Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

Online ISSN: 2039-2117
Publications
Article
One of the most important choices of students in their lives is undoubtedly the choice of the university they want to attend. The orientation of young people is a strategic resource which is expressed in many activities that in turn aims at training and enhancing the ability of students to know themselves, the living environment, socio-economic and cultural changes, deals training, being protagonists of a personal life project and participate in the study, family and social life in an active, equal and responsible way.Improper orientation brings with it serious consequences for those who have less support, especially in cases of expulsion from educational system. In their choice of university courses is good to avoid referring only to return to school or especially concentrating on grades in academic subjects. It should expand the vision to discover the tendencies and the vocation of the person, and then his/her desire to face challenges ahead.
 
Article
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory has been among the theories innovating English Language Teaching since the period of the 70s and 80s. In this paper, the literature of Multiple Intelligences theory and its benefits on learners’ learning cognition, motivation, interaction and achievement are reviewed.Besides that, types of language learning activities and classroom activities to accommodate to learners’ Multiple Intelligences are presented.
 
Article
The research was able to observe how the words used by Hesiod systematically describe Typhon as a hybrid uncontrollable entity, characterized by ubri~, and by a great power, expressed in furious violence. In particular, it could be observed how the ofiomorfic appearance of the entity, as well as the voices emitted from its many heads, qualify its distinctive features, both for the immeasurable size and polymorphia, and for its emotional instability, driven by uncontrollable impulses and unable to domain its passions.This aspect reflects perfectly the opposition to Zeus, the deity who, over the tale told in the Theogony, qualifies himself for his connections to, which the mhti", that is a pondered and thoughtful thought, aimed at succeeding at practical action.
 
Article
Since the mid 1900’s, economist have come to recognize the role of innovative activity in firms productivity growth, particularly in the competitive market economies. However, the most conducive market environment for innovative activity has also become a subject of interest. Thus, a major constraint on industrial dynamism in African countries is said to be the dearth of indigenous entrepreneurs. This paper therefore argued for the provision of comprehensive innovation policy, in which the government supports the innovators by providing appropriate financial measures; removing regulatory, institutional (competitive) obstacles to innovation; and strengthening the knowledge base through investment in education, research and industrial sites in Africa.
 
Article
Although entrepreneurship as a process has been present for centuries, entrepreneurship as an academic area of study has been introduced recently. And, like other economic and social disciplines it does not have clear-cut borders. Instead it overlaps, draws upon, complements and includes other areas of study including business and management, sociology, psychology, economics, finance, and public policy. This is a multidisciplinary research study among Albanian and Macedonian students in Macedonia with the aim to study the development of entrepreneurship in Macedonia, to observe factors that are triggering and fueling entrepreneurial mindsets and what makes people want to become entrepreneurs with socio-demographic characteristics, especially ethnicity and cultural differences, of the students interviewed under review (gender, age, level of education completed, occupation, parents’ occupation and locality –urban or rural)
 
Article
Negative attitudes towards foreign cultures among certain categories of people in majority Islamic countries are often the result of their representations of the Other, their conception of alterity, of their identity and the relation between them, their vision of the implications of the confrontation with/or coexistence of different cultures in the same physical space or through mediated spaces. These representations have become a culture in its own right, giving birth to a categorisation of people within the same society and of peoples of the world. This paper will attempt to reveal the way this culture dichotomy operates and will analyse the mode its ideological base defines the dichotomy of alterity/identity. It will also suggest directions of reflexion towards the possibilities of forging a counter-culture which can stand as a new form of liberating discourse.
 
Article
Book Review, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Contro l’Unità d’Italia, Articoli scelti, Torino, Miraggi Edizioni. ISBN 978-88-96910-06-1Il prossimo anniversario del cento cinquantenario dell’Unità d’Italia rappresenta un’importante occasione per riscoprire le radici della nostra identità, offrendo la possibilità di uno sguardo nuovo, una nuova attenzione che sappia andare oltre la celebrazione retorica, per ripensare il Risorgimento e individuarne quegli elementi fondativi di un comune “senso di appartenenza nazionale e popolare”. La ricchezza e la complessità del moto risorgimentale italiano si sviluppano all’interno di una rivoluzione libertaria che attraversa tutta l’Europa ed è solo nel quadro più generalmente europeo che se ne coglie il duplice carattere di movimento nazionale e insieme questione internazionale
 
Article
The audit committee’s responsibility to effectively oversee the integrity of the financial reporting process has become a mandate of the capital markets in the aftermath of the sweeping changes affect corporate governance. However, in Iran it is not mandatory to Iranian corporation to conducting audit committee.The results of current study shows that the major reason for non-existing audit committees is individualism culture among the Iranian audit practitioners, centralization trend of Iranian managers, and lack of legal force respectively.
 
Article
Financial sector plays a pivotal role in the economic development. It is generally agreed that a strong and healthy banking system is a prerequisite for sustainable economic growth. Banks in Pakistan havebeen undergoing major challenges in the dynamic environment over the past few years. In order to resist negative shocks and maintain financial stability, it is important to identify the determinants thatmostly influence the overall performance of banks in Pakistan. This study aims to give the analysis of the determinants of top 10 banks’ profitability in Pakistan over the period 2004-2008. The focus is on the internal factors only. This paper uses the pooled Ordinary Least Square (POLS) method to investigate the impact of assets, loans, equity, and deposits on one of the major profitability indicator return on asset (ROA). The empirical results have found strong evidence that these variables have a strong influence on the profitability. However, the results show that higher total assets may not necessarily lead to higher profits due to diseconomies of scales. Also, higher loans contribute towardsprofitability but their impact is not significant. Equity and Deposits have significant impact on profitability.
 
