Measurement Techniques

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1573-8906
Publications
Article
On April 21–25, 2008, the Bauman Moscow State Technical University hosted the 10th All-Russia Conference on “Problems and State of Measurements,” which was dedicated to the 140th anniversary of the Faculty of Machine Industry Technologies. It was attended by representatives of colleges: Lomonosov Moscow State University, Zhukovskii VVIA, MAI and Stankin Moscow State Technical Universities, Goryachkin MGAU, Ural (Ekaterinburg), Orel, Perm, Tula, and Penza State Universities, the Russian Academy for the State Service under the Russian Federation President, the Maimond Classical Academy, the Novomoskowsk Institute of the Mendeleev Russian Chemical Engineering University, Kharkov Electronics National University; and also research institutes in the RAS system: the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mechanics, the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences, the Trapeznikov Institute of Control Problems, the Institute of Psychology, IMASh and the Blagonravov Nizhnii Novgorod branch of IMASh, and IPMASh (St. Petersburg); the Malaya Therapy Institute (Ukraine) and sectoral institutes: the Astrofizika Scientific and Production Association, Snegirev NITI, VNIIMS, NIIizmereniya, Moscow Institute of Expert Evaluation and Testing, LITMAShDETAL’, and the Omskenergoremont OAO PRP. In this number of the journal and the next one, we present a selection of articles from the conference. We also publish a survey article by the chairman of the organizing committee of the conference, Professor M. I. Kiselev.
 
Article
The 2007 World Metrology Day focused on the topic of the significance of measurements in monitoring and providing reliable data for models of climate change. Metrologists face the challenge of ensuring that these measurements confirm to the International System Units (SI) and are consistent with measurements around the world. It has been found that many of the measurements necessary to monitor climate change and other environmental issues are difficult. One of the significant elements of environmental measurement is that it requires joint effort of metrologists and scientists. The World Metrology Day and WMO are jointly working to address the issues related to improving the accuracy and effectiveness of environmental measurements. They are also making efforts to confirm these measurement to the SI, enabling metrologists assess climate change on the basis of accurate and homogeneous observational data.
 
Article
A thermodynamic temperature scale in the range 0.3–3 K is established by a magnetic method. The results of investigations enable the range of the State Standard of temperature to be extended from 0.8 K to 0.3 K with a simultaneous increase in its accuracy by a factor of 2–3.
 
Article
The VNIIFTRI magnetic temperature scale is compared with the provisional low-temperature scale (PLTS-2000), based on the melting pressure of He-3, in the 0.37–0.56K range. The magnetic temperature scale is reproduced from the readings of a rhodium-iron alloy resistance thermometer. The disagreement between the scales does not exceed 0.23 mK. Key wordsHe-3–melting–thermometer–temperature scale
 
Article
A displacement interferometer is described for measuring gauge blocks, in which a spatial filter is used to combine a laser beam with a white-light beam, and the length of the block is calculated from the phase differences of the laser signal corresponding to the centers of gravity of the achromatic fringes from the gauge and from the reference plate.
 
Article
Design features are considered for the alternating current state standard for the frequency range 20 to 1·106 Hz.
 
Article
The structure and principal metrological characteristics are considered for the new State special primary standard for the volt.
 
Article
The design structure is considered and the basic metrological characteristics of a new state primary special standard is presented. Key wordsvolt-standard-metrological characteristics
 
Article
Results of the measurements of free-fall acceleration in the gravimetric micronetwork of the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (Sèvres, France) in the period March-April 1996 using one absolute ballistic gravimeter FG5-108 are presented. The standard deviation in the measurements at the eight sites of the micronetwork does not exceed 1.8 μGal.
 
Article
An improved value of the variation in the rate of rotation of the oscillation plane of a paraconic pendulum during the solar eclipse in Mexico on July 11, 1991 is obtained. The variation in the rate of rotation during the eclipse is compared with its averaged value in several control series of experiments performed before and after the eclipse. The improved value proves to be three times greater than the local Foucault effect.
 
