Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 0399-077X
Publications
Évolution de l'épidémie de choléra de Douala 2004. Nouveaux cas (n) et létalité (%) par semaine. Evolution of the 2004 cholera epidemic in Douala. New cases (n) and weekly death rate (%). 
Article
Antibiotics were extensively used, both for curative as for prophylactic purposes, to prevent an explosive spread of the 2004 cholera epidemic in Douala. It was thus necessary to control the antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae. The authors had for aim to describe the epidemic, the use of antibiotics, and to follow the susceptibility of V. cholerae. The 14 hospitals in the study all used the same diagnostic, treatment, and preventive protocols, as well as in community practice with home visits. All cases were clinically confirmed and reported. Samples were systematically taken at the beginning and at the end of the epidemic, and randomly during the epidemic. Each identified strain was tested by the disk method for antibiotic susceptibility. Between January and September 2004, 5013 patients and 177,353 people in contact with the patients were given a single dose of doxycycline or amoxicillin for 3 days. Sixty-nine deaths were recorded (lethality 1.37%). One hundred (and) eleven strains of V. cholerae were identified in 187 samples. All of them were resistant to sulfamides and colistin, but susceptible to cyclins, betalactams, and fluoroquinolones, without any modification during the 8 months of follow-up. Despite the risk of a massive and prolonged use of antibiotics, strictly prescribed and controlled, no resistance developed in the identified strain. Chemoprophylaxis must follow rigorous protocols and be continuously monitored.
 
Article
The haemostatic system is greatly modified during severe infections. The early activation of coagulation is triggered by tissue factor expression and secondary fibrinolysis impaired by the upregulation of fibrinolysis inhibitors. This imbalance is a major cause of subsequent organ dysfunction. Natural anticoagulants (Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), Antithrombin (AT), and Protein C (PC) are consumed or inhibited in this pathological process justifying a therapeutic supplementation with these inhibitors to improve sepsis-induced organ failure and mortality. No effect on the mortality rate could be documented in controlled studies using recombinant TFPI or AT concentrates but a biological interaction with heparin therapy could have biased the results. Treatment with recombinant activated PC was associated with a significant reduction in the mortality rate of severely ill patients. An increase in the rate of hemorrhagic adverse effects was observed with these compounds, justifying a strict observance of contraindications and of patient selection.
 
Article
Malaria is increasing worldwide due to the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains. As globalization in business and commerce and appetites for more adventurous travel increase, more people from non-endemic countries are being exposed to malaria. The management of travelers before departure or returning from visiting endemic countries with malaria is a challenge, both for exposed individuals and for physicians, considering the weak knowledge of the disease. A survey was conducted among French individuals traveling to endemic areas to evaluate their knowledge and perception of malaria. An observational study using guided questionnaires was made on 103 travelers recruited in the Bordeaux University Hospital travel clinic, France. The findings of the survey were consistent with previously reported data concerning the knowledge of signs and symptoms of malaria, as well as with the global level of knowledge on the disease, and with the number of travelers not understanding the mode of infection appropriately. Irrelevant data was reported concerning the typical pattern of the disease, the objectives of malaria management for travelers, and the attention given to the most susceptible groups: children, pregnant women, and immuno-compromised individuals. Our findings show a link between gender and adhesion to prophylactic measures, and an inverse gradient in the subgroup of frequent overseas travelers, between knowledge and risk perception of illness.
 
Article
Varicella occurring in healthy adults may extend to the lungs. Diagnosing this complication is sometimes difficult because of the discrepancy between imaging and clinical presentation usually reported in this affection. The authors report the result of a retrospective study on 106 immunocompetent patients including 48 cases of varicella pneumonia. This condition is defined as the presence of clinical signs of pneumonia and radiological and biological abnormalities consistent with viral pneumonitis. Comparison of the patients with or without varicella pneumonia (VP) showed that smoking was a risk factor for VP. Other parameters seem to be more associated with VP, such as fever greater than 38.3 degrees C, enanthem in the mouth, and biological hepatitis. In this study, 29.2% of the patients had received nonjustified acyclovir treatment because of missing specific criteria for the diagnosis of VP. An exact definition of VP and using parameters associated to VP would help to specify indication for hospitalization and acyclovir treatment. Careful monitoring of healthy patients with varicella is essential for an early detection of clinical signs requiring hospitalization.
 
Article
We reviewed retrospectively the demographic, clinical, biological characteristics and outcomes of 11 patients with HSV meningitis. Among the 11 patients, six were infected with HIV, four had a documented history of genital herpes, and one recurrent meningitis. In all cases, the onset of symptoms was abrupt, with severe headache and fever. On admission, 9/11 patients had severe meningismus; two patients had HSV anogenital ulcerations. CSF analysis showed in every case a significant increased of leukocytes with a lymphocytic pleocytosis, a mild elevated protein level and a normal glucose level. HSV was detected in the CSF in every case by PCR: the typing performed on six patients was positive in every case for HSV-2. Intravenous acyclovir (IV ACV) was started in 10/11 cases (range: 3-10 days), switched to valaciclovir (VACV) (range: 5-7 days); one patient was treated with ACV per os for 10 days. The total resolution of symptoms occurred within 48hours in every case. Two patients presented with recurrent HSV-2 meningitis in the next two months, with favorable outcome under IV ACV: a switch to long term VACV 500mg/day was prescribed without any recurrence. No patient presented with recurrence after a median follow-up of 30 months. Early recognition and treatment might improve the outcome of such infections. Adjunctive oral VACV after IV ACV treatment seems to be associated with a good clinical response in patients presenting with HSV meningitis. The duration of such treatments, including prophylactic treatments to prevent recurrent episodes must be better documented.
 
