A 3-year-old Tennessee Walking Horse stallion is presented to the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Tennessee, USA with a history of exercise intolerance and coughing during exercise. Endoscopic examination revealed intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) due to a flaccid, hypoplastic epiglottis. Based on radiology of the throat and larynx, the epiglottic the length of the body of thyrohyoid cartilage to tip of the epiglottis was 7.3 mm. Epiglottic augmentation surgery was elected to correct the problem. During the surgical procedure, after laryngotomy, teflon paste was injected submucosally into the ventral surface of the larynx in 5 rows. The cricothyroid ligament and subcutis were closed and the skin incision was left open to heal by second intention. The aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and different treatment options for DDSP in horses are also discussed in the paper.
The author placed 2-4 pairs of silver electrodes on pregnant uterus during laparotomy and a catheter into the aorta. The frequency and length of uterine contractions and change of pressure in uterus were measured by means of electrodes. From blood taken from the aorta steroid and PGFM concentration were measured. He found that uterus is not completely immobile during pregnancy, long-lasting contractions can be seen 13.6 times a day averagely. Long-lasting contractions of 12 minutes, averagely slightly affect intra-uterine pressure. Contractions pause for 6-9 hours following the regression of luteal corpse, 24-48 hours preceding calving. Due to single prostaglandin treatment for induction of calving, following a transient rest period reactivation of uterus started 10-18 hours after treatment. Examined by ultrasonography, dilatation of caudal cervix started 26-29 hours after injection and in case of anterior position a speed of 1.57 cm/h and in case of posterior position a speed of 2.25 cm/h was measured.
Because the expected gain from keeping is in case of a primiparous sow always higher than the expected gain from a replacement gilt, the culling of these sows has to be avoided. In practice, however, about 14% of the primiparous sows are culled, of which 50% for reproductive reasons. This culling is only a part of the reproductive problems encountered with primiparous sows. Primiparous sows also show: a prolonged weaning to oestrus interval (WOI), a higher use of oestrus inducing hormones, a smaller litter size and a lower farrowing rate from first insemination. The problems are interrelated. This means that concentrating on one factor, e.g. - the WOI, may lead to an overall impovement in reproductive performance. To achieve this, body weight loss during lactation has to be reduced. Adequate housing during first gestation and after weaning, with absence of chronic social stress is important. Reduction in litter size during the first lactation has, besides an effect on weight loss, an important effect on its own on WOI, due to the reduction of the suckling intensity. High environmental temperatures during lactation are responsible for a greater part of the seasonal effect than light is. Breed differences in WOI make the choice of breed of importance. Insemination strategies have to be adjusted for WOI to get the best results. Creating a longer interval between weaning and first breeding after weaning, by progestagens or by using the second heat for breeding, is an other possibility to improve litter size in primiparous sows. Further research into these possibilities and their consequences is needed. Reduction of the WOI will improve the production and reduce the culling of primiparous sows. Farm production will benefit from both.
