Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development

Published by Taylor & Francis

Online ISSN: 1947-6302


Print ISSN: 0748-1756


Table 1 . Pattern Matrix Factor Loadings From Principal Factors Exploratory Factor Analysis (Promax Rotation) 
Table 3 . Estimated Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire Subscale Means (and 95% Confidence Intervals) by Gender and Sexual Identity, Adjusted for Age and Education (n = 715) 
The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults
  • Article
  • Full-text available

January 2013


3,300 Reads


Blair Beadnell


The authors conducted a three-phase, mixed-methods study to develop a self-report measure assessing the unique aspects of minority stress for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire has 50 items and nine subscales with acceptable internal reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Mean sexual orientation and gender differences were found.

Assessing the Dependability of Drinking Motives via Generalizability Theory

October 2012


81 Reads

This study assessed the score reliability of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) via generalizability theory. Participants (n = 367 college students) completed the DMQ-R at three time points. Across subscale scores, persons, persons × occasions, and persons × items interactions accounted for meaningful variance. Findings illustrate advantages of generalizability theory-based techniques.

The marriage between tests and counseling redux: Summary of the 1972 article.

January 1994


20 Reads

Discusses counselors' use of standardized tests (STs) using the metaphor of a marriage between STs and counselors (L. Goldman, 1972). Counselors were not using STs well because (1) STs were very limited in what they had to say to clients and (2) most counselors lacked the necessary competencies to use STs well and did not like them because they too often dominated the college admissions scene and were given too much attention in counselor education programs. The main problem with tests was that they had been developed in the 1st place for selection purposes, and that the typical level of predictive validity that made tests useful for selecting college students or employees had a very different meaning and value when used in counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Gender Role Conflict Scale: A Cross-validation of Good et al., 1995

October 1997


18 Reads

Two independent samples of data using the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) were combined to create the cross-validation sample. Ss were 655 males who completed the GRCS. Results indicate additional support for the internal consistency reliability of the GRCS and tentative support for its factorial validity. Although the goodness of fit indices calculated on the current sample fall short of the recommended cutoffs, they do represent improvements over the G. E. Good et al confirmatory factor analysis results and, in conjunction with prior psychometric data on the scale, support the continued psychometric development and refinement of the GRCS as a measure of male gender role conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The development of an abbreviated version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale

October 1989


1,986 Reads

Investigated whether specific background and academic variables could serve to predict math anxiety as defined by an abbreviated form of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS). Results of a 69-item abbreviated version of the MARS administered to 517 college students resulted in an internally consistent and reliable 25-item scale. Examination of relationships between raw scores on the 25-item revised MARS and individual scales of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (E. Fennema and J. Sherman; 1976) suggests that levels of math anxiety were related to Ss' perception of (1) mother, father, or teacher's perception of their abilities as learners of math and (2) the usefulness of math in pursuing career objectives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Assessing Drug and Alcohol Abuse: An Instrument for Planning and Evaluation

July 1984


89 Reads

Examined the reliability and validity of the Primary Prevention Awareness, Attitudes and Usage Scale, a 77-item measure of alcohol and drug usage. The measure was administered to students in 36 schools with a total enrollment of over 40,000 between 1981 and 1983. Analysis of the responses indicated that the measure is both valid and reliable. Recommended uses of the questionnaire results are discussed. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

My Vocational Situation: Its relation to concurrent career and future academic benchmarks.

October 1990


194 Reads

384 female and 278 male community college students completed reading, writing, and mathematics achievement tests, estimated their percentile scores on these tests, and completed My Vocational Situation (MVS). Vocational Identity (VCI) and other MVS scores did not correlate with Ss' awareness of academic ability or predict follow through on their enrollment plans. The VCI score also failed to relate to grade point average (GPA). MVS scores did relate to achievement test scores and estimates of those scores. Findings question the use of the current MVS or some of its items to prescribe or evaluate career interventions for community college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

A Psychometric Investigation of the Academic Motivation Scale Using a United States Sample

July 2001


6,720 Reads

The authors examine the factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (R. J. Vallerand et al, 1992) with a United States student population. 263 undergraduate students (aged 19–45 yrs) participated. There was some support for a 7-factor structure. Evidence of construct validity examining the relationship with academic self-concept and academic achievement is mixed. Ethnic and gender differences in motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Is educational reform through mandated accountability an oxymoron?

