Materials Science and Engineering C

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0928-4931
Publications
Article
This work reports the first application of the ion imprinting technology for determination of potassium ion by precipitation polymerization method. Ion imprinted polymeric (IIP) nanoparticles were prepared by using dicyclohexyl 18C6 (DC18C6) as a K(+) ion selective crown ether, in the acetonitrile-dimethylsulfoxide (3:1; v/v) mixture as porogen. The imprint potassium ion was removed from the polymeric matrix using 0.5M HNO3. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed colloidal nanoparticles of 60-90nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape. The obtained ion-imprinted particles for K(+) showed selective recognition with rapid adsorption and desorption processes. It was found that imprinting results in increased affinity of the material toward K(+) ion over other competitor metal ions with the same charge and/or close ionic radius. The synthesized IIP nanobeads were shown to be promising for solid-phase extraction coupled with flame photometry for determination of trace K(+) ion in different water samples.
 
Article
Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration of Ti-24 Nb-4 Zr-7.9 Sn (Ti-2448) surfaces that were modified with a nanoscale TiO2 coating. The coating was fabricated using a hydrothermal synthesis method to generate nanoTiO2/Ti-2448. The surface characteristics of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxicity of the fabricated nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined using MTT assays. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts cultured on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 were compared with those cultured on Ti-2448. Disk-shaped implants were placed in Wistar rats. The histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), and the histocompatibility was analysed at 4 and 12weeks post-implantation. Cylindrical implants were embedded in Japanese white rabbits, and the histological sections were stained with HE and anti-TGF-β1 to evaluate the histocompatibility and early osseointegration at 4, 12 and 26weeks post-implantation. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 exhibited a rougher surface than did Ti-2448. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined to be non-cytotoxic. More osteoblasts and higher ALP activity were observed for nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 than Ti-2448 (p<0.05). Few inflammatory cells were detected around nanoTiO2/Ti-2448, and the expression of TGF-β1 on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 peaked at earlier time than that on Ti-2448. The results indicate that the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration were enhanced by the nanoTiO2 coating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Cr2O3 and Al powder were used as raw powders, and were milled by the high energy ball milling method. The nanostructured 2Cr-Al2O3 composite from the milled powder was both synthesized and densificated within a short time, by the pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS) apparatus. The relative density of the sintered 2Cr-Al2O3 composite was 99%. The hardness and the fracture toughness of the specimen were 1630kg/mm(2), and 9.3MPa·m(1/2), respectively. The weight loss of the composite was measured by a pin-on-disk type apparatus, without a lubricant. Lastly, the 2Cr-Al2O3 composite has a very good cell viability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™), a commercial additive manufacturing process, was used to modify the surfaces of 316L stainless steel with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAP). The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of their microstructure, hardness and apatite forming ability. The results showed that with increase in laser energy input from 32J/mm(2) to 59J/mm(2) the thickness of the modified surface increased from 222±12μm to 355±6μm, while the average surface hardness decreased marginally from 403±18 HV0.3 to 372±8 HV0.3. Microstructural studies showed that the modified surface consisted of austenite dendrites with HAP and some reaction products primarily occurring in the inter-dendritic regions. Finally, the surface-modified 316L samples immersed in simulated body fluids showed significantly higher apatite precipitation compared to unmodified 316L samples.
 
Article
The mechanical and protective properties of parylene N and C coatings (2-20μm) on stainless steel 316L implant materials were investigated. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron and confocal microscopes, microindentation and scratch tests, whereas their protective properties were evaluated in terms of quenching metal ion release from stainless steel to simulated body fluid (Hanks solution). The obtained results revealed that for parylene C coatings, the critical load for initial cracks is 3-5 times higher and the total metal ions release is reduced 3 times more efficiently compared to parylene N. It was thus concluded that parylene C exhibits superior mechanical and protective properties for application as a micrometer coating material for stainless steel implants.
 
Article
Advances in nanotechnology are providing to medicine a new dimension. Multifunctional nanomaterials with diagnostics and treatment modalities integrated in one nanoparticle or in cooperative nanosystems are promoting new insights to cancer treatment and diagnosis. The recent convergence between tissue engineering and cancer is gradually moving towards the development of 3D disease models that more closely resemble in vivo characteristics of tumors. However, the current nanomaterials based therapies are accomplished mainly in 2D cell cultures or in complex in vivo models. The development of new platforms to evaluate nano-based therapies in parallel with possible toxic effects will allow the design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications prior to in vivo studies. Therefore, this review focuses on how 3D in vitro models can be applied to study tumor biology, nanotoxicology and to evaluate nanomaterial based therapies.
 