In the study 224 lactating cows in their middle lactation, producing milk with a somatic cell count (SCC) less than 400 000/ml were involved. Quarter and individual composite milk samples were subjected, respecitvely to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and somatic cell counting (Fossomatic method). 41 udder quarters of 34 cows showed a positive CMT reaction greater then "+", which means 15,18% of the total cows. In the SCC groups <100 000/ml and 100 000-400 000/ml respectively 7,63% and 23,58% of the cows had at least one inflammed quarter. The authors propose that all of the lactating cows should be involved in the screening tests of the infected udder quarters.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) was recognised as a human pathogen following outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis (HC) in the USA, 1982. Since then EHEC became an emerging food-related pathogen causing a wide variety of diseases in human including mild to bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis (HC) that can lead to the life threatening haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). EHEC infection is a severe public health problem in developed countries. In 1996, there was an outbreak involving more than 6000 people in Japan. In the United States, the number of EHEC infections could be as high as 20 000 per a year, of which about 250 are deadly. The source of infection is mostly eating undercooked ground beef. In Hungary, there have only been sporadic cases detected so far. With several virulence factors involved in its pathogenesis, EHEC is a classic pathogenic model organism. All isolates have one or two bacteriophage encoded toxins, called Shiga toxin (Stx), a serotype specific virulence plasmid of cc. 60 MDa (pO157) and a pathogenecity island (pai). pO157 promotes the EHEC adherence both in vivo and in vitro, but so far there is no cloned pO157-specific EHEC adhesin. pO157 encodes Katalase peroxidase (KatP), Serine protease (EspP), EHEC-haemolysin (enterohaemolysin) and a type II secretion pathway operon. EHEC-pai is a 43.3 kb length extraneous DNA that contains all the genes necessary for causing attaching effacing lesions. Diagnosis is mostly based on the detection of Stx through its cytotoxic effect on Vero cells, with the help of Stx-antibodies, by hybridisation using Stx specific DNA probes or by DNA amplification (PCR). The antibiotic therapy of EHEC infections is not without risk and further studies are needed to elucidate its benefits. There are encouraging results of using a Stx-receptor analogue to develop drugs or vaccines.
Groups of pigs free from Aujeszky-disease virus (ADV) antibodies were vaccinated once or twice with Aujeszky-vaccine Auphyl-plus that contains an attenuated strain MNC+/10a (15) with an oil/water emulsion adjuvant. Strain MNC+/10a is a genetically improved version of vaccine strain K/61 (6) whose impaired gC-function has been restored. il MNC+/10a forms larger plaques in cell culture and induces more antibody in pigs even after a single injection as compared to strain K/61 (15). Two injections of Auphyl-plus separated by 3 weeks induced 10-30 fold antibody titres than one injection of the vaccine. Three weeks after the first or second injection pigs were challenged intranasally with 10(4) PFU of virulent strain NIA-3 in two separate experiments. Most unvaccinated animals showed severe respiratory and nervous signs after 4-6 days and the average daily weight gains were reduced to about -2.5% in the control groups. Altogether ton of the twelve control animals succumbed to the challenge infection. A single dose of the vaccine was sufficient to prevent disease but did not prevent mild (<41 degrees C) fever and a transient (1-2 days) anorexia in some animals (Table 1). Two doses of vaccine prevented both (Table 1, Fig, 2). The average daily weight gains of the once and twice vaccinated groups were 1.47% and 0.90%, respectively as compared to the weight loss of -2.5% in the unvaccinated pigs. Virus shedding measured by total virus excreted was significantly reduced (150 times) in the twice-vaccinated group as compared to controls (Fig, 3 and 4). Duration of virus shedding was reduced to 7,2 and 5,4 day in the once and twice vaccinated groups, respectively as compared to surviving control pigs (Table 1). To simulate natural conditions of virus spread, pigs vaccinated twice were placed in the pens of twice vaccinated, intranasally, challenged animals, None of the contact-challenged vaccinated pigs shed virus during a two-weeks observation period. In spite of this lack of excretion of challenge virus four our of six animals seroconversed to gE three weeks later (Table 2). Further refinement of contact infection is needed to simulate virus spread between animals under field conditions.
The author treated dairy cows in two series of examinations (n=106 and n=362) with 50 mu g of GnRH-analogous preparation (1.0 ml Gonavet, Veyx) during 11(th) and 13(th) day after insemination for increasing probability of conception by helping the function of corpus luteum and its progesterone production. Compared to control cows (n=104 and n=440) conception rate of treated animals was higher by 10.6% (p < 0.05) in the first experiment and by 7.2% (p < 0.05) in the second experiment. Increase of conception rate was marked in the first calving cows (13.2%, p < 0.01) and in repeated treatments (18.7%, p < 0.01). Difference in conception rate was significant (p < 0.05) at the first (mainly early) and the second inseminations but there was no increase in case of adult cows and in case of third and further inseminations. The author recommends using this simple but effective intervention for larger number of animals and for longer period.