Article
This study was made to determine the immunovirological outcome and tolerance to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in HIV-infected protease inhibitors-experienced patients with long-term virological failure. Prospective follow-up was implemented for the French cohort ANRS CO8 Aproco-Copilote of 121 patients starting an LPV/r-containing regimen after a median duration of virological failure of 30.6 months. At baseline the median HIV-RNA plasma level was 4.1 log(10) copies/ml and the median CD4 cell count was 273/mm(3). On initiation of LPV/r, these patients were heavily pre-treated: 62% had received at least 4 NRTI, 65% at least 1 NNRTI, and 33% at least 3 PI. On prescription of LPV/r, the associated antiretroviral regimen was: no drug to which patients were previously naïve in 49 cases (40%), at least one new drug in 72 cases: 1 NRTI (n=42), 2 NRTI (n=22), 1 NNRTI (n=10), at least one new PI (n=6), enfuvirtide (n=2). The median HIV-RNA level was 2 log(10) copies/ml at M4 and M12, 1.7 log(10) copies/ml at M24 with respectively 74, 71 and 85% of patients achieving plasma HIV-RNA below 2.7 log(10) copies/ml. The median CD4 cell count was 385 and 429/mm(3) at M12 and M24 respectively. Among patients with genotypic testing at the time of LPV/r initiation, Ninety-five percent had at the most 5 protease mutations known to reduce LPV/r susceptibility. Thirty serious adverse events were reported but only 6 were related to LPV/r. The use of LPV/r in HIV-infected patients failing multiple antiretroviral regimens provided a potent and durable immunovirological response.
 
Article
The authors had aimed to evaluate resources and organization necessary for applying guidelines issued 5 years earlier in various institutions: standard precautions, septic isolation, prevention against spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Volunteer institutions were surveyed for hygiene product consumption, architectural requirements, inventory of protocols, description septic patients'management, and available personnel. One hundred and twenty-four institutions (40,784 beds) were included in the study. Eleven percent had no hygiene physician or nurse; the rates of personnel specialized in hygiene practice were 0.4 physicians per 800 beds and 0.8 registered nurses per 400 beds. Eighty-eight percent of the studied institutions had a protocol for standard precautionary measures, 77% had a septic isolation protocol. A multidrug-resistant bacteria identification sheet was attached to examination reports in 87% of cases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria screening was practiced by 18.1% of the institutions. Hygiene product consumption for 1000 days of hospitalization was 7861 disposable gloves, 2.3 1 of hydroalcoholic solution, and 63 disposable gowns. 28.9% of the wards lacked water hand washing points, 32.2% had no sinks, and 48.5% had no local equipment maintenance. In addition, 40.7% of the beds were in single rooms, 4.8% of the institutions had no single rooms. Differences were observed depending on specialties and institutions. Analysis of consumption shows insufficient application of standard precautions, notably for hydroalcoholic solutions. The number of single rooms is acceptable, architectural requirements were not adequate in too many wards. These results can explain some problems encountered in applying the guidelines.
 
Article
13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.
 
Article
Macrolides, fluoroquinolones, doxycycline, and ketolides show a good intrinsic activity against intracellular pathogens which are responsible for a variable percentage of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These therapeutic agents all seem effective in treating most cases of CAP caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or Legionella spp. Among quinolones, the more recent fluoroquinolones, such as gemifloxacin or moxifloxacin, generally show a better intrinsic activity than the older ones. Among macrolides, azithromycin, and clarithromycin show a better pharmacokinetic profile. Both of them are available in intravenous form. It is quite common for M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae to continue to be shed in respiratory secretions, weeks after an effective therapy. The clinical relevance of this finding is not clear since most of these patients have a good outcome. Azithromycin, due to its advantageous pharmacokinetic profile, seems the best option when antibiotic prophylaxis is considered in some epidemiological settings. It has been proved effective in closed M. pneumoniae outbreaks.
 
Article
There is evidence that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the heart and left ventricular dysfunction appears to be common. This was the first study in Morocco to investigate the frequency of cardiomyopathy in patients infected with HIV. We made a prospective echocardiographic study of 158 patients starting in September 2004 (88 men and 70 women, mean age 34 [5.4] years) with positive HIV serology and a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection according to CDC criteria and 80 seronegative control subjects. Patients were classified as AIDS group (90 patients) and HIV group (+) (68 patients) and HIV (-) (80 subjects). Twenty-eight out of 156 (17.7%) cases of cardiomyopathy were found, distributed in 24 out of 90 (26.6%) in the AIDS group and four out of 68 (2.8%) in the HIV+group (p<0.01) and none in the HIV (-) group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was noted among 88 out of 158 (55.7%) infected patients. There was a significant increase of cardiomyopathy in patients with HIV infection and decreased CD4 (less than 100 per millimetre cube; n=16 [57%]) compared to those with CD4 between 100 and 200 per millimetre cube; n=6 (21.42%) (p=0.03). Echocardiography was a useful technique for the early detection of cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic HIV positive carriers and AIDS patients. The frequency is related to HIV infection stage and CD4+ counts. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction can precede systolic dysfunction and may be a useful technique for the early detection of cardiac dysfunction.
 
