Marché et Organisations

Published by CAIRN
Print ISSN: 1953-6119
Publications
Il est reconnu que les entreprises qui ont bénéficié d'un appui pendant leur création sont plus pérennes que les autres entreprises et que de plus, cet appui a un effet positif sur le développement et la rentabilité des jeunes entreprises. De ce fait, en France et dans le monde entier, le nombre de structures d'accompagnement à la création d'entreprise a considérablement augmenté, au gré de l'intervention plus ou moins appuyée des pouvoirs publics.En conséquence, ces structures se livrent une concurrence acharnée pour attirer les créateurs qui, eux, se trouvent noyés dans une complexité qui les dépasse.De plus, à côté de l'accompagnement dit professionnel, on observe que l'accompagnement non professionnel (famille et collègues) est souvent plus sollicité que le premier.On assiste donc à un paradoxe.D'une part, on sait que l'accompagnement favorise la création dans de bonnes conditions de rentabilité et de pérennité ; c'est pourquoi les pouvoirs publics encouragent le développement de ces structures. D'autre part, on observe que les créateurs font assez peu appel à ces structures et même que certains refusent leur aide. En effet, un tiers des créateurs dit n'avoir bénéficié ou sollicité aucun appui (Oséo, 2003).C'est à ces derniers créateurs que cette étude est consacrée pour tenter de comprendre cette « non-rencontre » alors que tout est organisé pour que la rencontre ait lieu.La première partie sera consacrée à l'accompagnement, sa signification et son rôle dans la société ainsi que la relation entre les créateurs et ces structures d'accompagnement et notamment on s'intéressera à ceux qui ne bénéficient pas d'accompagnement. La seconde partie sera consacrée à l'enquête qui a été réalisée auprès de créateurs pour comprendre pour quelles raisons ils ne souhaitaient pas se faire accompagner dans leur processus de création. Les résultats de cette enquête permettront de faire des propositions comme la remise en cause du rôle des accompagnateurs et un besoin de segmentation de l'accompagnement pour répondre au plus près aux besoins réels des créateurs. oui
 
Le travail collaboratif se définit comme une forme d'organisation solidaire du travail où chacun est responsable pour le tout, sans que la part individuelle puisse être systématiquement isolée, la coordination se faisant par ajustement mutuel Ce concept a acquis une nouvelle dimension grâce aux technologies de l'information et de la communication Mais si cette nouvelle forme de collaboration médiatisée est d'évidence collective, elle est d'abord le résultat d'une somme d'interventions individuelles et des freins peuvent être identifiés à ces deux niveaux. Leur caractérisation permet d'entrevoir les facteurs clés du succès de ce mode d'organisation du travail.
 
Innovation is often seen through the prism of major companies, or on the contrary through the story of remarkable inventors. Communication focuses on ordinary humble companies, located in rural areas (Haute-Marne, Meuse counties), which, in the 19th and early 20th century, were then wealthy before disappearing. This leads to measure the role that land can hold in the performance of companies, by comparison and by using the modelling tools and systemic approach. The presentation reviews the recent experiment of devolution (during the 1960’s), the SPL (local productive system, during the 1990’s), the DATAR policy (Interministerial Delegation of Land Planning and Regional Attractiveness) which gave territories a major role. Classification JEL : D24, L5, O18, R58
 
Nombre d'entreprises moyennes (100-299 employés) au Japon, 1955-2013
Cet article porte sur la place des PME industrielles au sein du système économique et de la politique économique du Japon des années 1880 à nos jours. Sur la base de statistiques et de rapports officiels, ainsi que de publications académiques, essentiellement en langue japonaise, il met en lumière la situation de dépendance des PME envers les grandes entreprises, jusque dans les années 1970 (dans le cadre d’une « double structure industrielle »), et la permanence d’une politique visant à « moderniser » les PME. Cette contribution montre également l’existence de PME spécialisées et compétitives, qui commencent à être perçues positivement par le gouvernement depuis les années 1970 et deviennent peu à peu un modèle à suivre, et non plus un problème à résoudre, pour permettre à l’économie japonaise de retrouver le chemin de la croissance.
 
Covid-19 : crisis or catastrophe ? A question of identity Covid-19 is disrupting many of our habits, our rituals, and especially our relationships. In the eyes of the collective and of history, is it serious ? Or can we consider that it is only an unfortunate event and that it will leave few marks? To reflect on this question (having the ambition to answer it would certainly be pretentious), we have mobilized the concepts of crisis and catastrophe and we will explore the impact of the Covid on our imaginary and our identities.
 