April 1993


9 Reads

Examines the current accountability movement, a new wave of school reform that emphasizes educational accountability (EA) at the federal, state, and local levels, in terms of its historical antecedents and federal- vs state-level initiatives and requirements. The assumptions underlying the EA movement are examined, and refinements and extensions are proposed to these assumptions based on observation, experience, and existing research. Conditions to be met so that mandated EA can provide a useful level for educational restructuring include that (1) EA systems must be outcome focused and based on a broadly defined set of indicators, (2) governmentally imposed goals or standards must be realistically attainable by every district or school to which they pertain, and (3) incentives and sanctions must be balanced so school districts are not humiliated or punished for their failed attempts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA): Critique and research recommendations

July 1998


162 Reads

Reviews 16 studies pertaining to the conceptual basis and psychometric strengths and limitations of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA). Results suggest that the SL-ASIA has a satisfactory level of internal consistency for mainstream Asian American college-age groups. Support was found for construct validity. Specific recommendations for reliability and validity studies are put forth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Acculturation of Values and Behavior: A Study of Vietnamese Immigrants

April 2000


514 Reads

Describes the development of a questionnaire that measured behavioral and psychological acculturation, using the five value orientations of F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck (1973). Ss included 196 Anglo-Celtic Australians, a main sample of 187 Vietnamese, and a second sample of 147 Vietnamese. A weighted combination of scores regarding different value orientations provided good discrimination between the groups. In addition, this measure was correlated in the expected direction with various demographic variables (e.g., time spent living in the host society, occupational category, icnome). Most important, the psychological acculturation measure showed a degree of independence from behavioral acculturation, confirming the hypothesis that the two major dimensions of acculturation are distinguishable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (SAFE) Acculturation Stress Scale to assess the adjustment needs of Hispanic college students.

July 1996


1,553 Reads

Examined the validity and reliability of F. J. Mena et al's (see record 1988-32461-001) 24-item SAFE Acculturation Stress Scale using a heterogeneous group of 141 Hispanic college students. Ss also completed 3 open-ended questions on stress they had experienced in the US. Principal components analysis and the varimax rotation method yielded a 4-factor solution to SAFE scale. The factors were environmental, attitudinal, social, and familial. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) found no significant interactions between different levels of gender, generational status, and SES; however, there was a significant main effect for generation. Results suggest that the SAFE scale is a reliable and valid measure of the acculturation stress of Hispanic college students. The 4 factors appear to measure unique and integral aspects of acculturation stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Structure and Measurement of Acculturation/Enculturation for Asian Americans Using the ARSMA-II

April 2006


140 Reads

The structure and measurement of acculturation/enculturation was investigated on 2 Asian American samples. Factor analyses revealed similar 2-factor structures for both acculturation and enculturation. The factor-analytic-derived measure yielded scores with adequate reliability and marginal construct validity. Acculturation/enculturation differences by generation status, gender, and country region were also detected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Accuracy of student recall of Strong Interest Inventory results 1 year after interpretation

January 1994


15 Reads

Explored how accurately college students recalled information from their Strong Interest Inventory (SII) profiles 1 yr after interpretation. This study is based on a sample of 87 Ss who reported recall of at least 1 of the telephone survey file items administered as a 1-yr follow-up to the SII profile. The major findings in this study include (1) a significant number of participants recalled at least 1 profile result from their SII 1 yr earlier, (2) accuracy of recall varied from 1 type of scale to another, and (3) the percentage of Ss who remembered something and then remembered it accurately was disproportionately small. The rate of recollection for each type of scale on the SII profile fell quite dramatically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Attitudes Toward Standardized Achievement Tests and Their Relation to Achievement Test Performance

July 1984


87 Reads

Examined 188 female and 172 male 6th–9th graders' attitudes toward standardized achievement tests; possible relationships between attitudinal item means and performance on the Stanford Achievement Test (STAT); and whether sex differences exist in attitudes and their relation to test performance. Attitudes toward achievement tests were measured with the Attitudinal Test, a 12-item measure developed for the present study. Results indicate a modest positive correlation ( r = .37) between student attitudes and STAT performance. Item analysis showed that females were more positive than males for every attitudinal item. There was a stronger relationship between attitudes and achievement for boys than for girls. Is is concluded that there is a need for intervention (e.g., test anxiety reduction activities) to improve attitudes toward standardized achievement tests. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Testability: A critical issue in testing language minority students with standardized achievement tests.