Radiostrontium (90Sr) and radiocesium (137Cs) deposited from the Chernobyl reactor accident contaminated in particular the aquatic environment and animals in several parts of the world. The activities of 90Sr and 137Cs were analysed in 33 samples of fishery products, imported to the Slovak market. The analysis of sea-fish products revealed that the activity of radio-strontium and -cesium did not extend the tolerance limits for the fish laid down 2218/89 EEC Regulation (EURATOM).
The authors examined the cytokeratin 14 expression pattern in the canine normal mammary gland and the different benign and malignant tumours of the canine mammary gland with immunohistochemical method. They illustrate their results with pictures. The cytokeratin 14 prognostic factor is usable for the perfect detection of pericarcinomatous hematogen or/and lymphogen invasion of the tumouremboli.
Background: Pleuropneumonia with hign economic losses caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumonae is common throughout the work, A. pleuropneumonae has two biotypes and 16 serotypes, Serotype 16 was described recently in Hangary and it has not been isolated from other countives yet, Genes for the production (apxlA) and secretion (apxlB) of Apxl, the gene for the expression of Apxil and apxiV gene were detected in it. Objectives: Serotype 16 of A. pleuropneumoniae was diagnosed in large scale pig herd with 1350 sows in the Eastern part of Hungary in acute cases of pleuro-preumonia. On the basis of the bacterilogical examinations, the formerly used marketed, registered vaccine produced form inactivated A. pleuropneumoniae strains was replaced with a marketed and registered vaccine containing inactivated toxins of A. pleuropneumoniae and outer membrane protein in standerdized amount. The objective was to avaluate it protective effect. Materials and methods: Four lungs of dead pigs and four lungs collected at the siaughterhouse, showing lesions of acute haemonhagic-necrotic pneumonia and fibronous pleuritis were seri to the laboratory. After changing the vaccine, a few months later 16 lungs with chronic pieuropneumonia were examined, The isolated A. pleuropneumoniae strains were serotyped using the indirect haem-agglutination test. Results: Serotype 16 of A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated from al the 8 acute and 14 chronic forms. In that part of the herd where the animals were injected with the toxoid vaccine (only healthy animals were vaccinated). the acute respiratory signs have not ben seen any more, however A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 16 strains could be still isolated from lung samples collected at the slaughterhouse from animals having chronic lesions.
Background: Highly pathogen avian influenza occurs from time to time in Hungary. The latest H5N8 outbreak during 2016-17 was especially devastating for the poultry industry. Objectives: The aim of this study is to summarize the comparative results of the pathomorphological examinations of infected birds during this outbreak, and also to provide up to date information for field veterinarians and poultry industry vets. Materials and Methods: Extensive pathological, histopathological and immu-nohistochemical examinations were carried out on H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza cases from each economically important poultry species that were submitted to our laboratory during the 2016-2017 outbreaks in Hungary. A range of organs was tested by PCR for HPAIV presence and sera of infected birds were tested by haemagglutination inhibition. Results and discussion: The involved H5N8 HPAI strain caused a disease with pronounced pathological lesions in waterfowl (goose, duck) and poor pathological lesions in gallinaceous birds (hen, Turkey). The brain lesions related to viral infection were found in every species by histopathological examination and the specific virus protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Microscopic lesions in the liver and pancreas were of major significance in the post mortem diagnostics of the disease in waterfowl. Viral nucleic acid was detected in every organ examined, but serological examinations yielded negative results in every case as expected. In summary, although the ultimate diagnosis of avian influenza should be based on direct detection of the virus, pathomorphological knowledge of the disease is essential in both field and laboratory diagnostics.