The Covid-19 and the economic policies of the world after The economic policies put in place to prevent the transformation of the Covid-19 crisis into an economic crisis of the magnitude of the Great Depression of 1929 are sparking a revolution in the quiet world of economists. Return of the state, re-discovery of the social, innovation and dynamism of economic policies and the liberation of all constraints are forging a new world where collective action takes precedence over resigned resignation erected as dogma in the time of triumphant post-modernities. JEL Codes: H12, H70
 
Proximities play a very central role in the Covid-19 crisis, whether they promote the spread of the pandemic, reduce human and social interactions, or allow for exchange and contact at a distance. In this article, we analyze how the pandemic reveals and modify both their functioning and their impact on our lives. (PDF) Proximités et Covid-19 : un rôle renforcé. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358587126_Proximites_et_Covid-19_un_role_renforce [accessed Jun 17 2022]. Les proximités jouent un rôle tout à fait central dans la crise du Covid-19, qu’elles favorisent la propagation de la pandémie, réduisent les interactions humaines et sociales ou permettent d’échanger et de garder le contact à distance. Dans cet article, l’analyse porte sur la manière dont la pandémie révèle et modifie à la fois leur fonctionnement et leurs impacts sur notre existence.
 
La pandémie de Covid-19 qui frappe la planète propose un cas d’étude spectaculaire de management du désastre. Dans cette littérature, le paradigme participatif est fondamental : l’atténuation de l’impact de la catastrophe, la qualité de la préparation et la résilience de la société, facilitent la reconstruction, mais dépendent de la participation des populations. Pouvoir observer et mesurer l’état de santé mentale des populations (anxiété, confiance, espoirs, ...), identifier les points de controverse et le contenu du discours, restent des nécessités pour accompagner les mesures destinées à encourager cette participation. Les médias sociaux, et en particulier Twitter, offrent des ressources précieuses pour explorer ce discours. Le résultat principal repose sur l’identification du caractère central de la figure du masque et vise à établir l’importance du phénomène. Nous le montrons de manière quantitative, et en explorons le concept par les méthodes de NLP. La toile de fond est un changement majeur d’appréhension de la crise. Si, en début de cycle, elle est perçue de manière exotique, elle devient ensuite endémique au corps social. Nous exploitons ici une base de 2,1 millions de tweets extraits d’un corpus de 110 millions, élaborés par une équipe internationale de science de l’information et portant sur les variantes des #Covid-19, #coronavirus, etc. : le Covid-19 Twitter data set.
 
The robustness / Resilience Controversy: What the Supply Chains under Covid-19 crisis unveil The pandemic crisis of Covid-19 recalled the strategic nature of logistics and supply chain management (SCM) for all sectors of activity. It also stressed the importance of having robust and resilient supply chains (SCs). The article begins by demonstrating why Covid-19 better justifies the need to articulate robustness and resilience than any previous crisis. It then explains, in the light of the literature, why it is not so simple to think and to develop jointly robustness and resilience. The illustrations from the Covid-19 crisis provide elements of response that lead to propose a framework to move forward from controversy to a dialogic approach. The conclusion discusses the theoretical and managerial contributions and opens up avenues for research and reflection that go beyond logistics and SCM.
 
The "With-Covid-19" Entrepreneur The purpose of this contribution is to examine, from the perspective of the entrepreneur, the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic, knowing that the effects will be significant and lasting. The analysis is based on the current competitive and geopolitical context, and it also takes into account the attitudes of more circumspect consumers, at least on the origins of the products they will buy. In this perspective, the main features of the "winning entrepreneur" are presented. JEL Codes: F20, F62
 
Health systems in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic: overcoming fervor, optimism and neglect The COVID-19 pandemic has at times overturned and at times confirmed the World Health Organization's initial assessments of the capacity of health systems to deal with this shock. These initial assessments are most often based on the characteristics of the health care offer, and its more or less pronounced inadequacies: lack of trained personnel, segmentation of the population, or the over-emphasis of technical platforms in the health system. The explanation of the discrepancies observed between the rankings of health systems around the world and their performance highlights only some of these shortcomings and calls upon elements of context and the unfolding of the health crisis. Behavioural economics in a dynamic context of collective learning makes it possible to reconstruct a synthetic vision of health systems and crisis medicine. This approach emphasizes in particular voluntary training of rigidity (Fervor), and hypothesizes a reversal of biases during the crisis, from under-evaluation of the key factors of the pandemic (Optimism) at the beginning of the crisis to passive over-evaluation (Neglect). JEL Codes : I1
 