Article
This article explores the McDonaldization of banking operation in Nigeria. In doing so, it brings to light a critical analysis of the increasing rationalization process in light of a developing economy. McDonaldization thesis has generated serious academic debate since it was introduced by George Ritzer the American sociologist in 1993. However, it has received seldom attention among Nigerian scholars and none to my knowledge has applied it to examine the banking industry which is invariably the most McDonaldized sector in Nigeria. This article therefore, draws on the thesis to explore the increasing rationalization process the sector is undergoing since consolidation and recapitalization exercises began in 2005. The article argues that the sector is McDonaldized and this has engendered efficiency, predictability, calculability and control. The article further argues that this McDonaldization process inevitably has led to increasing negative impacts of McDonaldization and concludes by pointing out some remedies.
 
Percent distribution, Rank order, Mean and Standard Deviation of following
Pooled Least Square Dependent Variable: ROA
Values of Tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) for ROA
Figures
Article
This study aims to show how Caryl Churchill, a woman feminist playwright has played a significant role in contemporary literary studies. Churchill’s plays mostly illustrate the oppression of women in patriarchal societies.By illustrating these subjugated and oppressed female characters, Churchill strikes the attention of the audience and make them to criticize the established social and economical norms.The blatant abuse of women in male dominated societies had resulted in a continuous struggle by them throughout history who fought for equal opportunities as they attempted to improve their positions in the society they lived in. In this regard, in researcher’s opinion Churchill also illustrates some subverssive characters among these oppresed women that although cannot change the present situation, they defy the conventional norms and challenge for their rights. This study places its crucial lens on portraying these impressive female characters in Churchill’s selected plays, Vinegar Tom (1976), Cloud Nine (1979), and Top Girls (1982). It also aims to focus on social construction of gender in the characters of these selected plays.
 
Article
In today’s competitive environment Human Resource Management has become a valuable part of each organization especially for banks because HRM policies are directly linked with the overall performance. The main purpose of the paper is to study the recruitment and retention policies implied by the public sector of Pakistan.By deep analysis of problems and challenges study suggest the implementation of various policies to become an employer of choice. Previous studies on recruitment and retention have been performed mainly in western context. The distinction of this paper is that it studies recruitment and retention practices merely in public sector of Pakistan. The paper proposes a conceptual framework linking various psychological factors and strategic HRM perspectives, examining how various strategies adopted by firms help in image building and recruiting and retaining talented employees. Hypotheses were developed with the help of framework. The study was conducted in 20 branches of NBP in Faisalabad and a sample size of 100 was selected. Five point likert scales were used to get the responses. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to know the relationships o variables and at last bi variate test was applied to conclude.
 
Article
Dividend policy is among the most important unresolved issues in modern corporate finance. Several researches have tried to solve the dividend puzzle yet, the results are inconclusive as to what determines the optimal dividend policy. Present study has analyzed the impact of firm’s age on its dividend policy. Using the financial data of 120 companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), Pakistan during 2002 to 2007, this study has explored the non-linear relationship of company’s age with dividend policy. A cubic form of model has been designed by using age, age-square and age-cube as independent variables while controlling for leverage and profitability. The estimated results are consistent with maturity hypothesis and free cash flow hypothesis. The study also supports the impact of trade cycle on dividend policy of listed companies of Pakistan. The results are robust to the alternative proxy of dividend policy i.e. dividend intensity.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of finance within the corporate strategy. In dealingwith the process of geographical decentralization of the activities of the value chain, every company isin contact with different areas, each of which may require different ways of interaction. Theinteraction can take place with the creation of a constructive dialogue between stakeholders withdifferent cultures and behavior and may allow the central structure to assess the exact dynamics oflocal situations and to improve the dynamics of financial processes, so over time the finance functionhas changed its purpose considering the overall uncertainty and specificity of local.
 
Article
This study investigated age differentials in the perception of women towards family stress. Thedescriptive survey design was used and a total of 200 women were randomly selected from two publicand private secondary schools and the Ministry of Education in Port Harcourt Municipal Area inRivers State of Nigeria. The research instrument used was a researcher- designed ‘Family StressQuestionnaire’. Simple percentage and ANOVA inferential statistics were used in data analysis. Thestudy revealed that there was a statistical significant difference among women of various age groupsin their perception of family stress (F-cal. = 17.03; p<.05).Specifically, Duncan’s Multiple Range testshowed that the women in the age range of 51-60yrs and 61 years and above were significantlydifferent in their perception of family stress from those in the age range of 25-30years; 31-40 yearsand 41-50 years. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that the younger womenbe counselled on issues relating to family stress before marriage, by employing pre-maritalcounselling. Using group and individual counselling techniques, counsellors should assist womengenerally in being assertive and to imbibe right attitudes that will help them cope with stress in thefamily.
 
Article
This paper addresses the dynamic of Albanian migration during the last decade, focusing mainly on the dichotomy of push-pull factors, the migratory project and brain-drain trends. The one of the country, migration has only scarcely and economic development of research and academic debate in Albania.What has been said op to now on Albanian immigrants in Italy, mainly by press and media, had mostly been based on the accredited images and not on the fielde-research on the presence and contribution of immigrants to the country, labour market and society.This paper aims to: i) study the behavior of Albanian migrants, related to the creation, sending, amount and the usage of rimesses and to discover their new features; ii) provide information on the flow of rimesses of legal and illegal international migrants, and on the factors affecting them; iii) provide the respective findings for the studied issues, and give some recommendations on that bass.
 
