Medieval Archaeology

Published by Maney Publishing
Print ISSN: 0076-6097
Publications
THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.
 
Danevirke is revisited, aiming at a more differentiated and comprehensive understanding of the monument. The archaeological evidence is interpreted more or less independently of the written evidence, as a reflection of the organisational practice of a changing society. This approach harnesses Danevirke's potential as a material reflection of a long-term development of military and, through this, socio-political organisation. The main questions are what the archaeological record implies for the socio-political background of Danevirke, and the constitutional character of the many different societies and institutions behind each stage of its construction. A further issue is the changing relationship between Danevirke and Hedeby/Schleswig, and its implications regarding the process of urbanisation. The proposal is that Danevirke involved many different forms of centralised leadership, depending on varying historical situations, different military-strategic challenges and the different resources and diverse objectives of the leading promoters behind its construction. The results therefore help to shed light on a decisive phase in the evolution of S Scandinavian society. German Danewerk neu entdeckt: Eine Untersuchung zur militärischen und soziopolitischen Organisation in Südskandinavien (700-1100 n. Chr.)Danewerk wird mit dem Ziel eines differenzierteren und umfassenderen Verständnisses der Anlage neu untersucht. Die archäologischen Beweisstücke werden mehr oder weniger unabhängig von den schriftlichen Beweisen als Abbild der organisatorischen Praxis einer sich verändernden Gesellschaft interpretiert. Diese Methode macht sich Danewerks Potential als materielles Abbild einer langfristigen Entwicklung von Militär und darauf aufbauenden soziopolitischen Organisation zunutze. Die Hauptfragen sind, was die archäologischen Belege für den soziopolitischen Hintergrund von Danewerk und den konstitutionellen Charakter der vielen verschiedenen Gruppen und Institutionen hinter jeder Konstruktionsphase andeuten. Ein weiterer Punkt ist die sich verändernde Beziehung zwischen Danewerk und Hedeby/Schleswig and ihre Auswirkungen in Bezug auf die Urbanisierung. Die Vermutung ist, dass das Danewerk für viele verschiedene Arten zentralisierter Führerschaft steht, je nach historischen Situationen, unterschiedlichen militärisch-strategischen Herausforderungen und den verschiedenen Ressourcen und Zielen der hinter dem Bau der Anlage stehenden Protagonisten. Die Ergebnisse helfen, Licht auf eine entscheidende Evolutionsphase der südskandinavischen Gesellschaft zu werfen. French Réexamen du Danevirke: étude de l'organisation militaire et sociopolitique en Scandinavie méridionale (de vers 700 à 1100)Le Danevirke est réexaminé de manière à en donner un aperçu plus différencié et exhaustif. Les vestiges archéologiques sont interprétés plus ou moins indépendamment des traces écrites, en tant qu'image de la pratique organisationnelle d'une société en pleine évolution. Cette approche exploite le potentiel du Danevirke comme reflet matériel du développement à long terme d'une organisation militaire et par ce biais, d'une organisation sociopolitique. Ce qu'il faut se demander surtout, c'est ce qu'impliquent les vestiges archéologiques en ce qui concerne le contexte sociopolitique du Danevirke et le caractère constitutionnel des nombreuses et diverses sociétés et institutions qui ont entrepris chaque étape de sa construction. Il faut également s'interroger sur l'évolution des liens entre le Danevirke et Hedeby/Schleswig et ses implications au niveau du processus d'urbanisation. Nous faisons l'hypothèse que le Danevirke a fait intervenir de nombreuses formes différentes de pouvoir centralisé, qui ont évolué en fonction de la variation des situations historiques, des différents enjeux militaro-stratégiques et des ressources et objectifs divers des principaux instigateurs de sa construction. Les résultats contribuent à éclairer une phase décisive de l'évolution de la société en Scandinavie méridionale. Italian Ritorno al Danevirke: indagine sull'organizzazione militare e socio-politica nella Scandinavia meridionale (dal 700 al 1100 d.C. circa)Viene riesaminato il Danevirke, al fine di ottenere una comprensione più differenziata ed esauriente del monumento. Le testimonianze archeologiche vengono interpretate più o meno indipendentementeda quelle scritte, come riflesso della pratica organizzativa di una società in evoluzione. Questo approccio ferma il potenziale del Danevirke come riflesso materiale di uno sviluppo a lungo termine dell'organizzazione militare e, attraverso questa, di quella socio-politica. I quesiti principali si imperniano sulle implicazioni del dato archeologico per il retroterra socio-politico del Danevirke e sul carattere costituzionale delle molte diverse società e istituzioni presenti in ogni stadio della sua costruzione. Un'altra questione è rappresentata dall'evoluzione del rapporto tra il Danevirke e il centro di Hedeby/Schleswig, e le sue implicazioni relativamente al processo di urbanizzazione. Si ipotizza che il Danevirke riunisse molte forme diverse di comando centralizzato, a seconda delle situazioni storiche, delle sfi de militari-strategiche e delle diverse risorse e obiettivi dei principali promotori della sua costruzione. Pertanto i risultati contribuiscono a far luce su una fase decisiva nell'evoluzione della società scandinava meridionale.
 
TRANSFORMATIONS in the form and layout of castles and palaces have long been foci of study for architectural historians and, more recently, for archaeologists attempting to ascribe meanings to those changes. In tandem with historical studies of court life, such analyses have highlighted the growing complexity, of royal palaces from the 12th to the 16th century and the extent to which royal apartments, particularly those of kings, were affected by the development of administrative departments and court ceremonial. This paper, focusing on the apartments if of queens consort, which have received less attention, undertakes an examination of these 'facts' and trends by analysing routes through buildings and their decorative treatment. It reveals that queens' apartments were isolated from public buildings and from ceremonial routes through palace complexes. Alongside the paucity, of female imagery, particularly in halls, such patterns appear to be the architectural manifestation of restricted access to power.
 
AN EXCAVATION was undertaken during 1993–4 on a site at Low Fisher Gate, Doncaster. Urban archaeological deposits of 11th- to 18th-century date, together with evidence of an earlier course of the River Cheswold (the southern arm of the River Don), were uncovered. The excavations were among the largest ever to take place within Doncaster. Among the most significant finds was a riverside revetment, made from re-used portions of two medieval clinker-built boats. These have characteristics not recorded elsewhere which may represent features of a now lost, South Yorkshire boatbuilding tradition. This type of find is still rather rare and the Doncaster timbers add to knowledge of the variety of local vessels and construction features present in the medieval period. The rolls of fibrous material used to waterproof the vessels were also of interest for comparison with similar finds from England and Norway. The boat timbers have been fully conserved and are now on display in Doncaster Museum.
 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigations during underpinning works at 17 Dean's Yard, Westminster (Westminster School) revealed a deep sequence of medieval land-reclamation deposits overlying middle to Late Saxon alluvium and basal sand and gravel. The site lies within the area of the medieval Abbey precinct and also within a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site. The foundations of the present building were found to incorporate re-used stonework, possibly derived from earlier monastic buildings associated with Westminster Abbey close by to the north. The site was reclaimed from the peripheral marshy edge of Thorney Island in the High Medieval Period, though dumping to raise the ground level was undertaken as early as the mid-12th century. The discovery of a partial donkey skeleton in an alluvial deposit at the base of the stratigraphic sequence is of national and intemational significance, being the first Late Saxon example of this species found in the country to date. Documentary sources suggest that the cloister area was heavily damaged by fire in the late 13th century and rebuilt in the 14th under Abbot Litlyngton. 14th-century gothic stone mouldings were found in an early post-medieval demolition deposit.
 
A Watching brief and limited excavations of the mid- to late 1950s and early 1960s on a medieval pottery production site near Falkirk is reported on. The large assemblage of redware pottery is described and discussed by vessel-form, and a link suggested between the kiln site and the Knights Hospitallers at Torphichen Preceptory based on the decorative style of the pottery. The excavated kilns are also discussed in the context of the Scottish medieval pottery industry.
 