Article
Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell-material combination in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Inhibiting the non-specific adhesion of cells and proteins to biomaterials such as stents, catheters and guide wires is an important interfacial issue that needs to be addressed in order to reduce surface-related implant complications. Medical grade stainless steel 316L was used as a model system to address this issue. To alter the interfacial property of the implant, self assembled monolayers of long chain phosphonic acids with -CH(3), -COOH, -OH tail groups were formed on the native oxide surface of medical grade stainless steel 316L. The effect of varying the tail groups on 3T3 fibroblast adhesion was investigated. The methyl terminated phosphonic acid significantly prevented cell adhesion however presentation of hydrophilic tail groups at the interface did not significantly reduce cell adhesion when compared to the control stainless steel 316L.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate porous chitosan-supported metal tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin [Me TCPP/p-CTS] as a practical model for the structure and function of the hydrophobic pocket cavity in cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Porous and non-porous chitosan-supported Me TCPPs [Me TCPP/p- and nonp-CTS] were prepared by a similar procedure, characterized using various techniques, and then used as catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane. The Me TCPP/p-CTS, which contained many cavities, showed higher catalytic activity than the Me TCPP/nonp-CTS. The catalytic activities of Mn TCPP/p-CTS and Fe TCPP/p-CTS were 12.4% and 24.4% greater than those of Mn TCPP/nonp-CTS and Fe TCPP/nonp-CTS, respectively. These differences in catalytic activity were mainly influenced by the characteristics and numbers of cavities (or pores) contained in the supported catalysts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
The effect of electro-pulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips was investigated in this paper. It was found that the elongation to failure of materials obtains a noticeable enhancement with increased EPT processing time while slightly sacrificing strength. Fine recrystallized grains and the relative highest elongation to failure (32.5%) appear in the 11second-EPT samples. Grain coarsening and decreased ductility were brought in with longer EPT duration time. Fracture surface analysis shows that transition from intergranular brittle facture to transgranular dimple fracture takes place with an increase in processing time of EPT. Meanwhile, corrosion behavior of titanium alloys is greatly improved with increased EPT processing time, which is presented by polarization test and surface observation with the beneficial effect of forming a protective anatase-TiO2 film on the surface of alloys. The rapid recrystallization behavior and oxide formation of the titanium alloy strip under EPTs are attributed to the enhancement of nucleation rate, atomic diffusion and oxygen migration resulting from the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Within a research directed to developing new polymeric materials, suitable for decorating the surface of colloidal drug carriers, PEG5000 polymers containing a free carboxyl or amine group at one end were conjugated to an α-lipoamino moiety (LAA). The conjugates were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. They showed the same profile of solubility as the parent PEGs in water and in some polar and apolar solvents of pharmaceutical use. Representative terms showed to be well tolerated when incubated with Caco-2 or L929 cell cultures. Dedicated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed to prove the interaction of increasing molar fractions of the PEG5000-LAA conjugates with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers, to gain information about their possible incorporation in drug nanocarriers. While the parent PEGs affected only the superficial structure of bilayers, the amphiphilic PEG-LAA conjugates induced a perturbing effect on the thermotropic behavior of DPPC liposomes, according to the structure of the linked LAA residue. A molar concentration of these PEG-LAA between 5 and 10% was individuated as the most suitable to produce stable vesicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
β-Stabilized titanium (Ti) alloys containing non-toxic elements, particularly niobium (Nb), are promising materials for the construction of bone implants. Their biocompatibility can be further increased by oxidation of their surface. Therefore, in this study, the adhesion, growth and viability of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in cultures on oxidized surfaces of a β-TiNb alloy were investigated and compared with the cell behavior on thermally oxidized Ti, i.e. a metal commonly used for constructing bone implants. Four experimental groups of samples were prepared: Ti or TiNb samples annealed to 600°C for 60min in a stream of dry air, and Ti and TiNb samples treated in Piranha solution prior to annealing. We found that on all TiNb-based samples, the cell population densities on days 1, 3 and 7 after seeding were higher than on the corresponding Ti-based samples. As revealed by XPS and Raman spectroscopy, and also by isoelectric point measurements, these results can be attributed to the presence of T-Nb2O5 oxide phase in the surface of the alloy sample, which decreased its negative zeta (ζ)-potential in comparison with zeta (ζ)-potential of the Ti sample at physiological pH. This effect was tentatively explained by the presence of positively charged defects acting as Lewis sites of the surface Nb2O5 phase. Piranha treatment slightly decreases the biocompatibility of the samples, which for the alloy samples may be explained by a decrease in the number of defective sites with this treatment. Thus, the presence of Nb and thermal oxidation of β-stabilized Ti alloys play a significant role in the increased biocompatibility of TiNb alloys.
 
