Literator

Published by AOSIS OpenJournals
Online ISSN: 2219-8237
Print ISSN: 0258-2279
Publications
Die verskyningsvorme en funksies van narratiewe strukture en tegnieke in liriese po�e
 
Enriched and empowered: nature's influence on the psyche in two Afrikaans youth novels In this article two Afrikaans youth novels are analysed in order to determine to what extent nature and elements of the natural environment can influence a child's experience and view of life. In "Gamkab" (Betsie van Niekerk) and "Om 'n kierie te keer" (Pieter Pieterse) their natural surroundings expose the charac-ters to challenges and adventures which form a context in which their ways of thinking are challenged and stimulated. This develops their ability to make decisions and solve problems, thereby broadening their life experience and developing their life skills. Theories on reader identification are used to argue that stories like these have the potential to expand and develop reader consciousness. These novels are of importance to the South African child of today, because they introduce various contemporary issues, such as entrepreneurship, social respon-sibility and multicultural interaction. In identifying with the characters, the reader is confronted with pertinent topics such as peer pressure, teenage insecurities and fears, and proble-matic family relationships. From the analysis of the novels, which focuses on the enriching and reinforcing contribution of nature, it is apparent that through nature's challenges the characters are empowered to overcome their problems and improve their personal circumstances. This foreshadows the potential empowerment of the reader.
 
Figuur 1: Matriks van basiese klassifikasiemoontlikhede  
Figuur 2: Frekwensie van klasse  
Figuur 4: Verbetering in akkuraatheid met vermeerdering van afrigtingsdata  
Automatic lemmatisation for Afrikaans Automatic lemmatisation is a general normalisation procedure in text processing, where all inflected forms of a lexical word are normalised to a single lemma (i.e. a meaningful, uninflected base form from which more complex word forms could be formed). Traditionally, lemmatisers are developed by writing language-specific rules to identify lemmas. In this article an alternative approach is investigated, namely a machine learning approach, to develop a lemmatiser for Afrikaans (LIA: “Lemmaidentifiseerder vir Afrikaans”). An overview regarding the process of inflection in Afrikaans is provided with the aim of identifying the categories of inflection that are relevant for lemmatisation in Afrikaans. The format of the input and output is described with special reference to the nine inflectional categories for Afrikaans that the system should be able to handle. Then the task of lemmatisation as a classification task for machine learning is described, and a concise introduction to memory-based learning is provided. The development and evaluation of LIA is discussed in detail, and it is illustrated how the performance of the initial classifier is improved through feature selection and parameter optimisation. The best classifier reaches an accuracy of 92,8%. The article concludes with a view on some future work.
 
The development of a hyphenator and compound analyser for Afrikaans The development of two core-technologies for Afrikaans, viz. a hyphenator and a compound analyser is described in this article. As no annotated Afrikaans data existed prior to this project to serve as training data for a machine learning classifier, the core-technologies in question are first developed using a rule-based approach. The rule-based hyphenator and compound analyser are evaluated and the hyphenator obtains an fscore of 90,84%, while the compound analyser only reaches an f-score of 78,20%. Since these results are somewhat disappointing and/or insufficient for practical implementation, it was decided that a machine learning technique (memory-based learning) will be used instead. Training data for each of the two core-technologies is then developed using “TurboAnnotate”, an interface designed to improve the accuracy and speed of manual annotation. The hyphenator developed using machine learning has been trained with 39 943 words and reaches an fscore of 98,11% while the f-score of the compound analyser is 90,57% after being trained with 77 589 annotated words. It is concluded that machine learning (specifically memory-based learning) seems an appropriate approach for developing coretechnologies for Afrikaans.
 