EXCAVATIONS ADJACENT to the church of St Dochdwy in Llandough, near Cardiff, examined part of a large monastic cemetery. In all 1,026 inhumation burials were examined, by far the largest Early-medieval burial population so far recovered from Wales. Sherds of imported Bii amphorae were found in the backfill of five graves indicating activity at Llandough in the late 5th or 6th century. Radiocarbon dates indicate that burial had commenced by the mid-7th century at latest, and it appears that the cemetery continued in use until the demise of the monastery in the late 10th or early 11th century. A Romano-British villa lay to the south of the church, and it is conceivable, although unproven, that there was continuity of settlement from the Roman Period onwards.
 
Recording, geophysical survey and a watching brief undertaken between 1996 and 1999 at Pill Priory, a Tironian house founded near Milford Haven in the late 12th century, have together considerably increased our knowledge of what was hitherto a little-understood site. With its mother-house, St Dogmaels Abbey, and sister house on Caldey Island, Pill belongs to the best preserved group of the order's British houses. It appears to have been of moderate size and to have exhibited a fully developed conventual plan based around a cruciform church, of which only the chancel arch and part of the south transept now survive. The north wall of the north transept was revealed during sewage-pipe excavation in 1996–7, and the nave and chancel wall-lines were observed as geophysical anomalies in July 1999 as was a detached building, possibly an infirmary. The east and south ranges of the conventual buildings were selectively adapted as domestic accommodation during the 16th–19th centuries but elements of the medieval fabric still survive. A sewage pipe trench cut through the former monastic cemetery, revealing 31 inhumations. All of these apparently relate to the priory, but their identities are unknown — the community itself rarely numbered above five members. Well-preserved skeletal remains in varying degrees of completeness were present, but all had undergone later disturbance; only one exhibited any evidence for a coffin. The high incidence if grave superimposition suggests that space within the cemetery was at a premium, while their arrangement may indicate the approximate extent of the formal monastic precinct.
 
Analysis of coin finds in an area of NE. England employs and modifies methods developed for Iron-age and Romano-British assemblages alongside quantitative analysis developed specifically for Anglo-Saxon coinages. The results illustrate that observed patterns of coin loss do represent the overall coin loss for the study area, and sites can be confidently compared to each other and the region as a whole. The role and function of coinage apparently changes dramatically over the period from a medium of long-distance trade in the early period to a cash currency by the Viking takeover of York. A review of 'productive sites' suggests that these sites can only be adequately interpreted through analysis of their assemblages against the background of the regional circulation of coinage and artefacts. German Die Verbreitung frühmittelalterlicher Münzen in Europa: Eine Fallstudie aus Yorkshire, ca. 650 — 867 n. Chr.>Bei der Analyse von Münzfunden in einem Gebiet Nordostenglands werden Methoden verwendet und adaptiert, die eigentlich für Funde aus der Eisen- und der römisch-britischen Zeit entwickelt wurden. Darüber hinaus wird die, speziell für angelsächsische Münzen entwickelte, quantitative Analyse angewandt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass beobachtete Muster von Münzverlusten den insgesamten Münzverlust des Beobachtungsgebiets darstellen, so dass man bedenkenlos Fundstätten miteinander und der Region als Ganzes vergleichen kann. In diesem Zeitraum ändern sich Rolle und Funktion von Münzen offenbar dramatisch, vom Zahlungsmittel für den Fernhandel in der frühen Periode, zum Bargeld während der Zeit der Einnahme Yorks durch die Wikinger. Eine Bewertung von Produktionsstätten lässt vermuten, dass diese nur durch eine Analyse ihrer Funde vor dem Hintergrund der regionalen Verbreitung von Münzen und Artefakten hinreichend interpretiert werden können. French La circulation de la monnaie au Haut Moyen Âge: une étude de cas provenant de la région du Yorkshire (env. 650-867)L'analyse de pièces de monnaie découvertes dans une zone du Nord-est de l'Angleterre utilise et modifie les méthodes développées pour les assemblages datant de l'âge de fer et de l'époque brittoromaine, ainsi que les analyses quantitatives mises au point spécifiquement pour les pièces de monnaie anglo-saxonnes. Les résultats montrent que la disposition constatée des pièces de monnaie perdues se retrouve dans l'ensemble de la zone étudiée et que les sites peuvent assurément être comparés les uns aux autres ainsi qu'à la région dans son ensemble. Le rôle et la fonction de la monnaie changent de façon spectaculaire sur toute la période: d'abord moyen de faire du commerce sur une longue distance dans la première partie de cette période, elle devient, par la prise de York par les Vikings, une devise monétaire. Une nouvelle étude des « sites productifs » suggère que ces derniers ne peuvent être adéquatement interprétés qu'à travers l'analyse de leurs assemblages par rapport au contexte de la circulation régionale de la monnaie et des artefacts. Italian La circolazione delle monete europee del primo medioevo. Un case study dallo Yorkshire, ca. 650-ca. 867L'analisi di alcuni reperti numismatici in una zona del nord-est dell'Inghilterra utilizza e modifica metodi sviluppati per gli assemblaggi dell'età del ferro e romano-britannica insieme con un'analisi quantitativa sviluppata appositamente per i conii anglosassoni. Dai risultati emerge che l'andamento osservato della dispersione delle monete rappresenta effettivamente la dispersione complessiva delle monete nell'area studiata e che è possibile raffrontare con sicurezza tra loro i siti e la regione nel suo complesso. A quanto pare il ruolo e la funzione del conio cambiano notevolmente nel periodo in questione, trasformandosi da mezzo di commercio di lunga distanza nel periodo iniziale a valuta monetaria all'epoca in cui i Vichinghi subentrarono a York. L'esame di alcuni siti produttivi suggerisce che essi possano essere adeguatamente interpretati solo attraverso l'analisi dei loro assemblaggi sullo sfondo della circolazione regionale delle monete e dei manufatti.
 
The surge in metal-detecting over the last twenty years, although highly controversial and problematic in its nature, has led to an unprecedented explosion of new material for the Middle Saxon Period. A first assessment of these finds in Lincolnshire illustrates not only the outstanding value of this new material for the closer understanding of the Middle Saxon economy and trade, but also enables a wide range of previously unknown 'productive' sites to be identified. Although increasingly noted from other areas, mainly along the eastern and southern coasts of Britain, the nature of these sites is still little understood. Set into the context of the natural landscape, settlement, and wealth, this study identifies common characteristics and functions of 'productive' sites) and explores their economic role in Middle Saxon Lincolnshire. Incorporating evidence from hitherto neglected Continental written sources, theories are developed as to the nature and development of 'productive' sites, and their origins and evolution, which, it is argued, will probably have to be sought in the context of the ultimate success of Christianity and the structuring influence of the evolving church.
 
