Medicina de Familia SEMERGEN

Published by Elsevier BV

Print ISSN: 1138-3593


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  • Article

March 2015


8 Reads

J S Fernández Ruiz

[Pharmacological compliance in the treatment of arterial hypertension. A review of studies published between 1975 and 2011].

January 2012


89 Reads

A systematic review was performed from published articles on compliance (PubMed), between 1975 and first of June 2011. Specifically those which measured medication adherence using indirect methods (RCS and/or MEMS-Medication Event Monitoring System) were searched. Descriptors used were: hypertension AND patient compliance AND medication adherence. The main objective is to update the topic of therapeutic compliance in arterial hypertension worldwide, with special attention to Spain, as well as a critical evaluation of the evolution of therapeutic compliance over the period 1975-2011. After analysing 37 research studies published worldwide, the results were: total number of 8623 hypertensive patients, of whom 25.62% were non-compliers (n=2209; 95% CI; 23.82-27.42), and 74.38% were compliers (n=6414; 95% CI; 73.32-75.44). The weighted average of non-compliance was 37.60%. We conclude that the default rate in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension worldwide is high.

[Incidence of childhood typeI diabetes in Extremadura, Spain, 2003-2007.]

February 2014


42 Reads



P Suero Villa




Studies have shown an increasing incidence of typeI diabetes in children in Europe over the last 20years. The present study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and development of typeI diabetes in children under 15years of age in Extremadura in the period 2003-2007. The study applied the capture-recapture method using the national hospital discharge database as primary source. Data were collected from children under 15years of age diagnosed with diabetes typeI during the study period. Secondary data source were insulin prescriptions from the public health system. Rates were standardised and a Poisson regression was used to assess the development of the disease during the study period. The overall adjusted incidence rate was 25.2/100.000 (95%CI: 21.8-28.6) with 100% completeness; no significant differences were observed by sex or provinces. Age group rates were 20.2/100.000 (95%CI: 10.1-30.3) for aged 0-4years, 24.8/100.000 (95%CI: 20.1-29.4) for aged 5-9years, and 30.0/100.000 (95%CI: 25.8-34.1) for aged 10-14years, with a RR of 1.67 (95%CI: 1.18-2.36; P=.004) for 10-14year olds relative to 0-4year olds. The number of cases among children aged 0-4years increased from 5cases in 2003 to 15cases in 2006, although this increase was not significantly different. The overall rates of incidence of typeI diabetes were higher than the expected incidence values in Extremadura. Careful surveillance is required to confirm the increased trend in the incidence of typeI diabetes observed among children aged 0-4years.

[Lipid profile in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome in Spain: data from Toledo health care area between 2005 and 2008].

September 2013


24 Reads

To evaluate the lipid profile of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome in Toledo (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were evaluated. Descriptive analyses and means comparison were performed. 1,381 patients of 3,986 admitted with acute coronary syndrome had a complete lipid profile. The mean age was 67.8±12.9 years (72.4% men). A first event was present in 76.3%. The mean total cholesterol (±SD) was 180.0±43.4, LDL-cholesterol 115±38.0, HDL-cholesterol 44.1±12.3, and triglyceride 145.3±92.4mg/dL, with statistically significant differences between men and women in LDL-cholesterol (116.3±37.8 vs 111.6±38.5mg/dL; p=0.04) and HDL-cholesterol (42.3±11.6 vs 48.4±13.2mg/dL; p=0.0001). In first or recurrent events were found, respectively, total cholesterol 179.1±43.1 and 174.5±44.1 (p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol 116.5±38.4 and 110±36.5 (p=0.007), HDL-cholesterol 44.1±12.2 and 44.2±12.9 (p<0.05), and triglyceride 141.2±81.7 and 158.5±119.7 (p=0.03). Optimal levels of LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were found in 14.1 and 11.6% of patients with recurrent episodes, respectively. While most patients admitted with first episode of acute coronary syndrome to the Toledo Health Area have a lipid profile according to current guidelines, only 10% of those with recurrent acute coronary syndrome presented optimal LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, which suggest the need to be more aggressive in the lipids control.

[Use of glucose-lowering drugs in a primary care setting in Malaga during the years 2008-2012.]

