Mammalian Species

Published by Oxford University Press (OUP)
Online ISSN: 1545-1410
Print ISSN: 0076-3519
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it>Acrobates pygmaeus ( Shaw, 1794 ) is a gliding possum commonly known as the feather-tailed glider or the narrow-toed feathertail glider. It is the world’s smallest mammal capable of gliding flight and is also one of the smallest marsupials. It is distinguished by gliding membranes between fore and hind limbs and by a conspicuous fringe of stiff hair on each side of a flattened tail that resembles the barbs of a feather. This is a tiny, arboreal, nocturnal species that lives colonially in the tall forests and woodlands of eastern mainland Australia. Although probably common in many of areas of suitable habitat, they are rarely seen. A. pygmaeus is noteworthy for its ability to undergo multiday torpor bouts and its likely role as a pollinator.
 
Tachyglossus aculeatus (Shaw, 1792) is a monotreme commonly called the short-beaked echidna. Although considered Australia’s most common native mammal because of its continent-wide distribution, its population numbers everywhere are low. It is easily distinguished from all other native Australian mammals because of its spine-covered body, hairless beak, and unique “rolling” gait. The five subspecies, one of which is found in Papua New Guinea, show variations in fur density, spine diameter, length, and number of grooming claws. The Kangaroo Island short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus multiaculeatus is listed as “Endangered” but all other Tachyglossus are listed as “Least Concern” in the 2016 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List.
 
-Dorsal, ventral, and lateral views of skull and lateral view of mandible of Microtus agrestis. Male from the National Park of Montezinho (Serra Serrada) Portugal, preserved in the Museu Natural de Historia Natural, Museu e Laboratorio Zoologico e Antropologico, Lisbon, Portugal (Museum No. 87.05.21). Condylobasal length of 25.82 mm.
-Distribution of Microtus agrestis. The species' distribution in central Russia is poorly documented and probably not continuous; the map gives approximate overall distribution range.
Microtus agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761) is a relatively small microtine rodent commonly called the field vole. It has a compact body, blunt oval head, short round ears that barely protrude from the fur, and a short, bicolored, rather stiff tail. It is easily confused with sympatric or parapatric Microtus arvalis, M. oeconomus, and M. levis (M. rossiaermeridonalis) with indistinguishable juveniles. There is geographical variation of size and coloration ranging across Europe south from the Pyrenees to the Arctic coast and Alps eastward to the River Yenisei and Lake Baikal in Asia up to elevations of 2,100 m. It prefers wet meadow areas, riverside habitats, and forests with dense herbaceous cover. M. agrestis is considered to represent a trace of a 1st radiation of the genus Microtus in Europe.
 
—Dorsal, ventral, and lateral views of skull and lateral view of mandible of an adult male Akodon cursor collected in Fazenda Intervales, Capaõ Bonito, Sã o Paulo State, Brazil (24820 0 S, 48825 0 W), field number MAM 266, archived at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Saõ Paulo (MZUSP 29232). Condylobasal length is 30.5 mm. Photos made by Guilherme Garcia used with permission. 
—Geographic distribution of Akodon cursor (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 2008; Reis et al. 2006). Dots correspond to collecting sites made by LG or collaborators. 
Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) is a Sigmodontinae rodent commonly called the cursorial akodont. This small cursorial mouse has homogenous dorsal pelage that can range from dark to golden brown and it is 1 of 41 species in the genus Akodon. It is endemic to Brazil, South America, and is found in the Atlantic Forest, being the most abundant sigmodontine rodent of this large area. Deforestation within the range of A. cursor may not affect this species, because it is tolerant of human disturbance. Currently the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources regards it as a species of “Least Concern.”
 
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Gray, 1846a) is a delphinid commonly called the white-beaked dolphin. A robustly built dolphin with black, white, and gray coloration, it has a whitish beak, a prominent dorsal fin, and a white saddle behind the fin. Endemic to the temperate and subarctic North Atlantic, it is associated with continental shelf habitats. The conservation status of L. albirostris is poorly known. L. albirostris is currently listed as “Least Concern” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and it is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna.
 
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John Koprowski
  • University of Wyoming
Winston Smith
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
Peter Busher
  • Boston University
Steve Sheffield
  • Bowie State University
David M Leslie
  • Oklahoma State University - Stillwater