Article
In this presented study, poly(acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized by cryopolymerization technique at sub-zero temperature. Prepared cryogels were then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and chelated with Fe(3+) ions in order produce the metal chelate affinity matrix. Synthesized cryogels were characterized with FTIR, ESEM and EDX analysis, and it was found that the cryogel had sponge like structure with interconnected pores and their pore diameter was about 200μm. Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used for the adsorption of catalase and optimum adsorption conditions were determined by varying the medium pH, initial catalase concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Maximum catalase adsorption onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was found to be 12.99mg/g cryogel at 25°C, by using pH5.0 acetate buffer. Adsorbed catalase was removed from the cryogel by using 1.0M of NaCl solution and desorption yield was found to be 96%. Additionally, reusability profile of the Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was also investigated and it was found that, adsorption capacity of the cryogels didn't decrease significantly at the end of the 40 reuses. Catalase activity studies were also tested and it was demonstrated that desorbed catalase retained 70% of its initial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Coronary Artery Stents have been the preferred form of treatment for vascular occlusive disease, due to the minimally invasive surgical procedure, post-operative recovery time and cost, when compared to open coronary bypass surgery. The cellular response upon applying an AC electric field to type 316LM Stainless Steel stent mimics was investigated in this paper. The highest RBC adhesion was observed at voltages higher than 88mV and lower than 74mV. Their unique alignment along the lines of fracture on the stent surface at 88mV was a phenomenon caused by an increase in electrical conductivity in these regions. Being able to control RBC adhesion may have various clinical implications such as inhibition of thrombus formation, and provide a basis to analyse whether electric fields may be applied to cancer therapy as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Pure iron has been proven to be a potential biodegradable metal, but its degradation rate was too slow. To accelerate its biodegradation, micro-patterned Au disc films were deposited on the surface of pure iron by vacuum sputtering. The influence of Au disc films on the degradation of pure iron matrix in vitro was investigated in the present study. Electrochemical measurement results indicated that the corrosion current density of pure iron coated with micro-patterned Au disc films in Hank's solution was 4 times larger than that of the uncoated one, while the difference between the influences of micro-patterned Au discs with different diameters on the corrosion rate of pure iron was insignificant. Immersion test indicated that the corrosion depth for pure iron coated with Au disc films was about three times as that of bare pure iron. Both electrochemical test and immersion test revealed that the corrosion of pure iron matrix coated with Au disc array became more uniform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac were prepared by single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation method using response surface methodology (RSM). Microspheres were prepared by changing formulation variables such as the amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by statistical experimental design in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (E.E.) of the microspheres. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for their size, morphology, E.E., and in vitro drug release. The amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of PVA were found to be significant factors respectively for determining the E.E. of the microspheres. A linear mathematical model equation fitted to the data was used to predict the E.E. in the optimal region. Optimized formulation of microspheres was prepared using optimal process variables setting in order to evaluate the optimization capability of the models generated according to IV-optimal design. The microspheres showed high E.E. (74.14±0.015% to 85.34±0.011%) and suitably sustained drug release (minimum; 40% to 60%; maximum) over a period of 12h. The optimized microspheres formulation showed E.E. of 84.87±0.005 with small error value (1.39). The low magnitudes of error and the significant value of R(2) in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The absence of interactions between drug and polymers was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with smooth surface. The results demonstrate that these microspheres could be promising delivery system to sustain the drug release and improve the E.E. thus prolong drug action and achieve the highest healing effect with minimal gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
The voltammetric behavior of a carbon paste electrode modified with Co(II)-exchanged zeolite A (Co(II)-A/ZMCPE) for determination of acetaminophen was studied. The proposed electrode showed a diffusion controlled reaction with the electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of 0.44s(-1) and charge transfer coefficient of 0.73 in the absence of acetaminophen. A linear voltammetric response was obtained in the range of 0.1 to 190μmolL(-1) of acetaminophen [r(2)=0.9979, r=0.9989 (n=10)] with a detection limit of 0.04μmolL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of acetaminophen in some drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Understanding the magnetic properties of magnetotactic bacteria (MTBs) is of great interest in fields of life sciences, geosciences, biomineralization, biomagnetism, and planetary sciences. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans), obtaining energy through the oxidation of ferrous iron and various reduced inorganic sulfur compounds, can synthesize intracellular magnetite magnetosomes. However, the magnetic properties of such microorganism remain unknown. Here we used transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) assay, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), magneto-thermogravimetric analysis (MTGA), and low temperature magnetometry to comprehensively investigate the magnetic characteristics of At. ferrooxidans. Results revealed that each cell contained only 1 to 3 magnetite magnetosomes, which were arranged irregularly. The magnetosomes were generally in a stable single-domain (SD) state, but superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite particles were also found. The calcined bacteria exhibited a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie Temperature of 454°C and a coercivity of 16.36 mT. Additionally, the low delta ratio (δFC/δZFC=1.27) indicated that there were no intact magnetosome chains in At. ferrooxidans. Our results provided the new insights on the biomineralization of bacterial magnetosomes and magnetic properties of At. ferrooxidans.
 
