Leisure Sciences

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1521-0588
Publications
Article
The stress suppressing model proposes that sufficient resources reduce stress. The stress exposure model suggests that certain factors expose individuals to more stress. The current study tested these two models by assessing the within-person lagging effect of leisure time on perceived severity of daily stressors. Analyzing eight-day diary data (N=2,022), we found that having more leisure time than usual on a day reduced perceived severity of daily stressors the next day and that the decrease in severity became larger with further increase in leisure time. Additionally, the effect is much stronger among busy individuals who usually had little leisure time. The findings demonstrated an accelerated suppressing effect that differed between-person, and the lagging effect affords stronger implication for causality than correlational analysis.
 
Article
Studied the human dimensions of recreational hunting and fishing from a longitudinal perspective. Several sociodemographic, behavioral, and social indicators were monitored for these 2 consumptive recreational activities over a 25-yr period using data from 6 national surveys conducted for the US Department of the Interior since 1955. The direction of change for the sociodemographics was the same for both activities. The recreation-behavior indicators demonstrated a trend toward greater frequency and specialization of participation in fishing, while the opposite was observed for hunting. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether systematic patterns of equity preferences would be identifiable among 971 California residents who completed a telephone survey and a written questionnaire on preferences for allocating park and recreation resources. Definitive patterns of equity preferences were revealed, which tended to be based on income, age, education, and household structure. The most preferred guidelines were those based on demonstrated use, fees that covered operating costs, and areas with the fewest facilities. Least support was shown for allocation on the basis of level of taxes paid and cost of facilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses leisure research modeling as applied to individual decision making. Aggregate models fall into 2 categories, trip generation and trip distribution, and are based on data collected from large populations, while disaggregate choice models focus on individuals, households, or other small-area units for calibration of model parameters. A 3rd type of model attempts to isolate the effects of relevant decision-making attributes from the confounding effects of differing environmental situations. Variables such as information, previous behavior and experience, and the interaction between opportunity and geography constitute principal dimensions underlying individuals' choice processes. Means of enhancing models' predictive powers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed a structural model that proposes a positive relationship between equipment involvement and recreational commitment and identifies possible outcomes of equipment involvement (e.g., product spending levels, opinion leadership regarding the equipment). The model was tested using LISREL analysis for 452 recreational runners. Equipment involvement and recreational commitment were multidimensional constructs. Amount of running experience was negatively related to perceptions of equipment importance, whereas psychological commitment to running had a positive effect. Behavioral commitment was not significantly associated with the perceived importance of running equipment, although there was a positive link with equipment knowledge. Equipment involvement was a significant predictor of spending levels and opinion leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses advancing areas in the field of leisure constraints research. It is suggested that there is an increasing plurality and complexity of data collection techniques, the development of comprehensive scales, a diversity in aspects (e.g., desire but inability to participate) of constrained leisure, and the study of new hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the underlying dimensions of 70 married couples' involvement with family vacations and how these dimensions relate to selected personal variables. Factor analysis revealed 2 underlying dimensions. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that pleasure–importance was positively related to gender role ideology and education and negatively related to presence of children in the home. A positive relation existed between the 2nd dimension, sign value, and age. Older couples were more likely to view family vacations as opportunities to demonstrate conspicuous consumption or status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the importance of 5 dimensions of service quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) as perceived by participants in 4 public recreation programs (a painting class, a fitness class, gentlemen's ice hockey, and senior trips). To ensure diversity in the type of programs included, a taxonomy was used to guide program selection. Results of self-administered questionnaires support the hypothesis that dimensions of service quality would not be of equal importance to participants in the selected programs. Reliability consistently emerged across programs as the most important dimension of service quality, and in 3 of 4 programs empathy received the least support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
18 adults provided data on 695 real-life situations in an experience sampling study. Analysis indicated that role constraint and self-expression explained 43% of the variance in leisure. A typology was created by dichotomizing and cross-classifying role constraint and self-expression. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of that model suggested that it generated 4 distinct social contexts: pure leisure, anomic leisure, enjoyable work, and obligatory task. An advantage of this model relative to other models of leisure is the link with broader social theory. Data suggest that self-expression may be the critical distinction between anomic free time and engaging leisure experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Leisure researchers have long examined the many ways in which people use their leisure time and interact with leisure-related resources including parks and recreation facilities. This special issue of Leisure Sciences shines the spotlight on the specific topic of active lifestyles (or active living) and the spectrum of approaches leisure researchers use to conceptualize and investigate this important area of study. We encourage the increased focus on active living by leisure researchers that is signaled by this special issue. Physically inactive lifestyles are recognized as one of the most critical public health challenges of our time (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), and those working in the leisure, parks, and recreation fields have essential roles to play in contributing solutions. Public health professionals are likely to welcome both an increased emphasis on active living research and practice within leisure studies as well as increased collaboration with leisure researchers. Active Living Research has developed multiple ways of supporting the development of a transdisciplinary research field, and some of these may be of interest to leisure researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The utility of the attitude concept in outdoor-recreation research rests upon its predictive validity, that is, an ability to predict subsequent behavior (at either the general or specific level). This study examines the moderating and mediating effects of participation in three types of outdoor recreation activities (appreciative, consumptive, and motorized) on environmental attitude-behavior correspondence. A mediating effect occurs if participation accounts for the relation between attitude and behavior. A moderating effect occurs if the attitude-behavior relationship changes as a function of participation. Respondents (n1220) to a telephone interview of households in the Southern Appalachian region of the Southeast United States were asked about their participation in a selection of outdoor recreation activities and their environmental behaviors and were randomly assigned to one of five general environmental attitude scales. Results support a significant mediating effect for appreciative outdoor activities only. No consistent moderating effects were found. Findings are interpreted within the context of attitude accessibility, and implications for generating proenvironmental behaviors are provided.
 