Article
The thesis of this article is that the Lisbon Treaty is one of the main factors that push the European and European candidate countries universities to rethink about a common reorganization in the years to come. Higher education is doubly affected by the local post-1989 transformations and by more profound and more long-lasting global transformations. So, the Lisbon Treaty is considered as one of the key forces that will push the Albanian and European Higher Education institutions to be the key factor of implementation of the treaty requirements directly to the students that are the future of Europe changes.A brief summary of related literature review and some qualitative data collected from an in-depth interview with 45 university students of private and public universities will be analyzed. Among all traditional factors that determine the possible implementation fields of the Treaty the author finds that the factors like the teaching of democratic and transparency feelings and thoughts, common efficiency of European universities, the promoting of European rights and values, freedom, solidarity and security and the notification of European universities as an actor on the global stage are statistically important.
 
Percent distribution, Rank order, Mean and Standard Deviation of following
Pooled Least Square Dependent Variable: ROA
Values of Tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) for ROA
Figures
Article
Intelligence plays a great role in one’s life. This study was conducted with the objective to investigate the differences between self-perceived multiple intelligences of male and female.Results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference between self-perceived verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence of the male and female and there is no significant difference between self-perceived musical, bodily/kinesthetic and naturalistic intelligence of the male and female.On the basis of the conclusions it was recommended that students should be explicitly trained and they should provided different opportunities so they may have equal chance for the development of each intelligence, Female should be encouraged to participate in learning activities drawn around logical/mathematical activities, students may be provided both for male and female students with appropriate feed back without discrimination between male and female, Further researches may be conducted to further investigate difference between male and female self-perceived intelligence.
 
Percent distribution, Rank order, Mean and Standard Deviation of following
Pooled Least Square Dependent Variable: ROA
Values of Tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) for ROA
Figures
Article
This study is dedicated to describe Globalization from a language planning perspective. It also discusses how language planning can be used to provide a theoretical framework for Globalization. The nature of globalization will be examined in terms of, consequences, problems and solutions, among many other factors.In order for these objectives to be achieved, the researcher goes through the following definitions: Language planning definitions, globalization definitions, presentation of an accounting scheme for the study of language planning. This latter is meant to improve our ability to describe, predict and draw generalizations concerning Globalization.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to analyze the Mediterranean as an aquatic area that for centuries has united different people and cultures together in one story. The methodology consists of the analysis of historical documents of the different archives in west Europe, that shows complex stories with witch connect ancient links of the East.The long transition from feudalism to capitalism represents the background for the action of important personalities, that for the realization of their political and military projects confront themselves with other players and the enemy par excellence, represented by the Ottoman Empire. The War is an integral part of the society of the old regime, both for the conquest and the defense and, in this framework, it is extremely useful to reveal the story of important leaders, such as Mattia Corvino, Scanderbeg and many other on the eastern quadrant, which outlines the traits of Mediterranean where there are not only factors of unification, but also issues of division.Migration, with the cultures that bring, it fits into the larger context of the national heritage of different people, which remain in the literature and poetry, music, dance, a wealth of great significance attesting ancient cultural mergers that introduces imagination and memories of all. In this prospect, as in other cases, including war, it gave rise to occasions that have consented different people to build a great deal of a common history
 
Article
In the course of functioning of firms the uncountable set of variants of use of factors in various combinations is supposed. Diversification of combinations is caused by scientific and technical progress and a condition of the market of factors of production. Scientific and technical progress and technical revolutions lead to occurrence new (interchanged) factors and a new product. Possibility by means of the factor as a result increases to produce a product so much, how many it is necessary for compensation of the factor and an additional product which is not necessary for factor compensation. This additional stock of a product, as a matter of fact, is an additional product. With its production probably further increase in production. The conclusion from here follows: the best use of incomes of production is a condition of the further increase in its scales, a condition of expansion of reproduction. Thus, as a result of connection of factors of production work products, set of material benefits are created. The quantitative relation of volume (weight) of the received product to the work spent for its production, characterises labour productivity. Important problem at studying of factors of production of their influence on efficiency of production systems is the problem of an optimum combination of factors of production. © 2015, MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All Rights Reserved.
 
Sustainable livelihoods framework  
Views from the focus groups
Levels of education AmaZizi  
Article
In terms of the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA), sustainable livelihoods are achievable by the presence of five specific capital assets including human capital. This article shows that human capital needs to be expanded beyond education, training, skills and health. The research was conducted in one rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using triangulation as well as target and random sampling methods, the study aimed to: (1) identify the capital assets of the people in that area; (2) identify the barriers that they still faced in taking an active role in the local tourism economy after a few years of democracy, and (3) also identify the economic opportunities that the local people could exploit. During the research it was found that young people had clearer and profound views about their conditions than the rest of the community members in terms of age differences. Based on the interviews with different categories of local community members, the article argues that young people in particular have clearer views about their conditions of poverty and unemployment. The article concludes therefore that age is critically fundamental in the realisation of sustainable human capital. In this regard, biological age should form part of the human capital component of the SLA. © MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research.
 