Article
Bioresorbable polymer stents have been proposed as promising medical implants to avoid long-term safety concerns and other potential issues caused by traditional materials. As an important member, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was used as the implant matrix with different drug loadings. To better regulate drug release rate, the hydrophilicity of PCL was adjusted by addition of amphiphilic graft copolymers, chitosan-g-poly(ε-caprolactone) (CP). The in vitro release results indicated that the improvement of bulk hydrophilicity could accelerate drug release better than that of surface coating. The optimum additive amount was 25% with CP9. Further study showed that the effect of aspirin molecules displayed no obvious difference to that of CP macromolecules on drug release rate. Moreover, these release profiles were fitted with mathematical models. The similarities were evaluated with similarity factors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images displayed surface/cross-section morphologies of pure PCL and modified implants before and after release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Fibronectin (Fn) is an essential protein that is involved in cell attachment, migration, and differentiation. It is known that the conformation of Fn changes depending on its surrounding environment or on the surface properties of the substrate to which it is adsorbed. Here, we show that Fn adopts different conformations in physiological solutions and can play different roles in osteoblast adhesion on hydroxyapatite (HAp) depending on its concentration. The results of in situ observations showed that the adsorption configuration of Fn was an oblate ellipsoidal structure at low concentrations and a fibrillar structure at high concentrations, suggesting that individual Fn molecules attach to HAp with a side-on or end-on orientation, under low and high concentrations, respectively. Osteoblasts adhered more to the HAp surface under low concentrations of adsorbed Fn than under high concentrations. These observations suggest that the Fn concentration gradient is important for regulating biomaterial-cell interactions in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Bioceramic samples with osteogenic properties, suitable for use in the regeneration of hard tissue, were synthesized. The materials consisting of α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) and also αTCP doped with either 1.5wt.% or 3.0wt.% of dicalcium silicate (C2S) in the system Dicalcium Silicate-Tricalcium Phosphate (C2S-TCP) were obtained by solid state reaction. All materials were composed of a single phase, αTCP in the case of a pure material, or solid solution of C2S in αTCP (αTCPss) for the doped αTCP. Viability, proliferation and in vitro osteoinductive capacity were investigated by seeding, adult mesenchymal stem cells of human origin (ahMSCs) which were CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD34(-) and CD45(-) onto the 3 substrates for 30days. Results show a non-cytotoxic effect after applying an indirect apoptosis test (Annexin V/7-AAD staining), so ahMSCs adhered, spread, proliferated and produced extracellular matrix (Heparan-sulfate proteoglycan (HS) and osteopontin (OP)) on all the ceramics studied. Finally, the cells lost the cluster differentiation marker expression CD73, CD90 y CD105 characteristic of ahMSCs and they showed an osteoblastic phenotype (Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), Osteocalcin production (OC), Collagen type I expression (Col-I), and production of mineralization nodules on the extracellular matrix). These observations were more evident in the αTCP ceramic doped with 1.5wt.% C2S, indicating osteoblastic differentiation as a result of the increased concentration of solid solution of C2S in αTCP (αTCPss). Overall, these results suggest that the ceramics studied are cytocompatible and they are able to induce osteoblastic differentiation of undifferentiated ahMSCs.
 
