfavorable to dune formation. These results will have to be integrated into dune engineering projects in order to reduce marine flood effects.
 
Renewed interest has occurred in the railway lines in the southern Alps, long ignored after the automobile gained ascendancy over train travel. Rail has now come back in favor as a result of highway congestion in the Alps. It is recognized that trains remain an efficient public service tool and contribute to the opening up of mountain areas and their economic development by providing tourist services. More unexpectedly, rail service also becomes an element of future multinodal systems in the urban and suburban areas of large coastal agglomerations.
 
This article aims to show how the national parks of the southern French Alps have moved from an implicit rejection of agriculture towards an integrated perspective of that same activity. This evolution was shaped by both the retreat of farming and by the financial and technical support, including the patrimonalization of territorial markers. When Écrins (1973) and Mercantour (1979) national parks were created, the presence of farming in the central zone was perceived as a hindrance to nature protection. This view still remains widespread in certain scientific circles. The farmers, by their fundamental role in maintaining Alpine landscapes and their local economic activity considered «traditional», have gained the support of governmental authorities and managers of protected areas. Public entities have undertaken promotion of pastoral activity. But is that their role and are they competent to do that? Is the admission of local people into the process simply a response to a political objective? With 30 years of agricultural retreat in the two national parks, what appraisal can be drawn of this process?
 
This broad-based analysis classifies land-use in the communes of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence into ager, saltus, and silva expressed in terms of the percentage of communal land cover of each of these three categories. The department territory is cut up into geographical zones of valleys, plateaus, foothills and mountains. Trajectories of change in these zones are defined by taking into account the quantitative importance (length of the trajectory) and qualitative (orientation of the trajectory in multidimensional space). In the nineteenth century, the foothill and mountain zones had similar profiles in which heath land dominated, whereas agriculture (ager) dominated in the Durance Valley and on the plateaus. At the end of the twentieth century, the foothills and mountains kept that same pattern, though agricultural regression tended to make these profiles less distinct. Both spontaneous and planted reforestation tied to demographic decline explain the growth of forest cover in all zones. Agricultural intensification and the decline in the number of farms have concentrated economic activity in the valleys and on the plateaus.
 
Before writing his « Tableau de la géographie de la France (Introduction à l’histoire de France by Ernest Lavisse, 1903 », Paul Vidalde la Blache, traveled up and down the territory of France, notebook in hand, from north to south and from east to west. Between 1888 and 1907, six of his nine trips to Provence were focused on the southern Alps from Pelvoux to the Maritime Alps and from Montgenèvre Pass to the opening of Mirabeau. Several emblematic landscapes described in Vidal’s travel notebooks are examined here to show how he gave his major attention to the study of human-environment relationships and how he laid the bases for what would later become the analysis of terroirs.
 
The Austrian economist J.A. Schumpeter (1883-1950) has well explicated how territories carry the marks of “creative destruction”. They are, over time, theatres where two concomitant processes are inextricably tied together: the decline of traditional activities and the potential rise of new activities. The fact that these two dynamics are not synchronized confers, in general, a painful character to the economic changes in these territories that are part of the long-term regional memory. Since the end of the “Glorious Thirties” the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region (PACA) has not escaped this lack of economic synchronization. If a number of traditional activities have since been eclipsed, other emerging activities have been slow to take over. Among the latter are those tied to information and communication technologies. Whether the situation in PACA is a mirage or a true revolution in the making, this article attempts to assess the situation and suggest realistic prospects.
 
Following a spectacular decline over two centuries, vineyards in the southern Alps have taken on a new lease on life. New perceptions have emerged as part of the larger evolution in French wine growing. The mountain environment has contributed to the definition of wine type and authenticity to the product. By learning to know their terroirs, grape-growers have gained a new awareness of viticultural potential in this region. In this connection, the «social construction of nature» elaborated by the New Zealand geographer Warren Moran has offered a new kind of understanding about viticulture.
 