Article
Relevance of this research is caused by the lack of studies dedicated to the problems of interethnic contacts with the neighboring regions in the pre-Mongol Bulgaria era. The aim of this article is to summarize the data received during excavations in recent years, which testifies to the existence of ethno-cultural ties of the Volga Bulgarians from the lower Kama region with the Turkic, Ugric and Finn-Perm population. New material allows defining the extent of participation of each component of unique culture in medieval population of the region. The particular interest is paid to the role of the XVIII ethno-cultural group of ware for the Finn-Perm population (on T.A. Khlebnikova's classification). This group of ceramics appeared in the Volga Bulgaria in the XII century. Research data on archaeological settlements of the East Kama region of the pre-Mongol period represents considerable interest related to studies of ethnic composition of population of the Volga Bulgaria and nearby territories. Results of the research can be useful for experts studying the problems of interethnic contacts of the medieval population of the Central Volga area and the Urals. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s5p291
 
Article
Sama is very important and fascinating practice of Sufism. Many of the early Sufis of the tenth to twelfth centuries were firm advocates of the Sama. They tried their best to prove that Sama is Islamic. For them Sama is one of the key modes for obtaining the divine union, solace and spiritual realization. This article is an attempt to shed light on the authenticity and validity of Sama as presented the writings of the leading Sufis of the tenth to twelfth centuries. This article will also explore the different degrees of Sama. It will discuss the activities and features which (according to the early Sufis of tenth to twelfth centuries) make Sama unlawful, and also explore the response of the same Sufis toward the neophytes, novices or common people who indulged in Sama. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s1p286
 
Article
Teachers’ conceptions of the Nature of Science (NOS) are central to their instructional decisions and classroom practices. This study aimed at exploring beliefs and understanding of the NOS from a grade 11 Physical Science teacher in relation to her classroom practice. It focused on a single teacher, Ms Seperepere (pseudonym) working in a rural school in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data on her conceptions of the NOS were gathered using open-ended questionnaire and lesson observations. The analysis of data indicated that Ms Seperepere held fairly mixed views of the NOS that were also reflected in her classroom practice. The study recommends the NOS to be taught explicitly to student teachers and in-service teachers so as to enable them acquire informed views of NOS. With informed views of the NOS, teachers will be able to design and implement their lessons to promote knowledge and skills in scientific inquiry, understanding of the NOS and the application of the scientific knowledge; as stipulated in the South African Physical Science curriculum. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n2p247
 
Article
Problem Statement: Blacks in North America have been oppressed, discriminated against and marginalized for over four hundred years. While there have been social polices enacted by various world governments in attempts to stem the tide of the oppression of Blacks and other minorities, these forms of oppressions continue, are practiced and reproduced by individuals and systems in the United States and across the world, albeit insidiously. Approach:The oppression of Blacks is not the issue here, for that remains in suspended animation, with the discovery and construction, since the unfortunate September 11, 2001 events of America’s“New Blacks” represented by Muslims, Arabs, Asians and “Others.”Results:Using interlocking oppressions and empowerment theories embodied by Critical Race Theory, the study explores post 9/11 social policies and their unsavory impacts on the lived experiences of Muslims, Arabs and “Others.”Conclusion:It also attempts a reconnaissance of prosocial resistance skills and strategies to deal with the upsurge and continued profiling, singling-out and marginalization of this population by polices that having primarily been designed to protect America and Americans from further acts of terror, amplify, reproduce and sustain the emasculation of minority populations in and outside of the United States.
 
Article
The article aims to analyse the results of the implementation of extra-curriculum classes of mnemonics, logical reasoning, and analytical reading in primary school. The results of children who went through the course are compared against the results of those who did not. The results show a considerably more serious competency level of children who took the classes. Reasons of success of them are scrutinized. A system is described in detail, examples of exercises and games are provided. Author offers a list of techniques for teaching. Structure of the course is included. Criteria for results evaluation is offered. A cognitive model of transformation of visual memory into logical reasoning is proposed. Author describes the psychological principles that underlie mnemonics and reading strategies of children and puts forward a cognitive model of dimensional memorisation as well as dimensional comparison. The author seeks to explain the qualitative difference between innovative approach of teaching children to memorise specifically and the old approach, by which this skill is not taught and accepted as natural. The article lends credence to the theory of strong connection between cognition, memory and intellect. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s1p159
 
Article
The study investigates the relationship between grade 11 students’ achievement in trigonometric functions and their teachers ‘content knowledge of trigonometric functions. The aim was to know if students’ poor achievement in trigonometric functions was as a result of teachers’ lack of content knowledge of the topic. All participants wrote the same cognitive test that was aligned with the relevant curriculum. Pearson product moment index showed a statistically significant relationship between student achievement and teacher content knowledge and linear regression analysis indicated that 76.8 % of the variation in the student achievement is explained by teacher content knowledge. The study affirms the importance of teacher content knowledge in student learning. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n4p443
 
Article
This article proffers a critical discussion on the right to basic education in South Africa. It argues that access to basic education is society’s crucial developmental aspect. Further that minimal or lack of commitment and respect for education largely impact adversely on the realization of Millennium Development Goals, and constitute a recipe for disaster in any country. The article is a product of distress subsequent to a dismal experience resultant from a failure by Limpopo Department of Basic Education to honour and carry out its obligations of providing and delivering textbooks. Provision of textbooks to schools constitute state’s non-derogable duty which is indispensable in reinforcing the transformative ideals of the Constitution, that aid the commitment of realizing the right to basic education and uplifting societal literacy. It is argued that nationwide workshops and campaigns ought to be carried out in view of propagating for respect, care and commitment to deliver quality basic education to the populace. Further that there exists a desperate need for a reinforced system that ensures quality leadership and accountability for the progressive realization of this essential right. The South African Constitution, other legislation, international instruments, articles and case law were utilized in the completion of this article. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p1120
 