November 2013


15 Reads

The aim of the study is to describe the pattern of use of hypoglycemic agents in a primary health care district of Málaga between the years 2008-2012. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Málaga health district. Population of 609,781 inhabitants; 42,060 people in the diabetes process. Therapeutic sub-group A10 (drugs used in diabetes). Data is presented as defined daily dose (DDD). Years 2008-2012. Measures of frequency. The population grew by 0.4% and the people included in the diabetes process, by 19%. The hypoglycemic agents have increased from 12,453,443 to 14,144,817 DDD (13.5%). Oral antidiabetics increased by 13.8% and insulin by 9.7%. Metformin is the most used oral antidiabetic (6,655,923 DDD) and the iDDP4 was the one that had increased more (from 63,882 DDD to 1,482,574). The growth in insulin use was mainly due to the long-acting (38%) and the shorter-acting one (40%). The most used insulin doses are the long-acting ones, followed by the pre-mixed. The proportion of insulin use as regards the use of ADOs has remained stable (31%)., Long-acting (36%) insulin has become the most used, followed by pre-mixed (34%), shorter-acting (16%), and the intermediate-acting (12%). There is an increase in the use of hypoglycemic agents., Metformin and iDPP4 are the antidiabetics oral with the greatest growth., There is an increase in shorter-acting and long-acting insulins with a decrease in intermediate-acting and pre-mixed., The proportion of oral antidiabetics/insulins has remained stable.

[Study of sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors in suicide attempts. 2008-2010].

October 2012


30 Reads

The aim of this study is to determine the sociodemographic and psychopathological features and risk factors associated with suicide attempts. A descriptive cross-sectional study based on medical records. Emergency Primary Care Centres (Jumilla, Yecla) and Hospital Emergency Departments (Yecla, Murcia, Spain). The suicide attempt rate increases in younger people (average of 36.4 years old). Suicide attempts are higher among women (67%). In terms of psychopathological data, suicide attempts were characterised by a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder (30%), and substance abuse (13%). The percentage of patients who had made a previous suicide attempt was 37%. Self-poisoning was the most recurrent method of suicide attempt, present in at least 80% of the cases. Gender was a significant factor in the cause of suicide attempt (P=.042) and psychopathology (P=.011). The geographic origin of the patient is significantly associated with the suicide method used (P=.000). Suicide treatment protocols and suicide prevention programs must be developed, as well as recording the risk factors in the patient history.

[Blood pressure control in a population of hypertensive diabetic patients treated in primary care: PRESCAP-Diabetes Study 2010.]

April 2014


30 Reads

To determine the level of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive diabetic patients treated in primary care and to determine the factors associated with poor control. A cross-sectional, multicentre study that enrolled hypertensive diabetics recruited by consecutive sampling by family doctors in Spain in June 2010. A mean BP of less than 140/90mmHg was considered as good control of arterial hypertension. The percentages of patients with<130/80mmHg PA, 140/80mmHg, and 140/85mmHg, respectively, were also determined. Sociodemographic, clinical, cardiovascular risk factors, and pharmacological treatments were recorded. A total of 3,993 patients were enrolled (50.1% female) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 68.2 (10.2) years, of whom 73.9% received combination therapy. The figures showed good control of both blood pressure values (<140/90mmHg) in 56.4% (95% CI: 54.3 to 58.4) of the cases, with 58.5% (95% CI: 57.0-60.0) only in systolic BP, and 84.6% (95% CI, 83.2 to 85.8) only in diastolic BP. The variables with strongest association with poor control were the presence of albuminuria, elevated total cholesterol, physical inactivity, and not taking the medication on the day of the interview. The PRESCAP-Diabetes 2010 study results indicate that 43.6% of diabetics with hypertension seen in primary care have a poorly controlled BP, in particular, systolic BP.

Medical conduct in Primary Care as regards blood pressure control PRESCAP 2010 Study

March 2013


26 Reads

There is a need for more information on therapeutic inertia in blood pressure (BP) treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic behaviour and associated factors of Primary Care (PC) physicians on uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Cross-sectional multicentre study of patients with hypertension attending Spanish PC centres. Data was collected from patients (social-demographics, clinical status and treatment), as well as data from physicians (medical practice, background and therapeutic behaviour) were collected. Uncontrolled BP was considered when average BP values where ≥140/90mmHg. A total of 12,961 patients (52.0% women) were included. The mean age was 66.3 (SD 11.4) years, and mean number of years from diagnosis of hypertension was 9.1 (6.7) years. Almost two-thirds (62.4%) of the patients were taking a combined blood pressure treatment, (44.2% with two drugs and 18.2% with three drugs, or more). An uncontrolled BP was observed in 38.9% (95% CI: 38.1-39.7) of patients. Treatment was changed by physicians in 41.8% (95% CI: 40.4-43.2) out of 5,036 uncontrolled patients. Adding another drug was the most frequent behaviour (55.6%). The physician's perception of good BP control in uncontrolled patients, together with the presence of combined blood pressure treatment, were the two variables most strongly associated with therapeutic inertia. The Spanish PC Physician modified antihypertensive treatment in only 4 out of 10 uncontrolled patients. The physician's perception of good BP control was the variable most strongly associated with therapeutic inertia.

[A 45 year-old male with lumbar tumours].