Article
We report the case of a 55 year-old man presenting with a double aortic and mitral endocarditis for which resected valve culture was repeatedly negative. Specific PCR made on valves because of highly positive blood tests for Bartonella henselae remained negative. A molecular approach was made with 16S rDNA PCR, followed by sequencing. Bartonella quintana was identified as the etiology of endocarditis. B. quintana, "fastidious" bacteria, even if hard to identify in a laboratory, is often reported as a blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) agent. Molecular biology methods have strongly improved the diagnosis of BCNE. We propose a review of the literature focusing on the interest of broad-spectrum PCR on valve for the etiological diagnosis of BCNE.
 
Article
Among the Salmonellae, an increase in the frequency of antibiotic resistance is mainly observed for S. Typhimurium, one of the most common serotypes encountered in human and animal diseases. One hundred and eighty-two ampicillin-resistant strains of S. Typhimurium, including 82 of human and 100 of animal origin, have been compared. The frequency of tetracycline, sulfonamide, streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance was high (> 84 %) in both groups, the most common resistance pattern including these four antibiotics. By dot-blotting and hybridization with DNA probes, the genes encoding three types of beta-lactamase were detected. The TEM-type was found in 20 % and 22 % of human and animal strains, the CARB-type in 73 % and 77 %, respectively. The TEM- and CARB-types were found associated in five strains (four from humans an one from animal), and the OXA-2-type in only one human strain. The presence of the CARB-type genes was strongly correlated with that of the integrase (TnpI), independently of the origin of the strains, while the integrase gene in animal strains was also found in ca. 50 % of the strains carrying only TEM-type genes. These results suggest the acquisition and concommittant diffusion, in S. Typhimurium of human and animal origin, of integrons carrying multiple resistance genes including blacarb.
 
Article
The main trends and the significant points concerning the evolution of seroprevalence, seroconversion's rate and knowledge's level of preventive measures against toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in France are : a progressive decrease of immunisation's ratio with regional variation (national mean is estimated at 54 % in 1995); diversity of factors having a potential influence on the contamination, the trends of most of them tend to decrease the contamination but the exact impact is difficult to appreciate; stability of seroconversion's rate since 15 years 4 to 5 p.1000 of the whole pregnancy for nine months exposition period; ways of contamination are still the same; few informations about knowledge's level concerning preventives measures and performances of educative action.
 
Article
The mortality rate among AIDS patients reported through the French mandatory reporting system since 1982 is particularly high in Aquitaine, a south west area of France. This study was made to confirm that mortality was higher in Aquitaine patients than in the rest of France, and to determine its causes. All the cases reported between January 1982 and June 2005 were included. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to determine the relative risk (RR) of death among patients living in Aquitaine. Two periods were considered to take into account the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. Since 1982, 60,212 AIDS patients were reported. After adjustment on the main patient features, the risk of death was significantly higher in AIDS patients living in Aquitaine than in other regions (RR=1.12; IC95%=[1.06-1.18]) before the introduction of HAART. After 1996, this difference did not persist, and an opposite trend was even observed (RR=0.90; IC95%=[0.75-1.09]). The higher overall mortality rate in Aquitaine was due to a higher risk of death in that area before 1996. Several hypotheses can explain this result, such as a less exhaustive notification, or different characteristics of the subjects. The opposite trend that was observed after the introduction of HAART will have to be checked in the next few years.
 
Article
The authors had for aim to study the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in a cohort of HIV-1 positive patients in the University hospital of Saint-Etienne, France, and to describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients infected with a non-B subtype strain. An epidemiological study was made on 271 HIV-1 positive patients followed up in the Infectious Diseases Department over 20 years. All patients sample were subtyped by serotyping and some samples were also tested by genotyping. Two hundred and sixty-four patients (191 men and 73 women) were found infected by an HIV-1 strain belonging to the M group. After combining serotyping and genotyping results, 195 patients were found infected by a B subtype and 69 by a non-B subtype. Most of the latter strains belonged to an A subtype or related ones. The following factors were shown to be linked to an infection by a non-B strain: being born abroad, having contracted the infection though heterosexual practice, and being a woman. The incidence of non-B strains increased regularly over time (to reach more than 40% in 2003). This progression was especially noted for men born in France with risky sexual behaviour. These results indicate that more than 40% of HIV-1 new cases detected in the Saint-Etienne area are related to non-B strains and that strains of A and related subtypes are common in the local population with risky sexual behaviour.
 
Article
Between 1986 and 2005, 54 patients were hospitalized for rabies in the infectious diseases clinic, with an average of 3 cases a year. The patients came from almost all regions of Senegal, Dakar (11 cases), Thiès (9 cases), and Fatick (9 cases). They were native of rural and suburban zones. The median age was 19 years (range 5-72). Children and teenagers between 5 and 15 years of age were the most concerned (53.7%). Stray dogs were the main vector (75% of cases) but a case of bite by a puppy and a case of bite by a jackal were noted. Bites were mostly located in limb extremities (98%). Only 12 patients consulted a health institution after the bite and among these cases, 4 were referred to the Dakar Pasteur Institute but consulted late. Incubation was 45 days on average (range 25 to 90 days). All our patients presented a furious form of rabies. The average duration of hospital stay was 6 days (range 1-15 days). The local investigation proved an under reporting of cases in a proportion of 1 case reported for 4 non-reported cases.
 