Archaeological Excavations by Field Archaeology Specialists in 2002 outside the walls of York have revealed new evidence for the elusive transition between the Roman and Viking city. At Heslington Hill, in the campus of the present University of York, an early-Anglo-Saxon settlement dates from c AD 550 to AD 650. In the 7th century a new settlement began 2 km westwards on the same glacial moraine. This was the site of Eoforwic at Fishergate on the River Ouse, investigated in the 1980s and here revisited with additional evidence from excavations in 2000–01. The ceramic assemblage suggests that the two communities were connected. German Vor Eoforwic: Neues Licht auf York im 6.-7. JahrhundertArchäologische Ausgrabungen der Field Archaeology Specialists außerhalb der Stadtmauern Yorks in 2002 haben neue Beweise für einen schnellen Übergang von einer römischen zu einer wikingischen Stadt zu Tage gebracht. Auf dem Heslington Hügel, dem Campus der heutigen Universität von York, stand eine frühe angelsächsische Siedlung aus der Zeit 550 n. Chr. und 650 n. Chr. Im 7. Jahrhundert erstand eine neue Siedlung 2 km westlich auf derselben Gletschermoräne. Dies war die Niederlassung von Eoforwic bei Fishergate an der Ouse, die in den 80er Jahren erforscht und jetzt mit zusätzlichen, von den Ausgrabungen 2000-01 stammenden Beweisen, neu untersucht wurde. Die Keramikfunde weisen darauf hin, dass die beiden Orte in Verbindung standen. French Avant Eoforwic: nouvel éclairage sur York aux VIe et VIIe sièclesEn 2002, des fouilles archéologiques réalisées à l'extérieur de l'enceinte de York par des spécialistes de l'archéologie de terrain ont mis au jour de nouveaux éléments relatifs à la transition difficile à cerner entre la ville romaine et celle de l'époque viking. À Heslington Hill, sur le campus de l'actuelle université de York, se trouve un peuplement anglo-saxon précoce remontant à environ 550-650. Au VIIe siècle, un nouveau peuplement s'est établi à 2 km vers l'ouest, sur la même moraine glaciaire. C'était le site d'Eoforwic à Fishergate, sur la rivière Ouse. Ce site qui a fait l'objet de fouilles dans les années 1980 est réexaminé ici en tenant compte de nouveaux éléments provenant de fouilles réalisées en 2000-01. L'assemblage céramique suggère que les deux communautés étaient liées. Italian Prima di Eoforwic: Nuova luce sulla York del VI-VII secoloNel 2002, gli scavi di alcuni specialisti di archeologia topografica fuori le mura di York hanno portato alla luce nuove prove della sua elusiva transizione da città romana a vichinga. Presso Heslington Hill, nel 'campus' dell'attuale Università di York, si trova un primo insediamento anglosassone risalente all'incirca al periodo dal 550 d.C. al 650 d.C. Nel VII secolo fu avviato un nuovo insediamento, 2 km a ovest della stessa morena glaciale. Si trattava del sito di Eoforwic nella zona di Fishergate sul fiume Ouse, studiato negli anni Ottanta e qui riesaminato avvalendosi di ulteriori prove provenienti dagli scavi nel 2000-01. In base all'insieme di ceramiche raccolte si pensa che le due comunità fossero collegate.
 
This paper seeks to draw to the attention of archaeologists, art historians, and others interested in material culture, some hitherto overlooked references to brooches in Old Irish legal texts of the 8th and 9th centuries. Of particular interest in these references is the fact that they include Old English and Pictish words for brooches, showing an awareness on the part of the Irish intelligentsia of the elite metalworking of their neighbours in the British Isles. The extent to which this borrowed terminology reflects an appreciation of English and Pictish brooch-types different from the Irish pseudo-penannular of the 8th century is also discussed .
 
A HOARD of Late Saxon ornamental metalwork, comprising two matching sets of four strapends each and four fragments of an openwork silver disc, was discovered in the parish of Upper Poppleton, on the outskirts of York. Particular emphasis is laid on the date, function, manufacture and localisation of the strap-ends, which rank amongst the most accomplished examples yet discovered of this ubiquitous class of Late Saxon ornamental metalwork. On the basis of close stylistic links drawn to other artistic media from the north of the Humber, it is argued that these strap-ends occupy a focal point in the definition of a 9th-century Northumbrian metalworking tradition embodying a regional version of the Trewhiddle style.
 
THE FIRST significant archaeological excavation within the village of Thorney, Cambridgeshire, has revealed a sequence of occupation deposits associated with the former Benedictine abbey and reflecting some 600 years of use. Thorney Abbey was surrendered at the Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries in 1539 and over successive years many of the buildings were demolished and the stone removed for re-use elsewhere. As a consequence very little is known of the abbey's layout and organisation. In the Middle Ages Thorney was surrounded by fen wetland and the excavations reported on here were located near the northern edge of the former island, slightly to the north of the abbey church and suspected location of the main abbey precinct. The long sequence of deposits offered an important insight into the changing character of fen-edge life on Thorney from the 11th century onwards. Occupation remains and a sequence of contemporary structures indicated that despite the apparently peripheral location of the site in relation to the main abbey complex, life was rarely static on the island's northern edge. It is suggested that the structures and related remains were once part of the abbey's outer court. Dissolution deposits reflected the dismantling of windows and the salvage and recycling of lead came. A re-used architectural fragment, possibly a pillar base, had been converted into a lead recycling hearth and the immediately surrounding area was covered with the remains of the leadworking as well as a large assemblage of broken, high-quality painted window glass, the end result of the lead removal. Late 16th-century structural evidence on the site has also shed light on some of the earliest secular occupation on the island following the Dissolution. A combination of the finds assemblages recovered during the work and documentary research has enabled a picture of life at medieval Thorney to be drawn for the first time. Documentary and cartographic work has also helped to understand the wider fenland context.
 
WE KNOW remarkably little about the archaeology of the great fenland abbeys. Ramsey stands with Peterborough, Crowland, Thorney and Ely as one of the principal late-Saxon, post- Regularis Concordia monasteries of eastern England and shares their significance. It ranked among the most important ecclesiastical institutions in England and prospered until the Dissolution. This paper presents new interpretations of the layout of the Benedictine abbey, linked to the recent discovery of possible late-Saxon monastic buildings. It includes rare evidence for a later medieval artificial waterway (or 'lode'), with an adjacent crane and possible storehouse: their implications for monastic trade and economy are set within the wider fenland context.
 
Map of south-eastern England showing the locations of the 13 CORS sites investigated by the HEFA project in 2005 and/or 2006. Shaded grey are the three sites discussed in detail in this paper.
Houghton and Wyton showing locations and numbers of test pits excavated in 2005 and 2006.
Terrington St Clement showing the locations and numbers of test pits excavated in 2005 and 2006.
Ufford (Cambridgeshire), 1st Edition Ordnance Survey 6" to 1 mile map showing the plan of the settlement in the 19th century.
WITHIN THE FIELD of medieval rural settlement studies, especially those involving excavation, currently occupied rural settlements (CORS) have to date been largely neglected in favour of the minority of rural settlements which have become deserted or substantially shrunken. This project aims to help redress that balance in favour of the still-inhabited majority. Small-scale 'test pit' excavations within thirteen CORS in eastern England were carried out in 2005 and 2006 as part of an ongoing widening participation and outreach scheme -the Higher Education Field Academy - of the Department of Archaeology of the University of Cambridge. The project combines existing methods with new approaches to reveal a considerable quantity of new evidence for the development of medieval rural settlement. Presented results from three of the most investigated settlements identify new foci of occupation, and new ideas about their development are proposed. They also highlight the extent to which undisturbed medieval levels can survive within CORS.
 
This is the first multi-disciplinary study of Swedish local thing (assembly) sites of the Viking Age through to the late Middle Ages. Previous studies ignored the larger body of evidence, producing models that are too generalising and often one-dimensional. A systematic overview of the location, features and landscape characteristics of things in the county of Södermanland enables exploration of wider questions, such as the development of the thing organisation and the beginnings of state formation in Sweden. This suggests late-Viking thing sites, mainly created in 11th century, are Christian sites, established by local magnates in response to the growing central power. The similarities and conformity of sites, together with a reorganisation of the defensive systems from inland lakes to coastal areas, suggest there was a sense of growing unity and unification within Sweden at this time.
 
In January 2001, an archaeological watching brief was carried out during the construction of a sewer pipeline at Adwick-le-Street near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. During excavation of a Romano-British trackway ditch, a plough-truncated grave was identified which produced fragmentary skeletal remains and an assemblage of copper-alloy and iron grave goods typical of a female Scandinavian burial of the Viking Period. The grave goods included a plough-damaged copper-alloy bowl, a non-matching pair of oval 'tortoise' brooches and fragments of an iron knife and a key or latch-lifter. Other objects might previously have been removed by ploughing. The oval brooches are typologically the earliest of the four pairs to have been recovered in England from a grave and the first to be excavated under archaeological conditions. The design and condition of the brooches suggest a date for the burial at the end of the 9th century. Isotope analysis of teeth from the skeleton indicates an origin for the woman in either Norway or possibly north-eastern Scotland. Investigation of the grave goods has provided information on manufacturing techniques and costume. No evidence was recovered to suggest why the woman was buried in this location, although a previous discovery of Roman or post-Roman inhumations and cremations nearby and the results of geophysical survey suggest that the excavated grave might form part of a more widely dispersed group of burials.
 