Article
To date there are many different hypotheses about the socio-ethnic background of Egyptian Mamluks. Lately, research has been taking place that only connects the ethnic origin of Mamluks who ruled the lands of Egypt and Syria during XIII-XV centuries and sultans of that era such as Baybars, Qalauin, Qaitabai to only a single present-day nation’s history and that only connects the language of written medieval manuscripts of XIII–XV centuries, when Mamluks were in power, with only one present-day nation’s language. In order to understand who were the Egyptian Mamluks and to clarify the ethnic composition of Kipchak and Circassian Mamluks attention should be paid to their language which is a component of the ethnic conception. And to figure out the language of the Mamluks who ruled Egypt and Syria during XIII-XV centuries a comprehensive study of the language of the manuscripts must be carried out. In our opinion, the ancient medieval manuscripts written in Kipchak language should be considered as a common heritage of all Turkic people. Taking into account, that language materials in ancient Kipchak language had been preserved in present day Kipchak language, we can say, that the written manuscripts in Mamluk-Kipchak language have a great role in research of social, ethnic, political-social, literary-cultural, total civilizational and linguistic histories of the modern Turkic people, particularly Kazakhs, Karakalpaks, Nogais, Tatars, Bashkirs, Qarays, Karachay-balkars, Kumyks, Crimean Tatars, Crimeans, Kyrgyz and people of the Altai of Kipchak group. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s1p575
 
Article
Of issues that in its attention to gender differences is religion and spirituality. Factors causing stress is different in men and women; Men on economic issues and employment are high sensitivity and lack of job security, economic and endanger their mental health and women most of spirituality and religiosity are emphasized. Method of the present study is causal - comparison of the events. The population of this study consisted of all students male and female between the ages (10-13 years) are ILAM of which there are 13704 people of the people according to the formula Cochran, 373 people for example in this study we have chosen. Data collection tools included Spiritual (PULUTZIN and Ellison) Perfectionism Scale (Hall et al), Aggression Scale (EYZENCK and Wilson). All data software SPSS and the test t (independent) and chi-square test were analyzed. The results showed that between spiritual health and perfectionism and aggressive behavior there is a significant difference between male and female students and also between age and education with the spiritual, perfectionism and there is aggression. Results showed that between spiritual health, perfectionism and aggression is a significant difference between the groups (boys and girls) there. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in well-being be sure to factor such as social structures which determine the psychosocial and behavioral factors to be considered. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s6p186
 
Article
The cross-border business of insurance could be undertaken and carried out on the basis of two freedoms of the internal market – freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services. To use these two freedoms by insurance undertakings applied also, as well as the insurance directives of the European Union, that were previously in force, the directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the taking-up and pursuit of the business of insurance and reinsurance (the Solvency II directive; OJ L 335, 17.12.2009, p. 1). The use of freedom of establishment on the insurance market could rely, in particular, on the establishment of a branch or a subsidiary of the insurance undertaking in the member state other than home member state of an undertaking, on the basis of the single license obtained in home member state. The aim of the study is, first of all, an indication of uncertainties and interpretational doubts, which may affect the use of freedom of establishment in the internal market by insurance undertakings and, secondly, to show the amendments that have occurred in the field of regulation of cross-border establishing branches and subsidiaries by insurance undertakings on the basis of directive 2009/138/EC in comparison with similar provisions contained in first-generation and third-generation insurance directives. The scientific method that has been applied is based on the logical-language analysis of the legal text of directive 2009/138/EC in the field relating to freedom of establishment and on the comparative analysis of these provisions and the relevant provisions of first-generation and third-generation insurance directives. The results of the study lead, firstly, to a conclusion that the cross-border branch establishment by an insurance undertaking is not free in the strict sense. The directive 2009/138/EC in this respect imposes numerous obligations on insurance undertakings. Secondly, through Solvency II directive there has been followed amendments of legal solutions little in terms of editorial, though significant from the semantic point of view. The analysis has also led to put numerous questions reflecting the interpretational doubts. The result of the attempt to answer these questions has become the formulation of de lege ferenda demands aimed to eliminate the interpretational doubts and to improve the functioning of provisions concerning the insurance market as a part of the internal market of the European Union. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n19p661
 
Article
The war on perception has been dominated the worlds political, and Malaysia are not excluded. Being the most populous advanced and wealthy state in Malaysia, Selangor provides ideals demographic representation of Malaysian society at large. This study aimed at understanding the issue that influenced Selangor voters to cast their votes in Malaysian 13th General Election, and thus charting new strategies for future election. In doing so, eleven issues are carefully selected and analysed. Using quantitative design with survey technique, this study involved 1,015 randomly selected respondents that representing 56 states constituencies and 26 parliamentary constituencies. Results are presented and further discussed. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1s1p44
 
Article
In 12-13th Century, the Legend of Holy Grail’s Knight in Europe such as Perceval in France and Parzival in Holy Roman Empire were appeared and spread. Since then they were known only the Chivalry story in Europe, not so related in international situation at the time like "the Crusades". However, my viewpoint stands that those stories of Legend were very close and strong influenced by Crusader Battle Situation and Movement on Knights of Crusade from Europe to Middle East, Africa, Asia as real history. In the same Century, one of the famous European House of Andechs Meranien ruled important Crusader’s routes and key-areas having root of the Grail Knight’s story in Europe. Finally, I wish to point out that House of Andechs Meranien conducted and supported Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II as the ideal “Holy Grail’s King” whose ability and spirit was very multicultural and global under mutual prosperity and peace beyond the dogma of Crusades as antagonism toward religion. Therefore, he could enter peacefully in Jerusalem as King like Legend of Holy Grail’s Knight. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n10p160
 