Article
This research developed and tested a theoretical model on the benefits and costs of recreational specialization. The model proposed that as people specialize in terms of behavior, skill and knowledge, and commitment, they experience enduring benefits. The model also proposed that specialization entails taking on leadership roles that lead to benefits and the perception of diminished self-determination. Diminished self-determination was also thought to be a function of the behavioral commitment people acquire as they specialize. Finally, the model proposed diminished self-determination would undermine the acquisition of enduring benefits. We tested the model using data collected from a sample of American birdwatchers. Results provided partial support for the theoretical model. Our results suggest that as birders become increasingly specialized, the benefits they experience far outweigh any costs they might incur along the way.
 
Article
This purpose of this paper was to test a three-dimensional model of recreational specialization developed by Scott and Shafer (2001a)42. Scott , D. and Shafer , C. S. 2001a. Recreational specialization: A critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33: 319–343. [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references. The model suggests recreational specialization could be conceptualized in terms of three distinct dimensions: behavior, skill and knowledge, and commitment. The model was tested using data from avid American birdwatchers (members of the American Birding Association). Results revealed behavior, skill and knowledge, and commitment were moderately related but did not always covary. In addition, the three-dimensional model was a better fit to the data than a traditional single additive model. These results supported previous arguments suggesting researchers need to explore the distinct impact of each dimension of specialization, rather than using additive indices, on various dependent variables. Future researchers may explore whether or not the model can be generalized to other populations of birders (e.g., less skilled birdwatchers) and other groups of recreationists (e.g., anglers, hunters, mountain climbers).
 
Article
Visual and poetic representations are used to illustrate how recent university graduates with disabilities experienced the transition from university to the community. As part of a qualitative research project, I interviewed ten recent graduates, analyzed their stories and created a theoretical model/metaphor of a tree within an ecosystem as a form of creative analytic practice. Two poems were also created using transcripts of two graduates who had polarized transitional experiences. The visual and poetic representations work together to illustrate how imperative it is for university alumni with disabilities to be included in, and connected to, various communities upon graduation to facilitate a smooth transition.
 