Article
Specifications, circuitry, and recommendations for the use of the OK6-13 automatic complex for testing instruments for the measurement of the parameters of fiber-optic transmission systems are presented. The complex supports tests of measurement instruments designed for operating at wavelengths of 0.85, 1.31, and 1.55 μm. Key wordsautomatic complex-testing-parameters of fiber-optic transmission systems-shop measurement instruments
 
Article
It is shown that it is possible in practice to use high-temperature models of black bodies based on phase transitions of metal-carbon eutectics for radiometry, radiation thermometry, and photometry.
 
Article
Neutron and γ-ray field characteristics have been examined for two 14 MeV neutron generators by the use of spheres and special cylindrical systems composed of various materials. Measurements have been made on the energy resolution of the spectrometer fitted with a stilbene scintillation crystal in relation to monoenergetic 14 MeV neutrons and the broadening of the monoenergetic neutron spectrum due to interaction with a target material block.
 
Article
A method for the dissemination of units from a standard neutron source with energy 14 MeV by means of activated detectors made of fluoroplastic and aluminum according to the reactions 19F(n, 2n)18F and 27Al(n, α)24Na is described. Key wordsneutron source-activated detectors
 
Article
The present state of the standard base of Russia for measuring small direct-current in the 10−16–10−9 A range is considered, and the metrological characteristics of the state primary and transferable standards are given.
 
Article
Modern technologies for constructing microwave and UHF1 panoramic measuring receivers for measuring signal levels and frequencies in order to estimate electromagnetic compatibility are described. The results of research and development of the frequency converters of such receivers are presented. It is shown that such instruments enable one to monitor extraneous and out-of-band oscillations in the frequency range up to 37.5GHz, according to the requirements of the existing State Standards, and from 37.5 to 178.4GHz, corresponding to the requirements of the designers of UHF radioelectronic apparatus.
 
Article
The composition and generalized block diagram of the State Primary Standard of the unit of relative permittivity and unit of relative permeability in the frequency range 1 MHz – 18 GHz and methods of reproduction and transfer of the unit are considered. Measurement equations for all the standard devices and a brief analysis of the errors that arise in reproduction of the unit are presented. Key wordspermittivity-permeability-primary standard-measurement equations
 
Article
Various forms of international cooperation in the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which VNIIM took part during 1992–2007 are considered. It is shown that participation in international cooperation in this field, that started with D. I. Mendeleev, is currently being accomplished successfully under the aegis of the Metrological Academy of the Russian Federation.
 
Article
Results of a comparison of Russian and Ukrainian He−Ne/I2 lasers functioning at standard frequencies are presented. The basic metrological characteristics of these lasers when operating as frequency standards under conditions corresponding to the recommendations for practical determination of the definition of a meter are investigated.
 
Article
The working standard for the unit of gas flow in a vacuum VÉT 49-2-2006 is described. The composition of the standard and metrological characteristics are provided. A local verification scheme is given for the measurement provisions of gas flow in a vacuum.
 
Article
Changes in the definitions of the technical units and units of electromagnetism in the International System of Units which may be adopted if Recommendation E1 (2007) is approved are discussed. It is shown that the verbal statement of the definition of the kilogram may be radically simplified if the division of units into fundamental and derived units is discarded in the new International System of Units.
 
Article
The work of the Nanodiagnostics section at the First International Forum on Nanotechnologies, “Rusnanotech-2008,” is reported briefly. The talks presented there are reviewed and the major conclusions regarding the state of development of and the general problems in nanodiagnostics are discussed.
 
Article
The long-term energy stability of the 7.5 keV and 17.8 keV conversion electrons of the 9.4 keV and 32 keV nuclear transitions respectively in 83m Kr, emitted by solid 83 Rb/ 83m Kr sources, prepared by evaporation in a vacuum, is investigated using two different spectrometers. The results obtained indicate the principal applicability of these 83 Rb sources for monitoring the stability of the energy scale of electron spectrometers in the 20 keV region at the level of ±60 meV for at least two months, which corresponds to the requirement of the new KATRIN tritium neutrino project. Investigations are being continued using sources produced by implantation of 83 Rb ions into different substrates.
 