Article
One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six clinical and biological cervico-vaginal flora samples from genital infections in women observed in community practice in 1987 were compared to 368 samples collected in 2001. The diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection (STI) was rarely made. Nonetheless, examining these samples made it possible either to prescribe a specific treatment for a confirmed infection (chlamydia, trichonomiasis, candidiasis, gonococci, vaginosis), or to modify a long-term treatment that was often ineffective and sometimes badly tolerated. Not all vulvar itching, associated or not with pelvic pain, is caused by mycosis. Treatment based on a syndromic approach was often ineffective, because clinical symptoms, whether isolated or associated, even when they were suggestive of an etiology, presented only a minor positive predictive value (the PPV for the association ichting + pelvic pain was only 10% for chlamydia, but 45% for candidiasis). The diagnosis of vaginosis, suggested for the past 10 years as an improvement in the diagnosis of vulvo-vaginitis, was made in only 13% of the cases. The only significant difference in our two studies was a lower number of cases of gonococci, chlamydiae, and ureaplasms in 2001, the settings having remained identical, except for a lower number of patients in 2001.
 
Article
The authors had for aim to identify cases of non Hodgkin's (NHL) and Hodgkin's (HL) lymphomas in HIV1-infected patients to assess 1) their incidence, before and after 1996, 2) the clinical features and outcome under treatment together with the survival rate of the patients, 3) the immune reconstitution of lymphoma-free patients under HAART. A retrospective study was made of HIV1-infected patients managed at the Clermont-Ferrand University Hospital from 1991 to 2003 for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV1-related lymphomas. Forty-one patients were included: 35 NHL and 6 HL giving a cumulative incidence rate estimate from 2.4% between 1991 and 1996 to 3.4% between 1997 and 2003 while other opportunistic diseases were decreasing. A high proportion of aggressive and disseminated disease was observed among NHL cases. Complete remission was achieved in 17 (49%) and 5 (83%) NHL and HL cases respectively. The mean survival was 109+/-54 months and was correlated with CD4 cell count at lymphoma diagnosis (univariate analysis). Among responding patients, 5 died: 3 from opportunistic infections, 1 commited suicide, and 1 from hepatic carcinoma. For responding patients, the mean increase of CD4 cell count under HAART was 58/mm3 over a 2 year-period and 192/mm3 over a 5 year-period of follow-up. The incidence of lymphomas in HIV-infected patients has not decreased since the introduction of HAART. The immune status assessed by CD4 cell count on diagnosis is correlated with survival. Immune restoration in lymphoma-free patients under HAART is poor.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of rabies in Lithuania from 1991 to 2000. Data available from the reports of the Lithuanian State Food and Veterinary Service, of the Public Health centers, of the Veterinary Laboratories of counties, districts and cities, and from the reports of the Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture and the Environment Protection Department were used to assess rabies both in domestic animals and wildlife. The situation of human rabies from 1991 to 2000 was evaluated using the medical records of patients with a diagnosis of rabies and the epidemiological follow-up of people receiving post-exposure treatment. From 1991 to 2000, 2,148 laboratories confirmed cases of rabies were diagnosed in animals in Lithuania. Domestic animals accounted for 44% of all cases whereas wild animals accounted for 56% of the cases. During the 10-year period of investigation, 5 human cases were reported and 44,710 bitten persons received post-exposure treatment. A high incidence of rabies in wild animals in Lithuania had a direct influence on the increase human rabies infection. It is necessary to improve preventive measures against rabies - vaccination of domestic and wild animals, and spread information on rabies to the general public.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of bacteria responsible for community-acquired meningitis and the pattern of resistance of common species. All bacteriologically confirmed cases of community-acquired meningitis were recorded between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-four cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded. The most frequent species were Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Neisseria meningitidis with respectively 37.1%, 32.1%, and 10.7% of cases. The yearly distribution of these bacteria did not show any epidemic peak. Enterobacteria and group B Streptococcus were the most frequently identified pathogens in neonatal meningitis. H. influenzae was the predominant microorganism in children between one month and five years of age, (66.4%) followed by S. pneumoniae (23.5%). S. pneumoniae was the predominant bacteria responsible fore more than half of the cases over five years of age. 28.8% of H. influenzae strains produced beta-lactamase. 27.2% of S. pneumoniae strains were less susceptible to penicillin. Resistance rates for amoxicillin and cefotaxime were respectively 10.6% and 7.5%. Only one strain of N. meningitidis (4.2%) presented with a decreased susceptibility to penicillin. In our study, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were the main microorganisms responsible for community-acquired meningitis. High resistance rates were found for these bacteria: 28.8% of H. influenzae to ampicillin and 27.2% of S. pneumoniae to penicillin.
 
Article
Our goal was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of nocardiosis in the Bordeaux teaching hospital, between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2003. The retrospective study included patients examined between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2003 in whom a Nocardia bacterium had been identified from a biological sample. Twenty-four out of 30 Nocardia sp. strains identified during the study period were classified as colonizing strains. 19 patients presented with risk factors for nocardiosis. Nocardia asteroïdes were found in 22 samples, mainly from pulmonary samples. 11 cases of infection due to Nocardia sp. were reported during the study period. Immunosuppression was reported in 7 cases. The clinical forms were not specific. The species incriminated belonged to the N. asteroïdes complex in 8 cases. Treatment consisted in a combination of 2 or 3 molecules including cotrimoxazole for an average duration of 9 months. 9 patients recovered. The variability of clinical presentation and the lack of standard identification methods delayed the diagnostic. The treatment is not well defined. Clinical strains should be reported to the reference laboratory and prospective studies are necessary.
 