Reigate stone was one of the most important building stones used in London and along the Thames littoral in the Middle Ages but, despite this, its use has been largely ignored by archaeologists. This introductory essay attempts to look at both the geology and documented history of the stone quarries, and at the Battersea and other Thames-side sites from which the stone was distributed.
 
Rockingham Forest is the most intensively studied of Northamptonshire's medieval forests. It saw extensive clearance for agriculture in the medieval period but large tracts of woodland survived and these were increasingly intensively managed. Though primarily nucleated, a dispersed component to the settlement pattern did develop in the forest which was not seen in the champion landscapes of the county. The area supported a range if industrial production, in particular an important iron industry, based upon the local ores, and fuelled, at least in the medieval period, by a substantial charcoal industry. Geology was the primary determinant of the distribution of woodland in the Saxon period, but at the local level survival of woodland in the post-Conquest period was influenced by a range of tenurial and other factors, including management for deer and the presence of large scale iron and charcoal production.
 
An Increase in reported finds of metal ampullae enables a reappraisal of this distinctive class of pilgrim souvenir in England and Wales, Norfolk in particular: their form, decoration, distribution, context and the physical signs of their production and use. This sheds light on an aspect of late-medieval culture and custom; additionally, it encourages reflection on the kinds of data that metal-detectorists currently record and report. The thesis is that 15th- to mid16th-century ampullae were associated especially with rural communities and deposited in fields as votive objects, often after intentional 'destruction'.
 
The identification of a number of clench-nails and roves in Anglo-Saxon cemeteries suggest the deliberate deposition of boat fragments and tokens in burial. The distribution of this practice, centred on 6th- to early 7th-century Kent, contrasts with that of the more commonly discussed form of boat-burial known particularly from 7th-century East Anglia. In this paper the characteristics of this burial rite are considered from a number of identified examples to provide for a preliminary typology of 'pseudo-boat-burials' and rove-graves. In conclusion, an interpretation is offered to account for their use in early Anglo-Saxon England, and the preferential deposition in Kent. German Bootsnieten in Gräbern im Kent der Vorwikingerzeit: Eine Neubewertung angelsächsischer BootsbestattungstraditionenDer Fund einer Reihe von Bootsnägeln und Unterlegscheiben in angelsächsischen Gräberfeldern lässt die gezielte Ablage von Bootsteilen und symbolischen Gegenständen bei der Grablegung vermuten. Die Verbreitung dieses, sich auf das Kent des 6. und frühen 7. Jahrhunderts konzentrierenden Brauchs, steht der häufiger behandelten Form der insbesondere aus dem East Anglia des 7. Jahrhunderts bekannten Bootsbestattungen gegenüber. In dieser Abhandlung werden die charakteristischen Eigenschaften dieses Bestattungsritus anhand einer Reihe von Fundstücken betrachtet, um eine vorläufige Typologie von Pseudo-Bootsbestattungen und Gräbern, in denen metallene Unterlegscheiben gefunden wurden, erstellen zu können. Die abschließende Auswertung begründet deren Verwendung im frühen angelsächsischen England sowie deren bevorzugte Ablage in Kent. French Rivets de bateaux dans les tombes du Kent de l'époque pré-viking: une nouvelle évaluation des traditions anglo-saxonnes de sépultures dans les bateauxLa découverte d'un grand nombre de clous à river et de rondelles dans les cimetières anglo-saxons suggère le dépôt délibéré de fragments et d'éléments de bateaux dans les sépultures. L'étendue de cette pratique que l'on trouve essentiellement dans le Kent du VIe au début du VIIe siècles, contraste avec celle plus fréquemment discutée des sépultures dans les bateaux telle qu'on les connaît, en particulier en East Anglia à partir du VIIe siècle. Cet article considère les caractéristiques de ce rite funéraire à partir d'un grand nombre d'exemples identifiés, en vue d'apporter une première typologie des « pseudo-sépultures dans les bateaux » et des tombes comprenant ces rondelles à clou. Une interprétation est proposée en conclusion quant à leur utilisation dans l'Angleterre du début de l'époque anglo-saxonne ainsi qu'au fait qu'on les trouve de préférence dans le Kent. Italian Chiodi di barca nelle tombe del Kent di epoca pre-vichinga: rivalutazione delle tradizioni anglosassoni di sepoltura nelle barcheIl rinvenimento di alcuni chiodi ribaditi e rondelle nei cimiteri anglosassoni fa pensare alla deposizione intenzionale di frammenti di imbarcazioni e monete nelle sepolture. La diffusione di tale pratica, che ha il suo epicentro nel Kent dal VI secolo all'inizio del VII secolo, contrasta con quella della forma di sepoltura nelle barche nota soprattutto dall'East Anglia del VII secolo e più spesso studiata. Nella relazione, le caratteristiche di questo rito di sepoltura vengono esaminate partendo da una serie di esempi accertati allo scopo di fornire una tipologia preliminare di pseudo navi funerarie e tombe con rondelle. Per concludere viene proposta un'interpretazione che spiega il loro utilizzo nell'antica Inghilterra anglosassone e la sepoltura più adottata nel Kent.
 
Bradford on Avon St Lawrence, scale drawing by J. T. Irvine of the N. side of the church before restoration, 1869. Photograph: Bathintime, reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the National Museums Scotland. 
Masons' marks can be found on stone buildings where the stone is taken to a high degree of finish, but the date of the introduction of this practice into England has yet to be established. Buildings from the Anglo-Norman Period display marks, but it is not clear whether the Normans introduced the concept or it was present in the Anglo-Saxon Period. The fabric of buildings from both sides of the Conquest, and from Roman sites, is therefore analysed to determine the date of introduction, drawing comparisons with early 11th-century buildings in Europe. Since the degree of finish of the stonework closely connects to the use of marks, the treatment of stonework in the 11th century and in the earlier Anglo-Saxon Period is considered, and comments made on the organisation of the building and stone-supply industries of the mid-11th century. German Einführung und Verwendung von Maurerzeichen auf romanischen Gebäuden in EnglandMaurerzeichen sind auf steinernen Gebäuden mit handwerklich kunstfertiger Steinmetzarbeit zu finden, jedoch wurde die Einführungszeit dieser Praktik in England noch nicht ermittelt. Gebäude aus der anglonormannischen Zeit weisen Maurerzeichen auf, aber es ist nicht offensichtlich, ob die Normannen das Konzept einführten, oder ob es schon in angelsächsischer Zeit gebräuchlich war. Daher werden die Strukturen von vor und nach der normannischen Eroberung erbauten Gebäuden sowie jene von Gebäuden aus der Römerzeit analysiert, um den Einführungszeitpunkt im Abgleich mit Gebäuden des Europa des frühen 11. Jahrhunderts zu ermitteln. Da die handwerkliche Kunstfertigkeit der Steinmetzarbeit eng mit der Verwendung von Maurerzeichen verbunden ist, wird die Steinbearbeitung im 11. Jahrhundert und im vorangegangenen angelsächsischen Zeitalter betrachtet und die Organisation der Bau- und Steinlieferindustrie Mitte des 11. Jahrhunderts kommentiert. French L'Introduction et l'usage de marques de maçons dans les bâtisses romanes en AngleterreLes marques de maçons peuvent être observées sur des bâtisses en pierre, là où la finition de la pierre est d'excellente qualité. Cependant, la date d'introduction de cette pratique en Angleterre n'a pas encore été établie. Les bâtisses de la période anglo-normande portent des marques, mais on ne sait pas de manière catégorique si les Normands ont introduit cette pratique ou si elle existait déjà à l'époque anglo-saxonne. La structure des constructions avant et après la conquête et celle observée sur les sites romains, est, par conséquent, analysée pour en déterminer la date d'introduction en les comparant aux constructions du début du XIe siècle en Europe. Le niveau de finition de la pierre étant étroitement associé à l'usage de marques, la maçonnerie du XIe siècle et du début de la période anglo-saxonne est prise en considération et des commentaires effectués sur l'organisation des industries de la construction et de l'approvisionnement en pierres du milieu du XIe siècle. Italian Introduzione e utilizzo dei marchi della muratoria negli edifici romanici dell'InghilterraI bolli laterizi si ritrovano in edifici litici in cui la pietra è portata a un elevato grado di finitura, ma non è stata ancora accertata la data di introduzione di questa pratica in Inghilterra. Gli edifici risalenti al periodo anglo-normanno presentano marchi, ma non è chiaro se siano stati i Normanni a introdurre l'idea o se fosse già presente nel periodo anglosassone. La struttura degli edifici prima e dopo la Conquista e dei siti romani pertanto viene analizzata per determinare la data di introduzione, istituendo confronti con gli edifici europei dell'XI secolo. Dal momento che il grado di finitura delle pietre ha uno stretto rapporto con l'utilizzo dei marchi, viene preso in esame il trattamento della pietra nell'XI secolo e nel Periodo Anglosassone precedente e viene studiata l'organizzazione delle industrie edilizie e delle forniture di pietre alla metà dell'XI secolo.
 