Differences between the results of measurements at BNM-INM (1996) and VNIIOFI (2000) for the first (a) and second (b) rounds.
Alternative deviations from the CRV. Data from lamp Q130, the second round of measurements of lamp X1032, and the first round of measurements at BNM-INM are excluded.
Article
The Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry (CCPR) has organized international comparisons of the CCPR-S1 units of spectral radiance at wavelengths of 220–2500 nm with participation by the BNM-INM (France), NIST (USA), NRC (Canada), PTB (Germany), and VNIIOFI (Russia), with the latter as the pilot laboratory. The methods and equipment for these measurements, as well as the results of the comparisons, are discussed. The comparisons showed that the discrepancies between the spectral radiance scales were basically within ±1.5%. This discrepancy decreases to ±1.0% if the data from highly unstable transfer standards are eliminated from the analysis. Key wordsinternational comparisons-spectral radiance-ribbon lamps
 
Article
The results of an investigation of the heat-transfer and radiation properties of DE-24 isostatic graphite under steady conditions in the 2300–3000 K temperature range are presented. The thermal conductivity and emission characteristics of the material were determined by the two-cylinder method. The sample was heated by passing a constant electric current through it. Key wordstemperature–thermal conductivity–emissivity–two-cylinder method
 
Article
New estimated values of the decay and radiation characteristics of the radionuclides 233Th, 239U, 236Np, 236m Np, 238Np, and 239Np obtained in light of information published in 2009 are presented. Key wordsradionuclide-evaluated values-decay characteristicx-β-decay, γ--KX--LX-rays
 
Article
The 23rd General Conference on Weights and Measures was held in Paris from November 12 to November 16, 2007. The conference was opened by the Chairman Jules Alphonse Hoffmann, President of the French National Academy of Sciences. The Secretary of the International Committee on Weights and Measures, Doctor Robert Kaarls, drew attention to the considerable extension of the sphere of application of metrology. He recommended national metrological institutes and other authorized institutes to set up new more accurate standards and methods of measurement, which will facilitate the solution of the problem of traceability and uncertainty of measurements in practically all areas. A paper by Andrew Wallard, Director of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, devoted considerable attention to cooperation with intergovernmental, international, regional, and national organizations, whose activities are connected with the reliability of the results of measurements.
 
Article
An express-estimation algorithm for determining the minimum detectable activity of 241Am is developed. Semiconductor spectrometers manufactured by the ORTEC Company (USA) and scintillation spectrometers manufactured by the Atomtekh Company (Belarus) are compared. It is proposed to use the results to estimate the suitability of the existing inventory of measuring instruments for the radiation monitoring of territory contaminated by 241Am.
 
Article
The participation of experts from the Gosstandart system in efforts to remediate the consequences of the disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant and some results of this work are discussed. Key wordsDisaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant–Gosstandart experts–instrument testing.
 
Article
A method of measuring the cascade summation coefficients of a semiconductor Ge(Li)-detector with a relative efficiency of 15% without using calculation programs is proposed. An uncertainty of 2% (k = 2) in the cascade summation coefficients obtained for energies of 59–2754 keV is obtained. A method of constructing the overall efficiency curve of the detector up to an energy of 2754 keV using 60Co, 88Y, and 24Na radionuclides is proposed. The measured cascade summation coefficients are compared with those calculated using the ETNA program (LNHB, France).
 