Article
Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell-materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of calcitriol on osteoinduction following local administration into mandibular bone defects. Calcitriol-loaded absorbable collagen membrane scaffolds were prepared using the polydopamine coating method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Composite scaffolds were implanted into rat mandibular bone defects in the following groups: no graft material (control), bare collagen membrane (CM group), collagen membrane bearing polydopamine coating (DOP/CM group), and collagen membrane bearing polydopamine coating absorbed with calcitriol (CAL/DOP/CM group). At 1, 2, 4 and 8weeks post-surgery, the osteogenic potential of calcitriol was examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Following in vivo implantation, calcitriol-loaded composite scaffolds underwent rapid degradation with pronounced replacement by new bone and induced reunion of the bone marrow cavity. Calcitriol showed strong potential in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promotion of osteogenic differentiation at weeks 1, and 2. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that the newly formed bone volume in the CAL/DOP/CM group was significantly higher than other groups at weeks 1, and 2. At weeks 4, and 8, the CAL/DOP/CM group showed more mineralized bone and uniform collagen structure. These data suggest that local administration of calcitriol is promising in promoting osteogenesis and mineralization for restoration of mandibular bone defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
UV (a) and PL (b) spectral analysis of Ag colloids, core shell nanoparticle and dual labeled core shell nanoparticle. (c) Transmission electron microscopic image of Ag nanoparticles and Ag@SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles.
PL (a) and UV (b) spectral analysis of modified quartz glass to develop DLCS based immunosensor.
Scheme 1. Principle of dual labeled Ag@SiO 2 core shell nanoparticle based optical immunosensor for the detection of E. coli.
Article
An optical nanobiosensor is presented using a fluorescent dye and anti-E. coli McAb anchored Ag@Silica core shell nanoparticles, for rapid and sensitive Escherichia coli detection in environmental samples. The synthesized dual labeled core shell (DLCS) nanoparticle shows intense fluorescence at 620nm in solution, having a narrow emission with full width at half maxima (FWHM) of 10nm, as a prerequisite to develop a sensitive detection platform for various biosensing applications. The specific E. coli was captured using an anti-E. coli antibody functionalized quartz glass, followed by a treatment with DLCS, where the photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to detect the target pathogen. The fabrication of the quartz glass based optical-immunosensor was monitored, and the results show changes in the photoluminescent patterns, which substantiate that varied species were immobilized on the surface of the antibody modified quartz glass. Consequently, the optical immunosensor demonstrated specificity and improved sensitivity, as compared to the customary methods, and was able to detect as low as 5CFU/mL. The developed DLCS based optical immunosensor was evaluated with environmental water samples, which showed acceptable precision, reproducibility and stability, and could be readily applied to the routine monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the environmental samples, and most importantly, demonstrate the potential of a prototype development of a simple and inexpensive diagnostic technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
A combined approach based on a multisensor system to get additional chemical information from liquid samples through the analysis of the solution and its headspace is illustrated and commented. In the present work, innovative analytical techniques, such as a hybrid e-nose and a voltammetric e-tongue were elaborated to differentiate between different pasteurized milk brands and for the exact recognition of their storage days through the data fusion technique of the combined system. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown an acceptable discrimination of the pasteurized milk brands on the first day of storage, when the two instruments were used independently. Contrariwise, PCA indicated that no clear storage day's discrimination can be drawn when the two instruments are applied separately. Mid-level of abstraction data fusion approach has demonstrated that results obtained by the data fusion approach outperformed the classification results of the e-nose and e-tongue taken individually. Furthermore, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised method was applied to the new subset and confirmed that all storage days were correctly identified. This study can be generalized to several beverage and food products where their quality is based on the perception of odor and flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg/week for 2.5months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
This work evaluated the cytocompatibility, thermal and mechanical properties of composites of polylactide (PLA) and marine algae powder (MAP). To improve the thermal and mechanical properties of PLA-MAP composites, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was used as the compatibilizer for the blending of PLA and MAP. The PLA-g-GMA/MAP composites exhibited superior mechanical properties, attributing to higher compatibility between the polymer and MAP, comparing to PLA/MAP composites. The dispersion of MAP in the PLA-g-GMA matrix was highly homogeneous as a result of etherification. The lower melt torque of the PLA-g-GMA/MAP composites also made them more processable than PLA/MAP. To assess the cytocompatibility, normal human foreskin fibroblasts (FBs) were seeded onto each type of the composites. Results of FB proliferation, collagen production, and cytotoxicity assays indicated greater cytocompatibility for the PLA/MAP composites than for the PLA-g-GMA/MAP composites. Furthermore, both PLA/MAP and PLA-g-GMA/MAP composites were more cytocompatible than pure PLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100-200μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Article
The effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) processing on the microstructure and mechanical biocompatibility includes Young's modulus, tensile strength, ductility, fatigue life, fretting fatigue, wear properties and other functionalities such as super elasticity and shape memory effect, etc. at levels suitable for structural biomaterials used in implants that replace hard tissue in the broad sense (Sumitomo et al., 2008 [4]). In particular, in this study, the mechanical biocompatibility implies a combination of great hardness and high strength with an adequate ductility while keeping low Young's modulus of a novel Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) for biomedical applications at rotation numbers (N) ranging from 1 to 60 under a pressure of 1.25 GPa at room temperature was systematically investigated in order to increase its mechanical strength with maintaining low Young's modulus and an adequate ductility.
 