Article
A retrospective study of the antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonellae and Shigellae isolated in France during 1994 was carried out by the Collège de Bactériologie, Virologie et Hygiène des Hôpitaux de France. The results of 2 800 susceptibility tests were provided by 76 centres representative of the french territory. This study reveals the frequency of high-level resistance among certain isolates, such as 1 093 strains of S. typhimurium to aminopenicillins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol or cotrimoxazole, whereas others, like S. enteritidis (1 016 strains), showed practically no resistance. Some antibiotics can therefore no longer be used as first line therapy against bacteremia due to Salmonella.
 
Article
The groupe hospitalier Sud Reunion (GHSR) is a 1130-bed hospital center, located on the Reunion Island, (Indian Ocean). We studied the profiles of antibiotic resistance in 2005, and compared those with previous data collected in 1997-1998, and with Metropolitan France and European data. All bacteriological strains isolated from diagnostic samples in 2005 were analyzed according to CA-SFM recommendations. Since 1997, the rates of resistance to enterobacteria (betalactam, aminoside, quinolone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ticarcillin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin), Acinetobacter baumanii (amikacin) has decreased significantly. The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (1997: 3.6 %, 2005: 13.4 %) has increased but less than in Metropolitan France. The rate of Streptococcuspneumonia with decreased susceptibility to penicillin has increased (1997: 25.5 %, 2005: 42.9 %), as for Haemophilusinfluenzae which present an important increase of betalactam resistance (1997: 15.5 %, 2005: 37.8 %). By comparing our data to 1997 and Metropolitan French data, it seems that the GHSR has managed to protect its hospital-based microbial ecology. However, community germs showed increasing resistance, probably because of an increasing antibiotic pressure, but with resistance rates often inferior to Metropolitan French ones.
 
Article
The emerging antibiotic resistance and worldwide diffusion of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains is an important public health problem. The aims of this study were to study the evolution of S. pneumoniae resistance rates to penicillin G and other antimicrobials from nasopharyngeal carriage. Four hundred and eighty-two nasopharyngeal samples of S. pneumoniae were studied from 1997 to 2001. The Kirby-Bauer technique was used to screen the susceptibility of samples and completed with the determination of penicillin G minimal inhibitory concentration using the E-test. Resistance to penicillin increased from 1997 to 2001: 8.5% in 1997, 20.7% in 1998, 16% in 1999, and 23.5% in 2001. However, the resistance to other beta-lactam antibiotics was low. The rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole increased from 52.2% in 1997 to 84.3% in 2001, with a higher degree of resistance in 2001. The resistance of S. pneumoniae to tetracycline increased. In contrast, the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant pneumococcal samples decreased from 11.6% in 1997 to 8% in 2001. The resistance to three or more antibiotics (multi-drug resistant) was also increased from 9.4% in 1997 to 23.5% in 2001. This data shows that carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci is increasing in Abidjan. It will be interesting to assess the current bacterial resistance patterns by a national epidemiological observatory.
 
Article
The authors had for aim to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains on infections in Abidjan as well as their susceptibility to other antibiotics. Three hundred and forty strains of S. aureus from various samples of hospitalized patients were studied. Methicillin-resistance was assessed using oxacillin disk diffusion in agar. The MRSA, once detected, were confirmed by screening in Mueller-Hinton agar containing oxacillin at 6 microg/ml. The susceptibility to other antibiotics was analyzed using an antibiogram in agar medium. Twenty-five percent of strains were resistant to methicillin (MRSA strains). Those MRSA were identified mainly in blood culture (14.2%), pus (4%) and urine (1.9%). Samples were collected in neonatal unit (13%), surgical units (5.4%) and intensive care unit (3.4%). A variable proportion of MRSA expressed resistance to other families of antibiotics: aminoglycosides 77.6%, rifampicin 8.8%, fluoroquinolones 34.1% and vancomycin 5.9%. Circulation of multidrug resistant MRSA in hospital, especially in neonatal unit, should lead to surveillance. Risk factors and other associated markers need to be identified.
 
Article
The French national observatory for epidemiology of bacterial resistance to antibiotics (ONERBA) includes numerous networks for the surveillance of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to update antimicrobial resistance data of bacterial pathogens isolated from blood cultures. Data was collected from several surveillance surveys reviewed by the ONERBA scientific committee during 2003. Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli accounted respectively for 45 and 49% of all bacteria isolated from blood cultures (N=19 882). The frequency of MRSA among S. aureus was 35%. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime of S. pneumoniae were 10, 2, and 0.2%, respectively. In 2002, 70% of coagulase negative staphylococci were resistant to methicillin. Only 50 and 60% of E. coli isolates were susceptible to aminopenicillin and a combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, respectively. Since 2001, the susceptibility of E. coli isolates to ciprofloxacin has been regularly decreasing. Imipenem and ceftazidime were the most active antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa with a susceptibility rates below 90%. Data provided by the ONERBA should allow to improve the quality of empiric antimicrobial treatments.
 