A SURVEY of archaeological ceramic thin sections held by institutions and individuals in the United Kingdom was undertaken in the early 1990s by the City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit and funded by English Heritage. Over 6,000 thin sections of Anglo-Saxon or medieval date (or reports on their analysis) were located. For the Middle to Late Anglo-Saxon and the post-Conquest Periods, these studies have confirmed that pottery production was carried out in a limited number of centres and that most pottery, including handmade coarsewares, was therefore produced for trade. The distances over which pottery was carried vary from period to period but were actually as high or higher in the Middle to Late Anglo-Saxon Period as in the 13th to 14h centuries. However, for the Early Anglo-Saxon Period (and the Middle Anglo-Saxon Period outside of eastern England) the evidence of ceramic petrology is equivocal and requires more study. These 6,000–odd thin sections represent a resource which could be used for various future studies, some of which are discussed here, and as an aid to their further use a database containing information on the sampled ceramics, their location and publications of their analyses will be published online through Internet Archaeology.
 
The 19th-century Mayer Collection of Anglo-Saxon material in the Liverpool Museum, which includes finds from Kent excavated by Faussett in the 18th century, was re-examined in 1998 by the Manchester Medieval Textiles Project to test the usefulness of investigating such early archaeological collections for vestiges of textiles. Faussett had noted and commented on textile evidence, thus providing records against which the present situation can be assessed. The degree of survival has been governed by the interests and practices of both archaeologists and curators of the periods in which the material was collected and donated. These factors have to be taken into account to balance the work involved in re-examining collections from before the mid-20th century against the amount and quality of the information to be obtained.
 
WHILE THE archaeological evidence for ritual activity in Later Prehistoric and Romano-British settlements is reasonably plentiful, there has been little discussion of such evidence from Anglo-Saxon settlements. This paper presents a preliminary survey of 'special' deposits, primarily of humans and animals, within Anglo-Saxon settlements and considers what the composition, context and placement of such — presumably votive — deposits tells us about the nature of Anglo-Saxon ritual. This evidence is compared to that from Iron-age and Roman Britain, as well as Continental NW. Europe. In particular, the relationship of special deposits to buildings, boundaries and entrances is considered.
 
The excavation of a cliff-top site on the north coast of Ulster showed that what had been taken for a small 15th- or 16th-century castle had a more complex history. An early phase may have been a late prehistoric or protohistoric promontory fort. This was re-occupied as a base for a small detachment of troops in the late 16th century. Shortly after 1600 it was chosen as the site for a castle by Sir Randall MacDonnell, later Earl of Antrim. It was built to serve as the administrative centre for one of his baronies rather than either a military or a residential place. As such, it shows how, in Gaelic-speaking Ulster and Scotland, medieval structures continued to be built, and how such a castle was perceived as part of the organisation of estates in a purely medieval fashion even at this date.
 
Current understanding of archaeological sites often relies upon plans compiled before the advent of modern archaeological techniques. Such plans were often created with a specific purpose in mind that might be less helpful for modern study. In this paper, the potential of applying new approaches to prospection, using GPS and GIS technologies, is examined with relation to Watton Priory, East Yorkshire. The results of this study demonstrate how the previous plan of the site is spatially limited, with features extending into the wider landscape. Furthermore, it appears that some of the interpretations of the site based upon this earlier plan might be incorrect due to these. It is concluded that the re-appraisal of sites is crucial prior to the construction of new interpretations.
 
THIS is an account of both the history and the recent findings of the Mosfell Archaeological Project. Excavation is part of an interdisciplinary research approach that uses archaeology, history, anthropology, forensics, environmental sciences and saga studies to construct a picture of human habitation, power relationships, religious and mortuary practices, and environmental change in the region of Mosfellssveit in south-western Iceland. The valley system with surrounding highlands and lowland coastal areas has interlocking natural and cultural components which developed from the 9th-century settlement of Iceland into a Viking Age chieftaincy dominated by the family at Mosfell/Hrísbrú. Excavations of both pagan and Christian sites are providing significant information on the changing periods of occupation, with implications for the larger study of Viking North Atlantic. During the Viking Age, Mosfell was a self-contained social and economic unit connected to the rest of Iceland through a network of roads, including a major E.–W. route to the nearby assembly place for the yearly Althing. With its ship's landing or port at Leirvogur, in the bay at the valley's mouth, the region was in commercial and cultural contact with the larger Scandinavian and European worlds.
 
THIS PRESIDENTIAL address, originally entitled 'Is the Archaeology of Small Towns Worth Pursuing??, surveys the results of numerous archaeological interventions in medieval small towns in England and Wales, focusing on work published since an overview that appeared in 1985. Its purpose is to show the value of research on sites which are sometimes seen as unrewarding. The cumulative results of sixteen years of investigation have thrown important new light on urban origins; characteristics and definitions; functions and diversity; and long-term development.
 