The book-publishing industry in Spain probably occupied tenth place in the world ranking of number of titles produced in 1935. Later, it experienced a relative decline and sank to thirteenth position as a result of the Spanish civil war and the reconstruction policies of the early Franco régime. Starting in the late 1950s recovery began to take place and the industry reached its best moment in around 1999, when it stood among the top five world producers in number of titles. This industry, with its strong competitive advantage, has remained highly concentrated in the districts of Barcelona and Madrid. These districts benefited from externalities of a Marshallian type: the circulation of specific knowledge, a qualified workforce and subsidiary industries. Both districts can be correctly characterized as complex forest ecosystems, where young trees competed with old ones for light and nutrients. Latin America contributed to the success of certain big trees within these Marshallian forests, but it also caused the collapse of a few of them. Classification JEL : L22, L25, N64, N84, O14
 
Small and mid-size companies played a decisive role in the emergence of the aviation industry before 1914. They were, in fact, more effective than powerful companies that had already been established or major statefunded projects. However, there were a number of failures and successful entrepreneurs who earned profits remained rare. Thus, the costly setbacks suffered by Maxim and Langley should be compared to the lucrative success stories of artisans such as Wright and Blériot. Classification JEL : L62, O31
 
The 1929 crisis or the unlearned lesson of History Between the two World Wars, the 1929 crisis has been perceived as being the consequence of the First World War and the Second World as the solution to the 1929 crisis. It remains today the most severe economic and financial crisis, and each crisis is an opportunity to compare to this crisis. If each crisis is unique, similar mechanisms are involved. The 1929 crisis, just as the current crisis, occurred after a long period of “laisser-faire”, especially in financial markets. The stock exchange has been considered by many people (politics, traders and the middle class) as a way to get rich easily and quickly. But it was easier for politics and entrepreneurs, to get out of the crisis through war than through public investments in health, education, housing or collective transportation. Today, we are in the same situation, social expenditures are down and military sector remains prosperous. Why didn’t we learn from history? Why has there been this recurring financial amnesia?
 
Cotton spinning mills, number of spindles and medium counts.
Number of establishments in the Argentine cotton textile industry, 1935-1955
Production, imports and consumption of cotton fabrics, 1935-1955
Abstract: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises have had (and still have) a leading role in industrialization of Argentine both in the employment creation and in the development of productive and technological capabilities. This article aims to analyze the growth of the textile industry between the world crisis of 1929 and the overthrow of Juan Peron in 1955. The analysis focuses on the cotton and rayon industry, which were the most dynamic sub-branches in those crucial years. The article studies the conditions that made possible SMEs retain and even increase their weight in textile industry. On this subject, the paper analyzes the economic and industrial policies, the characteristics of the sectoral growth, and their structural transformations. Key Words: Small and Medium Sized Enterprise Textile Industry Import-Substituting Industrialization Argentine
 
This article seeks to explain the process of development and industrialization in Indonesia, using the diversity of the institutional approach, during the period from 1950 to 2013. This paper considers several political regime changes in the economy have influenced the Indonesian institutional characteristics that were different from one period to another. Our analysis shows that the characteristics of the period from 1950-1967 are more favorable to the industrialization process and that this could be a lesson for the current period. Classification JEL : O10, O14, O21, O25, O38, O43.
 
James Lovelock (1919-…), a chemist famous for having elaborated the Gaia hypothesis, portrays himself as an “independent scientist” settled in a remote lab-house in the English countryside. Against this narrative, the authors describe Lovelock’s life in the 1960s and 1970s as that of a “scientific entrepreneur”. After twenty years as an engineer in a civil biomedical laboratory, Lovelock resigned to set up on his own. His skills as an expert in chromatography and as an engineer gifted for inventing chemistry instruments were so renowned that he rapidly became a highly demanded consultant, working both for major chemical and petroleum industries and for prestigious public scientific institutions. Obvious synergies, but also tensions, appear between his activities as an expert on environmental issues, his consulting work for industries, and his theoretical work giving birth to a new conception of Earth and life. Lovelock must not only be eventually regarded as one of the fathers of Earth system science and as an important contributor to cultural mutations linked to the environment from the 1960s onwards, but also as an early embodiment of a scientific entrepreneur with a foot in the world of public environmental research and the other in the world of industry.
 
Quality of care, a new regulation tool for hospital under budgetary constraint? A model proposed by Feldstein since 1977 The profession of hospital manager in France takes a little account of the Feldstein’s model published in 1977. While this model has since fostered the development of the efficiency of care, organizations and systems of care and health in the United States, in France the quality seems to be relegated well after the cost reduction. The hospital has remained a firm like any other, whose objective is to maximize its profit while elsewhere it participates in the health production by integrating quality in the financing of hospital care, quality being then considered as an investment with return on investment. Taking Feldstein’s fundamental work into account can and should enable France to catch up on its conceptual backwardness in this area, in order to better take into account the budgetary constraint that weighs and will increasingly weigh on the hospital’s financing. Taking into account the quality of care then appears to be an appropriate response to the fight against scarce resources in the healthcare system, particularly in the hospital medicine market.
 