Article
Considering the social events and collective protests that have emerged in the international and national public sphere and more specifically the movement “To hell with the Troika! We want our lives!” – a social movement that started in June, 2012, against the Troika and the measures of the Portuguese Government, and which was responsible for the organization of the demonstration of the 15th September 2012, in Portugal, as well as in other cities in the country and in Europe, spreading in social digital networks and leading to subsequent public demonstrations, we propose a study concerning the current protest movements and the new forms of public mobilization, once activism has increased in electronic links (net activism) and on the street. Revisiting the conceptions of public sphere as a common space related to the notion of living-together, as publicity and visibility (Arendt), as a form and an event (Quéré) and as a space of meeting, accessibility and movement (Joseph), we, thus, intend to discuss the following issues: the public space as a place of collective action (Cefaï) and civic mobilization (Rouet); the importance of digital social networks in the new forms of communication – in relation with the modern public space (Habermas) - and the analysis of the movement of the 15th September in the light of Tillly’s perspective on social movements. It is also our aim to understand whether these new forms of organization, mobilization and acting in public are distant, or not, from traditional social movements and if we are facing the emergence of new public spaces. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s5p425
 
Article
The year 2012 was a historic one for the ruling African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa. The party started the year by successfully celebrating its 100 years on 8 January 2012 in Mangaung (Bloemfontein) and ended it by hosting the 53rd National Elective Conference in the very same city on 16-20 December 2012 at the University of the Free State (UFS) Bloemfontein Campus. Despite of all the leadership and policy challenges the party was faced with ahead of this conference, in order to bring remarkable changes within itself, its leadership tried to mastermind this national elective conference in a professional way. This study analyses the leadership contest and the results of this conference by highlighting the tensions that existed between the supporters of the two candidates vying for the president’s position. Furthermore, it scrutinises the emergence of slates within the party, a phenomenon that divided it into two contesting groups, namely, the Jacob Zuma’s camp (which supported his second term as President of the ANC) and the Kgalema Motlanthe’s camp (popularly viewed as ‘Regime Change’ group). The latter campaigned for preventing Zuma from getting a second term. This leadership division and contest within ANC prior and after the Mangaung Conference had both the social and political consequences for the South Africa electorate. Critical issues confronting the ANC, which include among others, the status of the party’s post the Mangaung Conference will be discussed. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n3p591
 
Article
The aim of this study is to identify the negotiation of boundaries between the social identities of gender. This process focuses on the prevailing perceptions of the social role of the man and the woman. It attempts to identify the different reasons for seeking divorce between men and women and the integration of these differences in a social context and determine the qualitative characteristics of the gender ratio of women and men that is articulated by the invocation of divorce. This research has a historical character and focuses on the period from 1647 to 1923 and is realized within the Ottoman Orthodox Christian communities and the divorces issued by these. This study uses content analysis to examine divorces. The most significant source of data collection, for the content analysis, constituted published and unpublished Codes of Metropolises from the Ottoman Christian communities, such as the Metropolitan Codes of: Larissa:1647-1868, Mytilini:1705-1773, Veria:1825-1862, Triikalon:1828-1865, Moglenon & Florinas:1901-1909. The process of divorce was a different function of the Spiritual Courts within a predetermined law. Issues, like alimony after the dissolution of marriage, dowry cases, disputes arising as a consequence of dissolution of marriage or betrothal, are listed in the Codes of the Spiritual Courts. In this study, the gender is used as a social and cultural construction. Also, it is argued that the social gender identity is formed through a process of ‘performativity’, namely, through adaptation on the dominant social ideals. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n22p515
 
Article
The aim of this paper is to explore and review the role and contribution of Elbasan city in the well-known cultural and musical tradition of Albania. Referring to documents, this tradition dates back in the 16th century with the creation of the first musical bands, characteristic of that time, known otherwise as fanfarat or tajfat. During Ottoman invasion, especially during the 16th-17th century, oriental influence on Albanian folk music has been quite evident. Some musicologists think that this impact has been more evident especially in the music of the middle part of Albania. It needs to be emphasized that this influence has not been absolutely strict, since in most songs it appears either as a collaboration or a parallel version. After the 17th century in Elbasan, as well as in its surrounding regions, there was born folk music, firstly as the music of beano, and later on as a typical civic folk music accompanied by the orchestra. Ethnomusicologists think that prior to folk city music, there used to be country folk music, in the north eastern part of Elbasan, in the villages around Zaranika estuary, where old songs were sung, and very soon they were spread even in Elbasan. Meanwhile, by the years 20s and 30s of the 20th century in Elbasan there was spread civid folk music whose founders were the trio of: Isuf Myzyri, Leksi i Vinit as well as Mustafa Bodini. Folk songs of Elbasan belong to the musical style of the middle part of Albania; since they are sung in the dialect of Elbasan, they are considered as the civic folk songs of Elbasan. There needs to be highlighted that even during the first half of the 20th century, a great role in the musical and cultural tradition was played by the social and patriotic clubs, such as “Bashkimi” (1908), “Drita”, Vllaznia (18 April 1908) as well as the creation of patriotic society known as “Afërdita”. The latest one, in 1917 reestablished a musical band as well with the same name “Afërdita”, which existed before. This band besides various marches, it used to play hymns too by using wind instruments, folk music not only in Elbasan but even in other towns in Albania. The band “Afërdita” functioned until the early years of World War 2. Received: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
 