Article
We conducted a molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Limousin, a French area with a low incidence of tuberculosis (4.8/100,000 inhabitants in 2005) to define the molecular diversity and the pattern of transmission. Two hundred and fifty-nine strains were isolated (each strain corresponds to one patient) from 1998 to 2006. Both spoligotyping and MIRU15 were chosen for our study because of their discriminatory power. Only 165 medical records were available: 99M/66F, mean age 56.4 years (14-94), 32.7% foreign-born patients, 16.9% homeless or living in shelters, 21.8% of immunocompromised patients (three HIV positive), 14.5% of alcohol addicts. Pulmonary manifestations were predominant (81.8%) with 45.1% of positive smears. Two strains among the 259 presented a multidrug resistance. Spoligotyping identified 136/259 spoligotypes (110 unique, 26 clusters composed of two to 36 isolates); within these 26 clusters, ST53 (n=36) and ST50 (n=19) were the most frequent. Three major families were observed as follow: T1 (30%), Haarlem (30%) and LAM (20%). MIRU15 identified 28/36 isolates in the ST53 group and 14/19 in the ST50 group. Eleven clusters (32 strains) with identical ST-MIRU15 were obtained with a proved case of recent transmission. Alcohol dependence, immunosuppression and pulmonary infections seem to be involved in transmission factors. M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Limousin are characterized by their high genetic diversity. The rate of recent transmission (8.1%) is low and therefore a reactivation process is predominant in this area.
 
Article
The authors retrospectively studied the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 71 cases of visceral leishmaniasis from 1998 to 2009. The diagnosis was made by finding Leishmania amastigotes in bone marrows smears and/or by serology. Most cases occur in winter (35.2%) and in spring (36.6%). The source areas are endemic ones located in the north of Algeria (74.6%) and more rarely arid or semi-arid climate areas (8.4%). 88.7% of patients are children. The sex ratio is 1.53. The clinical characteristics are: fever (77.4%), paleness (43.6%); splenomegaly (83%), hepatomegaly (57.7%). The biological anomalies are: anemia (56.3%), thrombocytopenia (33.8%), and leucopenia (28.1%). N-methylglucamine (Glucantime(®)) was most often prescribed (70.4%). Four deaths (5.6%) were recorded. Visceral leishmaniasis remains a pediatric affection but does not spare adults.
 
Article
Four hundred and sixty-four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated in northern Lebanon at the Islami Hospital Microbiology department, in Tripoli. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of these strains to antibiotics, to compare this susceptibility according to the nature of the sample and the year of sampling. The results show that urinary samples were the most frequent (39.3%), followed by wound samples (21.2%), and ear samples (16.5%). The average rate of susceptible strains was 39.8% to ticarcillin, 56.9% to piperacillin, 58.2% to piperacillin + tazobactam, 74.1% to imipenem, 63.3% to ceftazidime, 60.4% to cefepime, 62.1% to aztreonam, 60.3% to netilmicin, 57.5% to gentamicin, 62.2% to tobramycin, 69% to amikacin, 100% to colistin, 45.4% to pefloxacin and ofloxacin, 57.7% to ciprofloxacin and 1.3% to rifampicin. The study showed that the strains isolated from pulmonary secretions were the most resistant to antibiotics.
 
Article
The authors wanted to assess the prevalence and to monitor the trends of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins among various species of enterobacteria in the region of Sfax (Tunisia). A retrospective study was carried out in the microbiology laboratory at the Habib-Bourguiba Teaching Hospital in Sfax. Data concerning a seven-year period (1999-2005) were analyzed with the Whonet 5.4 software. All clinical isolates of enterobacteria were identified with the API 20 E system. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion on Mueller Hinton agar according to CA-SFM recommendations. During the study period, 24,702 non-duplicate clinical strains of enterobacteria were identified. Fifteen percent (3,826) clinical isolates showed acquired resistance to third generation cephalosporins (3rdGC). The overall frequency of resistance increased from 10% in 1999 to 18% in 2005. This increase was statistically significant. High prevalence rates of 3rdGC resistance have been observed in intensive care units (48%), hematology and oncology wards (27%) and pediatric wards (25%). Klebsiella pneumoniae, Indole positive Proteus and Enterobacter showed high prevalence rates of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. This study revealed a high rate of 3rdGC resistance enterobacteria in our region, particularly in intensive care units. The frequency of acquired resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins seemed to be increasing. Implementation of infection control measures and identification of the mechanism responsible for third generation cephalosporins resistance are necessary to limit the spreading of these resistant enterobacteria in hospitals and community settings.
 