Article
Though Mg alloys are promising candidates for biodegradable stents, it is very difficult to fabricate stent tubes with high dimensional accuracy using Mg alloys because of their low deformability. This study aimed to develop thin-walled, high-quality Mg alloy tubes with good performance in stent applications. Cold drawing with a fixed mandrel was carried out for extruded Mg-0.8%Ca and AZ61 alloy tubes using optimized drawing parameters and lubrication, and stent tubes with 1.5-1.8mm outer diameter and 150μm thickness were fabricated. A dimensional evaluation showed that the tube dimensional errors were within 0.02-2.5%. Also, an immersion test of pure Mg with different crystal orientations showed that the crystal orientation affected the corrosion properties, results that are the same with other Mg alloys. The crystal orientation of the stent tube could be controlled by changing the deformation amount and direction in the drawing, showing that it is possible to further improve the biodegradability of stents by approaching their fabrication from a processing aspect.
 
Article
Metallic foams with porosity ranging from 0.25 to 0.65 have been produced from TiCp, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Ta prealloyed powder by using the space-holder technique, and analysed from both the pore morphology and mechanical properties' points of view. For all the foams, the most suitable porosity range for bone ingrowth appears to be 0.35 to 0.45, since these porosities lead to a pore size that is globally encompassed in the recommended 100-600μm range. From the mechanical behavior point of view, all of the as-sintered foams demonstrate similar compression behavior in terms of their apparent Young's modulus and critical stresses. In the recommended 0.3-0.45 porosity range, their Young's modulus varies from 15 to 8GPa, whilst their yield stress varies from 300 to 150MPa. The first characteristic comes close to that of cortical bone, whilst the second significantly exceeds bone resistance. Compared to Ti foams, the mechanical properties of metastable TNZ and TNT alloy foams can also be regulated within a ±20% range, by selecting an appropriate post-sintering thermal treatment. This effect, which is initiated by activating reversible stress-induced β to α″ martensitic transformation, is strongly perceptible for TNZ foams, whilst much less pronounced for TNT foams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Microstructures of laser processed Ti6Al4V alloy samples (a) fully dense sample showing typical Widmanstätten microstructure, (b) sample with 10% porosity, (c) sample with 20% porosity.  
Typical shear stress – shear strain curves obtained from quasi-static torsional test.  
SEM fractographs of the quasi-statically fractured torsional specimens (a) fully dense sample, (b) sample with 10% porosity, (c) sample with 20% porosity (d) fracture morphology of particle contact regions in the sample with 20 % porosity.  
MTT assay of OPC1 cells on laser processed Ti6Al4V alloy samples. Higher optical density represents higher concentration of living cells.  
Article
Laser processed Ti6Al4V alloy samples with total porosities of 0%, 10% and 20% have been subjected to torsional loading to determine mechanical properties and to understand the deformation behavior. The torsional yield strength and modulus of porous Ti alloy samples was found to be in the range of 185-332 MPa and 5.7-11 GPa, respectively. With an increase in the porosity both the strength and the modulus decreased, and at 20% porosity the torsional modulus of Ti6Al4V alloy was found to be very close to that of human cortical bone. Further, the experiments revealed clear strain hardening and ductile deformation in all the samples, which suggests that the inherent brittleness associated solid-state sintered porous materials can be completely eliminated via laser processing for load bearing metal implant applications.
 