This paper examines patterns in the placement of apotropaic objects and materials in high- to late-medieval burials in Britain (11th to 15th centuries). It develops an interdisciplinary classification to identify: (1) healing charms and protective amulets; (2) objects perceived to have occult natural power; (3) 'antique' items that were treated as possessing occult power; and (4) rare practices that may have been associated with the demonic magic of divination or sorcery. Making comparisons with amulets deposited in conversion-period graves of the 7th to 9th centuries it is argued that the placement of amulets with the dead was strategic to Christian belief, intended to transform or protect the corpse. The conclusion is that material traces of magic in later medieval graves have a connection to folk magic, performed by women in the care of their families, and drawing on knowledge of earlier traditions. This popular magic was integrated with Christian concerns and tolerated by local clergy, and was perhaps meant to heal or reconstitute the corpse, to ensure its reanimation on judgement day, and to protect the vulnerable dead on their journey through purgatory. German Magie für die Toten? Die Archäologie der Magie in spätmittelalterlichen BegräbnisstättenDiese Arbeit untersucht Verhaltensmuster in der Verwendung von apotropäischen Objekten und Materialien in hoch- bis spätmittelalterlichen Begräbnisstätten in Großbritannien (11. bis 15. Jahrhundert). Sie entwickelt eine interdisziplinäre Klassifizierung zur Identifizierung: (1) heilende Talismane und schützende Amulette; (2) Objekte, denen eine okkulte natürliche Kraft zugeschrieben wurde; (3) 'alte' Gegenstände, die über eine okkulte Kraft verfügen sollten; und (4) seltene Praktiken, die mit der Dämonenmagie von Weissagungen oder Hexerei in Verbindung gebracht wurden. Aufgrund von Vergleichen mit Amuletten aus Gräbern aus der Zeit der Konvertierung zum Christentum im 7. bis 9. Jahrhundert wird behauptet, dass der Gebrauch von Amuletten bei Toten für den christlichen Glauben strategisch war und dazu diente, die Leiche zu transformieren oder zu beschützen. Der Rückschluss ist, dass materielle Spuren von Magie in spätmittelalterlichen Gräbern eine Verbindung zur Volksmagie haben, die von Frauen zur Beschützung ihrer Familien ausgeübt wurde und auf dem Wissen früherer Bräuche aufbaute. Diese volkstümliche Magie wurde in christliche Glaubensformen integriert und von den örtlichen Geistlichen toleriert. Sie diente vielleicht dazu, den Toten zu heilen oder wiederherzustellen, um seine Neubelebung am Jüngsten Tag zu garantieren und den verletzbaren Toten auf dem Weg durch das Fegefeuer zu beschützen. French De la magie pour les morts? L'archéologie de la magie dans les sépultures du milieu et de la fin du Moyen ÂgeCet article examine les configurations du positionnement d'objets et de matériaux apotropaïques dans des sépultures datant du milieu et de la fin du Moyen Âge (du XIe au XVe siècle) découvertes en Grande-Bretagne. Une classification interdisciplinaire est mise au point pour identifier: (1) les breloques de guérisseur et les amulettes de protection; (2) les objets perçus comme ayant un pouvoir naturel occulte; (3) les articles 'antiques' traités comme s'ils avaient un pouvoir occulte; enfin, (4) les pratiques rares ayant pu être associées à la magie démoniaque de la divination ou de la sorcellerie. En faisant des comparaisons avec les amulettes déposées dans des tombes remontant à la période de la conversion au christianisme (du VIIe au XIXe siècle), nous démontrons que le placement d'amulettes auprès des morts jouait un rôle stratégique dans les croyances chrétiennes et visait à transformer ou à protéger le cadavre. Nous concluons que les traces matérielles de magie observées dans les tombes de la fin de la période médiévale sont liées à la magie populaire pratiquée par les femmes dans le cadre des soins qu'elles prodiguaient à leur famille et s'appuie sur des traditions antérieures. Ces pratiques populaires, intégrées aux préoccupations chrétiennes et tolérées par le clergé local, étaient peut-être destinées à guérir ou à reconstituer le cadavre, à lui rendre la vie le jour du jugement dernier et à protéger le défunt vulnérable pendant la traversée du purgatoire. Italian Magia per i morti? Archeologia del magico nelle tarde sepolture medievaliQuesta relazione esamina gli schemi nel collocamento di oggetti e materiali apotropaici nelle sepolture dell'alto fino al tardo medioevo in Gran Bretagna (dall'XI al XV secolo), sviluppando una classificazione interdisciplinare al fine di identificare: (1) talismani curativi e amuleti protettivi; (2) oggetti a cui veniva attribuita una naturale potenza occulta; (3) oggetti 'antichi' trattati come se possedessero potenza occulta; (4) pratiche rare che potrebbero essere state associate con la magia demonica della profezia o stregoneria. Il raffronto con alcuni amuleti depositati nelle tombe del periodo della conversione compreso tra il VII e il IX secolo porta alla convinzione che la collocazione degli amuleti accanto ai morti fosse strategica per le credenze cristiane, con il fine di trasformare o proteggere il cadavere. La conclusione è che le tracce materiali di magia nei tardi sepolcri medievali si ricollegano alla magia popolare, che veniva eseguita dalle donne all'interno del focolare domestico e attingeva alla conoscenza di tradizioni precedenti. Questa magia popolare veniva coordinata con le questioni cristiane ed era tollerata dal clero locale, forse al fine di risanare o ricostituire il cadavere, per garantirne la rianimazione il giorno del giudizio, e proteggere i vulnerabili morti nel loro viaggio attraverso il purgatorio.
 
Surviving churches and documents are analysed for what they may reveal about the architectural context of the mass in early-medieval Ireland. This shows that there is no evidence to support the widely held view that the congregation stood outside. Instead, the variable but relatively small size of these churches expresses the fact that they served smaller and more diverse communities than their high-medieval successors. The altars in large episcopal and/or monastic churches seem positioned further west than those in relatively small, pastoral churches. In part, this was probably to facilitate relatively complex eucharistic liturgies. Externally defined chancels appear for the first time in the late 11th century AD in response to an increased emphasis on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Significantly, they occur at a handful of important sites whose clerics and patrons were in direct contact with Lanfranc of Canterbury, a key exponent of this doctrine. German Der architektonische Rahmen für die Messe im frühmittelalterlichen IrlandErhaltene Kirchen und Dokumente enthalten Beweisstücke für den architektonischen Rahmen der Messe im frühmittelalterlichen Irland. Die Untersuchung ergibt, dass es keine Anhaltspunkte gibt, die die weit verbreitete Annahme stützen, dass die Gemeinde draußen vor der Kirche stand. Stattdessen drückt sich in der variablen, aber relativ kleinen Größe dieser Kirchen die Tatsache aus, dass sie kleineren und sehr viel unterschiedlicheren Gemeinden dienten als ihre hochmittelalterlichen Nachfolger. Die Altäre in großen Bischofsund/oder Klosterkirchen scheinen weiter westlich zu stehen als diejenigen in relativ kleinen Gemeindekirchen. Teilweise sollte damit wahrscheinlich Raum für die relativ komplexe eucharistische Liturgie geschaffen werden. Kirchen mit klar definiertem Schiff und Altarraum tauchen zum ersten Mal im späten 11. Jahrhundert n. Chr. auf und waren ein Ausdruck der zunehmenden Betonung der wahren Gegenwart Christi in der Eucharistie. Bezeichnenderweise erscheinen sie in einer Hand voll wichtiger Kirchen, deren Priester und Gönner direkt mit Lanfranc von Canterbury in Kontakt waren, der als einer der wichtigsten Vertreter dieser Doktrin gilt. French Le cadre architectural de la messe dans l'Irlande du très haut Moyen ÂgeLes églises et les documents qui ont survécu jusqu'à nos jours contiennent des indications sur le contexte architectural de la messe dans l'Irlande du très haut Moyen Âge. Après examen, il apparaît qu'aucune preuve ne vient étayer l'opinion largement répandue selon laquelle les fidèles se tenaient à l'extérieur de l'église. La taille variable, mais relativement petite, de ces églises témoigne plutôt du fait qu'elles servaient des paroisses moins nombreuses et plus diverses que leurs remplaçantes du haut Moyen Âge. Les autels des grandes églises épiscopales et/ou monastiques semblent être placés plus à l'ouest que ceux des églises champêtres d'assez petite taille. Il s'agissait sans doute en partie de faciliter des liturgies eucharistiques relativement complexes. Des chæurs distincts apparaissent pour la première fois à la fin du XIe siècle alors que se renforce l'idée de la réelle présence du Christ dans l'Eucharistie. Il est significatif de noter qu'on les trouve dans quelques sites importants dont les clercs et les patrons étaient en contact direct avec Lanfranc de Canterbury, l'un des principaux représentants de cette doctrine. Italian L'architettura degli edifici in cui si celebrava la messa nell'Irlanda del primo MedioevoLe chiese e i documenti giunti fino a noi contengono indicazioni riguardo al contesto architettonico degli edifici in cui si celebrava la messa nell'Irlanda del primo Medioevo. L'esame rivela che non esiste alcuna prova a supporto dell'opinione largamente diffusa che i fedeli restassero all'esterno della chiesa. Anzi, le dimensioni variabili, ma relativamente piccole, di queste chiese sono una dimostrazione del fatto che esse servivano comunità meno numerose e più variabili rispetto alle successive chiese dell'alto Medioevo. Nelle grandi chiese episcopali e/o monasteriali gli altari sembrano essere collocati più a ovest rispetto a quelli delle chiese campestri di dimensioni piuttosto piccole. In parte questo era dovuto probabilmente all'esigenza di facilitare le liturgie eucaristiche, relativamente complesse. Il corpo del presbiterio è distinguibile all'esterno per la prima volta nel tardo XI secolo d.C., come conseguenza della cresciuta importanza data alla reale presenza di Cristo nell'Eucaristia. Non a caso esso compare in diversi siti importanti, i cui ecclesiastici e finanziatori erano in contatto diretto con Lanfranco di Canterbury, uno dei principali esponenti di questa dottrina.
 