Article
This study had for aim to define the pattern of Haemophilus influenzae infections in a Tunisian hospital during the prevaccination era. We determined serotypes, biotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of H. influenzae strains. 187 H. influenzae strains were identified in various samples between 1999 and 2002. Strains were isolated essentially from respiratory samples in 63.7% and cerebrospinal fluid in 21.4 %. The mean age of children with invasive infections was 16 months. All invasive strains belong to serotype b. Biotypes I, II and III were the most frequent (84.7%). Ampicillin resistance with betalactamase producing mechanism occurred in 26,7% of isolates, this type of resistance was more frequent among invasive strains (37.2%) than in non-invasive ones (22.8%). All betalactamase producing strains had amoxicillin MICs above 1 mg/l, these strains were susceptible to amoxicillin+clavulanate. Three strains were betalactamase negative ampicillin resistant with ampicillin MICs: 1.5, 3, and 4 mg/l. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxim with MICs < 0.19 mg/l. Antibiotic resistance concerned: chloramphenicol: 7.5%, tetracycline: 6.9% and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole: 13.9%. 8.1% of the strains were kanamicin resistant but concerned only betalactamase producing strains. Before the introduction of a conjugate vaccine, all invasive infections in young children were caused by H. influenzae b strains.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate, within the Italian National Influenza Epidemiological and Virological Surveillance, the rate of vaccination coverage, the incidence of Influenza Like-Illness (ILI), the incidence of Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI), and to identify the virus strains circulating in Apulia from 1999 to 2003. Vaccination coverage rates were calculated based on the number of doses administered to individuals > 65 years of age. Every week, sentinel physicians reported ILI and ARI cases having occurred among their patients. Voluntary general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians (Ps) collected oropharyngeal swab samples from patients suspected with ILI. Influenza viruses were isolated and identified by cell culture (MDCK cells) and RT-PCR. Virological surveillance was carried out by the ISS, in collaboration with a network of peripheral laboratories. In Apulia, vaccination coverage progressively increased to 68.6% during the 2002-2003 season. The analysis of ILI cases showed higher incidence rates during the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 seasons. ARI rates appeared to have a more constant trend. ILI and ARI incidence rates were higher in the 0-14 year age group. The increase in vaccination coverage rates and implementation of the network of clinical, and epidemiological and virological surveillance are fundamental for the control and prevention of influenza.
 
Article
A prospective study was made from November 1999 to May 2002 in order to revaluate the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine in pediatric Plamodium falciparum malaria in Ivory Coast. This study was included in the national Plasmodium falciparum-susceptibility supervision program. Two hundred and fifty-six out of 594 patients from six to 59 months of age were included. Chloroquine was administered in accordance with the standard 14 day WHO protocol; i.e. administered dose of 25 mg/kg, in split doses, over three days. Two hundred and forty-seven patients completed the treatment. Among these, 217 presented with adequate clinical response (87.8%). The percentage of therapeutic failure was 12.2% with 12 early cases of therapeutic failure and 18 late cases of therapeutic failure. Chloroquine was more efficacious in Agnibilékrou (11.3% of therapeutic failure), Bondoukou (10.4%), and Tanda (10%), than in Abengourou (16.4%). Parasitic reduction on patients with resistant Plasmodium was superior to 90%, from day 0 to day 3. The risk of therapeutic failure was significantly linked to patient age. Considering these results, the authors suggest that the first-line treatment with chloroquine must be continued for uncomplicated malaria in humans.
 
Article
The authors studied the susceptibility of 1,647 non-repeat isolates of Escherichia coli to quinolones and fluoroquinolones. The strains were isolated from non-complicated urinary infections in women 18-64 years of age. Data was provided by the TSN Database France, a real time electronic database which collects antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data. The data was collected from 1999 to 2001 in 63 French hospital laboratories, each using their own routine test methods. Quantitative data was interpreted (S, I, R) according to CA-SFM breakpoint guidelines. Ninety-eight and 94,6 % of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid respectively. Cross resistance was assessed as well as intrinsic difference in activity within the fluoroquinolone class. Current fluoroquinolones are still highly efficient, and ciprofloxacin is the most active. Since 1996, little change in resistance to fluoroquinolones has been observed. These results confirm the choice of fluoroquinolones as first intention therapy as recommended by consensus conferences.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and evolutive aspects of severe malaria in hospitalised children in 2000, 2001, and 2002 in Togo. The study included 361 children in the pediatrics department of Lomé-Tokoin University hospital. All them received a 10% dextrose infusion, then an infusion of quinine or intramuscular artemether. Malaria accounted for 4.37% of all hospitalizations. Children aged 1 to 5 years were more affected (69.53%). The most frequent clinical forms were anaemia (55.7%) followed by cerebral manifestations. The frequency of hemoglobinuria increased (17.2%) as well as renal failure (3%) compared to previous years. Thirty-five children died (9.7%). Most of them presented with anaemia, neurological manifestations, or respiratory distress. Neurological sequels were present in 2.2% of patients.
 
Article
Located in the South West Indian Ocean, Reunion island is close to countries with a strong incidence of tuberculosis disease: Madagascar, 246 per 100,000, Comoros, 44 per 100,000 or Mayotte, 22 per 100,000 in 2006. However, the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Reunion is poorly documented. This article presents epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis disease notified between 2000 and 2007 and cases of latent tuberculosis infection for children under 15years old between 2003 and 2007 in Reunion. The data analysed in this article are collected through the mandatory notification. Multi-drug resistant data come from National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria and Antituberculosis Drug Resistance and mortality data from Centre for the epidemiology of medical causes of death in France. In Reunion, 495 cases-patients with tuberculosis disease were notified, that is an incidence of eight cases per 100,000 habitants and four cases-patients of latent tuberculosis infection were notified. Regarding tuberculosis disease, the incidence was respectively, 2.4, 6 and 15.9 for the cases-patients aged 0-14, 15-39 and more than 40years old. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 82% of tuberculosis disease notified cases-patients, 90% of which were microbiologically confirmed. Between 2000 and 2006, the frequency of multidrug-resistant was of 2% (8/423) and the mortality rate was 1.2 per 100,000. These results indicate a low incidence in Reunion which can be explained by a low HIV infection incidence (3.2 per 100,000 in 2003-2005), a good standard of hygiene and a good access to care. However, due to migratory fluxes from nearby high incidence countries, the epidemiological surveillance in Reunion must continue and be enhanced to set up the preventive and control measures around the notified cases.
 