Outils connectés et engagement du patient
E-health and patient 2.0 : democratic colonization ! For the past fifteen years, we have witnessed a flurry of new so-called "smart" care and monitoring approaches. The required intelligence does not concern the simple use of technologically advanced technical objects but rather falls within the domain of being and its well-being. In the health field, thanks to the technological prowess that sets us apart, we can expect an improvement in health, a break with the loneliness and neglect of abandoned seniors, the reduction of "technopenia" (Moulias, 2014), a reinstatement of solidarity, an accentuation of proximity, an efficiency of health policies, a concern, for well-being and well-being and above all a "harmonization of "thinking global" and "acting local" " (Rialle, 2017). Basically, all of these elements combine to bring comfort to the patient by promoting their involvement and commitment in their care and in their care and health journey. This change in approach known as health democracy leads us to question how to reconcile these different practices for a common goal, namely that of patient engagement in their health and well-being. JEL Codes : I10, I18, H51.
 
The craft sector has entered fully and healthy into the twenty-first century, and is now much attractive for entrepreneurs. Prospects for the development of its companies are nevertheless inhibited by the growing and disturbing number of independant entrepreneurs, and by the continuing economic crisis. Hence, the structuring of small entreprises with employees remains essentiel for starting the conquest of new markets and ensure the transmission of skills, particularly in the manufacturing professions. Classification JEL : J10, J21, H10, H70.
 
Validation of working experience: a source of development of skills and innovation with regards to Human Resource Management The increasing flexibility of the production process and the improvement in population educational levels contribute to the enrichment of employees tasks and scopes and to new management practices. It remains nevertheless difficult to identify the prerequisites in terms of skills of individuals, who need to get integrated into a productive organisation, which is more and more reactive and flexible. That is when arises the notion of competency as an HRM management tool. The company has got a duty of means to mobilise and develop knowledge within its structure. The management of competencies allows to contribute to reaching such objective through improving the company’s performance and the development of individuals; VAE (Validation of working experience) could be a good tool to help the company manage its competencies pool. VAE remains however an individual right, it would partially assist in the willingness of individuals to invest in and to be responsible with their professional paths. At the same time, companies would have a responsibility with regard to the professional paths of their employees in the frame of collective VAE approach. Companies could in fact implement such an approach in their structures, for the required qualifications and for targeted employees.
 
Guilds partly organizing craft in the cities of modern France have long been considered as withdrawn into their statutes, into their rules and regulations. They were said to keep a jealous eye on their production monopoly, and to be humdrum and reluctant towards innovation. Such a dark vision of craft is being reconsidered by many historians. This paper is based on the corpus of large manuscript archives such as post-mortem inventories, account books, or bankruptcy statements, which allow focusing on eighteenth-century-glover-perfumer-practices in Paris. This article intends to emphasize the work of those craftsmen, especially their adaptability and ability to invention in selecting and playing with raw materials, as well as in manufacturing some products and adjusting their production area. Classification JEL : N00, O31, J21.
 
Le socle des responsabilités des entreprises
Nous montrons ici, sans pretendre a l’exhaustivite, quels sont, au-dela des (grandes) entreprises, les autres acteurs interesses a reclamer leur part de responsabilite vis-a-vis du developpement durable. Nous nous demandons quelles sont leurs motivations, leurs objectifs et leurs moyens d’action, et si ces moyens sont les memes pour tous les acteurs. Le mouvement de revendication d’une responsabilite de la part de nombreux acteurs est replace dans le cadre plus general des evolutions (economiques, sociales, environnementales, geopolitiques, etc.) des trente dernieres annees. La premiere section de cet article explique l’emergence de la notion de responsabilite des acteurs (RSA), clarifie les relations entre RSA et developpement durable, puis montre les variantes geographiques de la RSA. La seconde section s’attache aux differents acteurs de la RSA et compare leurs objectifs et moyens d’action.
 
Top-cited authors
Sophie Boutillier
  • Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale (ULCO)
Christine Gangloff-Ziegler
  • Université de Haute-Alsace
Gilles Caire
  • Université de Poitiers
Dimitri Uzunidis
  • Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale (ULCO)
Nadine Richez-Battesti
  • Aix-Marseille Université