Figuur 4: ANDER as die Afrikaanse woordnet op te soek  
Development of an Afrikaans wordnet: methodology and integration The Afrikaans wordnet is a lexical-conceptual network in the form of an electronic lexical database, developed at the North- West University. In this article, a methodology for a semi-automatic construction of the entries – so-called synonym sets – is investigated. Firstly, a background is given on the nature of a wordnet, as well as “WordNet”, on which it is based. Other wordnets, as well as applications of wordnets, are also discussed here. Next, the macrostructure of a wordnet in terms of its integration and compatibility with other wordnets is investigated, after which the proposed methodology is presented with a discussion of the results. Finally, a projection is made to the integration of the Afrikaans wordnet with other resources, which include “WordNet” and an Afrikaans lexical database, called ALEXANDER.
 
This article presents a theoretical exploration and reading of the notion of the grotesque in Western history of art to serve as background to the reading of the original creatures in the “Tracking creative creatures” project.1 These creatures were drawn by Marley, based on imaginary creatures narrated by his five year-old son, Joshua. The focus in this article is on the occurrence of the grotesque in paintings and drawings. Three techniques associated with the grotesque are identified: the presence of imagined fusion figures or composite creatures, the violation and exaggeration of standing categories or concepts, and the juxtaposition of the ridiculous and the horrible. The use of these techniques is illustrated in selected artworks and Marley’s creatures are then read from the angle of these strategies.
 
Figure A: The Janus frog (Diane Victor, 2007) 
Figure B: Kunstenaarsboek binne takbeeld (Flip Hattingh, 2007) 
Figure C: African Chinese dragon (Angus Taylor, 2007) 
The basic concern of this article is to offer an interpretation of artworks by a selected group of artists who contributed to the “Creative creatures” project. The original creatures created by the artist, Ian Marley, based on narration by his son, Joshua, seem at first glance to suggest an underlying theme of fantasy. However, certain interpretative artworks by artists such as those by Diane Victor, Flip Hattingh and Angus Taylor seem to display a shift from the originally perceived element of fantasy. The artworks rather each represents their own fictional worlds, far removed from the original composite creatures created by Marley who each seems to function in its own fictional world. The superimposition of the incongruous worlds suggests a measure of tension that hinges on progressive notions of archaeology, history and possible worlds.
 
The purpose of this article is firstly to distinguish between the notions “external locus of control” and “internal locus of control”, secondly to indicate ways in which the locus of control in humour in “The Gruffalo” by Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler can be identified and thirdly to indicate possible ways in which emphasis on the internal locus of control in the young reader can assist him/her in the development of a general mental/- psychological well-being. Different kinds of literary humour contribute to the ways in which young listeners/readers can identify with stories, poems, dramas and films. The young listener/reader can recognise him/herself in humorous situations, in the humorous use of imagery, wordplay and illustrations/visuals. He/she can also identify with or distance him-/herself from or reject the characters, the values represented and the author who created the text. When in interaction with the works of authors who use negative as well as positive kinds of humour to point out the dos and don’ts, the rights and the wrongs in life, the horizon of a young listener’s/reader’s experience can be expanded. Such a reading would contribute to the development of the young reader’s cognitive, emotional, social and moral values as it links up with an unconscious or conscious decision about the locus of control in his/her life.
 
Business process management in human language technology resource development: a case study Resources play a crucial role in human language technology (HLT), since research and development are largely dependent on its availability. It follows that effective management of these resources is essential to this domain and there are a number of international initiatives that contribute towards such management, e.g. through setting standards for development. Against this backdrop, the objective of this particular article is to investigate the potential of business process management (BPM) to facilitate effective management and standardisation of HLT resource development. BPM systems and principles are commonly applied in production, revenue cycles, process documentation, risk and project management, and a variety of other administrative areas, to improve efficiency. However, its application in the context of HLT resource development has not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. This article presents a theoretical BPM framework for standardisation which takes cognisance not only of routine processes, but also of the unique nature of HLT when it entails software development, which is marked by creative problem-solving processes that are difficult to control. The framework is composed of philosophy and culture definition, standardisation along a selected framework, protocols and tools, and deployment. The validity of this framework is tested in a case study of an HLT research and development centre. Preliminary findings suggest that the framework has the potential to standardise HLT resource development and management processes.
 
