Lankesteriana

Published by Universidad de Costa Rica
Online ISSN: 2215-2067
Print ISSN: 1409-3871
Publications
The Dutch colonization of northeastern Brazil from 1630 to 1654 is described, with emphasis on the years 1636–1644, when the colony was under the administration of Johan-Maurits Prince of Nassau-Siegen (1604–1679). During his rule, the Company sent the geographer and astronomer Georg Marcgrave (1610–1644) and the physician Wilhelm Piso (1611–1644) to Recife. Both explored northern Brazil and made rich botanical and zoological collections, which were published in Amsterdam in 1648, after Pisos’s return, under the title Historia Naturalis Brasiliae; a second edition followed in 1658. In this work Piso mentions for the first time the orchid Vanilla in its current spelling. Both Piso and Marcgrave collected and illustrated Catasetum maculatum L.C.R., whilst a third orchid species, Trigonidium acuminatum Batem., can be found in Marcgrave’s herbarium.
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> Las monedas de Costa Rica incluyen una variedad de ilustraciones de plantas, desde una palmera ( Attalea rostrata ?) en la primera moneda de oro conocida (1825), hasta un alga marina ( Caulerpa prolifera ?) en una pieza conmemorativa de 1974. Las semillas del cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) fueron uti- lizadas legalmente desde 1709 como moneda. El árbol nacional ( Enterolobium cyclocarpum ), y la flor nacional ( Guarianthe skinneri ), una orquídea, fueron ambas representadas en monedas conmemorativas de 1975 y la orquídea nuevamente en una pieza de plata de 1983. El café ( Coffea arabica ) y el tabaco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), están representadas como plantas completas en monedas de 1842 y 1847-1850, respectivamente. Las ramas de café han sido ilustradas en la mayoría de las monedas a partir de 1935. El árbol del algodón sedoso ( Ceiba pentandra ) y una especie siempre verde de encina ( Quercus sp ?) han sido grabadas en piezas de mediados del siglo XIX. Ilustraciones similares al mirto ( Myrtus communis ) y a una especie desconocida de palma, fueron incluidas en coronas en las monedas desde 1842. El laurel ( Laurus nobilis ) es mencionado en decretos desde 1863. Sin embargo, diseños más similares a M. communis que a L. nobilis fueron incluidos en monedas de oro y plata. </div
 
John Henry Lance, a British barrister, spent a ten-year term in Surinam as Judge appointed to the ‘Mixed Court’ in Paramaribo, a post created to supervise the compliance of the Dutch authorities with a treaty signed between the Netherlands and England in 1818 prohibiting the slave trade in the Dutch colonies. During his term in Paramaribo, Lance, a friend of Bateman and Lindley, collected several new orchid species. However, his collection of watercolors depicting plants from Surinam, many of them orchids, would appear to be more important. Some of these were painted by himself, others by the Surinamese artist Gerrit Schouten. The orchids of this collection, never published, were supplied by the Lindley Library of the R.H.S. and are reproduced here with its kind permission. Key Words: botanical illustration, history of botany, Orchidaceae, Surinam
 
Jean-Théodore Descourtilz (1796-1855) was a well-known ornithologist who produced beautiful illustrated books on Brazilian birds. Less-known is an unpublished manuscript with water-colours of Brazilian orchids, which was acquired by the wealthy French Baron Delessert, who send it on loan to John Lindley. Lindley described dozens of new orchid species based on Descourtilz' illustrations and used several of them as models for his beautiful publication Sertum Orchidaceum. Here we present a large selection of Descourtilz' original illustrations of Brazilian orchids, including all the drawings that have been used by Lindley to typify his new taxa based on Descourtilz' exploration.
 
The figure of Grigory Ivanovich von Langsdorff was largely neglected by the scientific literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. German-born von Langsdorff was consul of the Russian Empire in Rio de Janeiro. His activities in Brazil from 1813 to 1830 are here described, a time during which his house in Rio and his famous fazenda Mandiocca became the center of scientific activity and the point of attraction for European travellers and naturalists who flocked to Brazil after its frontiers were opened to foreigners in 1808 by King Joao VI of Portugal. Wilhelm Freyreiss, Friedrich Sellow, Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, Augustin de Saint-Hilaire, Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, Johann Baptist von Spix, Giuseppe Raddi, Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl, and Ludwig Riedel are among those who explored Brazil impulsed by von Langsdorff and often under his patronage. Their journeys in Brazil culminated in von Langsdorff’s ill-fated expedition to the interior of Brazil between 1822 and 1829, while the epilogue is marked by Langsdorff’s return to Germany, in a state of insanity and no longer able to publish the results of his life-long scientific efforts.
 
The German botanist and Professor at the University of Göttingen, Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer (1782-1856), studied the plants collected in the Dutch colony of Essequibo by Ernst Carl Rodschied and those kept in the herbarium of Professor Franz Karl Mertens, which he had received from a Dutch colonist during the early 1800s. On that basis, he published in 1818 his work Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis, describing 344 species of plants. Among them there are five species of orchids, two of which were new to science.
 