SYNTHÈSE DES PRINCIPALES DIVISIONS SOCIOSPATIALES DES VILLAGES PÉRIURBAINS. La restructuration sociale s'accompagne d'un processus de disparités sociospatiales des catégories professionnelles, des revenus, et des modes de vie.
Data sets from the general population census (INSEE, 2004) are used to study the distribution of socio-professional elements in villages on the urban fringe. This effort demonstrated the emergence of social and behavioral differences below the level of the commune that revealed much about the identity, function, and sociability of these villages. By analyzing communal «neighborhoods», questions are raised about the new relationships of village space, the socio-spatial mix, impoverishment, and the sociability of the countryside.
 
-Carta geomorfologica in scala 1:5.000 (equidistanza 1 m) e Digital Elevation Model (equidistanza 0,2 m) dell'area dell'Abitato antico di Pontecagnano.  
-schema dell'evoluzione morfosedimentaria e dei rapporti stratigrafici dell'area dell'Abitato antico di Pontecagnano.  
-Schema riassuntivo degli eventi morfosedimentari indotti dal clima e dall'uomo durante l'Olocene. Confronto con i periodi di Rapido Cambiamento Climatico (RCC) nei record ad alta risoluzione di Mayewsky et al. (2004).  
The ancient settlement of Pontecagnano (7th-3rd centuries B.C.) was built up on the travertine plateau overlooking the Sele river on the NW sector of the alluvial-coastal plain. Motorway construction works brought to light archaeological remains of an ancient urban and suburban settlement. Archaeostratigraphical records dated between the late Pleistocene and today have been elucidated. The geomorphological and archaeo-tephro-stratigraphical study, coupled with palaeoenvironmental analysis, allowed us to outline the evolution of the environment during the Holocene. The environmental changes have been mainly induced by human activities, during the 7th -3rd centuries B.C., by land reclamation. During other periods of the Holocene the environmental changes can be attributed to climatic variations and, secondly, to the impact of the distal products of Neapolitan volcanic eruptions on geomorphic systems.
 
This paper presents geomorphological, sedimentological and geoarchaeological evidence of multiple tsunami impacts on the Aktio headland (NW Greece). Numerous vibracores revealed high energy event deposits most of which were accumulated on terrestrial sites on top of erosional unconformities. The tsunami sediments, up to 3 m thick, mostly consist of middle to coarse sand and include gravel and marine shell fragments. Both badly sorted and well sorted, laminated event deposits were observed. In several places, an intersecting palaeosol unit documents repeated tsunamigenic influence after a phase of weathering and soil formation. Underwater studies offshore Aktio headland showed that the Plaka palaeo beach ridges, including its beachrock base, out of beachrock was destroyed by tsunamigenic wave activity. Dislocated beachrock fragments with a maximum diameter of 60 cm were encountered on Aktio headland up to 2.5 km to the west of the in-situ beachrock unit in elevations up to 3.15 m a.s.l.A series of 14C-AMS dates and diagnostic ceramic fragments found in vibracores allow to reconstruct several tsunami landfalls. Around 2870-2350 cal BC, a major event hit the entire headland. Parts of the study area were probably affected by further tsunamis around 1000 cal BC and 300 cal BC which are known to have hit the adjacent Lefkada coastal zone. A mega tsunami struck the Aktio headland around 840 cal AD. The minimum height of the tsunami surge is estimated at 6m. Further tsunami landfalls occurred during the last 700 or so years. The results document an extraordinarily high tsunami risk for the study area.
 
Maritime transport is facing up to a new stage of liberalization and deregulation that forms an innovative network of distribution, storage and services. Maritime companies and port operators have made headway in the processes of grouping firms and in geographical centralization. This greater concentration forces ports to redefine their scope of activities. The new functions and the largest integration of logistical operations with the other modes of transport contribute to the transformation of territorial economies. These movements have an impact on the new trajectories of governance and partnerships between public and private actors in Europe and Latin America.
 