http://search.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/Authorize?sessionid=0&next=ej/ej_content_literat.html&bad=error/authofail.html
 
Creative writing students’ experience of their own creative process within the context of the Tracking creative creatures project: a narrative analysis First-year students in Creative Writing at the North-West University took part in an interdisciplinary investigation into the creative process, which posed certain creative challenges to them. The students’ reaction to the project indicated that they experienced the assignment as challenging and enriching. This article investigates the question whether the narrative analysis of students’ personal reports on the creative process can contribute to a better understanding of the individual experience, the project, and the creative process as such. A framework for analysis was developed against the theoretical background of contextual approaches to creativity, practice-based research and the method of narrative analysis. Amabile’s componential framework of creativity served as a basis for the framework to investigate the three levels of the narrative (form, content and context). The article discusses the project, collection of data, theoretical framework and research procedures, and illustrates and discusses the application and value of narrative analysis of students’ reports with reference to identified themes and selected examples.
 
The translation of “cultural identity” in a novel such as “Kringe in ’n bos” contributes towards the definition of a uniquely South African representation of time and space in the global context. When translation is studied as a product of its socio-historical context, the translator is faced with problems of translating ideology and cultural identity in literature. Realia constitute a particular challenge to the translator because, according to the definition, precise equivalents of these words do not exist in other languages, which could cause shifts in the target language text. This article considers the concept of translatability and concludes that, despite the problems encountered, an adequate and satisfactory German translation from the Afrikaans original should be possible. The question of translatability assumes an interesting dimension as the Afrikaans novel was translated into English by the author herself. The privileged position of author-translator granted Matthee a near-perfect understanding of the different layers of meaning and intention of the source text and eliminated the gap between the author and translator. However, one gains the impression that the German translator (Stege) resorted to transference as a strategy to avoid translation and it emerges that most instances of definite mistranslations are, indeed, attributable to Stege’s unfamiliarity with the South African context.
 
Proefskrif--PU vir CHO. Includes bibliographical references.
 
Dante en Beatrice (1883). Henry Holiday (Anon., 2008e) 
Taking a line for a walk: an iconic and intertextual reading of T.T. Cloete’s “toepassings van dante” (“applications of dante”) The cycle of poems in T.T. Cloete’s “toepassings van dante” (“applications of dante”) has iconic characteristics but also resonates within wider intertextual and cultural spheres. The interpretation of the poems presented in this article attempts to incorporate textual aspects such as iconicity, referentiality, selfreferentiality and representation as well as the intertextual and cultural meanings generated by the texts. The poems refer directly to Dante’s “Paradiso”, activating the codes of chivalry which informed medieval poetry, but the strong visual nature of the poems also leads the reader to Paul Klee’s esthetic and visual principles and Bachelard’s views on form and space. The coherence as well as the development of themes are discussed. Line, movement and form are depicted as dynamic aspects of creativity but ultimately the paradoxical relation between beauty and functionality is thematised. Nevertheless, it is emphasised that even in the interpretation of the multilayered meanings of the texts, the referential nature of language and the iconic nature of the text are basic and therefore essential aspects of the generation of meaning.
 
This article explores the concept of practice-based research as a viable research avenue for academics in creative disciplines with a view to contextualise the importance of research for all academics, including those in creative disciplines; investigate a framework for defining practice-based research; extrapolate existing models and methods of practice-based research from the literature; develop a plausible working strategy for practicebased research; and finally determine the extent to which the “Tracking creative creatures” project complies with the requirements of practice-based research. While practice-based research is fairly well represented in the literature, the peculiar characteristics of creative work require a reconceptualisation of how research imperatives are satisfied in practice-based research. Practical outputs as embodied research, the importance of the creative process and its reflective documentation and collaborative strategies in creative projects emerged as salient issues. The “Creative creatures” project was found to have complied with most of the requirements of practice-based research and certain proposed amendments to the approach followed with this project will assist future projects in attaining viable research status, but these need to be framed within an institutional and funding environment that fosters creative work as research.
 