Article
The results of an investigation of the thermal conductivity of DE-24 isostatic graphite in the temperature range 3000–3300K are presented. The temperature dependences of the thermal conductivity are determined by the two hollow cylinders method in which it is assumed that the properties of the material and the resistivity are constant. Exact values of the thermal conductivity are obtained using these relations, the numerical solution of the nonlinear stationary heat-conduction equation and the results of measurements of the temperature on the inner surface of one of the cylinders. Key wordsgraphite–thermal conductivity–two-cylinder method–temperature dependence of the properties
 
Article
Modern CAD/CAM dental systems that incorporate an intraoral 3D profilometer are considered. The operating principle of the device and its functionality features are described. The first domestically produced intraoral 3D profilometer for a CAD/CAM dental system, which was designed at the All-Russia Research Institute of Optophysical Measurements, is presented. Key wordsintraoral 3D profilometer-CAD/CAM dental system-Fourier transform profilometry-fringe pattern projection
 
Article
A new method of determining the thermal conductivity, based on the use of a new class of measuring instrument, namely, teplostats and multivalued measures of thermal conductivity and A-4 standard equipment, developed at the All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology, is described, which enables one, using these measures, to reproduce the unit of thermal conductivity at any point in the 20–500 W/(m·K) range. The expected overall uncertainty in reproducing the unit in this range does not exceed 1.2%.
 
Article
Measurements of the temperature variations in the relative dielectric constants e33T/e0 \varepsilon_{33}^T/{\varepsilon_0} , e11T/e0 \varepsilon_{11}^T/{\varepsilon_0} ,and e22T/e0 \varepsilon_{22}^T/\varepsilon {}_0 , conductivities g11, g22, and g33, elastic constants C11D C_{11}^D , C66D C_{66}^D , and S22E S_{22}^E , and electromechanical coupling constants kt, k26, and k12 of lanthanum-gallium tantalate over temperatures of 20–600°C are reported. Data are presented on the effect of lifetime (breakdown) testing on these characteristics of the piezoelectric crystals after retention at a temperature of 625°C for 250 h. Key wordspiezoelectric crystals-lanthanum-gallium tantalate-measurement of characteristics-lifetime testing
 
Article
Two basic methods for measuring exposure dose capacity (EDC) and of determining the activity of gammaradiation sources based on the radionuclide 60Co are considered, namely, direct measurements and relative measurements (the comparator method), and also a system for transferring the dimensions of the units of EDC and its equivalent activity from measuring instruments of the 1st category to commercial sources of the 3rd category. Keywordsionizing radiation sources–exposure dose capacity–equivalent activity
 
Article
IMGC has established the fixed points required by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) for long-stem platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) at the highest accuracy level. The present paper describes the fixed point apparatus and the measuring procedures used at IMGC for the accurate realization of each fixed point, and gives some data on the typical phase transitions thereby obtained. Moreover, since IMGC has developed both traditional and sealed cells for the realization of the freesing or melting points of metals, the different types of cells and the procedure used for their construction and preparation are also supplied. Finally, the reproducibilities of the freezing points of Sn, Zn, Al, and Ag were evaluated by means of several determinatiaons with one standard thermometer.
 
Article
Systems for realizing the fixed points of the ITS-90 for calibrating column and capsule standard platinum thermometers, namely, Systems for realizing the fixed points of the ITS-90 for calibrating column and capsule standard platinum thermometers, namely, the triple points of argon and mercury and the melting point of gallium, are constructed and investigated. The errors of the the triple points of argon and mercury and the melting point of gallium, are constructed and investigated. The errors of the values of the metrological characteristics of the systems obtained enable one, using platinum resistance thermometers, to values of the metrological characteristics of the systems obtained enable one, using platinum resistance thermometers, to reproduce and transfer the temperature scale in the 83.8–302.9 K range. The extended uncertainty in reproducing the temperatures reproduce and transfer the temperature scale in the 83.8–302.9 K range. The extended uncertainty in reproducing the temperatures of the fixed points does not exceed 0.4 mK. of the fixed points does not exceed 0.4 mK.
 
Article
The recommended energy dependences of the sensitivity of emergency dosimeters are calculated for different irradiation geometries in the photon energy range of 10 keV–10 MeV. These serve to estimate the levels of radiation for which, according to the NRB-99 standard, either urgent action or action for chronic exposure is necessary.
 