8 Reads

A 45 year old Filipino male, with history of Hepatitis B virus infection, was seen in his primary care clinic with a lumbar mass for the past three months. On physical examination the lower limbs showed decrease strength, chest X-rays showed bilateral thickening of the apical pleura, the Mantoux skin test was positive and a lumbar magnetic resonance imaging study showed a compression fracture of D4 vertebral body and soft-tissue abscess in L1. Microbiological examination was positive for M. tuberculosis complex, and with the diagnosis of Pott́s disease, he began treatment. With the advent of anti-tuberculosis drugs, spinal involvement of tuberculosis is rare, but it continues to have a high impact on morbidity. Treatment of vertebral involvement is based on anti-tuberculosis drugs and surgery.

[Persistent backache in a 62 year-old male: Mechanical pain?].

19 Reads

The case is presented of a 62 year old man with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis, repeatedly consulting his primary care physician for treatment of analgesic / anti-inflammatory resistant back pain, and usually coincided with physical activity. It was initially diagnosed as mechanical pain, but in the absence of response to rest and treatment a magnetic resonance of the spine was requested, which reported bone metastases. The patient was then referred to Internal Medicine for further tests in hospital. The histopathology ruled out the presence of neoplastic cells, and imaging tests showed radiographic abnormalities in vertebral bodies (osteomyelitis-discitis) associated with epidural abscess, compatible with Pott's disease, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

[Diagnostic agreement between two glycosylated a1b hemoglobin methods in Primary Care.]

April 2014


23 Reads

Several methods are available for measuring glycosylated A1c hemoglobin (HbA1c), all rapid methods for point of care use in a clinical or laboratory setting. This study attempts to compare the diagnostic agreement between two methods for detection of HbA1c. A descriptive cross-sectional study of diagnostic agreement was carried out in the Los Carmenes Health Centre. Two groups of patients -with and without type 2 diabetes- were consecutively included. A method for point-of-care use in a Primary Care Clinic setting (DCA(TM) Systems Siemens(®)) was compared with a laboratory test (chromatographic analysis). An analysis was made of the mean concentration of HbA1c, the agreement between methods, using the intra-class correlation coefficient (CCLA1) and the Bland-Altman method. A total of 102 patients were included, 62 diabetic (60.8%) and 40 non-diabetic (39.2%). The overall mean HbA1c was 6.46% (SD=0.88) in the analysis using capillary blood in the clinic with the DCA™ system, and 6.44% (SD=0.86) using the laboratory test (P>.05). The degree of agreement between the two tests was 0.975 (95% CI: 0.963-0.983). The mean of the differences between the results of the two assessed tests was 0.024 (SD=0.27). The percentage of points outside the limits of optimal agreement, as defined in the Bland-Altman graph, was 2.5%. Diagnostic agreement between a method for point-of-care use in a Primary Health Care Clinic and a laboratory test was very high. Detection at the point-of-care allows a quick and simple assessment of HbA1c.

[Urgent abdominal pain: Constipation differential diagnosis.]

April 2013


12 Reads

Constipation is a common health problem in our clinics. At first, we think that a physical examination and additional tests are not necessary. This condition may be considered unimportant initially, but it can give rise to ongoing pain, discomfort, for the many who suffer from it, and sometimes can present with severe clinical symptoms. We present a case of a patient presented with this condition, and after conducting a brief anamnesis and a complete and rapid physical examination, the patient was finally treated as a surgical emergency. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

[Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language.]

December 2013


15 Reads

Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

[Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels.]

December 2014


25 Reads

Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

[Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure.]

April 2014


241 Reads

To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

[Chronic low back pain and abdominal aortic aneurysm.]

October 2013


16 Reads

Abdominal aortic aneurysm has a population prevalence of 2-5% and mortality in case of rupture of 80%. Up to 91% of cases is accompanied with low back pain, so it is important to include aortic aneurysm in the differential diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultions in Services Emergency Hospital Emergency and Primary Care Services, with an estimated 80% of population having spinal pain at some point in their lives, with 90% of them having a benign course.

[Subphrenic abscess in the context of low back pain and reading analytics in the primary care consultations.]

6 Reads

The subphrenic space is defined as the area below the diaphragm and above the transverse colon. Most abscesses are due to direct subphrenic contamination associated with, surgery, local disease, or trauma, but the cause still remain undefined or unknown. It is a disease rarely diagnosed in primary care. About 55% of subphrenic abscesses are located on the right side, with 25% on the left, and 20% are multiple. These can be extended to the thoracic cavity, which sometimes produce empyema, lung abscess, or pneumonia. The mortality of subphrenic abscess is between 11%-31%, and may be due to uncontrolled infection, malnutrition, and complications of prolonged hospitalization, such as nosocomial infections. Ultrasound or computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage is now the preferred treatment, combined with antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

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