We present an analysis of Professor Charles Thomas's recent work on the inscribed stones of western Britain, with our emphasis being on the mathematical patterns which he has identified. We conclude that there is no reason to suppose that these are anything other than coincidences, although of course one cannot preclude the possibility that any particular numerical device might have been intentional.
 
A housing development within the former grounds of Perceton House on the outskirts of Irvine led to the discovery of a 12th-century stockaded farmstead without obvious excavated parallels. At that time it is likely that the Perceton lands were run by a steward, resident in the farmstead in the name of an absentee landowner. On a general note it is suggested that this type of site may be common but rarely visible, except as a cropmark, which without excavation may be mistakenly classified as prehistoric. In the early 14th century the land became the principal residence of a member of the Stewart family. The old stockade was removed and a moat excavated, probably around a new manor house. In the late 1400s following a period of absorption in larger estates the site again became a principal residence, to one Ninian Barclay. This resulted in the building of a new mansion, mainly lying to the south of the excavated area. This was demolished in the 1720s, when another new owner constructed the present Perceton House.
 
The geology of ballast is considered in the accounts of numerous shipwreck excavations, yet there are few studies of ballast that has subsequently been employed as a construction material and is now preserved on land. Re-used bedrock ballast has the potential to provide information on a port's trading connections: the geological evidence may supplement historical sources, or it may supply fresh detail when written records are not available. This paper reports on the results of the first comprehensive survey of the impressive number of ballast cobbles in King's Lynn's medieval 'Town Wall'.
 
The Hammerbeam roof over the great hall of Edinburgh Castle is one of only two high-status roofs surviving on medieval secular buildings in Scotland. In 1999, Historic Scotland recorded the roof structure in advance of cleaning work. Detailed examination of the existing structure and surviving documentation confirms that much of the original timberwork survives, despite later use as a barrack, then as a military hospital, which resulted in many alterations to the structure, including subdivision of its interior. In 1887–92, the building underwent an extensive restoration by the Edinburgh architect Hippolyte Blanc. Its dating has been a matter of dispute among architectural historians, particularly with reference to its stone corbels. Our dendrochronological analysis indicates a construction date of 1509/10: the roof of the great hall of Edinburgh Castle is, therefore, a rare example in Scotland of major timberwork from the reign of James IV (1488–1513). Much of the original carved stone corbel work survives, despite restoration and partial replacement by Blanc, and the iconography of these is contemporary with the roof construction. The decoration of the corbels is therefore among the earliest use of Renaissance ornament in Britain. With the splendour of the roof, they are a small part of the repertoire used to present James IV in the magnificence of a contemporary European monarch. German Das spätmittelalterliche Dach über dem Palas der Burg von EdinburghDer Dachstuhl mit Stichbalken über dem Palas der Burg von Edinburgh ist einer der zwei bedeutendsten Dachstühle, die in nichtkirchlichen, mittelalterlichen Gebäuden in Schottland überlebt haben. 1999 erfasste Historic Scotland im Rahmen der geplanten Säuberungsarbeiten alle Daten des Dachstuhls. Eine detaillierte Untersuchung der existierenden Struktur und bestehende Dokumente bestätigen, dass ein Großteil des Gebälks überlebt hat, obwohl der Palas später zur Kasernierung und danach als Militärkrankenhaus genutzt wurde, was viele Änderungen der Struktur, einschließlich die Unterteilung seines Inneren, zur Folge hatte. 1887-92 durchging das Gebäude umfangreiche Restaurierungssarbeiten durch den Edinburgher Architekten Hippolyte Blanc. Die Datierung war ein Streitpunkt unter den Architekturhistorikern, vor allem in Bezug auf die Kragsteine. Unsere dendrochronologische Analyse ergibt ein Baudatum von 1509/10. Das Dach des Palas der Edinburgher Burg ist daher ein seltenes Beispiel für großfl ächiges Balkenwerk aus der Zeit James IV (1488-1513) in Schottland. Viele der ursprünglichen Kragträger haben trotz der Restaurierungsarbeiten und teilweisen Erneuerung durch Blanc überlebt und die Ikonographie dieser Steine stimmt zeitlich mit dem Bau des Dachstuhls überein. Die Verzierung der Kragsteine zählt daher zu den frühesten Renaissance-Ornamenten in Großbritannien. Neben der Pracht des Dachstuhls sind sie nur ein kleiner Teil der vielfältigen Möglichkeiten, James IV. in der Opulenz eines zeitgenössischen europäischen Monarchen darzustellen. French La charpente de la fin du Moyen Âge couvrant le Great Hall du château d'ÉdimbourgLa charpente à blochets du Great Hall (grande salle) du château d'Édimbourg est l'une des deux seules charpentes de haut rang qui subsistent dans des bâtiments séculaires écossais de l'époque médiévale. En 1999, Historic Scotland a fait établir des relevés de la structure en préparation à des travaux de nettoyage. L'examen détaillé de la structure en place et de documents qui nous sont parvenus confirme que la charpente d'origine en bois a survécu pour la plupart, en dépit de l'utilisation du bâtiment comme caserne puis comme hôpital militaire, qui avait entraîné de nombreuses transformations de la structure, y compris la subdivision de l'intérieur. En 1887-92, le bâtiment a fait l'objet de travaux de restauration considérables, menés par l'architecte d'Édimbourg, Hippolyte Blanc. Sa datation a été contestée par les historiens de l'architecture, surtout pour ce qui concerne ses corbeaux en pierre. Notre analyse dendrochronologique indique que sa construction remonterait à 1509-10: la toiture de la grande salle du château d'Édimbourg est donc un rare exemple écossais de travaux majeurs de charpente remontant au règne de James IV (1488-1513). La plupart des corbeaux sculptés ont survécu, malgré la restauration et le remplacement partiel qu'on doit à Blanc, et leur iconographie est contemporaine de la construction de la charpente. Leur décoration figure donc parmi les tous premiers exemples d'ornements Renaissance en Grande-Bretagne. Avec la splendeur de la charpente, ils constituent une faible partie des moyens employés pour présenter James IV avec la magnificence digne d'un monarque européen contemporain. Italian Il tetto tardo medievale della Great Hall nel Castello di EdimburgoIl tetto con travi a sbalzo che copre la Great Hall del Castello di Edimburgo è uno di due soli tetti di status elevato rimasti negli edifici secolari medievali in Scozia. Nel 1999, Historic Scotland registrava la struttura del tetto prima del lavoro di pulizia. Un esame dettagliato della struttura esistente e della documentazione rimasta conferma la presenza di gran parte del legno originario, nonostante la sala fosse successivamente adibita prima a caserma e poi a ospedale militare, con conseguenti numerose modifiche alla struttura, compresa la suddivisione dell'interno. Nel 1887-92, l'edificio subì un approfondito restauro da parte dell'architetto di Edimburgo Hippolyte Blanc. La sua datazione è fonte di controversie tra gli storici dell'architettura, soprattutto con riferimento alle mensole a doppia voluta in pietra. La nostra analisi dendrocronologica indica una data di costruzione del 1509/10: il tetto della Great Hall del Castello di Edimburgo rappresenta, quindi, un raro esempio in Scozia di importante opera in legno del regno di Giacomo IV (1488-1513). Le mensole in pietra sono in gran parte originali, nonostante il restauro e la parziale sostituzione da parte di Blanc, e la loro iconografia è contemporanea alla costruzione del tetto. La decorazione delle mensole pertanto è uno dei primi usi di ornamento rinascimentale in Gran Bretagna. Insieme allo splendido tetto, sono una piccola parte del repertorio utilizzato per presentare Giacomo IV con la magnificenza di un monarca europeo del suo tempo.
 