SITE LOCATIONS AND GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK 
LATE QUATERNARY TYPE SECTIONS IN THE CENTRAL, NW AND NE NILE DELTA. 
ALEXANDRIA AND ABU QIR SITES A, Site II, submerged structures (see arrows) in Anchoufy Bay and NE sector of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour (after JONDET, 1916). B, Site III, submerged royal quarters, 3 ports (P), and small topographic highs (STH) in Alexandria's Eastern Harbour (after GODDIO et al., 1998). C, Canopus (modern Abu Qir) where some coastal features (site IV) on kurkar limestone base are now submerged. D, Sites V and VI, eastern Canopus and Herakleion, once along the Nile's Canopic channels and near the coast, now lie at depth (5-7 m) in Abu Qir Bay (after STANLEY et al., 2004). 
CENTRAL AND EASTERN DELTA SITES 
DIAGRAM SHOWING ELEVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HORIZONS AT BASE OF SITES (FROM GREEK TO EARLY ARABIC; ~600 B.C.E. TO ~750 C.E.) RELATIVE TO PRESENT MEDITERRANEAN MSL. Note those below MSL on the Nile delta margin proper (V-IX) and some on adjacent sectors (II-IV). Eustatic sea-level rise proper accounts for ~1 m of submergence (dotted line) since early Roman time. However, most sites record occupation layers >1 m below MSL, thus indicating additional component of submergence by subsidence, i.e. lowering of the sediment substrate beneath settlements. 
Ancient sites originally positioned along the Nile delta’s coastal margin are used as gauges to measure effects of «eustatic» sea-level rise (~1 mm/year) and land lowering (= subsidence) of the sediment substrate beneath settlements during the late Holocene. The combined effect of these two factors, referred to as relative sea-level change, resulted in submergence and/or burial of the base of most sites along the delta at variable rates exceeding 1 mm/year. Based on these factors, submergence of sites to depths of 5-7 m is recorded in Abu Qir Bay off the NW delta; higher values (lowering to 5 mm/year) are recorded along the NE corner of the delta. Variations of substrate topography laterally along the delta margin are caused by differences of seismicity, isostatic depression, and sediment compaction and remobilization that affect underlying deposits. Geologically recent lowering of the northern Nile delta plain surface is comparable to that of many world delta margins.
 
Two sediment profiles in the ancient harbour of Marseilles were investigated for their Pb concentration and isotopic composition. Sediments dated from the Roman Period show a large increase of Pb concentration and a shift in the Pb isotope ratio. This is an evidence of a Pb pollution in the harbour by the surrounding metallurgical activities. The origin of the Pb used at this time determined by the Pb isotopic composition is probably a mixture of French and Spanish Pb.
 
Diverse fonti storiche testimoniano la fiorente attività marittima dell’antica città di Tindari. Esse, pur citando l’esistenza di un porto, non forniscono tuttavia alcuna informazione dettagliata circa la sua effettiva ubicazione, estensione e configurazione. Poiché una città strategica come Tindari non poteva non essere dotata di un sicuro e ben strutturato approdo per le proprie imbarcazioni, abbiamo esaminato nuove fonti d’informazione con l’intento di localizzare l’antico sito portuale.I solchi di battente sia emersi sia sommersi rilevati lungo le coste del promontorio di Capo Tindari e la presenza di alcuni anelli da ormeggio, indicano consistenti variazioni del livello del mare. Questi elementi sono stati impiegati per ricostruire la paleotopografia di Capo Tindari e della pianura costiera di Oliveri al IV sec. a.C.. Tale ricostruzione ha messo in evidenza la presenza di un possibile approdo ben protetto dai venti di traversia nella zona a SE di Capo Tindari
 
Between the plastic sea of the Costa del Sol and the sea of olive trees on the Jaén campiñas, the Andalusian countrysides around the Betic mountain chain have seen considerable agricultural abandonment. In rather stark contrast to the coastal dynamism, this Andalusian mountain zone has economically lagged and to survive must seek new opportunities for development. In this regard, an emphasis on “authentic products of the terroir” seems particularly hopeful. Spaniards and other Europeans increasingly respond to traditional or very special products from this zone. In an attempt to conquer new markets, mountain communities have solicited governmental assistance, pursued the development of controlled appellation, and learned modern methods of information gathering.
 
Top-cited authors
Panagiotis Maheras
  • university of thessaloniki
Alberto Craievich
  • Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia
Silvia Enzi
Chiara Bertolin
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Dario Camuffo
  • Italian National Research Council