Article
This research replicates and extends previous work on leisure-constraints construct development by applying constraints data from a sample of adults with mental retardation. Factor analysis extends definitions for three constraint categories (intrapersonal, interpersonal, structural), confirming the nonhomogeneous nature of leisure constraints. Interpersonal constraints, for example, may have multiple meanings depending upon where one is situated along the continuum from dependence to interdependence to independence. Model testing fails to replicate the hypothesized hierarchy among the three constraint categories. Intrapersonal constraints may not be salient reasons for nonparticipation in leisure interests, whereas structural and interpersonal constraints appear to be in need of negotiation. The findings support the need to refine the propositions associated with the proposed hierarchical model of leisure constraints.
 
Article
This cross-sectional survey study examined the constraints negotiation process associated with participation in physically active leisure activities among individuals with fibromyalgia. A measure of negotiation-efficacy was developed. Four models were hypothesized, tested, and compared. The results were consistent with a model in which constraints decreased participation but also triggered the use of negotiation strategies that in turn increased participation. Higher levels of motivation increased efforts to negotiate and participate. Consistent with the main hypothesis, higher levels of negotiation-efficacy increased both motivation and negotiation efforts. A seventh proposition for constraints negotiation theory is proposed: The greater people's confidence in the successful use of negotiation resources to cope with constraints, the greater the motivation and effort to negotiate and the higher the level of participation.
 
A Comparison of Mean Scores for 14 Park Use Constraint Items: 1991 to 2001 
Article
Despite considerable advances in our understanding of constraint composition, antecedent conditions, outcomes, and negotiation behaviors, few studies have tracked how constraints have changed or remained stable over time. This investigation sought to examine the change and stability in park visitation constraints and preferred constraint negotiation strategies across a 10-year period. A 2001 telephone survey of residents from Northeast Ohio was compared with an identical survey administered in 1991. Data from the two surveys were weighted and compared. Perceived constraints and desired constraint negotiation strategies remained relatively stable across time. Relationships between these trends and park agency efforts over the 10-year period are discussed. Future constraint trend analyses should utilize longitudinal designs to examine park visitation constraints, particularly among underserved populations.
 
Article
In response to the call for this special issue of Leisure Sciences, a variety of manuscripts were received. The collection of papers represents a maturing and evolving state of research on leisure, stress, and coping. The research maturation is demonstrated in the integration of multiple conceptual frameworks, critical construct examinations, and sophisticated analyses. The evolution is evident with the theoretical foundation modification, construct development advancement, and the diversity of research methods used. With the advancements in understanding and modeling leisure, stress, and coping comes opportunities for future research and practical application. Specific areas of interest for inquiry include: refining existent conceptual models and measures, exploring stress and coping throughout experiences, recognizing and seeking to understand various sources of stress across diverse populations, and furthering the knowledge of the effects of stress and leisure on health and quality of life. In conclusion, the diverse collection of papers assembled in this volume represents an exciting state of leisure research related to stress and coping where opportunities for further advancements exist.
 
Common Characteristics of Play 
Article
Little is known about play in older women's leisure lives. An examination of The Red Hat Society®, a leisure-based social group, expanded an understanding of play by including older women's viewpoints. Because of the absence of literature about emotion and friendship in both play theory and evolutionary theory, our research questions included: how do older women define play, and what are the outcomes of older women's play? Three themes about women's play emerged from data analysis (a) a context for fun, laughter, and feeling good, (b) the chance to be silly and goofy, and (c) positive public reaction to play. Results are discussed by extending current conceptualizations of play theory and evolutionary theory and the roles of play in older women's leisure lives and their health and well-being.
 
Article
The modernization of the world economy and information systems leads, presumably, to globalization in all areas, including leisure research. To explore this idea, the level of cross-national research published in leading leisure-science journals, including the Journal of Leisure Research , Leisure Sciences , and Leisure Studies was examined. F ollowing the dramatic shift toward globalization in the past 20 years, it was assumed leisure-science research would reflect an increase in cross-national research published. Using content analysis, 1352 published articles were reviewed and just 20 (1.5%) of these were cross-national. Reasons for this pattern are discussed, along with a call for scholars in the leisure sciences to shift toward a more international perspective.
 
Article
The association between play, leisure, recreation, value, and free choice leads to the problem of ethics. The purpose of this study was to describe the absolute ultimate end (the highest good) and its relation to play, leisure, and recreation in the twentieth century. This problem was approached by perusing literature from the period 1900 through 1983. Writers were organized by category and period, accompanied by explanation of how play, leisure, and recreation were related to the highest good. Eighty writers considered the question of the absolute ultimate end. Nine categories were discerned, dominated by divine ends and happiness. Play, leisure, and recreation were variously connected with the ultimate ends as both ends and means. Additionally, the practical implications of ethics are discussed using several examples. A partnership between science and philosophy is recommended for further study of ethics. Philosophy of leisure, however, must be revived for this alliance to occur.
 
Organizing Themes with Emergent Dimensions Describing how Place Relationships Develop
Article
This article presents empirical evidence to address how some visitors build relationships with a wildland place over time. Insights are drawn from qualitative interviews of recreation visitors to the backcountry at Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado. The article describes relationship to place as the active construction and accumulation of place meanings. The analysis is organized around three themes that describe how people develop relationships to place: time and experience accrued in place, social and physical interactions in and with the setting, and an active reflective process of regulating sense of identity to affirm commitment to place.
 
Article
This exploratory research used qualitative data from semi-structured interviews conducted with spokespeople from grassroots associations of artists who described their role, personal rewards and costs involved from fulfilling a leadership role within their group. By becoming leaders in their groups, they enjoyed community and individual benefits, accepted costs on their time and finances and persevered with demands based on their people skills. By combining the role of a participant and a helper, they became amateur-volunteers with mixed serious leisure careers. The findings identified facets of mixed serious leisure that met needs for leadership, and several successful groups were encouraged to blend amateur-volunteer careers for some members.
 
Article
This autoethnographic account describes the ambiguities of the author's ongoing struggle with anorexia nervosa and how leisure was integral to her quasi-recovery from the illness. By showing the emotional and mental struggles of the illness, this paper offers an alternative to the traditional scientific studies of the illness that buries people's voices beneath layers of analysis. The purpose of the paper is to extend and deepen an understanding of both anorexia and the power that leisure can have in stimulating an individual's recovery from anorexia nervosa. The paper also offers an alternative to the traditional thought that exercise plays a negative role in eating disorders.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the effectiveness of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory and encourage more holistic use of his concepts of habitus, capital, field, and symbolic violence in leisure research. We briefly review the manner in which leisure researchers have utilized Bourdieu's work. Second, we apply Bourdieu's notions of habitus, capital, field, and symbolic violence to understand inequitable participation in hunting activities in American society. We conclude by offering recent issues in recreational hunting and recommendations for practitioners based on interpretations of Bourdieu's concepts.
 
A conceptual model depicting the nature of social interactions in dog parks and their implications for the development of social capital. 
Article
Using qualitative data, this article critically explores social processes of human relationship-building in dog parks and their implications for enhancement of community (or lack thereof). Doing so contributes to the leisure literature by expanding understanding of the roles dogs can play in facilitating social capital among people. Similar to online gaming communities where users experience shared virtual space through an avatar, findings from this study suggest owners navigate parks through their pet. How dogs behave toward other dogs and toward people influence their owners’ social networks and access to resources. Positive interactions provide opportunities for relationships and communities of interest to form, where sources of support, information sharing, collective action, and conformity can be mobilized. Negative perceptions of dogs, however, often extend towards owners, thereby leading to tension, judgment, and sometimes even exclusion from social networks or public space altogether. Recommendations are offered for policy and future research.
 
Article
Women are significantly less likely than men to participate in physically active leisure. Women with children are less likely to participate in active leisure compared with women who do not have children. Social pressure to fulfil the role of being a good mother has been suggested in discussions regarding constraints to physical activity as has the use of leisure engagement as a means of challenging social expectations and structured gender relations. This study explored determinants of active leisure participation through in-depth interviews with 12 heterosexual mothers of young children who were purposively sampled with contrasting levels of partner support, physical activity, and socioeconomic status. The findings suggested that household norms relating to gender-based time negotiation and ideologies regarding an ethic of care were important determinants of active leisure among women with young children. A better understanding of these issues could be important in the development of strategies for promoting greater participation in physical activity among women.
 
Article
Evidence suggests that women who are mothers of young children have lower levels of physical activity than women of similar age who do not have children (Brown, Lee, Mishra, & Bauman, 2000). The purposes of this study were to explore the factors that constrain mothers of young children from being more physically active, and the relationship between physical activity and levels of social support available to the women. The empirical basis for this examination was provided through a study of activity levels and barriers to physical activity experienced by a sample of 543 mothers of young children from differing socioeconomic backgrounds. The data indicate that: (a) more than two-thirds of the mothers were inadequately active in their leisure time for health benefit; (b) while the vast majority of mothers expressed a desire to be more active, they were inhibited in their ability to act out their leisure preferences by a combination of structural (e.g., lack of time, money, energy) and ideological influences (e.g., sense of commitment to others); (c) access to social support (from partners, family, and friends) was seen to place some women in a better position than others to negotiate constraints that inhibit leisure participation; and (d) within groups of varying socioeconomic status (SES) there was wide variation in the amount of time spent each week in active leisure.
 
Article
Under the umbrella of love, this essay proffers five interrelated considerations in the politics of practice regarding social justice research. Consequently, I recommended inquiring more thoroughly into socio-economic class and leisure, unpacking our personal/professional and scholarly/activist binaries, examining our unearned privilege, avoiding the oppression Olympics, and employing and deploying intersectionality and participatory action research, respectively. By attending to these considerations specifically and concretely, I proffer a way to conduct a more socially just research in the field of leisure studies.
 
Article
The relationships among psychological well-being, constraints, negotiation, and participation were examined using structural equation modeling in patients with type 2 diabetes using a cross-sectional survey approach (N = 283). Despite a direct negative effect of constraints and a positive effect of negotiation on participation in recreational sports, we found no significant effect of constraints on the negotiation efforts of respondents. Instead, psychological well-being played an important role in the process. A higher level of psychological well-being not only directly decreases participation, but also indirectly increases participation by reducing constraints and promoting negotiation efforts. In particular, environmental mastery and personal growth indirectly increase participation by mitigating constraints; personal growth and positive relationships stimulate participation by boosting negotiation efforts and diminishing the discouraging impact of constraints on negotiation. However, a stronger purpose in life decreases both negotiation and participation.
 
Article
Changes in racial and ethnic composition due to the increasing diversity in the United States are confronting managers of parks and recreation areas. Since cultural values influence perceptions and behaviors, studying cultural values among different groups is important for understanding perceptions of service quality and parks and recreation behavior. The purpose of this essay is to advocate the exploration of the relationship of cultural values and perceptions of service quality in the context of parks and recreation research.
 
Article
Many feminist scholars avow social justice as the ultimate goal of their research, but the process remains poorly conceptualized. With this in mind, the purpose of this article is to use feminist leisure scholarship to provide insight into the ways that I see myself and others enacting social justice. In particular, I outline how a politics of hope, transformative encounters, and activism enable feminist leisure scholars to make the world more just. I consider future areas of feminist leisure research that would benefit from a social justice agenda and conclude with a cautionary note about the seductive postfeminist message that the work of feminism is done.
 
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) is used as a framework to understand how women's psychological well-being is influenced by participation in leisure-time physical activity and the social context inwhich activity occurs.Datawere collected during in-depth semistructured interviews with 20 participants and analyzed using constant comparison. Findings indicate women's well-being can be enhanced through casual participation in leisure-time physical activity if activity contexts support interaction between the elements of self-determination: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Participant interactions during activities also play an important role in facilitating well-being outcomes. The findings qualitatively add to understanding and development of SDT as a legitimate psychological construct by explaining the key components of the theory through the participants own words and reflections. Yes Yes
 
Article
Leisure research has the capacity to contribute to social justice when it provides emancipatory spaces for the interrogation of pervasive heteronormative ideologies. Heteronormative ideologies permeate social practices much like infections pollute a body. Research is not immune to heteronormativity, given that assumed links among sex, gender, and sexual orientation can pervert empirical inquiry. In this essay I suggest that by interrogating categories and relational positions as practices of power, leisure scholars may better examine to what level heteronormative ideologies are corrupting socially just research. By exposing how social practices regulate bodies relationally, emancipatory space is created for describing, interrogating, and challenging how heteronormative regulatory practices simultaneously privilege and oppress. I conclude this essay by suggesting that emancipatory research can create opportunities for social justice when researchers and participants are transparent in recognizing and respecting the uniqueness of their own positions and those of others.
 
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between perceived leisure availability and fatigue in working individuals and the extent it mediates the known association between work hours and fatigue. A sample of 7,154 working individuals (ages 20–59) was drawn from the Austrian Health Survey 2006–07. The associations were determined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Individuals perceiving few opportunities for leisure activities had a 2.7 greater likelihood of having prolonged fatigue (95% CI = 2.05–3.29) than those with sufficient leisure, after controlling for relevant confounders. Furthermore, the positive association between weekly hours of work and fatigue was mediated to a greater part by leisure opportunities, indicating that working long hours leads to fatigue by limiting leisure opportunities. The results of this study suggest that the perceived availability of leisure is a source of health and well-being in working individuals.
 
Article
A substantial, dramatic increase in the level of criminal activity has been reported in the National Park System during the 1970s. While the National Park Service has, as a result, intensified its law enforcement program, critics have suggested that the agency has overreacted to the problem. This study seeks to identify factors associated with the presence of crime and deviant behavior in National Park Service administered areas and also examines the relationship among the crime rate, manager perceptions of crime, and law enforcement practices. Results suggest managers apparently react more to the overall level of crime, especially acts of vandalism, than the crime rate, although the strength of association was found to be small. Larger parks, with more opportunities for crime, also recorded higher average crime rates.
 
Article
Several streams of leisure research are directed at furthering an agenda for social justice. These lines of inquiry are motivated by the need to end various kinds of oppression related to one's gender, race, ethnicity, sexual identity, ability, and socio-economic status. Rather than social justice, this special issue is focused on research frameworks that further social justice. Three inter-related research criteria are applied: (1) identification of a value orientation and vision for social justice, (2) development of a social or cultural framework to enhance social justice, and (3) connection to social and political action to move communities in the direction of a more socially just set of relations. These three research criteria are applied to three approaches to research: descriptive, explanatory, and transformative. The purpose of this special issue is to build capacity of leisure research to enhance social justice.
 
Article
Drawing upon bottom-up theory of life satisfaction, this study develops and tests a model that links physically active leisure to people's quality of life. Results from a sample of 827 running event participants revealed that satisfaction with event participation and psychological involvement in running were significant predictors of participants’ life domain satisfaction and overall life satisfaction, both of which are common subjective indicators of quality of life. Conversely, behavioral involvement in running was a non-significant predictor of life domain satisfaction and overall life satisfaction. These findings suggest that physically active leisure may enhance participants’ quality of life by providing positive experiences through event participation and contributing to psychological involvement in physical activity.
 
Article
This article explores how women in middle to later life from Aotearoa-New Zealand understand and experience nature in the context of their outdoor leisure. Using a qualitative gender-informed methodology, multiple interviews were conducted with 11 women. Three key themes were revealed: First, nature was more than words, with women transgressing mechanistic conceptions of nature. Second, nature was understood as a sensory experience, defined by the five senses as well as through spiritual description. Finally, for these women, nature was expressed as “a part of me,” demonstrating a deep connection to the outdoors. The study findings help to rethink traditional conceptions of nature-based recreation.
 
Article
This study used phenomenography to describe different experiences of leisure meanings and to interpret experiences in terms of the complexity in understanding. Four multi-dimensional experiences differing in their phenomenal, contextual, and temporal relations were described. Leisure as achieving fulfillment was judged the most complex understanding, followed by escaping pressure, exercising choice and passing time. More complex understandings resulted in fewer distinctions between leisure and other phenomena, higher levels of contextual diversity and inclusivity in meanings, and greater flexibility in temporal awareness of leisure. Results suggest meanings can be operationalized as a continuum of experiences that display a progression in understanding. Keywords: Keywords complexity; continuum; leisure experience; leisure, meanings; phenomenography Yes Yes
 
Article
As enthusiasm for social justice inquiry in leisure studies builds, this essay identifies three concerns related to the practice of social justice research involving race and ethnicity in leisure. First, social justice research must rely on diverse paradigms to respond to urgent social problems facing communities of color. Second, researchers must acknowledge the moral dimension in social justice inquiry. Third, power differentials between researchers and communities of practice and the community members involved in studies should be recognized and minimized when possible.
 
Article
Recent reviews demonstrate participation in active recreation and the development of an active lifestyle is important to a broad spectrum of society. Reviews further highlight the presence of an underdeveloped knowledge base for active leisure. Theory development is required to guide researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. Specifically, evaluating the theoretical frameworks applied to active recreation is needed to foster collaboration and enhance the research-practice relation as well as to allow for rigorous testing and evaluation of theories, policies, programs, and interventions. Our paper responds to this call by developing five criteria to assess a selection of theoretical frameworks. The assessment demonstrates the limitations and advantages of various frameworks. Five propositions are presented to illustrate future theory development. Yes Yes
 
Article
Leisure justice is an approach to how the right to leisure can be facilitated through a social and environmental justice lens. Leisure justice research is described along with the challenges that it manifests. Questions are raised about what becomes of leisure research if justice is discounted as well as what research will embody if justice is an imperative. Further suggestions about what leisure justice research entails and the ongoing issues are proffered as well as how and why all research about leisure can have implications for justice. The challenge before leisure scholars is to use justice research for addressing emerging questions about leisure leading to social change. Leisure justice research is a basis for social action.
 
Article
This article examines the epistemological claims made by four paradigms used to study leisure meanings: behaviorism, cognitivism, individual constructivism, and social constructivism. These paradigms represent diverse and contrasting theoretical explanations of how individuals gain knowledge about and give meaning to the phenomenon of leisure and of how these meanings differ and change. Analysis of each paradigm illustrates limitations in their capacity to explain how individuals learn about leisure and suggests the need for alternative explanations. Arguments are advanced in favor of an experientialist paradigm characterized by a research specialization called phenomenography as an additional and complementary theoretical approach to studying the multiple meanings of leisure.
 
Multinomial Logistic Regression Odds Ratios for Study 1 Data
Multinomial Logistic Regression Odds Ratios for Study 2 Data
Article
This paper examines recreation and leisure research within the context of active living, and highlights an apparent gap between the current involvement of recreation and leisure researchers and the potential they could offer to this important and expanding area of inquiry. To illustrate this potential, I looked at two previous studies that focused on the recreational use of urban trails and reanalyzed the data from an active living perspective. In Study 1, individual, social and environmental factors helped distinguish between low, moderate, and high activity level trail uses. In Study 2, use patterns helped distinguish between health-motivated trail users and individuals using trails for recreation and other purposes, but perceptual and demographic data were similar among groups. Findings from similar studies can help inform active living research, and recreation and leisure studies can provide leadership and contributions to a transdisciplinary understanding of active living.
 
Article
Natural sounds contribute to high-quality experiences for visitors to protected areas. This study investigated the effects of three common sources of recreational motorized noise on laboratory participants’ evaluations of landscape scenes. Seventy-five study participants completed landscape assessments along eight aesthetic and experiential dimensions while listening to audio clips of natural sounds, propeller planes, motorcycles, and snowmobiles. The change from the natural sound baseline for each motorized source of noise was calculated. Results indicated that all motorized sources of noise had detrimental impacts on evaluations of landscape quality compared with natural sounds. Motorcycle noise was demonstrated to have the largest negative impact on landscape assessments. In addition to confirming that noise from motorized recreation has significant impacts on the experiences of potential park visitors, this simulation suggests that the specific source of the noise is an important factor in determining observer evaluations of the quality of the natural environment.
 
Profile of the Respondents
Article
Qualitative research about discrimination encountered by Muslim women in The Netherlands who are participating in leisure activities in public spaces shows that perceived discrimination is part of everyday life. This is especially true for women who wear the veil because their visible head covering signals their “otherness” to people. The discriminatory actions encountered by women in this sample are typically of a nonviolent nature and mostly comprise unpleasant looks and negative remarks. Perceived discrimination often does not prevent the women from participating in leisure activities. Instead, they actively negotiate discrimination by applying various coping strategies, including justification, direct confrontation, accepting the discrimination, and modifying leisure behavior.
 
Initial Items of Attitudes Toward Horticultural Activity (29 items) 
Correlations between the Four Dimensions of Attitudes Toward Horticultural Activity 
Article
Biophilia is humans’ inherited psychological tendency to be attracted to other forms of life and the natural environment. The main purpose of this study was to identify the attributes of horticultural activity as a form of biophilia leisure, which is based on humans’ biophilic tendency to affiliate with life and nature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the multidimensional structure of horticultural attitudes in understanding biophilia leisure. The results identified a second-order factor structure with four dimensions of horticultural attitudes: leisure belief, increasing positive mood, improving social relationships, and improving the environment. This result suggests a persuasive framework for biophilia leisure, which is beneficial not only for human well-being, but also for preserving the natural environment.
 
Article
Normative research in outdoor recreation is conventionally conducted using quantitative methods that generate numerical estimates of respondent norms or evaluative standards of quality for park and outdoor recreation conditions. In this study, verbal protocol analysis, a qualitative research approach, was used in conjunction with conventional normative research methods to explore respondents' thinking as they considered and answered normative questions. Special emphasis was placed on the extent to which respondents consciously considered tradeoffs inherent in outdoor recreation management. The research was applied to visitors to Acadia National Park, and study findings suggest that 1) many respondents were consciously aware of and actively considered various manifestations of the tradeoffs inherent in park and outdoor recreation management, 2) normative research should be designed to sensitize respondents to the inherent tradeoffs in outdoor recreation, and 3) qualitative and quantitative research methods can be complementary.
 
Article
Henderson's notion of the pragmatics of leisure research is revisited in order to comment about the discipline's paradigmatic assumptions. First, the notion of an interpretive paradigm is called into question. I suggest that we should move away from talking about alternative ways of knowing to alternative ways describing phenomena under certain agreed upon standards. Then, I present a number of critical remarks on Henderson's reflection, argue for a more thoroughgoing pragmatism, as well as an orientation to leisure research that moves from traditional epistemological and ontological assumptions to cultural politics.
 
Top-cited authors
Gerard T Kyle
  • Texas A&M University
Icek Ajzen
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Andrew Mowen
  • Pennsylvania State University
Paul H. Gobster
  • USDA Forest Service
Alan R. Graefe
  • Pennsylvania State University