FARNHAM CASTLE, like other castles of the bishops of Winchester, has traditionally been dated to the period of the Anarchy, a tradition that is based upon the documentary evidence and the limited excavation by Dr M. W. Thompson within the area of the castle keep. This view is challenged on the grounds of historiographical problems with the documentary evidence, the archaeological examination of other de Blois castles which suggest construction before his episcopate, and finally because it is chronologically incompatible with the soil mechanics of the molle.
 
The Iconography, text, origin and date of the Book of Deer will be considered. A new interpretation of the imagery will be proposed, the imagery being placed in the context of other Insular manuscripts and in relation to the Gospel texts of Deer. Furthermore, it will be argued that the book functioned, to a certain extent, as a protective talisman.
 
THE collection of metalwork from early Anglo-Saxon contexts considered to represent the Quoit-brooch Style is here assessed in terms of the technology and techniques involved in its production. The punchmarks in particular are subjected to detailed analysis. A close relationship between especially the belt fittings and late-Roman metalwork from Britain and the Continent is confirmed, while punchmark links are discovered between formally diverse Quoit-brooch-style artifacts. The technical consistency of the group and its association with late-Roman workmanship appear to be its strongest unifying characteristics. Technology can thus be argued to have been a significant and active component in the material culture of early post-Roman Britain/England.
 
The later medieval domestic plan, comprising services, cross-entry, hall and sometimes chamber, can be identified in vernacular buildings in the 12th century. The plan did not emerge from the longhouse, as has been suggested. Instead, the longhouse is identified as regional variant of the later medieval domestic plan. The introduction of the plan was also not directly linked to developments in building structure, since it is found in houses which did not use post-truss or cruck construction. Three types of 12th-century building are identified which show how the domestic plan was used at an early stage. By the early or mid- 13th century excavated evidence and standing buildings show that the plan was becoming widely adopted and that the divisions of space were articulated by the main structural posts.
 
This paper seeks to cast some light on a so-called Green Man ivory knife handle from Perth and on the cultural context from which it sprang. It was made and lost or disposed of during the 14th century and, although its full life-story includes its archaeological recovery and subsequent curation in Perth Museum, its main importance lies in what it can tell us of medieval people. Exploring its material and production, its function as a handle, its iconography and its cultural background reveals this importance. Bringing these strands together gives us a snapshot of medieval cognition, focusing, on the way elements of seasonal ritual were consumed in the medieval burgh of Perth.
 
Very little site-oriented dendrochronology has been undertaken in Scotland, possibly because of the absence of a locally based dendrochronological facility until recently. However, timbers found during the excavations of several medieval burghs in the late 1970s and 1980s were saved for future analysis and had been stored in museums around the country. During a project to locate suitable samples fir a Scottish tree-ring database the potential of these assemblages was recognised. Although relatively small assemblages, their analysis has expanded and strengthened the tree-ring database within Scotland, thus facilitating future work. Evidence fir synchronous development in the early burghs in the late 12th century and the nature of the woodland resource at times during the medieval period is presented. An 'event horizon' in the early 10th century, signalled by the birth dates of marry of the dated timbers, has been recognised and possible causes are discussed. The projects reported on here were all funded by Historic Scotland.
 
THE STUDY of High-medieval castles has benefited from the incorporation of elements of landscape archaeology in the last few years. While this paper is far from a complete study of the late 13th-century castle of Caernarfon and its relationship with its surrounding landscape, it aims to stimulate interest in this avenue of archaeological research. By focusing on the subtle relationships between the castle, the adjoining walled town and their ecclesiastical foci, and considering them in relation to the other Edwardian castles in Wales, the benefits of these approaches will be evident.
 
In the year 2000, a lead canister and a penny of Henry III were recovered during a watching brief on a site in Colchester which is within 13 m of the find spots of two 13th-century coin hoards buried in similar canisters. While the container found in 2000 may have held a third such hoard (later recovered), it may also have been used as a floor safe. The site has connections with the Colchester Jewry, who were probably the principal agents in the handling of money and deposition of hoards on this site. The single penny may be simply a coin lost on a site where money changed hands in large quantities, or (speculatively) the only survival from a recovered hoard.
 
CASTLE STUDIES have been hijacked by followers of the historian Charles Coulson, whose uncompromising stance, little changed since the 1970s when he began his research on licences to crenellate, has always been that castles were only exceptionally built for military reasons and were 'chiefly an expression of status'. Coulson's ideas have gained particular prominence since 1991, following the publication of his well-received paper on Bodiam Castle. Accepted almost universally by the new generation of castellologists, Coulson's conclusions look set to become the new orthodoxy. This paper challenges those conclusions, concentrating on the late-medieval private fortress (where the Coulson thesis is most persuasive) and beginning with the so-called 'Battle for Bodiam'. It argues that while castles of all dates had many other functions including self-promotion, it was defence that remained the first consideration of almost every castle-builder throughout the Middle Ages; also, that it was increasing social mobility, defined as class structural change, that chiefly conditioned the apparent domestication of the castle in its last years. It was neither status nor nostalgia that caused new castles to be built in late-medieval England, but the ruling circumstances of class mobility and public order.
 
Several alternative schemes for the dating if Pictish relief sculpture have been advanced during the last century. Representations if artifacts which can be dated archaeologically, decorative devices associated with the Viking Period and details if animal ornament are used to provide new date-ranges for some stones usually dated earlier. The early dating often advanced for some low-relief sculptures is accordingly questioned, and a tentative scheme for the dating if Pictish relief sculpture proposed.
 
THIS PAPER investigates the archaeology and history of 'productive' sites, estate centres and towns between A.D. 600 and 1100 in north-western East Anglia. Whilst it concentrates on a specific sub-region (NW. Norfolk), an argument is developed on the nature of the relationship between archaeological assemblages and administrative structures that can be applied more widely for this period. In particular, the nature of 'productive' sites is discussed, and it is suggested that these places were centres of estate administration and tax collection. The later history of 'productive' sites in western Norfolk is then examined, focusing on the effect that the Viking wars and subsequent (short-lived) Danish rule may have had on them. How this background may have affected the decision by Herbert de Losinga (first Bishop of Norwich) to site a priory, port and new town at Lynn is then explored.
 
THE EXCAVATIONS at Llandough have revealed a large Early-medieval cemetery in close proximity to the site of a Roman villa and Early-medieval monastery. This paper examines the evidence for the re-use of villa sites for burial in the post-Roman period. The documentary evidence for the monastery at Llandough is also presented, and the site discussed within the context of the Early-medieval political geography of South Wales.
 
Antiquaria, archaeological, topographical and place-name evidence may be used to piece together the original contexts of a significant number of early-medieval inscribed and sculptured stones in Wales and throw valuable light on their functions and on the origins and development of church sites. The differing locations of early inscribed stones are examined, including associations with prehistoric and Roman monuments as well as with cemeteries and churches, and regional differences are noted. It is suggested that, although their primary function was commemorative, some monuments also acted as symbols of landowning by secular elites. Cross-decorated stones originating c. A.D. 600 mark a change to largely anonymous grave-markers mainly associated with cemeteries and local churches, while some others are indicative of landowning by the church. Crosses and cross-slabs of the 9th to 11th centuries are clustered in and around major monasteries and regional churches. Some record the donation of land to the church while the Pillar of Eliseg functioned as a symbol of secular entitlement to land.
 
Top-cited authors
Helena Hamerow
  • University of Oxford
Martin Carver
  • The University of York
Heinrich Härke
  • Higher School of Economics Moscow
Aleks Pluskowski
  • University of Reading
Julie Hamilton
  • University of Oxford