Words as signs and signatures – iconicity in poetic texts In this article aspects of iconicity in language and in poetic texts are discussed. The recent renewed interest in the anti-arbitrary debate is used as a point of departure in order to examine the iconic characteristics and the iconic functions of language and poetic texts. Some less known theoretic views on aspects of iconicity are mentioned and discussed. To underscore the theoretic discussion a few poems of the poet T.T. Cloete are analysed and interpreted focusing on iconicity. The most important conclusions which are once again put forward in the article are firstly that the functioning of poetic texts cannot be adequately described, analysed and interpreted according to logical semantic and linguistic systems alone and that the motivated or iconic origin and archetypical meanings in language can and may indeed play an important role in the production of meaning and secondly that the referential aspect of a text should not be neglected because text analyses of iconic poems once again underscore the view that referentiality indeed remains the basis of the production and communication of meaning.
 
Tracking creative creatures: an interdisciplinary investigation into the creative process – project description “Tracking creative creatures” is an interdisciplinary exploration which originated out of a need for research possibilities within the creative disciplines, specifically visual arts and creative writing. The graphic works which formed the core of the project, and which served as creative stimuli for the various artists, originated in the imagination of a five year-old boy and were subsequently illustrated by his artist father. The project entails various components, including a flagship project with invited artists, a teaching subproject and a community sub-project, which were showcased at the Aardklop National Arts Festival, 2007. This article provides an overview of the project as a whole and the organic nature in which it evolved. The discussion includes the following aspects: context, conceptualisation, approach, methods, documentation, support structures, description of the various sub-projects, and preliminary results and appraisal. The complex nature of the projects is further communicated by means of illustrations.
 
This article examines the form and function of space in Martial’s epigram 1.86. It comments on the important aspect of verbal creation of space, i.e. the concept of selectivity, which results in an incomplete description of space. It is demonstrated, however, that the reader, with the aid of spatial indicators in the text, is able to fill in the spatial gaps. With the support of these indicators an attempt is made to determine whether space is given special prominence in 1.86. The horizontal dimension of space, i.e. the concept of the binary opposition far vs. near is delineated as an important and special implement in the hands of the poet to convey the poem’s message. The narrator’s point o f view, or focalization, is also touched upon. In conclusion the predominant theme in this epigram, i.e. space, is defined as lyric space. It is argued that space can be exploited in different ways so as to convey meaning through it, and thus contributes towards a better understanding of the poem.
 
Results of the distinctive collexeme analysis of the second quarter century (1526-1550).
Results of the distinctive collexeme analysis for the fourth quarter century (1576-1600).
This article focuses on the semantics of the Dutch aan-construction [NP V NP aan NP], for example, Jan geeft een boek aan Piet (‘Jan gives a book to Piet’) in the 16th-century. In modern Dutch the aan-construction is used as an alternative to the Dutch double object construction, but previous research suggests that the use of ditransitive verbs in the Dutch aan-construction is only a 16th-century innovation – this alternation is called the ‘dative alternation’. However, it is not clear which ditransitive verbs initiated the dative alternation. Colleman ( 2010) believes that the first instances of the ditransitive use of the aan-construction are concrete physical movements of the direct object from the subject to the indirect object; however, he argues there is no quantitative proof to support those claims. In a self-compiled corpus of 16th-century Dutch, this article tries to find the evidence which is needed to underpin Colleman’s hypothesis by making use of the distinctive collexeme analysis and its diachronic variant. The results show that the first ditransitive instances of the aan-construction are indeed concrete uses, but that there is also an increase in the metaphorical use of the construction.
 