October 1993


527 Reads

Addresses issues concerning the misapplication of standardized achievement testing of language-minority students. Testability is defined and described in reference to the likelihood of language-minority students meeting 5 test assumptions necessary for valid scores. Problems with limited English proficiency student exemptions based on language are highlighted. Three alternative performance standard-setting measures for classifying students into testable, marginally testable, and nontestable categories are reviewed. Strategies for enhancing the applicability of standardized achievement testing for limited English proficiency (LEP) students are offered. In conclusion, 6 factors are suggested for consideration in the establishment of guidelines for exempting LEP students from standardized achievement testing and in the development of special testing for this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Effects of Test-Wiseness Training and Ethnicity on Achievement of Third- and Fifth-Grade Students

January 1986


31 Reads

208 Black, White, and Hispanic 3rd and 5th graders served in a control group or received training in 4 test-wiseness strategies: following directions, using time, guessing, and answer changing. Data on the Stanford Achievement Test and the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills show a significant effect of training on mathematics achievement among 5th graders at both immediate and delayed posttesting. Contrary to expectations, no significant race × treatment interaction was found. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Refining the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale: Factorial invariance across two Asian samples

October 2007


452 Reads

This article describes the validation and refinement of the short, 10-item version of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970) scale using 2 separate samples. Confirmatory factor analyses results provided evidence of factorial invariance across both samples, thus supporting the cross-validation of a revised 9-item measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Applying computerized adaptive testing in schools

April 1990


8 Reads

Compared paper-administered, computer-administered, and computerized adaptive testing (COAT) forms of school achievement and assessment tests (Study 1) and compared COAT aptitude test results with the individually administered Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC—R) (Study 2). Study 1, with 350 3rd graders and 225 6th graders, showed that COAT required only 25% of the testing time required for the paper-administered tests, while the computer-administered tests required only 50–75% of the time required for the paper-administered tests. Study 2, with 72 6th and 7th graders, showed significant correlations between COAT and individually administered tests (i.e., the WISC—R). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Additional comments regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

January 1991


63 Reads

Comments on M. H. McCaulley's article (see record 1990-16143-001) on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, highlighting differences between the Jungian and Myers-Briggs models. While preference for behavioral style is a key feature of the Myers-Briggs model, it is essentially absent from Jung's type psychology. Also, Jung considered conscious and unconscious responses to environmental stimuli in his model, while Myers and Briggs emphasized only conscious reactions. These differences suggest certain dangers and precautions in interpreting the Myers-Briggs instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Additional comments regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A response to comments

January 1991


20 Reads

Responds to P. F. Merenda's (see record 1991-20231-001) comments on M. H. McCaulley's (see record 1990-16143-001) discussion of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The relationship between individuation and basic mental functions in Jung's model of psychological type and the use of Jung's ideas in developing the MBTI are discussed. While Jung's typology is a complex, dynamic theory related to individuation, it is argued that this aspect of Jung's work was not neglected in creating the MBTI. Furthermore, preferences for behavioral style do not form the cornerstone of the MBTI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Some Psychometric Properties of a System to Measure ADHD Among College Students: Factor Pattern, Reliability, and One-Year Predictive Validity

January 2002


136 Reads

This study obtained construct (factorial) validity, internal consistency reliability, and 1-yr criterion coefficients for scores from the College Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Response Evaluation (CARE), an evaluation tool examining ADHD behaviors as reported by college students (average age 19.2 yrs) and their parents. Self- and parent-report scales from the CARE were gathered at the beginning of the school year. The following summer, the university provided data with respect to students' end-of-year, freshman grade point average. The university also supplied Verbal and Quantitative scores from the SAT at the time of the students' admission. Among the CARE variables, parent ratings were better predictors of college achievement than student ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Validity of the Superiority and Goal Instability Scales as Predictors of Women's Adjustment to College Life

October 1988


93 Reads

Investigated the validity of S. Robbins and M. J. Patton's Superiority Scale (SS) and Goal Instability Scale (GIS) as predictors of adjustment to college life among freshman women. Data obtained from 178 Ss throughout their freshman year show that the SS was not a consistent predictor of adjustment; the GIS was a consistent, although limited, predictor of academic, personal, and institutional adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Student error in administering the WISC—R: Identifying problem areas.

October 1990


28 Reads

Identified examiner errors made by 26 master's level counselor education and rehabilitation counseling students in the administration and scoring of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC—R). Students averaged slightly more than 11 errors per protocol. The most frequent errors occurred on the Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests. Errors were attributable to the paucity of explicit scoring criteria and examples in the test manual and to scorer carelessness. Five practice administrations were not sufficient to improve scoring accuracy, and 10 administrations improved accuracy only slightly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

TABLE 4 Correlations Between the Factors of the Resilience Scale for Adolecents and Various Demographic and Personal Information (N = 421)
A New Scale for Adolescent Resilience: Grasping the Central Protective Resources Behind Healthy Development

July 2006


12,878 Reads






In this study, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) was developed with confirmatory factor analysis and cross-validated factor model. The results show that the READ has sound psychometric qualities and that it measures all the central aspects of the psychological construct of resiliency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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