Article
Context: Non-falciparum malaria is less studied than Plasmodium falciparum malaria, both in endemic and non-endemic zones. Patients and method: A retrospective study was made of the medical files of patients managed for attacks of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale, between 2000 and 2009, in two French military teaching hospitals. Results: Seventy-five percent of attacks occurred after a stay in French Guiana, in the Comoros Archipelago, or in the Ivory Coast Republic. The most frequent symptoms two months after coming back were a flu-like syndrome with headaches, and occasional digestive symptoms, without any difference between the first attack and recurrence. One third of patients presented with anemia, 78% with thrombocytopenia, and 12% with liver dysfunction. Discussion: This study was the most important made in France on imported non-falciparum malaria. Military patients and immigrants accounted for a majority of patients due to the specificity of military hospitals and local recruitment. Clinical and biological features were not specific and did not allow guiding the diagnosis. Diagnostic tools were less sensitive for P. ovale. Conclusion: Patient management could be optimized by more efficient diagnostic tools, specific guidelines for the diagnostic and therapeutic management, and a dedicated medical training for family practitioners as well as hospitals practice.
 
Nombre et évolution des nouvelles séropositivités diagnostiquées entre 2000 et 2007 dans les six COREVIH du Nord et de l'Est de la France. Number and evolution of new HIV cases between 2000 and 2007 in the 6 HIV reference centers (COREVIH) in the North and East of France.
Évolution de la nature des traitements antirétroviraux de première ligne prescrits entre 2000 et 2007 dans les 6 COREVIH du Nord et de l'Est de la France. Evolution of the nature of first line ART prescribed between 2000 and 2007 in the 6 COREVIH in the North and East of France.  
Nature des traitements antirétroviraux de première ligne prescrits en 2007 dans le Nord et de l'Est de la France, en fonction du COREVIH. Nature of first line ART prescribed between 2000 and 2007 in the North and East of France according to the COREVIH.  
Article
In France, since 2003, all new HIV infection must be reported. Data collected with the declaration system is not exhaustive and only concerns epidemiological data. The authors' aim was to study the epidemiologic evolution of new HIV cases between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 in North and East of France, to compare them with national and local data, to complete them, and to identify local specificities. A retrospective observational study was made, with a standardized questionnaire completed by any volunteer HIV care center in the North and the East of France. Three thousand and thirty questionnaires were analyzed. The main trends over these eight years were similar to those observed in the rest of France: a decreasing number of women and patients of foreign origin, a decreasing number of patients with a late diagnosis, an increasing number of primary infections, and a higher CD4 count on initiation of antiretroviral treatment. However, local specificities appeared, such as: increasing proportion of men having sex with men and a less important proportion of co-infected patients with hepatitis B and/or C than on the national level. The therapeutic regimen is adequate according to expert recommendations, with, however, a marked "center effect" concerning prescription habits. Such a local epidemiological study, even if it confirms observed trends in the rest of France, allows detailing them and suggesting prevention measures more specifically adapted to local settings.
 
Article
The authors studied the reported cases of tuberculosis diseases in Brittany between 2000 and 2007 via the mandatory notification scheme. One thousand nine hundred and seventy-five cases were notified during the study period. The incidence in French Brittany (eight cases per 100,000) was the third highest in France. A statistically significant negative trend was observed later, mainly attributable to a decrease between 2000 and 2001. The mean patient age at notification was 55 in Brittany versus 46 years of age for the rest of France (p<0.001). Eighty per cent of the patients were born in France versus 46% for the rest of the country. The rate of multiresistance to antibiotics was 1.3% versus 4.6% for the rest of France (p<0.001). The estimated completeness of notification was 80% compared to 70% for the whole country. Despite a decrease of tuberculosis incidence in Brittany, the withdrawal of mandatory vaccination suggests strengthening tuberculosis monitoring in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
 
Article
Many virus and bacteria can cause encephalitis but are rarely identified as the aetiological agent by individual diagnosis. In France, the only continuous source of information about encephalitis is the national hospital medical database (NHMD). Data from the VIH-negative patients recorded in mainland France between 2000 and 2002 with a diagnosis of encephalitis were extracted and analysed according to demographic, geographical and temporal distribution. Hospitalisation details were described. An average of 1200 patients was recorded each year. They were residents of all French districts and equally hospitalized in university hospitals and non university hospitals. Their mean age was 38, and most were men. The aetiological diagnosis was unknown for 80%. The most frequent aetiological diagnosis was herpes simplex virus in adults, and VZV virus in children. These results give us some clues to design a national study on encephalitis. The study will be implemented in mainland France in 2007 and will last one year. We invite all voluntary hospitals to include their encephalitic patients in our study.
 
Top-cited authors
Nathalie De Castro
  • Hôpital Saint-Louis (Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis, Laboisière, Fernand-Widal)
Constance Delaugerre
  • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
Lauriane Goldwirt
  • Hôpital Saint-Louis (Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis, Laboisière, Fernand-Widal)
Breno Melo-Lima
Isabelle Leparc-Goffart
  • Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute, France