DRIFTS of 316L after 6 hour soaking in 10×T-SBF: the peaks assigned for HA growth are dominating the surface, the carbonate bands are very small on the alloy surface, which indicates the high crystallinity of the resultant apatite layer. 
DRIFTS of 316L after 6 hour soaking in 10 × Sr-T-SBF: the ratio of carbonate to phosphate is about 2. 
Reagents for preparing the concentrated SBF.
DRIFTS of 316L after 6 hour soaking in 10 × Zn-T-SBF: phosphate bands but also very large carbonate bands are shown. 
Powder XRD of precipitates grown in 10 × Zn-T-SBF. The recorded peaks are assigned to brushite and minor OCP and HA.
Article
The combination of the load-bearing metallic implants with the bioactive materials in the design of synthetic implants is an important aspect in the biomaterials research. Biomimetic coating of bioinert alloys with calcium phosphate phases provides a good alternative to the prerequisite for the continual replacement of implants because of the failure of bone-implant integration. We attempted to accelerate the biomimetic coating process of stainless steel alloy (316L) with biomimetic apatite. In addition, we investigated the incorporation of functioning minerals such as strontianite and smithsonite into the deposited layer. In order to develop a highly mature apatite coating, our method requires soaking of the pre-treated alloy in highly concentrated synthetic body fluid for only few hours. Surface characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Also, the deposited apatitic layers were analysed by powder diffraction X-ray analysis (XRD). 316L surface showed the growth of highly crystalline, low carbonated hydroxyapatite, after only 6h of the whole soaking process.
 
Article
In this study, a superelastic Ni-free Ti-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by the implantation of nitrogen ions for the first time. The N-implanted surface was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and the superficial mechanical properties were evaluated by nano-indentation and by ball-on-disk tribological tests. To investigate the biocompatibility, the corrosion resistance of the N-implanted Ti alloy was evaluated in simulated body fluids (SBF) complemented by in-vitro cytocompatibility tests on human fetal osteoblasts. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of a titanium-based nitride on the substrate surface. Consequently, an increase in superficial hardness and a significant reduction of friction coefficient were observed compared to the non-implanted sample. Also, a better corrosion resistance and a significant decrease in ion release rates have been obtained. Cell culture experiments indicated that the cytocompatibility of the N-implanted Ti alloy was superior to that of the corresponding non-treated sample. Thus, this new functional N-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy presents the optimized properties that are required for various medical devices: superelasticity, high superficial mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and excellent cytocompatibility.
 
Article
The bio-corrosion behaviour of Mg-3Zn-0.3Ca (wt.%) alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C has been investigated using immersion testing and electrochemical measurements. Heat treatment has been used to alter the grain size and secondary phase volume fraction; the effects of these on the bio-corrosion behaviour of the alloy were then determined. The as-cast sample has the highest bio-corrosion rate due to micro-galvanic corrosion between the eutectic product (Mg+Ca2Mg6Zn3) and the surrounding magnesium matrix. The bio-corrosion resistance of the alloy can be improved by heat treatment. The volume fraction of secondary phases and grain size are both key factors controlling the bio-corrosion rate of the alloy. The bio-corrosion rate increases with volume fraction of secondary phase. When this is lower than 0.8%, the dependence of bio-corrosion rate becomes noticeable: large grains corrode more quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Top-cited authors
Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault
  • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
Vinod K Gupta
  • University of Johannesburg
Amit Bandyopadhyay
  • Washington State University
Susmita Bose
  • Washington State University
Hin Swee Teoh
  • Nanyang Technological University