Article
Moqim Khani biography written by Mohammad Yousuf Monshi who dedicates to Transoxiania and Bukhara Khani history of the 16th century and 18, it is one of the most important manuscript sources of middle age, Valuable materials of this work is on the history of Transoxania and Bukhara Khani enjoy a special place. An area dominated by Cumania plain nomads, was a land at the top of Amir Khan who Sunni Muslim faithful performed the next and main role. They had crucial positions in State sovereignty and in the political structure of Transoxania there were other positions that it could be offered, including "Begay Divan was a position they served as advisers and secretaries of state. Butterflies or the peaks of the King" which were flagship in the verdict and other various positions such as, Koukeltash, equerry, secretaries and scribes, and so on could be cited. In general, political and administrative structure of Transoxiania and Bukhara Khani in the 16th century to the 18th and comparing this information with the handwriting and credible source in the accuracy of the contents presented by a researcher is rare and new, the hope is that the attention of historians and researchers interested in the history of Transoxania and Bukhara Khani be mentioned at this juncture. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n2s2p187
 
Article
Given the importance of service quality in service organizations, this article attempted to analyze the impact of perceived quality of electronic services on user satisfaction with the provided services. To do this end, a questionnaire was designed and implemented to measure the satisfaction level of electronic services provided by Social Security Organization. It should be noted that the mentioned questionnaire was based on diverse dimensions of quality of electronic services offered in the form of a conceptual model (including usability, information quality and service interaction). This research was a survey study and it made use of a random sampling method thereof. Having collected data from a sample of 250 users of electronic services of the Social Security Organization (Branch 17) as well as doing correlation and linear regression tests, it was indicated that the perceived quality of electronic services has had a statistically significant and positive impact on user satisfaction with these services. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n3s3p402
 
Article
The Stabilization and Association Agreement raised a lot of obligation for Albanian State. This act does not impose only the necessity of approximation of the legislation, but also the obligation to establish real and effective institutions. This article analyzes the institutions on consumer protection provided by law “On consumer protection”. Only these authorities are in the focus of this article. It does analyze the other institutions that protect consumer, which are established or ruled under each law that offers protection to the consumers. The author offers a general view on the competences and the composition of them, ruled from this law and some others. Along the whole article, the authors give their conclusions and the recommendations on the role and the importance of these institutions in the field of consumer protection. The whole analyze of all the institutions that operate in the field of consumer protection will be part of another article. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n16p108
 
Article
Aim. Elite level soccer players cover about 10 km during a 90-minute game. Although running is the predominant activity in soccer, explosive movements such as sprinting, jumping and kicking are important for successful performance. The aims of this study were to determine the technical skill ability, aerobic- and anaerobic fitness of elite male under-18 African soccer players; and to determine whether a relationship exists between the technical skill ability and aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Methods. One-hundred-and-sixty-nine (n=169) elite male under-18 soccer players from eleven African countries participated in the study. Technical skill ability (dribbling, crossing, shooting, passing) was assessed using four soccer-specific tests. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness was measured through a 20-metre multi-stage shuttle run test and a repeated sprint ability test respectively. Results. The results showed that VO2max level (47.71 ml·kg-1·min-1) was much lower than indicated in literature (60 ml·kg- 1·min-1). An average total distance of 704.36 m was recorded for the repeated sprint ability test. A positive correlation was found between dribbling and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Results indicated differences among various playing positions with forwards producing best performance in the passing and shooting skills test, forwards and defenders possessing the highest level of aerobic fitness and goalkeepers displaying the lowest level of aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Conclusion. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness influenced the players’ ability to dribble. The African soccer players generally have a lower level of both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p1704
 
Article
Nowadays the life is constantly changing and human being more than any other living organism, is subject to change. Human being as a social organism recognizes the importance and value of these issues. Sometimes these problems cause disorders in human life and distort mental health. This study aimed to investigate mental health of Gerash's women and social factors that affect it by navigational method and by using questionnaires and interviews were conducted among 250 individuals. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS statistical software. According to the results of the variables of families interfering in matrimony life, participation in decision-making at home, housework sharing and number of children have a significant relation with mental health of women. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n4p557
 
Article
The domestic violence is a bitter reality of all humanity e a phenomenon which has taken worrying dimensions for the society. The domestic violence is increased during last years not only as phenomenon with social, economic and psychological consequences that impacts significantly the human rights.The extended transition has created more social and economic issues on all democratic societies, but in our country it is not ended for a long time. The democratic system remains unfulfilled with the special legislation in this area, central and local institutions are weak, or are not at the right level to take appropriate measures to reduce the violence of domestic violence, but it is associated with the difficult and problematic transition that our country has had. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n3p36
 
Article
In this article there is considered the problem of a standardization of testing the level of physical fitness of girls students. At current the method of testing is one of the main methods of pedagogical control of the level of physical fitness of exercisers’. In this case, the tests are the motor task, the results of which performance is evaluated the level of development of motor skills that form the basis of physical fitness person. One of the criteria that determine the accuracy of the estimate is the coefficient of reliability of the proposed test. It was found that the coefficient of reliability of motor tests can be improved by standardizing testing. Standardization is the rules and procedures of the various tests and associated actions. The article presents a method of testing for the five motor tests that are part of a comprehensive test battery to assess the level of physical fitness of girls students who not involved in sports: jogging 10 minutes; flexion and extension arms in emphasis lying on the lap in 30 seconds; raise the trunk in 30 seconds from a prone position on his back, arms at your sides, feet are not fixed ( hands-free ); "dislocate" with straight arms back with gymnastic stick; bending forward, standing on a gymnastic bench. The article also discusses the methodology of mass testing of 954 students in accordance with the requirements of standardization. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s7p265
 