Las monedas de Costa Rica incluyen una variedad de ilustraciones de plantas. El medio escudo de oro de 1825, incluye una palmera. La palmas fueron frecuentemente grabadas como coronas en monedas. La palma y el mirto (Myrtus communis) también fueron usados como coronas rodeando el valor de la moneda o bajo el escudo de armas, o ambos. La palmera grabada tradicionalmente en monedas desde los fenicios es la datilera, Phoenix dactylifera, a la cual se le atribuyen simbolismos como la rectitud, la firmeza y la utilidad. La palma fue un símbolo de victoria para los griegos y romanos. Los romanos del siglo I D.C. asociaban la palmera con Judea. En este escrito incluimos ejemplos del uso de palmeras de diferentes especies y palmas, en monedas y boletos de Costa Rica y otros países. También damos ejemplos del uso de la palma y el mirto como coronas en monedas.
 
The life and works of French botanist Claude (Claudio) Gay (1800–1873) are presented, with special consideration to Orchidaceae. This work aims to bring to light the life of a brilliant scientist who dedicated his professional life to the study of Chile’s natural history and his seldom-mentioned monumental work that contains the first complete orchid flora of Chile. The most important modern and contemporary bibliographical sources have been consulted, as well as Gay’s original publications. Claude (Claudio) arrived in Chile in 1828 and lived in the country until 1842, engaged by the Chilean government to conduct a scientific survey of the country. He traveled across the country collecting objects of natural history which became the foundation stone of the Cabinet of Natural History, the precursor of Chile’s National Museum of Natural History. Gay returned to France in 1842 and, commissioned by the Chilean Minister of the Interior, published his Historia física y política de Chile, a monumental work in 30 volumes that were published between 1844 and 1871. Eight volumes, published in Paris between 1845 and 1852, containing 3767 species of plants, were dedicated to botany. Following the incomplete works of Juan Ignacio Molina’s Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili (1782) and Ruiz and Pavon’s Flora Peruvianae et Chilensis (1789–1803) it was the first attempt to produce a complete flora of Chile. A total of 49 species of Orchidaceae were described and partly illustrated, a remarkable achievement if we consider that by the turn of the 21st century, a total of orchids was only 52 had been reported for Chile. Claudio Gay is considered the first recorder of the country’s history and the founder of modern natural science in republican Chile.
 
Los billetes bancarios y los boletos de café de Costa Rica incluyen ilustraciones de varias plantas. La hoja del acanto (Acanthus sp.) es utilizada como ornamentación en muchos billetes desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta finales del siglo XX. La ilustración botánica más conocida es la orquídea Guarianthe skinneri, flor nacional de Costa Rica, incluida en el anverso de los billetes de 5 colones emitidos de 1968 a 1992. El grabado más común desde 1935 en las monedas es la rama (bandola) del café (Coffea arabica) con frutos. Los boletos de café, en uso en Costa Rica desde la mitad del siglo XIX, incluyen varias formas de representar al arbusto del cafeto. También se utilizaron boletos con ilustraciones de varias especies de otras plantas, como el mirto (Myrtus communis). La industria cafetalera en Costa Rica tuvo sus inicios en 1840 con las primeras exportaciones y se convirtió en el principal cultivo del país. En este trabajo citamos los nombres de algunas plantas asociadas a la actividad cafetalera, incluyendo algunas malezas, árboles utiliza- dos para definir los límites de los cafetales y para sombra, así como algunas fibras vegetales utilizadas en la elaboración de los canastos para recoger el fruto maduro.
 
Charles Herbert Lankester (1879-1969) was without a doubt the most dominant figure of Central American orchidology during his time. Better known as 'Don Carlos', Lankester was born in Southampton, England, on June 14 1879. It was in London that he read an announcement offering a position to work as an assistant to the recently founded Sarapiquí Coffee Estates Company in Costa Rica, he applied and was hired. Surely influenced by his uncle's zoological background, Lankester was at first interested in birds and butterflies. However, living in Cachí, at that time one of the regions with the greatest botanical diversity, he must have fallen under the spell of the plant world as he soon began collecting orchids in the nearby woods. Many of the plants he collected at this time proved to be new species. With no literature at his hand to determine the plants he collected, Lankester started corresponding with the assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, Arthur Hill in 1910, and somewhat later with Robert Allen Rolfe, Kew's most eminent authority on orchids. At the same time, Lankester began his collection of living plants that would become so famous years later. He returned to England in 1920 to enroll his five children in English schools. Lankester traveled to Africa from 1920 to 1922, hired by the British Government to do research on coffee plantations in Uganda. When returning to England, he found that Rolfe had died the year before. Many orchids that he had brought to Kew were left without identification. Lankester was back in Costa Rica in 1922, the year that was a turning point in his career as an orchidologist: it brought the first correspondence with Oakes Ames. Over the next fifteen years, Ames would discover more than 100 new species among the specimens he received from Costa Rica. In 1922, Ames began a series of publications on orchids, which he named Schedulae Orchidianae. In its third fascicle, in January 1923, Ames started to describe many of the Lankester orchids, which were deposited at Kew and had been left unidentified. Ames kept asking Lankester to send more and more specimens. After 1930, Lankester and Ames seem to drift slowly apart. Ames was taken in more by administrative work at Harvard, and Lankester traveled abroad more frequently. In 1955, after his wife's death and already 76 years old, Lankester decided to sell his farm but retained the small part which contained his garden, a piece of land called "El Silvestre". Lankester moved to a house he had bought in Moravia, one of the suburbs of the capital, San José. On a section of this farm called "El Silvestre", Lankester began his wonderful collections of orchids and plants of other families, which formed the basis of the Charles H. Lankester Botanical Garden of the University of Costa Rica.
 