The authors analysed the deer ked infestation in the red deer in Hanság Region (North-West of Hungary). Between 17th November 2010 and 2nd November 2011 they examined 31 red deer, all of which were shot on hunting. The aim of their observations was to define the incidences and rates of deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, Linnaeus, 1875) infestation. The investigations were carried out at the site of shooting or after transportation of the deer in a cold storage. They were examined always on the same region and area of the right side of neck (on the calves: 620 cm2, on the hinds: 890 cm2 and on the stags 1440 cm2). The coats of deer were thoroughly combed for keds and the keds found on the animals were afterwards fixed and stored in 10% alcohol. As a result of identification of 1994 deer keds, the incidence of genders was found as 1113 (55.8%) females and 881 (44.2%) males. The quantitative parasitological data were: host sample size: 31; number of infected hosts in the sample: 28, prevalence: 90.3%, min. intensity: 1, and max. intensity: 238. The confidence limits of prevalence (P=95%) were: 0.74-0.97, mean intensity: 71.21, confidence limits of mean intensity (P=95%): 48.61-102.36, median intensity: 46.5, confidence limits of median intensity (P=95%): 20-78.
Background: The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most widespread and important game species in Hungary. An adult, approximately 4 years old roe deer was found dead in a hunting area in Békés county by a local hunter and submitted for necropsy and histopathologic and bacteriologic examination to the National Food Chain Safety Office Laboratory of Pathology and Bacteriology of Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, in Debrecen (NFCSO, Hungary). Objectives: Pathogenic mycosis was identified in a wild roe deer, where the lung was quilted with several necrotic granulomas. The authors have also found parasitic infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: The authors performed the dissection on the roe deer according to the standard ruminant necropsy techniques. Samples from the internal organs were put into 8% buffered formalin for fixation. After sectioning slides were examined with Nikon Optiphot-2 microscope. Samples from the lung were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose and Columbia's agar. The inoculated media were incubated for 24 hours at 24 °C in Labor IncuCell V222 type incubator. Results and Discussion: The lung mycosis was caused by Aspergillus sp. The hyphae of the fungi infiltrated the tissues. On the histological slides of the lung granuloma proliferation proceeded from the bronchial wall and several necrotic granulomas of 0.5 cm diameter were found in the lung. Aspergillosis can particularly cause pathological lesions when the animal is exposed to immunosuppressive effects. In this case, probably the external and internal parasitic infection (Ixodes spp. Trichostrongylus spp.) and poor body condition were the causing agents. Common drugs for the therapy of aspergillosis are itraconazole or ketoconazole but their application on the free-living wild animals of hunting areas is impractical. The infection can be prevented by the eradication of the causative agents, in this case, the feed contaminated by fungi.
Lymphocytic gastritis is the most common type of chronic gastritis in dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -10 and -18 in the fundic and pyloric gastric mucosa of dogs suffering from lymphocytic gastritis. In the case of mild, moderate and severe lymphocytic gastritis intense, linear, membranous daudin-18 positivity was detected in the surface gastric cells and in the epithelial cells of the gastric glands both in the fundic and pyloric stomach regions. The mucous neck cells in the apical part of the glands, furthermore the parietal cells and chief cells of the basal part of the gland were all positive for daudin-18, in the same way as the enteroendocrine cells. Cells of the basal part of the pyloric glands showed intense, linear, membranous daudin-2 positivity in the case of mild, moderate and severe lymphocytic gastritis, but cells of the superficial portion of these glands, and the surface gastric cells in this region were daudin-2 negative. Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytes of the propria layer, the smooth muscle cells and vegetative neurons were all negative for daudin-2. All gastric epithelial cells were negative for claudin-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, and -10. The endothelial cells of the propria layer had intense claudin-5 positivity. Conclusion: The claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -10 and -18 expression of chronic lymphocytic gastritis does not differ from healthy canine stomach.