Article
The article deals firstly with the studying of Thomas Moore creative power in the context of the development tendencies of Russia literature in 1820-1830-years. It was also noted the Irish Melodies influence on the appearance or the Irish theme in the country periodicals and intensification of free-thinking motives in Russia poetry. There were also disclosed reasons of the eastern tale «Lalla Rouch» popularity in Russia which were corresponding to the blossoming of the Russian romantic orientalism and to the tendencies of the romantic poets investigation of the national originality by means of taking into account folk-lore and ethnography. In spite of the fact that the majority of early Thomas Moore translations into Russian were prosaic and were not done from the original works but from French middle translations the poetic works of the English author has become widely famous in Russia which can be proved by the appearance of reminiscences and traditions of Thomas Moore creative work in Russia romantic literature and including T. Moore poetry into the programme of educational establishments. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n2s4p105
 
Article
The article comprehends circumstances of the appearance of a wide range of translated articles (mostly anonymous, in some cases with the names of F.Eckstein, Th.Show) in the Russian press in the 1830 – 1850-s in which a general characteristics of the English dramatist Christopher Marlowe’s creative work in the context of his epoch was presented for the first time. It also gives short opinions of Christopher Marlowe which appeared in the 1840 – 1850-s in the articles on literary criticism and publicistic articles, created by the leading Russian writers I.S.Turgenev (“Faust, a Tragedy. Goethe’s Work. The Translation of the First Part and Summary of the Second One. M.Vronchenko. 1844. Saint-Petersburg”, 1845), N.A.Nekrasov (“From the Editor”, 1850), A.V.Druzhinin (letters XXIII and XXV of the cycle “Letters of the Nonresident Subscriber”, 1851; an introduction to the translation of Shakespeare’s “King Lear”, 1856). The article presents the experience of Christopher Marlowe’s creative work study in the history of Russian literature of the second part of the XIXth century allowing to comprehend circumstances of genesis and development of interest to his creative work among Russian writers, translators, literary critics, literature researchers, art critics, explain his poetic’s elements penetration into Russian literature and culture. In the process of the analysis the articles of the given period devoted to the development of Elizabethan drama are taken into account; the use of these materials allowed to comprehend Marlowe’s works in important for their understanding historical and literature context. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s3p391
 
Article
How did treaties, entered into with the aid of Britain, the effective penetration of the Nigeria’s geo-political space? British control and spread into the hinterland from Lagos and from the lower reaches of the Niger was achieved through the effective employment of the instrument of treaties. The eventual British colonial acquisitions in Nigeria were preceded by a treaty-making phase during which the powers signed agreements with the local authorities to formalise their interests. These were the same documents (i.e treaties) that were conceived to establish political claims thereafter and defined Nigeria’s geo-political boundaries. The paper argues that colonialism presented the effective manipulation of British designed treaties for the furtherance of British trade and commerce. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p1946
 
Article
In South-Italy the brigandage is a complex phenomenon, deeply popular and culturally reactionary: a “great brigandage” emerged in dangerous and structural forms after the fall of the last Bourbon king and the Italian unification under the Savoy dynasty, in 1861. From the “Mille” expedition and the conquest of redshirts leaded by Garibaldi, the Southern Army and the Italian Army fought against the brigandage as a real insurgency movement supported by Bourbons’ loyalists and Catholic environments. In the campaign of banditism’s repression a particular case was the employment of volunteers, as the former Garibaldi’s Hungarian Legion. From the General Staff Army’s Historical Archive the documents show both Command’s strategy and local tactics in the Hungarian practices. The concentration of the legionaries in Nocera (March 1861) and the growing number of effectives in few months (less than 1 thousand) gave the opportunity of their employment for more than 1 year in a large area of Southern regions. The Hungarian legionaries’ mutiny, in July 1862, rised at the same time of the Garibaldi’s expedition from South to Rome, blocked in August at the Aspromonte. After the disarm of the soldiers, the calling back to Torino meant the risk of his dissolution. Only a complete reorganization, in 1863, allowed to employ back a new Legion until 1867.
 
Article
Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong was a religious scholar and a Malay fighter feared by the British colonialists. British had regarded him as a rebel. He was more known to many as a religious teacher, as well as a successful trader and entrepreneur. The present study investigates Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong’s struggle with a focus on three objectives. Firstly, he defended the rights of the settlers and the people of Terengganu from further being governed by the British power. Secondly, he adopted the approach of religious studies to the people, title defence through the Court ruling, opposing to the colonial power through the spirit of Jihad and defending the politics of the state by means of the legislation. Thirdly, he ennobled the Sultanate institution and gave an undivided support to the state administration. A qualitative approach by analyzing available documentation from Public Record Office, Terengganu, is employed to reveal the aims of this study. It is highlighted that defending the people had been the central cause for Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong’s struggle. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s1p281
 
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Jamil Anwar
  • COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus
Mesay Sata Shanka
  • Université Internationale de Rabat
Miftachul Huda
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Mulyadhi Kartanegara
  • Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Uğur Gündüz
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