Logical Methods in Computer Science

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We study the equational theory of Parigot's second-order λμ-calculus in connection with a call-by-name continuation-passing style (CPS) translation into a fragment of the second-order λ-calculus. It is observed that the relational parametricity on the target calculus induces a natural notion of equivalence on the λμ-terms. On the other hand, the unconstrained relational parametricity on the λμ-calculus turns out to be inconsistent with this CPS semantics. Following these facts, we propose to formulate the relational parametricity on the λμ-calculus in a constrained way, which might be called "focal parametricity".
 
The linear continuous functionals $F:C[0;1]\to\mathbb R$ can be characterized by functions $g:[0;1]\to \mathbb R$ of bounded variation, $F(h)=\int h{\:\rm d} g$ (Riesz representation theorem with Riemann-Stieltjes integral), or by signed measures $\mu$ on the Borel-subsets, $F(h)= \int h{\:\rm d}\mu$. Each of these objects has a (even minimal) Jordan decomposition into non-negative or non-decreasing objects ($F=F^+-F^-$, $g=g^+-g^-$, $\mu=\mu^+-\mu^-$). Using the representation approach to computable analysis, a computable version of the Riesz representation theorem has been proved by Jafarikhah, Lu and Weihrauch. In this article we extend this result. We study the computable relation between three Banach spaces, the space of linear continuous functionals with operator norm, the space of (normalized) functions of bounded variation with total variation norm, and the space of bounded signed Borel measures with variation norm. We introduce natural representations for defining computability. We prove that the canonical linear bijections $F\mapsto g$, $g\mapsto\mu$ and $\mu\mapsto F$ between these spaces and their inverses are computable. We also prove that Jordan decomposition is computable on each of these spaces.
 
The Algebraic Dichotomy Conjecture states that the Constraint Satisfaction Problem over a fixed template is solvable in polynomial time if the algebra of polymorphisms associated to the template lies in a Taylor variety, and is NP-complete otherwise. This paper provides two new characterizations of finitely generated Taylor varieties. The first characterization is using absorbing subalgebras and the second one cyclic terms. These new conditions allow us to reprove the conjecture of Bang-Jensen and Hell (proved by the authors) and the characterization of locally finite Taylor varieties using weak near-unanimity terms (proved by McKenzie and Mar\'oti) in an elementary and self-contained way.
 
The notion of absorption was developed a few years ago by Barto and Kozik and immediately found many applications, particularly in topics related to the constraint satisfaction problem. We investigate the behavior of absorption in semigroups and n-ary semigroups (that is, algebras with one n-ary associative operation). In the case of semigroups, we give a simple necessary and sufficient condition for a semigroup to be absorbed by its subsemigroup. We then proceed to n-ary semigroups, where we conjecture an analogue of this necessary and sufficient condition, and prove that the conjectured condition is indeed necessary and sufficient for B to absorb A (where A is an n-ary semigroup and B is its n-ary subsemigroup) in the following three cases: when A is commutative, when |A-B|=1 and when A is an idempotent ternary semigroup.
 
Initial Semantics aims at interpreting the syntax associated to a signature as the initial object of some category of 'models', yielding induction and recursion principles for abstract syntax. Zsid\'o proves an initiality result for simply-typed syntax: given a signature S, the abstract syntax associated to S constitutes the initial object in a category of models of S in monads. However, the iteration principle her theorem provides only accounts for translations between two languages over a fixed set of object types. We generalize Zsid\'o's notion of model such that object types may vary, yielding a larger category, while preserving initiality of the syntax therein. Thus we obtain an extended initiality theorem for typed abstract syntax, in which translations between terms over different types can be specified via the associated category-theoretic iteration operator as an initial morphism. Our definitions ensure that translations specified via initiality are type-safe, i.e. compatible with the typing in the source and target language in the obvious sense. Our main example is given via the propositions-as-types paradigm: we specify propositions and inference rules of classical and intuitionistic propositional logics through their respective typed signatures. Afterwards we use the category--theoretic iteration operator to specify a double negation translation from the former to the latter. A second example is given by the signature of PCF. For this particular case, we formalize the theorem in the proof assistant Coq. Afterwards we specify, via the category-theoretic iteration operator, translations from PCF to the untyped lambda calculus.
 
Nominal abstract syntax is a popular first-order technique for encoding, and reasoning about, abstract syntax involving binders. Many of its applications involve constraint solving. The most commonly used constraint solving algorithm over nominal abstract syntax is the Urban-Pitts-Gabbay nominal unification algorithm, which is well-behaved, has a well-developed theory and is applicable in many cases. However, certain problems require a constraint solver which respects the equivariance property of nominal logic, such as Cheney's equivariant unification algorithm. This is more powerful but is more complicated and computationally hard. In this paper we present a novel algorithm for solving constraints over a simple variant of nominal abstract syntax which we call non-permutative. This constraint problem has similar complexity to equivariant unification but without many of the additional complications of the equivariant unification term language. We prove our algorithm correct, paying particular attention to issues of termination, and present an explicit translation of name-name equivariant unification problems into non-permutative constraints.
 
Terminal coalgebras for a functor serve as semantic domains for state-based systems of various types. For example, behaviors of CCS processes, streams, infinite trees, formal languages and non-well-founded sets form terminal coalgebras. We present a uniform account of the semantics of recursive definitions in terminal coalgebras by combining two ideas: (1) abstract GSOS rules l specify additional algebraic operations on a terminal coalgebra; (2) terminal coalgebras are also initial completely iterative algebras (cias). We also show that an abstract GSOS rule leads to new extended cia structures on the terminal coalgebra. Then we formalize recursive function definitions involving given operations specified by l as recursive program schemes for l, and we prove that unique solutions exist in the extended cias. From our results it follows that the solutions of recursive (function) definitions in terminal coalgebras may be used in subsequent recursive definitions which still have unique solutions. We call this principle modularity. We illustrate our results by the five concrete terminal coalgebras mentioned above, e.\,g., a finite stream circuit defines a unique stream function.
 
Different approaches for SAT solver verification
We present a formalization of modern SAT solvers and their properties in a form of abstract state transition systems. SAT solving procedures are described as transition relations over states that represent the values of the solver's global variables. Several different SAT solvers are formalized, including both the classical DPLL procedure and its state-of-the-art successors. The formalization is made within the Isabelle/HOL system and the total correctness (soundness, termination, completeness) is shown for each presented system (with respect to a simple notion of satisfiability that can be manually checked). The systems are defined in a general way and cover procedures used in a wide range of modern SAT solvers. Our formalization builds up on the previous work on state transition systems for SAT, but it gives machine-verifiable proofs, somewhat more general specifications, and weaker assumptions that ensure the key correctness properties. The presented proofs of formal correctness of the transition systems can be used as a key building block in proving correctness of SAT solvers by using other verification approaches.
 
In earlier work, the Abstract State Machine Thesis -- that arbitrary algorithms are behaviorally equivalent to abstract state machines -- was established for several classes of algorithms, including ordinary, interactive, small-step algorithms. This was accomplished on the basis of axiomatizations of these classes of algorithms. In Part I (Interactive Small-Step Algorithms I: Axiomatization), the axiomatization was extended to cover interactive small-step algorithms that are not necessarily ordinary. This means that the algorithms (1) can complete a step without necessarily waiting for replies to all queries from that step and (2) can use not only the environment's replies but also the order in which the replies were received. In order to prove the thesis for algorithms of this generality, we extend here the definition of abstract state machines to incorporate explicit attention to the relative timing of replies and to the possible absence of replies. We prove the characterization theorem for extended abstract state machines with respect to general algorithms as axiomatized in Part I.
 
We present a new approach for performing predicate abstraction based on symbolic decision procedures. A symbolic decision procedure for a theory T (SDP T ) takes sets of predicates G and E and symbolically executes a decision procedure for T on G′ ∪ {– e | e ∈ E}, for all the subsets G′ of G. The result of SDP T is a shared expression (represented by a directed acyclic graph) that implicitly represents the answer to a predicate abstraction query. We present symbolic decision procedures for the logic of Equality and Uninterpreted Functions(EUF) and Difference logic (DIF) and show that these procedures run in pseudo-polynomial (rather than exponential) time. We then provide a method to construct SDP’s for simple mixed theories (including EUF + DIF) using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen combination method. We present preliminary evaluation of our procedure on predicate abstraction benchmarks from device driver verification in SLAM.
 
In previous work with Pous, we defined a semantics for CCS which may both be viewed as an innocent form of presheaf semantics and as a concurrent form of game semantics. We define in this setting an analogue of fair testing equivalence, which we prove fully abstract w.r.t. standard fair testing equivalence. The proof relies on a new algebraic notion called playground, which represents the `rule of the game'. From any playground, we derive two languages equipped with labelled transition systems, as well as a strong, functional bisimulation between them.
 
We propose an abstraction-based model checking method which relies on refinement of an under-approximation of the feasible behaviors of the system under analysis. The method preserves errors to safety properties, since all analyzed behaviors are feasible by definition. The method does not require an abstract transition relation to be generated, but instead executes the concrete transitions while storing abstract versions of the concrete states, as specified by a set of abstraction predicates. For each explored transition the method checks, with the help of a theorem prover, whether there is any loss of precision introduced by abstraction. The results of these checks are used to decide termination or to refine the abstraction by generating new abstraction predicates. If the (possibly infinite) concrete system under analysis has a finite bisimulation quotient, then the method is guaranteed to eventually explore an equivalent finite bisimilar structure. We illustrate the application of the approach for checking concurrent programs.
 
The symmetric interaction combinators are an equally expressive variant of Lafont's interaction combinators. They are a graph-rewriting model of deterministic computation. We define two notions of observational equivalence for them, analogous to normal form and head normal form equivalence in the lambda-calculus. Then, we prove a full abstraction result for each of the two equivalences. This is obtained by interpreting nets as certain subsets of the Cantor space, called edifices, which play the same role as Boehm trees in the theory of the lambda-calculus.
 
We study the semantics of a resource-sensitive extension of the lambda calculus in a canonical reflexive object of a category of sets and relations, a relational version of Scott's original model of the pure lambda calculus. This calculus is related to Boudol's resource calculus and is derived from Ehrhard and Regnier's differential extension of Linear Logic and of the lambda calculus. We extend it with new constructions, to be understood as implementing a very simple exception mechanism, and with a "must" parallel composition. These new operations allow to associate a context of this calculus with any point of the model and to prove full abstraction for the finite sub-calculus where ordinary lambda calculus application is not allowed. The result is then extended to the full calculus by means of a Taylor Expansion formula. As an intermediate result we prove that the exception mechanism is not essential in the finite sub-calculus.
 
Graphical representation of the recursion in (3.2) for sets Λ t .  
The goal of this work is to formally abstract a Markov process evolving in discrete time over a general state space as a finite-state Markov chain, with the objective of precisely approximating its state probability distribution in time, which allows for its approximate, faster computation by that of the Markov chain. The approach is based on formal abstractions and employs an arbitrary finite partition of the state space of the Markov process, and the computation of average transition probabilities between partition sets. The abstraction technique is formal, in that it comes with guarantees on the introduced approximation that depend on the diameters of the partitions: as such, they can be tuned at will. Further in the case of Markov processes with unbounded state spaces, a procedure for precisely truncating the state space within a compact set is provided, together with an error bound that depends on the asymptotic properties of the transition kernel of the original process. The overall abstraction algorithm, which practically hinges on piecewise constant approximations of the density functions of the Markov process, is extended to higher-order function approximations: these can lead to improved error bounds and associated lower computational requirements. The approach is practically tested to compute probabilistic invariance of the Markov process under study, and is compared to a known alternative approach from the literature.
 
The standard widening on convex polyhedra [36, 58], here demonstrated on polyhedra in dimension 2 (polygons). The widening operator observes the sets of reachable states P 0 and P 1 at two consecutive iterations, and keeps only the constraints (polyhedral faces, here polygon edges) that are stable across iterations. The resulting P ∞ polyhedron is then proposed as an invariant. 
The gray zone S is the set of (x, y) solutions of formula F , whose atoms are the linear inequalities corresponding to the lines ∆ drawn with dashes. For fixed y = y 0 , the set of x such that F (x, y) is true is made of intervals whose ends lie within the set I of intersections of the y = y 0 line with the lines in ∆, drawn with a small circle. y = y 0 therefore has an intersection with S if and only if a point in I, or an interval with both ends in I ∪ {−∞, +∞}, lies within S. This condition can be tested using x → ±∞ and all midpoints to intervals with both ends in I, as per Ferrante and Rackoff [47], or, in addition to I ∪ {−∞}, for any element of I a point infinitesimally close to the right of it, as per Loos and Weispfenning [69]. Both methods exploit the fact that the coordinates of all points from I (intersection of y = y 0 and a line from ∆) can be expressed as affine linear functions of y 0 . 
The least fixed point representable in the domain (lfp(α • f • γ)) is not necessarily the least approximation of the least fixed point (α(lfp f )) inside the abstract domain. For instance, if we take a program initialised by x ∈ [−1, 1] and y = 0, and at each iteration, we rotate the point by 45 • , the least invariant is an 8point star, and its best approximation inside the abstract domain of intervals is the square [−1, 1] 2. However, this square is not an inductive invariant: no rectangle (product of intervals) is stable under the iterations, thus there is no abstract inductive invariant within the interval domain. Using the domain of convex polyhedra, one would obtain a regular octagon. 
The state space is partitioned into x < 0 and x ≥ 0, and on each element of the partition we have a product of intervals, respectively [−5, −2] × [4, 7] and [1, 7] × [0, 5]. Without the disjunction, we would have had to consider the much larger set [−5, 7] × [0, 7]. 
We propose a method for automatically generating abstract transformers for static analysis by abstract interpretation. The method focuses on linear constraints on programs operating on rational, real or floating-point variables and containing linear assignments and tests. Given the specification of an abstract domain, and a program block, our method automatically outputs an implementation of the corresponding abstract transformer. It is thus a form of program transformation. In addition to loop-free code, the same method also applies for obtaining least fixed points as functions of the precondition, which permits the analysis of loops and recursive functions. The motivation of our work is data-flow synchronous programming languages, used for building control-command embedded systems, but it also applies to imperative and functional programming. Our algorithms are based on quantifier elimination and symbolic manipulation techniques over linear arithmetic formulas. We also give less general results for nonlinear constraints and nonlinear program constructs.
 
An infinite run of a timed automaton is Zeno if it spans only a finite amount of time. Such runs are considered unfeasible and hence it is important to detect them, or dually, find runs that are non-Zeno. Over the years important improvements have been obtained in checking reachability properties for timed automata. We show that some of these very efficient optimizations make testing for Zeno runs costly. In particular we show NP-completeness for the LU-extrapolation of Behrmann et al. We analyze the source of this complexity in detail and give general conditions on extrapolation operators that guarantee a (low) polynomial complexity of Zenoness checking. We propose a slight weakening of the LU-extrapolation that satisfies these conditions.
 
AC-completion efficiently handles equality modulo associative and commutative function symbols. When the input is ground, the procedure terminates and provides a decision algorithm for the word problem. In this paper, we present a modular extension of ground AC-completion for deciding formulas in the combination of the theory of equality with user-defined AC symbols, uninterpreted symbols and an arbitrary signature disjoint Shostak theory X. Our algorithm, called AC(X), is obtained by augmenting in a modular way ground AC-completion with the canonizer and solver present for the theory X. This integration rests on canonized rewriting, a new relation reminiscent to normalized rewriting, which integrates canonizers in rewriting steps. AC(X) is proved sound, complete and terminating, and is implemented to extend the core of the Alt-Ergo theorem prover.
 
We study mechanisms that permit program components to express role constraints on clients, focusing on programmatic security mechanisms, which permit access controls to be expressed, in situ, as part of the code realizing basic functionality. In this setting, two questions immediately arise: (1) The user of a component faces the issue of safety: is a particular role sufficient to use the component? (2) The component designer faces the dual issue of protection: is a particular role demanded in all execution paths of the component? We provide a formal calculus and static analysis to answer both questions.
 
Compact categories have lately seen renewed interest via applications to quantum physics. Being essentially finite-dimensional, they cannot accomodate (co)limit-based constructions. For example, they cannot capture protocols such as quantum key distribution, that rely on the law of large numbers. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of a compactly accessible category, relying on the extra structure of a factorisation system. This notion allows for infinite dimension while retaining key properties of compact categories: the main technical result is that the choice-of-duals functor on the compact part extends canonically to the whole compactly accessible category. As an example, we model a quantum key distribution protocol and prove its correctness categorically.
 
The Algebraic lambda-calculus and the Linear-Algebraic lambda-calculus extend the lambda-calculus with the possibility of making arbitrary linear combinations of terms. In this paper we provide a fine-grained, System F-like type system for the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. We show that this "scalar" type system enjoys both the subject-reduction property and the strong-normalisation property, our main technical results. The latter yields a significant simplification of the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus itself, by removing the need for some restrictions in its reduction rules. But the more important, original feature of this scalar type system is that it keeps track of 'the amount of a type' that is present in each term. As an example of its use, we shown that it can serve as a guarantee that the normal form of a term is barycentric, i.e that its scalars are summing to one.
 
We introduce a new domain for finding precise numerical invariants of programs by abstract interpretation. This domain, which consists of level sets of non-linear functions, generalizes the domain of linear "templates" introduced by Manna, Sankaranarayanan, and Sipma. In the case of quadratic templates, we use Shor's semi-definite relaxation to derive computable yet precise abstractions of semantic functionals, and we show that the abstract fixpoint equation can be solved accurately by coupling policy iteration and semi-definite programming. We demonstrate the interest of our approach on a series of examples (filters, integration schemes) including a degenerate one (symplectic scheme).
 
We present a state-based regression function for planning domains where an agent does not have complete information and may have sensing actions. We consider binary domains and employ a three-valued characterization of domains with sensing actions to define the regression function. We prove the soundness and completeness of our regression formulation with respect to the definition of progression. More specifically, we show that (i) a plan obtained through regression for a planning problem is indeed a progression solution of that planning problem, and that (ii) for each plan found through progression, using regression one obtains that plan or an equivalent one.
 
We present a restriction of the solos calculus which is stable under reduction and expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. As a consequence, it is shown that equalizing names that are already equal is not required by the encoding of the pi-calculus. In particular, the induced solo diagrams bear an acyclicity property that induces a faithful encoding into differential interaction nets. This gives a (new) proof that differential interaction nets are expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. All this is worked out in the case of finitary (replication free) systems without sum, match nor mismatch.
 
We propose the concept of adaptable processes as a way of overcoming the limitations that process calculi have for describing patterns of dynamic process evolution. Such patterns rely on direct ways of controlling the behavior and location of running processes, and so they are at the heart of the adaptation capabilities present in many modern concurrent systems. Adaptable processes have a location and are sensible to actions of dynamic update at runtime; this allows to express a wide range of evolvability patterns for concurrent processes. We introduce a core calculus of adaptable processes and propose two verification problems for them: bounded and eventual adaptation. While the former ensures that the number of consecutive erroneous states that can be traversed during a computation is bound by some given number k, the latter ensures that if the system enters into a state with errors then a state without errors will be eventually reached. We study the (un)decidability of these two problems in several variants of the calculus, which result from considering dynamic and static topologies of adaptable processes as well as different evolvability patterns. Rather than a specification language, our calculus intends to be a basis for investigating the fundamental properties of evolvable processes and for developing richer languages with evolvability capabilities.
 
For the additive real BSS machines using only constants 0 and 1 and order tests we consider the corresponding Turing reducibility and characterize some semi-decidable decision problems over the reals. In order to refine, step-by-step, a linear hierarchy of Turing degrees with respect to this model, we define several halting problems for classes of additive machines with different abilities and construct further suitable decision problems. In the construction we use methods of the classical recursion theory as well as techniques for proving bounds resulting from algebraic properties. In this way we extend a known hierarchy of problems below the halting problem for the additive machines using only equality tests and we present a further subhierarchy of semi-decidable problems between the halting problems for the additive machines using only equality tests and using order tests, respectively.
 
Checking the admissibility of quasiequations in a finitely generated (i.e., generated by a finite set of finite algebras) quasivariety Q amounts to checking validity in a suitable finite free algebra of the quasivariety, and is therefore decidable. However, since free algebras may be large even for small sets of small algebras and very few generators, this naive method for checking admissibility in $\Q$ is not computationally feasible. In this paper, algorithms are introduced that generate a minimal (with respect to a multiset well-ordering on their cardinalities) finite set of algebras such that the validity of a quasiequation in this set corresponds to admissibility of the quasiequation in Q. In particular, structural completeness (validity and admissibility coincide) and almost structural completeness (validity and admissibility coincide for quasiequations with unifiable premises) can be checked. The algorithms are illustrated with a selection of well-known finitely generated quasivarieties, and adapted to handle also admissibility of rules in finite-valued logics.
 
This paper investigates what is essentially a call-by-value version of PCF under a complexity-theoretically motivated type system. The programming formalism, ATR, has its first-order programs characterize the polynomial-time computable functions, and its second-order programs characterize the type-2 basic feasible functionals of Mehlhorn and of Cook and Urquhart. (The ATR-types are confined to levels 0, 1, and 2.) The type system comes in two parts, one that primarily restricts the sizes of values of expressions and a second that primarily restricts the time required to evaluate expressions. The size-restricted part is motivated by Bellantoni and Cook's and Leivant's implicit characterizations of polynomial-time. The time-restricting part is an affine version of Barber and Plotkin's DILL. Two semantics are constructed for ATR. The first is a pruning of the naive denotational semantics for ATR. This pruning removes certain functions that cause otherwise feasible forms of recursion to go wrong. The second semantics is a model for ATR's time complexity relative to a certain abstract machine. This model provides a setting for complexity recurrences arising from ATR recursions, the solutions of which yield second-order polynomial time bounds. The time-complexity semantics is also shown to be sound relative to the costs of interpretation on the abstract machine.
 
Logics for security protocol analysis require the formalization of an adversary model that specifies the capabilities of adversaries. A common model is the Dolev-Yao model, which considers only adversaries that can compose and replay messages, and decipher them with known keys. The Dolev-Yao model is a useful abstraction, but it suffers from some drawbacks: it cannot handle the adversary knowing protocol-specific information, and it cannot handle probabilistic notions, such as the adversary attempting to guess the keys. We show how we can analyze security protocols under different adversary models by using a logic with a notion of algorithmic knowledge. Roughly speaking, adversaries are assumed to use algorithms to compute their knowledge; adversary capabilities are captured by suitable restrictions on the algorithms used. We show how we can model the standard Dolev-Yao adversary in this setting, and how we can capture more general capabilities including protocol-specific knowledge and guesses.
 
In a previous work Baillot and Terui introduced Dual light affine logic (DLAL) as a variant of Light linear logic suitable for guaranteeing complexity properties on lambda calculus terms: all typable terms can be evaluated in polynomial time by beta reduction and all Ptime functions can be represented. In the present work we address the problem of typing lambda-terms in second-order DLAL. For that we give a procedure which, starting with a term typed in system F, determines whether it is typable in DLAL and outputs a concrete typing if there exists any. We show that our procedure can be run in time polynomial in the size of the original Church typed system F term.
 
Given a universal Horn formula of Kleene algebra with hypotheses of the form r = 0, it is already known that we can efficiently construct an equation which is valid if and only if the Horn formula is valid. This is an example of elimination of hypotheses , which is useful because the equational theory of Kleene algebra is decidable while the universal Horn theory is not. We show that hypotheses of the form r = 0 can still be eliminated in the presence of other hypotheses. This lets us extend any technique for eliminating hypotheses to include hypotheses of the form r = 0.
 
Trees involving cycle and sharing
Terms are a concise representation of tree structures. Since they can be naturally defined by an inductive type, they offer data structures in functional programming and mechanised reasoning with useful principles such as structural induction and structural recursion. However, for graphs or "tree-like" structures - trees involving cycles and sharing - it remains unclear what kind of inductive structures exists and how we can faithfully assign a term representation of them. In this paper we propose a simple term syntax for cyclic sharing structures that admits structural induction and recursion principles. We show that the obtained syntax is directly usable in the functional language Haskell and the proof assistant Agda, as well as ordinary data structures such as lists and trees. To achieve this goal, we use a categorical approach to initial algebra semantics in a presheaf category. That approach follows the line of Fiore, Plotkin and Turi's models of abstract syntax with variable binding.
 
Burkart, Caucal, Steffen (1995) showed a procedure deciding bisimulation equivalence of processes in Basic Process Algebra (BPA), i.e. of sequential processes generated by context-free grammars. They improved the previous decidability result of Christensen, H\"uttel, Stirling (1992), since their procedure has obviously an elementary time complexity and the authors claim that a close analysis would reveal a double exponential upper bound. Here a self-contained direct proof of the membership in 2-ExpTime is given. This is done via a Prover-Refuter game which shows that there is an alternating Turing machine deciding the problem in exponential space. The proof uses similar ingredients (size-measures, decompositions, bases) as the previous proofs, but one new simplifying factor is an explicit addition of infinite regular strings to the state space. An auxiliary claim also shows an explicit exponential upper bound on the equivalence level of nonbisimilar normed BPA processes. The importance of clarifying the 2-ExpTime upper bound for BPA bisimilarity has recently increased due to the shift of the known lower bound from PSpace (Srba, 2002) to ExpTime (Kiefer, 2012).
 
We introduce two-sorted theories in the style of [CN10] for the complexity classes \oplusL and DET, whose complete problems include determinants over Z2 and Z, respectively. We then describe interpretations of Soltys' linear algebra theory LAp over arbitrary integral domains, into each of our new theories. The result shows equivalences of standard theorems of linear algebra over Z2 and Z can be proved in the corresponding theory, but leaves open the interesting question of whether the theorems themselves can be proved.
 
The study of finite automata and regular languages is a privileged meeting point of algebra and logic. Since the work of Buchi, regular languages have been classified according to their descriptive complexity, i.e. the type of logical formalism required to define them. The algebraic point of view on automata is an essential complement of this classification: by providing alternative, algebraic characterizations for the classes, it often yields the only opportunity for the design of algorithms that decide expressibility in some logical fragment. We survey the existing results relating the expressibility of regular languages in logical fragments of MSO[S] with algebraic properties of their minimal automata. In particular, we show that many of the best known results in this area share the same underlying mechanics and rely on a very strong relation between logical substitutions and block-products of pseudovarieties of monoid. We also explain the impact of these connections on circuit complexity theory.
 
The theory of regular cost functions is a quantitative extension to the classical notion of regularity. A cost function associates to each input a non-negative integer value (or infinity), as opposed to languages which only associate to each input the two values "inside" and "outside". This theory is a continuation of the works on distance automata and similar models. These models of automata have been successfully used for solving the star-height problem, the finite power property, the finite substitution problem, the relative inclusion star-height problem and the boundedness problem for monadic-second order logic over words. Our notion of regularity can be -- as in the classical theory of regular languages -- equivalently defined in terms of automata, expressions, algebraic recognisability, and by a variant of the monadic second-order logic. These equivalences are strict extensions of the corresponding classical results. The present paper introduces the cost monadic logic, the quantitative extension to the notion of monadic second-order logic we use, and show that some problems of existence of bounds are decidable for this logic. This is achieved by introducing the corresponding algebraic formalism: stabilisation monoids.
 
We provide a computational definition of the notions of vector space and bilinear functions. We use this result to introduce a minimal language combining higher-order computation and linear algebra. This language extends the Lambda-calculus with the possibility to make arbitrary linear combinations of terms alpha.t + beta.u. We describe how to "execute" this language in terms of a few rewrite rules, and justify them through the two fundamental requirements that the language be a language of linear operators, and that it be higher-order. We mention the perspectives of this work in the field of quantum computation, whose circuits we show can be easily encoded in the calculus. Finally, we prove the confluence of the entire calculus.
 
We examine the relationship between the algebraic lambda-calculus, a fragment of the differential lambda-calculus and the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus, a candidate lambda-calculus for quantum computation. Both calculi are algebraic: each one is equipped with an additive and a scalar-multiplicative structure, and their set of terms is closed under linear combinations. However, the two languages were built using different approaches: the former is a call-by-name language whereas the latter is call-by-value; the former considers algebraic equalities whereas the latter approaches them through rewrite rules. In this paper, we analyse how these different approaches relate to one another. To this end, we propose four canonical languages based on each of the possible choices: call-by-name versus call-by-value, algebraic equality versus algebraic rewriting. We show that the various languages simulate one another. Due to subtle interaction between beta-reduction and algebraic rewriting, to make the languages consistent some additional hypotheses such as confluence or normalisation might be required. We carefully devise the required properties for each proof, making them general enough to be valid for any sub-language satisfying the corresponding properties.
 
We present an effect inference algorithm for Eff, an ML-style language with handlers of not only exceptions, but of any other algebraic effect such as input & output, mutable references, non-determinism and many others. Our main aim is to offer the programmer a useful insight into the effectful behaviour of programs. Handlers help here by cutting down possible effects and the resulting lengthy output that often plagues precise effect systems. Additionally, we present a set of methods that further simplify the displayed types, some even by deliberately hiding inferred information from the programmer.
 
We present an effect system for core Eff, a simplified variant of Eff, which is an ML-style programming language with first-class algebraic effects and handlers. We define an expressive effect system and prove safety of operational semantics with respect to it. Then we give a domain-theoretic denotational semantics of core Eff, using Pitts's theory of minimal invariant relations, and prove it adequate. We use this fact to develop tools for finding useful contextual equivalences, including an induction principle. To demonstrate their usefulness, we use these tools to derive the usual equations for mutable state, including a general commutativity law for computations using non-interfering references. We have formalized the effect system, the operational semantics, and the safety theorem in Twelf.
 
Traces and their extension called combined traces (comtraces) are two formal models used in the analysis and verification of concurrent systems. Both models are based on concepts originating in the theory of formal languages, and they are able to capture the notions of causality and simultaneity of atomic actions which take place during the process of a system's operation. The aim of this paper is a transfer to the domain of comtraces and developing of some fundamental notions, which proved to be successful in the theory of traces. In particular, we introduce and then apply the notion of indivisible steps, the lexicographical canonical form of comtraces, as well as the representation of a comtrace utilising its linear projections to binary action subalphabets. We also provide two algorithms related to the new notions. Using them, one can solve, in an efficient way, the problem of step sequence equivalence in the context of comtraces. One may view our results as a first step towards the development of infinite combined traces, as well as recognisable languages of combined traces.
 
We extend the higher-order termination method of dynamic dependency pairs to Algebraic Functional Systems (AFSs). In this setting, simply typed lambda-terms with algebraic reduction and separate {\beta}-steps are considered. For left-linear AFSs, the method is shown to be complete. For so-called local AFSs we define a variation of usable rules and an extension of argument filterings. All these techniques have been implemented in the higher-order termination tool WANDA.
 
Five algebraic notions of termination are formalised, analysed and compared: wellfoundedness or Noetherity, L\"ob's formula, absence of infinite iteration, absence of divergence and normalisation. The study is based on modal semirings, which are additively idempotent semirings with forward and backward modal operators. To model infinite behaviours, idempotent semirings are extended to divergence semirings, divergence Kleene algebras and omega algebras. The resulting notions and techniques are used in calculational proofs of classical theorems of rewriting theory. These applications show that modal semirings are powerful tools for reasoning algebraically about the finite and infinite dynamics of programs and transition systems.
 
Nested words, a model for recursive programs proposed by Alur and Madhusudan, have recently gained much interest. In this paper we introduce quantitative extensions and study nested word series which assign to nested words elements of a semiring. We show that regular nested word series coincide with series definable in weighted logics as introduced by Droste and Gastin. For this we establish a connection between nested words and the free bisemigroup. Applying our result, we obtain characterizations of algebraic formal power series in terms of weighted logics. This generalizes results of Lautemann, Schwentick and Therien on context-free languages.
 
Examples of essentially convex relations.  
Let \Gamma be a structure with a finite relational signature and a first-order definition in (R;*,+) with parameters from R, that is, a relational structure over the real numbers where all relations are semi-algebraic sets. In this article, we study the computational complexity of constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) for \Gamma: the problem to decide whether a given primitive positive sentence is true in \Gamma. We focus on those structures \Gamma that contain the relations \leq, {(x,y,z) | x+y=z} and {1}. Hence, all CSPs studied in this article are at least as expressive as the feasibility problem for linear programs. The central concept in our investigation is essential convexity: a relation S is essentially convex if for all a,b\inS, there are only finitely many points on the line segment between a and b that are not in S. If \Gamma contains a relation S that is not essentially convex and this is witnessed by rational points a,b, then we show that the CSP for \Gamma is NP-hard. Furthermore, we characterize essentially convex relations in logical terms. This different view may open up new ways for identifying tractable classes of semi-algebraic CSPs. For instance, we show that if \Gamma is a first-order expansion of (R;*,+), then the CSP for \Gamma can be solved in polynomial time if and only if all relations in \Gamma are essentially convex (unless P=NP).
 
This paper describes a formalization of discrete real closed fields in the Coq proof assistant. This abstract structure captures for instance the theory of real algebraic numbers, a decidable subset of real numbers with good algorithmic properties. The theory of real algebraic numbers and more generally of semi-algebraic varieties is at the core of a number of effective methods in real analysis, including decision procedures for non linear arithmetic or optimization methods for real valued functions. After defining an abstract structure of discrete real closed field and the elementary theory of real roots of polynomials, we describe the formalization of an algebraic proof of quantifier elimination based on pseudo-remainder sequences following the standard computer algebra literature on the topic. This formalization covers a large part of the theory which underlies the efficient algorithms implemented in practice in computer algebra. The success of this work paves the way for formal certification of these efficient methods.
 
Algebraic effects are computational effects that can be represented by an equational theory whose operations produce the effects at hand. The free model of this theory induces the expected computational monad for the corresponding effect. Algebraic effects include exceptions, state, nondeterminism, interactive input/output, and time, and their combinations. Exception handling, however, has so far received no algebraic treatment. We present such a treatment, in which each handler yields a model of the theory for exceptions, and each handling construct yields the homomorphism induced by the universal property of the free model. We further generalise exception handlers to arbitrary algebraic effects. The resulting programming construct includes many previously unrelated examples from both theory and practice, including relabelling and restriction in Milner's CCS, timeout, rollback, and stream redirection.
 
Using coalgebraic methods, we extend Conway's theory of games to possibly non-terminating, i.e. non-wellfounded games (hypergames). We take the view that a play which goes on forever is a draw, and hence rather than focussing on winning strategies, we focus on non-losing strategies. Hypergames are a fruitful metaphor for non-terminating processes, Conway's sum being similar to shuffling. We develop a theory of hypergames, which extends in a non-trivial way Conway's theory; in particular, we generalize Conway's results on game determinacy and characterization of strategies. Hypergames have a rather interesting theory, already in the case of impartial hypergames, for which we give a compositional semantics, in terms of a generalized Grundy-Sprague function and a system of generalized Nim games. Equivalences and congruences on games and hypergames are discussed. We indicate a number of intriguing directions for future work. We briefly compare hypergames with other notions of games used in computer science.
 
C *-algebras form rather general and rich mathematical structures that can be studied with different morphisms (preserving multiplication, or not), and with different properties (commutative, or not). These various options can be used to incorporate various styles of computation (set-theoretic, probabilistic, quantum) inside categories of C *-algebras. This paper concentrates on the commutative case and shows that there are functors from several Kleisli categories, of monads that are relevant to model probabilistic computations, to categories of C *-algebras. This yields a new probabilistic version of Gelfand duality, involving the “Radon” monad on the category of compact Hausdorff spaces. We also show that a commutative C *-algebra is isomorphic to the space of convex continuous functionals from its state space to the complex numbers. This allows us to obtain an appropriately commuting state-and-effect triangle for commutative C *-algebras.
 
In this paper we revise and simplify Simpson and Schroeder's notion of observationally induced algebra introduced for the purpose of modelling computational effects for the particular case where the ambient category is given by classical domain theory. As examples of the general framework we consider the various powerdomains. For the particular case of the Plotkin powerdomain the general recipe leads to a somewhat unexpected result which, however, makes sense from a Computer Science perspective. We analyze this "deviation" and show how to reobtain the original Plotkin powerdomain by imposing further conditions previously considered by R.~Heckmann and J.~Goubault-Larrecq.
 
Top-cited authors
Moshe Vardi
  • Rice University
Jean-Francois Raskin
  • Université Libre de Bruxelles
Lars Birkedal
  • Aarhus University
Mihalis Yannakakis
  • Columbia University
James Worrell
  • University of Oxford