Background: The authors report in this study a fibroma within the eye of an Emperor Red Snapper (Lutjanus sebae). Ocular tumours of fish are infrequent and there are very few published cases of successful treatment. Objectives: The first clinical signs were very similar to those of gas bubble disease and conservative treatment was carried out. However, the progression of macrophthalmia and exophthalmos, during which the eye with the lesion increased by about five-fold, led to a decrease in food intake and emaciation. Therefore the surgical removal of the eye was necessary. Materials and Methods: The fish was separated in a 60 litre aquarium for treatment and observation. This was also considered a therapeutic trial, as gas bubble disease was a possible differential diagnosis. Bubbles within the eye were removed after topical analgesia with lidocaine using a hypodermic needle. However the problem recurred in 5-20 days and the eye was removed surgically. The animal was anaesthetised with eugenol using immersion and a recirculating system. Recovery was without complications. As postoperative treatment chloramphenicol was used and the concentration of the antibiotic was reduced step by step by water exchange in the aquarium. Results and Discussion: 2 days after the surgery in-coordination was observed, which has gradually improved and the animal was moved back on show in a public aquarium. There were no further complications experienced in the holding tank, neither regarding social interactions or food intake. Histopathological examination proved a fibroma in the affected eye. Six months post-surgery the measurements (body weight and length) of the fish were increased by 56%. No visible recurrence of the tumour was found at the follow-up examinations. After surgery the animal lived for another 22 months and died of unrelated reasons, recurrence was not proved after death. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first successful surgical treatment of an ocular fibroma in an Emperor Red Snapper.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is the most frequently used laboratory fish mo- dell. The complete genom of this species has been published and the species has been domesticated for artificial conditions (recirculation system, pelleted food, small tanks) giving trusty results in laboratory tests. But in the case when there are sick specimens in the population, even with control groups the fish are not good enough for experiments. The most frequent diseases (roe retention, fatty liver degeneration, scurvy, fish tuberculosis, saprolegniosis, protozoan and metazoan parasitoses) need permanent veterinary control in the technology of such intensive facilities.
A straggling specimen of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was caught in Budapest, Hungary in October 2011 and was subjected to parasitological examination. It was suspected that the crab had been introduced intentionally from Asia. The animal did not have any parasitic infections that could have been hazardous to animals or humans. It had a mild infection with gregarines only. Mitten crab is an important intermediate host of Paragonimus lung flukes of Asian origin, so the possible parasitological investigation of imported living crabs by the authorities of public health may come to the front in the future.
Background: Salmonellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease in different reptilian taxa. Keeping reptiles in captivity has a high zoonotic risk because of the Salmonella bacteria, which can be found in the intestinal tract of the animals. The authors examined and dissected a common chuckwalla (Sauromalus ater Duméril, 1856) brought to the clinic of the Department of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine of the University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest. Objectives: The authors identified a case of septicaemia in a carcass of a female chuckwalla with acute inflammatory-necrotic areas appearing in the spleen, lungs and ovarian follicles. Materials and Methods: The authors dissected the lizard according to standard reptile necropsy techniques. The macroscopic inspection was followed by the collection of samples from the lesions for histological examinations. From the spleen, lungs and ovaries samples were put on Columbia's and MacConkey agar. They were incubated for 48 hours under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 26 °C. The primary morphological, culture and biochemical properties of the bacterium colonies were examined. The species-level identification of the bacterial isolate was performed using a carbon-based metabolic-fingerprint assay using the GN2 plate of the Biolog system. Sub-species identification was performed by PCR. Results and Discussion: The in vitro bacteriological examination was performed on the organs of the carcass and determined that the septicaemia was caused by Salmonella enterica ssp. houtenae. To avoid this type of infection the most important thing is the prevention. The pet owners should keep their animals in the best condition and provide for the optimal enclosure. They should also reduce the stress, because it (with its' immunosuppressant effect) can contribute to the spread of the bacteria and the infection of the animal.
The authors in this article describe the degeneration of the ovarian follicles and parasitic infection caused by a nematode, Foleyella furcata in Senegal chameleon (Chamaeleo senegalensis). Salmonella Uzaramo bacteria were cultured from the degenerated ovaries of the animal.