Raakpunte in die studie van Latyn en Hebreeus kom nie dikwels tot hulle reg in die akademiese wêreld nie, en Suid-Afrika is seker geen uitsondering op die reël nie. Tog is daar 'n groot terrein wat op ontginning wag in hierdie verband. As blyk van waardering word hierdie poging in die rigting aangebied aan 'n geëerde leermeester op wie se rekening die gebreke nie geplaas moet word nie. Die Latynse vertalings van die Ou Testament waaraan aandag gegee word, is die Vetus Latina (VL) en die Vulgaat (V). Hulle word vergelyk met die Massoretiese teks (MT), die standaard Hebreeuse teks van die Ou Testament, en met die Septuaginta (LXX), die Griekse vertaling van die Ou Testament wat in die vroeë kerk geweldige aanhang geniet het.
 
In hierdie artikel word ’n analise gemaak van die struktuur en funksie van narratiewe ruimte in die Jona-verhaal sees vertel deur Prudentius (Cathemerinon 1). Hierdie verhaal is gekies omdat dit by uitstek ruimte-georiënteerd is. Die analise is gebaseer op ’n verwerking van die teorie van G. Zoran, wat narratiewe ruimte op tekstuele en plot-vlak ondersoek, Ruimte op tekstuele vlak verwys na die topografiese aard van ruimte, dit wil sê van objekte en plekke, asook die beginsel van die teks-perspektief van sodanige objekte en plekke. Die topografiese aard van ruimte behels weer aspekte soos horisontale en vertikale opposisies, kwaliteitstrukture en ontologiese beginsels. Ruimte op die plot-vlak verwys na sinchroniese en diachroniese relasies. Eersgenoemde het te doen met die beginsel van beweging en rus, terwyl laasgenoemde te doen het met bepaalde rigtinge en intensies op die plot-vlak.
 
Postcolonial studies has asked the question "Can the subaltern speak? ", but has focused less strongly on the strategies by which the subaltern is prevented from securing a hearing. The textual and social strategies used to prevent Cape slaves in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries from voicing their plight have been neglected, though both pro- and anti-slavery lobbyists were eloquent. To present the slave as one whose inferiority rendered him incapable of pleading his cause was a device of the pro-slavery group; to pretend that consultation was impossible was another, though people who offered this defence were often surrounded by slaves. Others, accepting and profiting from the inequalities of a class-stratified society, were unable to perceive any but the extreme experiences of an unfree condition as constituting injustice. Anti-slavery campaigners were rarely in favour of the slave's being consulted: they preferred to condemn their political rivals, the slave-owners. Abolition found many of them searching for arguments to maintain the inequalities of society, and especially to prevent former serfs from securing a hearing.
 
To place the letters written by Mary Wollstonecraft from Scandinavia to her lover, Gilbert Imlay, besides the journal in epistolary form that she published on her return to England, is to discern something of the complexity of Wollstonecraft’s personality. The two sets of documents, each of distinctive interest, reveal by their juxtaposition the struggle of an intelligent woman to reconcile her feelings and her reason as she strives to pursue a trajectory towards the emotional and financial independence that she had claimed for women in her polemical work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. The comparison between the two sets of documents also demonstrates the ways in which the characteristics of the letter – its potentiality for immediacy, for the expression of the self and the emotions – are consciously shaped in the published Letters. Such strategies are designed for the perceived reader in each case: on the one hand, Imlay himself and, on the other, all those readers likely to purchase a work from the imprint of Joseph Johnson.
 
In this article it is argued that the significance of Foucault’s view of history does not lie so much in the concept of epistemes, as in his emphasis on radical discontinuity as a historiographic principle. His programme also challenges literary history, the question inter alia being how discontinuity affects periodization. This question is situated among other questions of periodization. It is argued that in Foucault’s view the a priori of dispersion and the construction of a vertical series of series should govern periodization. Three fruitful implications of Foucault’s views for Baroque scholarship are discussed in the end, viz. that it allows the colligation of phenomena up till now viewed in isolation, the reinterpretation of phenomena already accounted for and the extension of our knowledge of the cultural matrix of the Baroque.
 
Top-cited authors
Albert Weideman
  • University of the Free State
Hendrik Petrus Van Coller
  • University of the Free State
H. Du Plooy
  • North-West University
Marlene Verhoef
  • North West University South Africa
Wannie Carstens
  • North-West University