Article
Monte Carlo simulation has been used to demonstrate correctness in using the parametric Abbé test in metrological practice for checking the hypothesis of independence for the realization of some forms of nongaussian random processes.
 
Article
Distributions are examined for the Abbé test statistics for various probability laws. It is shown that the statistic distributions are stable when the normality assumptions are violated. The power of the criterion with respect to various alternatives is examined.
 
Article
A flexible system of approximations by means of which it is possible to precisely compute the Kirchhoff diffraction integral is analyzed. A beam of the null component mode (TEM00) at the exit from a flat hollow resonator transformed by an afocal optical system that reduces aberration is considered. The possibility of reducing aberrations by a computation of the structural parameters of the lens using a newly developed procedure is investigated.
 
Article
A cylindrical model of an absolutely black body of lanthanum chromite for reproducing temperatures in the 800–1500°C range is described. Data on the emissive power of lanthanum chromite are given and the construction and metrological characteristics of a model of an absolutely black body are described. Key wordsmodel of an absolutely black body-lanthanum chromite-contactless measurement of the temperature
 
Article
The current state of the national primary standard for absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate of photon and electron radiations is discussed. The results of key comparisons of the VNIIFTRI and BIPM standards are reported. Key wordsstandard-calorimeter-ionization chamber-photon and electron radiations-key comparisons-absorbed dose rate
 
Article
Results of the development and of studies of working standards of UHF coaxial power for coaxial transmission lines in the range of frequencies to 40 GHz for all types of standardized connectors based on imported wattmeters are set forth. Results of experimental investigations of the instrument errors and errors in the dissemination of the unit for purposes of verification by means of comparisons with the initial feed-through and absorbed power wattmeters of national standard GET 26-94 are presented. Key wordsabsorbed microwave power-working standards-coaxial wattmetes
 
Article
A fine structure is considered for the zero-fluctuations of the vacuum in an optomechanical converter containing an absorbing A fine structure is considered for the zero-fluctuations of the vacuum in an optomechanical converter containing an absorbing mirror as sensing element for resonant gravitational antennas. A formula is given for the threshold sensitivity of such an mirror as sensing element for resonant gravitational antennas. A formula is given for the threshold sensitivity of such an antenna in relation to the absorption coefficient in optimal data processing. antenna in relation to the absorption coefficient in optimal data processing.
 
Article
Two methods of background correction in atomic absorption spectrometry with nonselective atomic effects are investigated: first, with a source possessing a continuous spectrum and, second, that of correction based on the Zeeman effect. The parameters of the monochromator, which was developed expressly for Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry, are considered.
 
Article
We consider some new methods and measuring instruments used in atomic absorption spectrometry: flame atomizer/annular-slot burner, rapidly heated graphite furnace with ballast, high resolution spectrometers with continuum source, and also the new standard GOST R 8.649-2008 of January 1, 2010. Key wordsflame atomizer–graphite furnace–spectrometers–fast heating–flame and electrothermal atomization
 
Article
A method measuring the absorption efficiency factor of a thin-wire platinum bolometer is validated and experimentally verified.
 
Article
A method and apparatus for measuring the absorption coefficient chi(f) (the relative radiation coefficient epsilon(f)) of wide-aperture radiators in free space are described. The requirements on the values of epsilon(f) and the error Delta epsilon(f), which ensure the necessary accuracy when calibrating these radiators, are discussed. The results of measurements of epsilon(f) and Delta e(f) of the radiating element of a cryogenic wide-aperture radiator in the 10-43.2 GHz frequency band are presented.
 
Top-cited authors
Elena Velichko
  • Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University
Boris Yurievich Lemeshko
  • Novosibirsk State Technical University
Stanislav B. Lemeshko
  • Novosibirsk State Technical University
Uwe Stilla
  • Technische Universität München
Boris Jutzi
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology