Learning Disability Quarterly

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0731-9487
Publications
Distribution of classroom means for amount of total print reading relative to the mean amount of print reading across sample.  
Means and Standard Deviations for Student Measures. 
Correlations Between Print Reading and Reading Achievement. 
Multilevel Regression Parameters. 
Correlation Between Print Reading and Teacher-Level Variables. 
Article
For many students at risk for reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a learning disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties actively engaged in reading print during Tier I reading instruction, and the extent to which time in reading print was related to end-of-year reading achievement. Findings revealed the amount of time students were engaged in reading print predicted end-of-year reading achievement, although time engaged in reading print during Tier I was limited overall. Student and teacher level factors and their relationship to the amount of time students engage in reading print is also examined.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (Coping Skills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for coping skills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD.
 
Article
In this study, the authors examined the validity of a holistically scored retell within a confirmatory factor analysis framework by comparing the fit of a three-factor model of reading with the data from a diverse sample of seventh and eighth graders. The final model demonstrated adequate fit, χ(2)(32) = 97.316; comparative fit index = .96; Tucker-Lewis index = .94; and root mean square error of approximation = .08. Retell's chi-square difference, Δχ(2)(1) = 16.652, p < .001, and factor loading (.250, p < .001) were higher for the comprehension construct. Similarly, retell's correlation to comprehension measures (r = .155-.257, p < .01) was stronger than its relationship to measures of fluency (r = .158-.183, p < .01) or word identification (r = .132, p < .05). However, retell had a large residual variance (.938) and low interrater reliability (κ = .37), suggesting that improvements to the instrument are needed. Despite overall latent differences, retell did not demonstrate differential item functioning.
 
Article
The focus of this article is intervention for third - grade students with serious mathematics deficits at third grade. In third grade, such deficits are clearly established, and identification of mathematics disabilities typically begins. We provide background information on two aspects of mathematical cognition that present major challenges for students in the primary grades: number combinations and story problems. We then focus on seven principles of effective intervention. First, we describe a validated, intensive remedial intervention for number combinations and another for story problems. Then, we use these interventions to illustrate the first six principles for designing intensive tutoring protocols for students with mathematics disabilities. Next, using the same validated interventions, we report the percentage of students whose learning outcomes were inadequate despite the overall efficacy of the interventions and explain how ongoing progress monitoring represents a seventh, and perhaps the most essential, principle of intensive intervention. We conclude by identifying issues and directions for future research in the primary and later grades.
 
Article
This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of the promise, but also the ongoing challenges, related to Response to Intervention (RTI) as a means of both prevention and identification of reading disabilities. We conclude by describing the articles in this special issue and considering their implications for future research.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to use a mixed methods approach to learn about inadequate response to a year-long multi-tier RTI model that allowed first-grade students to move up and down tiers. Participants were 156 students who received supplemental intervention services during a larger multi-tier RTI study involving classrooms and 522 students across 10 schools. Findings from an all-subset regression indicate letter word reading, the fluency composite, and blending words explained the most variance (15%) in response among initial skills. Adding additional teacher ratings of behavior and academics, accounted for a small amount of additional variance (3%) in group membership. The ROC curve analysis indicated 87.5% of students were correctly classified, yielding a sensitivity of 85.3 and a specificity of 65.0. Findings from qualitative observations of intervention sessions suggest inadequate responders demonstrated physical and verbal task avoidance and displayed emotions of hopelessness and shame. Implications for practice are discussed.
 
Article
Evaluated the effectiveness of concept diagrams and a related concept teaching routine (CTR) used by regular class teachers to present concepts to 475 high-school students (32 learning disabled [LD]) in regular classrooms. Teachers' ability to prepare concept diagrams and to implement a CTR was measured. Students were evaluated relative to performance on tests of concept acquisition, regular classroom tests, and notetaking before and after CTR implementation. Results indicate that teachers selected concepts from content material, prepared concept diagrams from those concepts, and presented concepts to their classes. Both students with and without LDs showed gains in their performance on tests of concept acquisition and in notetaking when the CTR was used in the classroom. Gains in performance on regular tests were associated with the CTR combined with a review procedure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated differences in the learning and transfer ability of 20 students with learning disabilities and 20 students with matched low achievement. All Ss were 7th and 8th graders. The 2 groups were assessed on 1 learning task and 3 transfer tasks under unassisted and assisted conditions (i.e., dynamic assessment). A 2 (Group) by 4 (Session) (i.e., pretest, training, maintenance/transfer, and delayed maintenance) mixed, factorial design was employed for data collection. Seven separate analyses and several post-hoc analyses were conducted to determine group performance differences on measures of learning, transfer, and maintenance. Results indicate inconsistent performance differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the effects of 7 23–37 yr old regular secondary teachers" delivery of an advance organizer prior to each lesson on 7 16–19 yr old learning disabled students" retention and expression of information from a given lesson. The results indicate that teaching techniques used by regular secondary teachers can benefit handicapped students in their classrooms, but, in the case of advance organizers, only when students are taught to make use of such techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests the need for the fields of mathematics education, special education, and cognitive psychology to converge and to contribute a focus on the subject matter of mathematics, particularly mathematical problem solving. Seven basic research goals are offered for incorporation into an emerging research agenda. These goals involve identifying students, situations, and component processes; comparing and remediating individual differences in problem solving; and seeking applications in testing and teaching of problem-solving processes in schools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Responds to a critique by V. E. Snider (see record 1987-29792-001) concerning the research by the present authors and their colleagues (e.g., J. W. Lloyd et al, 1982; K. J. Marshall et al, 1985; K. J. Rooney et al, 1984) on the value of self-monitoring of attention by learning disabled (LD) students. Six topics are addressed: the relevance of current conceptualizations of attention, improving attentional vs academic behavior, the type of student for whom self-monitoring is appropriate, relevance of academic productivity effects, issues relating to single-S designs, and the importance of accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on the widely accepted notion that special or general education interventions and curricula must be "scientifically research based." The author discusses why the mandates for standardizing special education will not always result in positive learning outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explores the impact of metacognitive research on learning disabled (LD) individuals, focusing on the positive effects of metacognitive research on the teaching of LD students, and on the importance of broadening LD teachers' understanding of their students' academic failures. Three ways in which metacognitive research impacts on LD individuals include (1) effects on educators' views of LD persons' reading problems, (2) impact on teaching practices, and (3) impact on teacher awareness and professional interests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Problem-behavior rating scale data on elementary-aged learning disabled and normal boys were factor analyzed according to the Quay and Peterson (Note 1) procedures. Somewhat different factors were identified for normal and learning disabled groups. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for a current issue in child psychopathology — hyperactivity as distinct from other conduct problems — and for classifying youngsters' behavior and emotional problems.
 
Article
Teacher-completed Behavior Problem Checklists on learning disabled older boys and younger and older girls were factor-analyzed. Results replicated, in part, prior research with nonhandicapped and handicapped populations, but also revealed interesting differences. Age and sex comparisons were made between the three learning disabled groups. Implications for greater understanding of and better programming for learning disabled children's behavioral and emotional problems are discussed.
 
Article
This study assessed whether associative imagery-instructional gains experienced by students with learning disabilities are equivalent in magnitude to those experienced by average-achieving students. Learning disabled and average-achieving students (11- to 13-year-olds) studied paired associates. They were instructed either to construct images depicting the paired items in interaction or to rehearse the pairings. Half of the pairs were easy to relate using interactive imagery, the other half were difficult to mediate with imagery. Half were presented at a 5-sec rate, the other half at a 10-sec rate. Regardless of item type or presentation rate, both learning disabled and average-achieving students benefited from imagery instructions, with great similarity in the between-condition differences for the two populations of students.
 
Article
The effectiveness of the communication skills of 25 learning disabled and 25 normally achieving boys was compared using an instructional task (i.e., having the boys teach the experimenter how to play checkers). The speaker's effectiveness in considering listener needs was evaluated based on the speaker's ability to convey essential information about the game of checkers and the speaker's response to the listener's verbal and nonverbal cues of confusion. As predicted, learning disabled boys' communication skills were found to be less effective than those of their normally achieving peers. Specifically, learning disabled boys: (a) talked more (i.e., they used more words and sentences) but said less (i.e., they provided less information) than normally achieving boys; (b) appeared more comfortable doing than describing (i.e., enhancing verbal explanations with gestures and demonstrations); (c) were less effective adapting messages to the needs of the listener than their normally achieving peers (e.g., they often repeated rather than reformulated what they said prior to the listener's expression of confusion). The communication differences between learning disabled and normally achieving boys suggest the need for special intervention and instruction.
 
Article
Since its passage in 1975, much has been written about PL 94–142 and its implications for the learning disabled. The majority of articles published in special education journals and other literature have been authored by special educators and, thus, they are usually presented from a special education perspective. In light of the obvious impact of PL 94–142 on all of education, there is merit in viewing the law from a different perspective. Consequently, the Quarterly invited Dr. John Ryor, President of the National Education Association, to discuss PL 94–142 from the perspective of the regular educator. His article addresses some of the major concerns as well as the expectations of the regular educator in regard to PL 94–142. The points raised by Ryor in this article have important implications for the professional in learning disabilities.
 
Article
The construct of culture has been largely invisible in the research and long-standing debates in the learning disabilities (LD) field, such as those pertaining to the definition of LD and how research knowledge is used in local settings. When used, the idea of culture tends to be defined as unrelated to LD and studied as restricted to individual/group traits. We challenge the culture–LD dichotomy and the limited conception of culture used in this knowledge base. For this purpose, we make the case for a cultural model of learning that can inform scholarship about the nature of LD, and we propose a culture-based model for the study of research knowledge use in professional practices. Moreover, we offer a third perspective on culture to study the strategies that the LD research community might be using to demarcate and maintain a cultureless paradigm of LD. Our discussion offers potentially rich opportunities for a culturally minded and reflexive stance in the LD field that is urgently needed in our increasingly diverse society.
 
Article
This article contains a review of reading comprehension research since 1980, based on an interactive model of reading, with a focus on reading disabilities / learning disabilities. The interactive model conceptualizes influences on reading comprehension as multifaceted, that is, reader-based, text-based, and situationally based, for example, variables in a given task. The review includes studies which have investigated the influence of readers' prior knowledge of a topic, the influences of text structure and task demands, and metacognitive strategies. Conclusions explain reasons for reading disabled students' need for explicit instruction in understanding what the task is, how to use appropriate procedures, and why the use of metacognitive strategies can help them become more able readers.
 
Article
This year has been a memorable one for the Council for Learning Disabilities (CLD). Several important innovations are worth highlighting. First, many of the organization's operational procedures have been streamlined. Second, plans are under way to maximize the return on monies in the treasury. Third, an Executive Secretary has been hired to facilitate operations and to provide easy and consistent access to the organization and its leadership. Fourth, several changes have been instituted with respect to the formation of state/province and local chapters. Fifth, improvements have been made in both the financial and editorial policies governing CLD's publications. Finally, a concerted effort to provide leadership on substantive issues facing the field has led to the approval of two new position papers generated by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) and the development of several CLD-initiated projects.
 
Article
A study was conducted to examine the effects of prior knowledge on the reading comprehension performance of students with learning disabilities. Instruction in information and vocabulary concepts was provided to 13 junior-high school students with learning disabilities who had been predetermined to lack the prior knowledge required by an experimental test of reading comprehension. The effect of prior knowledge was examined by comparing the performance of an experimental group (high prior knowledge group) to a control group (low prior knowledge group). The effect of text structure was also examined by comparing reading comprehension performance on three types of reading passages - textually explicit, textually implicit, and scriptually implicit. The results indicated that students in the experimental group increased their prior knowledge and, as a result of instruction, demonstrated superior reading comprehension performance. In addition, text structure was found to affect reading comprehension performance. When comprehension questions tapped information provided in the text, reading comprehension performance improved for all students. Educational implications of the results are discussed.
 
Article
Twenty-five high school learning disabled subjects were randomly assigned to one of two computer-assisted instructional treatments in syllogistic reasoning—one required a deeper level of processing with a diagrammatic response, the other conventional responding. Instructional time was constant across the two groups, yet the subjects who provided diagrammatic responses required fewer trials to reach the mastery criteria. Also, diagramming produced significantly higher posttest and maintenance test scores. Overall, the instruction was effective in (a) producing better-than-chance scores, (b) improving performance on difficult problem types, and (c) teaching learning disabled students to perform complex logical-thinking tasks to a level equivalent to that of high-achieving populations. The deeper level of processing produced differences on more difficult problem types only. Transfer measures showed that students who learned the strategy also creatively modified it to work problems in less formal forms. Variables in the meaningfulness of a strategy to learning disabled students can affect learning.
 
Article
This investigation focused on validating two feedback routines for use by special education teachers to enhance the performance of students with learning disabilities. One routine (the Feedback Routine) involved teacher-delivered elaborated feedback, the other (the Feedback-Plus-Assistance Routine) consisted of elaborated feedback plus a student-acceptance routine, which included setting goals for the next practice trial. Two experimental designs were employed: one to determine whether teachers could learn the routines, the other to determine the effects on student learning. Dependent measures were (a) teacher and student performance of the routines, (b) student trials to mastery, and (c) student errors across trials. Measures of teacher and student satisfaction and teacher maintenance were also gathered. Results indicated that the special education teachers effectively integrated the routines into their teaching repertoires. Further, the routines significantly reduced the number of student trials to mastery and the number of student errors in practice attempts following feedback sessions. The two routines appeared equally powerful in terms of teacher and student learning; however, the teachers continued to maintain the routine requiring student involvement in goal setting for a longer period.
 
Article
This article provides a synthesis of the literature published from 1990 to 2000 on college students with learning disabilities and writing difficulties (LD/WD). Thirty-eight articles met the criteria for describing writing difficulties in this cohort of students. Upon reviewing the articles, four major topics emerged: (a) assistive technology for college students with LD/WD; (b) effectiveness of assistive technology for college students with LD/WD; (c) characteristics and error patterns in the writings of college students with LD/WD; and (d) instructional support and methods. The review of the literature shows that there is an urgent need for empirical studies, especially on instructional methods and strategies. Recommendations for future research are presented.
 
Article
This study evaluated the effects of a strategy intervention designed to teach students with learning disabilities (LD) how to understand, identify, discuss, and transform ineffective beliefs. Multiple-probe and control-group designs were employed simultaneously and in combination. The 23 students with learning disabilities who participated in the study were randomly divided into two groups, experimental and control. The BELIEF Strategy, a strategy based on the professional literature, expert advice, and practice, was taught to the experimental group. The multiple-probe design was utilized to demonstrate students' mastery of the BELIEF Strategy. The results indicate that students with LD can be taught to apply the BELIEF Strategy. The control-group design was used to compare the performance of students who learned the BELIEF Strategy to that of students who did not learn the strategy. All analyses indicated that students who learned the strategy performed the strategy steps significantly better and had more knowledge of the strategy than students who did not participate in the instruction. Students reported satisfaction with certain aspects of the training but not with others. The results support the conclusion that students with LD can be taught skills associated with examining present beliefs and specifying new beliefs.
 
Article
Through the use of a four-part experimental design, this study examined the effects of a collaborative instructional model in inclusive secondary classes in which students with mild disabilities and low-achieving students were enrolled, Measures included the instructional actions of teachers, teacher satisfaction with the instructional model, student engagement, student use of four strategic skills, and student performance on content tests. After receiving training in the model, teachers' mediation of student learning and their involvement in instructional roles increased over baseline levels. Teachers were satisfied with the model as well. Mixed results on the student measures suggest that prevailing assumptions about the effectiveness of collaborative instruction in inclusive secondary classes need to be reexamined, Study findings have implications for educational policy, teacher training, and classroom practice.
 
Article
This article describes and summarizes research studies that analyze the shared and unique contributions of phonemic awareness and rapid naming to reading development. Three questions were addressed. Does phonemic awareness account for a proportion of the variance in reading development that is not accounted for by rapid naming? Conversely, does rapid naming account for a proportion of the variance not accounted for by phonemic awareness? Finally, do phonemic awareness and rapid naming contribute differentially to various subskills of reading development? Findings of the studies and implications for future research are discussed.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to identify a combination of predictive measures that correlate with reading achievement, (b) to examine the predictive accuracy of these measures, and (c) to determine the most accurate time frame for test administration in kindergarten. One hundred and three kindergarten students from three schools participated over a period of two years. Measures representing letter identification, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming were administered in the fall and winter of the kindergarten year. Reading achievement was measured at the end of grade 1 using measures that included passage comprehension, fluency, sight-word recognition, and phonemic decoding. Five predictive models representing a combination of the predictive constructs were analyzed. The model combining letter identification, phonological awareness, and rapid automatized naming was identified as the best predictor of early reading achievement. There was no practical, significant difference between the fall and winter testing time frames. These findings hold important implications for predictive research by clarifying the importance of administering standardized measures that reflect the reading process. Most important, the results can provide practitioners with information for identifying the children most in need of early reading interventions.
 
Distribution of Label Group Scores for Gifted Referral Question
Article
This study investigated the effect of the disability labels learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) on public school general education and special education teachers' willingness to refer students to gifted programs. Results indicated that teachers were significantly influenced by the LD and EBD labels when making referrals to gifted programs. Both groups of teachers were much less willing to refer students with disability labels to gifted programs than identically described students with no disability label. Additionally, when compared to general education teachers, special education teachers were less likely to refer a gifted student, with or without disabilities, to a gifted program.
 
Article
The members of the Council for Learning Disabilities’ Research Committee convene annually to discuss what they have identified as “Must Read” articles published within the last year. For the 34th Annual International Conference, the members were asked to select articles that exemplified the conference theme: Learning Disabilities: Looking Back and Looking Forward—Using What We Know to Create a Blueprint for the Future. The six articles presented by the panel are summarized and explained with respect to why they are considered a “Must Read.”
 
Article
Comparison of IQ-subtest scores has gained new popularity with the recent introduction of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). The present study addressed questions pertinent to the utility of K-ABC subtests in differentiating LD children from students classified as EMR, SEM, and referred but Unclassified. In addition, it directly compared the efficacy of K-ABC subtests vs. subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in this task. The sample consisted of 265 children (181 males, 84 females) referred for psychological evaluations; 171 were classified LD. The LD group was further divided into two subgroups: those who showed significant ability-achievement discrepancies (LDdisc; n = 42) and those who did not (LDno; n = 129). Hierarchical discriminant-function analyses showed that subtest scores from both the K-ABC and the WISC-R differentiated the LDdisc group from children in the other categories. However, subsequent classification analyses revealed that neither the K-ABC nor the WISC-R was capable of returning children to their correct placements. Results, therefore, indicate that subtest scores from the K-ABC and the WISC-R were incapable of enhancing the differential classification of LD over rates obtainable on the basis of chance.
 
Article
Although written language plays a critical role in academic success, little empirical evidence exists on the normal development of processes involved in producing written products. Even less is known about the writing performance of LD children. This study empirically compared the written products of LD and normal students at three grade levels on The Test of Written Language. Results showed that LD subjects scored significantly lower than normal subjects on most written expression abilities, especially in the mechanical tasks of spelling, punctuation, and word usage.
 
Article
This study examined the dyadic verbal communication skills of learning disabled and normally achieving 4th- and 5th-grade boys. The performances of 12 learning disabled children paired with 12 normally achieving children were compared with those of 12 dyads composed only of normally achieving children. The children exchanged information regarding a pattern of blocks under conditions varying the channels available for communication and feedback. All children performed the tasks in both Speaker and Listener roles. A measure of dyadic success was determined. In addition, the language used by the children was examined to obtain information on such variables as information content, response to questions, questions asked, and amount and efficiency of interactions. Dyads involving learning disabled children were found to be less successful and less efficient than those consisting of only normally achieving children. Further, the learning disabled children performed less successfully in certain aspects of the Speaker and Listener roles. Implications for assessment, class performance, and training are discussed.
 
Article
Standardized measures were used to identify and compare the reasoning abilities of normal and learning disabled readers. The study employed techniques modeled from protocol-analysis methods used in problem-solving research. Obtained protocols indicated that reasoning abilities could be operationally defined as identifiable sequences representing reasoning strategies. Group comparisons revealed significant differences in the magnitude and variety of reasoning strategies used. The responses of normal readers revealed more applications and successes with the most often used efficient strategies overall and for individual question types. Learning disabled readers revealed greater variability in reasoning-strategy use and more often applied either no strategy or less efficient strategies resulting in more incorrect responses. Further analysis revealed that learning disabled readers' failures were associated with a greater number of word recognition and vocabulary errors suggesting that learning disabled readers were unable to extract enough relevant information to apply a successful line of reasoning.
 
Article
According to clinical observations and experimental investigations of learning disabled students, these individuals experience more difficulty than their nondisabled peers in accurately recognizing and interpreting social cues. It has been suggested that such social perception deficits may be responsible for many of the problems which learning disabled children experience in their everyday social encounters with peers and teachers. For this reason, many special educators have advocated the development of specific remedial activities to ameliorate these deficits. Prior to any widespread implementation of remedial efforts, the data base upon which the deficits were identified must be carefully evaluated. The purpose of this article is to: (a) review experimental attempts at assessing the social perception skills of learning disabled children, (b) discuss methodological concerns relative to these experiments, and (c) suggest possible directions for future social perception research.
 
Article
Disorders of spoken language have long been associated with learning disabilities. Recent research has focused less on linguistic characteristics and more on general communication effectiveness. This study investigated the referential communication ability of LD and non-LD elementary students. Developmental research has indicated that this language function tends to be well developed by early childhood and is a major precursor of later communication competence. Results of the present study indicated that LD students were less effective in providing descriptive information about objects than non-LD peers. Further analysis of LD communication revealed that such a lack of effectiveness was due to the LD students' limited use of labeling in their verbal descriptions.
 
Article
Many practitioners in the field of learning disabilities use training programs designed to improve the general language abilities in children. Two of the more frequently used language programs are the MWM Program for Developing Language Abilities and the GOAL Program: Language Development. This study assesses the effectiveness of the MWM and GOAL programs on the linguistic skills of high-risk kindergarten children. The article underscores the importance of distinguishing between general and specific language abilities when determining the effectiveness of a language training program.
 
Article
This study was designed to explore the relation between specific language skills and visual imagery skills of children with language disabilities. The subjects were 15 language-learning-disabled (LLD) and 15 normally achieving children (aged 6–6 to 8–9) with nonverbal IQ scores in the average range. All subjects' language skills were measured by the Test of Language Development-Primary (TOLD-P). Subjects were also presented with three multiple-choice tasks involving the imagined movement and/or rotation of geometric figures. An analysis of covariance (controlling for perceptual discrimination of the task designs) showed a significant difference between groups in accuracy of performance on the imagery tasks. For the LLD group, a significant positive correlation was found between the severity of the language disability (TOLD-P total score) and accuracy on two of the three imagery tasks (with nonverbal IQ controlled). Imagery ability was found to be related more strongly to a measure of semantics than to syntax. Performance on one imagery task was also related significantly to reading achievement. Implications of imagery deficits for academic performance are discussed in terms of the value of imaging for comprehension.
 
Article
Noelting's (1980a, 1980b) three parallel instruments on proportional reasoning—two presenting problem-solving tasks in the ratio and division interpretations of fractions and one presenting the tasks in the purely symbolic form of numerical fractions—were administered to 6 female and 41 male learning disabled students, grades four through eight. Performances on the instruments were then compared to the performances of 120 non-learning disabled students in grades five through nine of the same school district. The purpose of the study was to determine whether learning disabled students differed in their development of proportional reasoning and whether their disability was in the use of symbols and language and not in their ability to solve proportional problems. Developmental scalograms, PPR>0.93, resulted in support of the hypothesis that the proportional reasoning abilities of the learning disabled student are developmental and thus not unlike those of the non-learning disabled student. A comparison of the three means for the two groups revealed a reversal in performance with the learning disabled students more successful at problem solving and the non-learning disabled students more successful at the purely symbolic form of numerical fractions. Unlike the non-learning disabled students, the learning disabled students' inability to express a strategy did not indicate an inability to solve the problem.
 
Article
The present study investigated differences in the spelling ability of two populations of elementary pupils: reading disabled students receiving learning disability services and able readers. Subjects consisted of three groups totaling 107 children. Pupils were matched on reading recognition ability with intelligence controlled for. Results revealed that reading disabled pupils differed from able readers of the same chronological age in phonetic spelling ability, nonphonetic spelling ability, and recognition spelling ability. It was concluded that the spelling ability of school-identified students with severe reading deficiencies was significantly inferior to that of reading able students.
 
Article
Collaborative teaching is being used more and more in serving academically able students with disabilities, including a large number of students with learning disabilities. The focus of this article is a series of recommendations to improve collaborative teaching. The recommendations were generated as a result of an intensive study of collaborative teaching in elementary, middle, and high school programs through interviews with administrators, teachers, parents, and students. The recommendations are divided into (a) general recommendations addressing service delivery, administrative, and communication issues and (b) training recommendations for new and indirectly involved personnel, parents, and university pre- and inservice programs.
 
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether mother presence and absence have a differential effect on children's and mothers' attributional responses for performance outcomes. It was hypothesized that children whose mothers were present to observe them perform a task would rate their effort and ability higher under success and lower under failure conditions. It also was expected that mothers' attributional ratings would follow a similar pattern for ability and effort attributions as well as ratings of their children's future performance. Forty male children in grades 3 and 4 and their mothers participated in the investigation. The data indicated a significant performance-(success and failure)-by-maternal-involvement (presence and absence) interaction for children's attributional ratings of effort, task difficulty, and luck and for mothers' attributional ratings of their children's effort, task difficulty, and future performance.
 
Article
Children with mild disabilities experience sufficient failure to produce negative future expectations (goals), which may compound early academic and social deficits. This research compared the teacher- and student-rated goals of 57 children at two age levels, who were average learners, had a reading problem/disability (RP), and were hyperactive or had ADHD (H). In line with predictions of academic impairment, the findings were that students with RP were teacher-rated more than the H group as less motivated to do their best (work avoidant), especially at older age levels, with fewer goals related to self-determination. Students with H also reported fewer preferences to work well with others and preferred to work independently (social avoidance goals), in line with their social impairment (more than the RP group). Educational implications are presented for identification, for timing of intervention, and for differentiating instruction.
 
Article
Successful transition from school to employment requires a variety of services, one of which is vocational education at the secondary level. Students with learning disabilities have difficulties meeting the academic demands of mainstream vocational education programs. The TRAC model for assessing and developing academic skills for 26 vocational education programs is described. The TRAC program is designed for use by special education teachers in conjunction with vocational educators to provide a positive first experience for students with learning disabilities in the long transition process to adult competence.
 
Article
The literature pertaining to college students with learning disabilities was reviewed to arrive at a summary of empirical reports on the academic achievement and cognitive ability of this population. Of the more than 100 articles published over a 20-year time span, less than one third were data based and reported academic and cognitive performance. Nevertheless, there is evidence that college students with learning disabilities may present unique problems which adversely affect academic performance. Findings include levels of intellectual functioning, as well as performance in reading, math, writing, and foreign language. Research needs and implications for service provision are discussed.
 
Article
Longitudinal research in the area of learning disabilities has been lacking for some time. The study reported here is an attempt to chart the development of newly identified LD children over the early elementary school years while they are receiving LD services in the public school. This paper includes initial behavioral and academic data for a large sample of 6- and 7-year-old LD and normally achieving students, and charts the progress of about half the children over a 3-year period using teacher rating scales, a classroom observational system, and an achievement test. Results of the study over the three years show that LD children fall progressively further behind their normal peers in reading comprehension. In math, they stay relatively the same distance below their peers. The LD subjects' behavior relative to that of their peers is suboptimal for classroom learning in the first year of the study, with less on-task and more off-task behavior — a pattern which continues over the three-year period. This portrait of learning disabled children suggests that learning disabilities are difficult to remediate, and that we may need to rethink our pattern of services to these students if we want them to function successfully in the regular classroom.
 
Article
In this issue of the Learning Disability Quarterly we are pleased to offer a series of five articles that form a special focus on academic instruction. We think that concern about academic aspects of learning disabilities—particularly how we can provide instruction that works—has an important place in the field of learning disabilities and that it is important to reassert that place periodically. In the remainder of this article, we (a) describe our rationale for preparing this series on academic instruction in learning disabilities, (b) elaborate on the purposes of this series of papers, (c) recount how we developed this special series of articles, and (d) introduce the articles in the series.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the sociometric status of mainstreamed Hispanic learning disabled (LD) and nonhandicapped pupils. Fourth- and fifth-grade pupils from a small metropolitan school district in the Southwest participated. Sociometric data were collected from 35 classrooms across 10 schools. Hispanic LD pupils received lower sociometric peer ratings than their nonhandicapped peers. However, a peer rating/nomination classification procedure resulted in considerable variability in sociometric status for both LD and nonhandicapped children. Although 30% of the LD sample were in the rejected status group, almost 50% of the LD pupils attained average sociometric status. Sociometric context (i.e., academic and play) also influenced membership in status groups.
 
Article
The difficulties encountered by learning disabled children in the area of oral language have been recognized by many writers. It has been proposed that the academic problems experienced by many learning disabled children are closely associated with the difficulties they experience in oral language. Magee and Newcomer explore this association and delineate components of oral language in learning disabled children which relate most significantly with reading, mathematics, and spelling.
 
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Steve Graham
  • Arizona State University
H. Lee Swanson
  • University of California, Riverside
Karen R. Harris
  • Arizona State University
Donald D. Deshler
  • University of Kansas
Jean B. Schumaker
  • Edge Enterprises Inc