Se resumen cien años de historia de la Sociedad Alemana de Orquideología.
 
Hundred years of history of the German Orchid Society are here summarized. RESUMEN. Se resumen cien años de historia de la Sociedad Alemana de Orquideología. PALABRAS CLAVE / KEY WORDS: Sociedad Alemana de Orquideología / Deutsche Orchideengesellschaft (D.O.G.) Cuando una organización se funda para un fi n específi co, a menudo una serie de factores y eventos contribuyen para alimentar el caos y la entropía que, con el tiempo, ejercen una enorme resistencia que impide la persistencia de la organización. En gran parte debido a ello es que muy pocas entidades alcanzan varias décadas, más difícil aún, siglos de existencia, superando ingentes obstáculos. Tal es el caso de la Sociedad Alemana de Orquideología (Deutsche Orchideengesellschaft o D.O.G.), que alcanzó este año su centésimo aniversario después de haber superado dos guerras mundiales, una crisis económica mundial, una guerra fría y múltiples avatares que el mundo ha sufrido a lo largo de este último siglo tan intenso, tan oscuro y, a la vez, tan luminoso.
 
Rafael Lucas Rodríguez (1915-1981). Cortesía de la familia Rodríguez-Sevilla.  
Inauguración del Jardín Botánico Lankester el 2 de marzo de 1973. De izquierda a derecha: Rafael Lucas Rodríguez (de pie, pronunciando el discurso de inauguración ), Gordon W. Dillon (American Orchid Society), Sir George Taylor (Stanley Smith Trust), Eugenio Rodríguez V. (Rector de la UCR), el Secretario del Rector y Rebecca T. Northen (autora de varios libros sobre orquídeas). Foto de Eric Hass, cortesía de la familia Rodríguez-Sevilla.  
div class="page" title="Page 1"> Manuel Chavarría (1981), quien fuera durante unos 20 años editor de la Revista de Biología Tropical, señala que en “ muy raras ocasiones aparece un hom- bre, una mujer, con atributos tan especiales, y dotes personales tan superiores, que lo hacen destacarse sobre sus semejantes. Uno de estos fue Rafael Lucas Rodríguez Caballero, hombre de una vasta y exquisi- ta cultura, de una mente privilegiada, y cuya vida estuvo dedicada a su familia, a las ciencias, al arte y al servicio de la humanidad ”. Quienes lo conocieron desde la juventud ( e.g. Francisco Amighetti 1986 y Fabio Fournier 1981) confiesan la buena impresión que causaba aquel muchacho brillante e inquieto. </div
 
Moi , as he liked to be called by family and friends, passed away on February 14th in Jerusalem, where he had enjoyed the last years of his life in the loving care of his daughter Jacqueline. At the age of 92, he now rests in peace in the Mount of Olives Cemetery. After Otto Mittelstaedt (1919-2000) and Otto Tinschert (1915-2006), Guatemala’s orchidology has now lost the third of its founding fathers.
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> El 4 de febrero de 2004 murió este científico alemán de renombre mundial, quien dejó profundas huellas, tanto en el ámbito de los botánicos como de los orquideófilos. Conocí la noticia de su muerte en un número de la revista Die Orchidee (Anónimo 2004), que recibí varios meses después de su publicación. </div
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> Se recopilan 416 publicaciones acerca de plantas medicinales en Costa Rica, en el período comprendido entre 1930 y 2001. Se clasifican y analizan estas publicaciones según fecha de publicación, tipo de publicación, temática y nombres de las familias y los géneros con mayor número de estudios. La década de mayor producción en este campo es la de 1990, con 122 trabajos (29% del total). El 52% (217 trabajos) de la literatura revisada corresponde a aportes de estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica realizados mediante trabajos de graduación. La fitoquímica, con 292 trabajos, abarca el 70% de la investigación de las plantas medicinales. La familia de plantas con mayor número de estudios (47) es Asteraceae y los géneros con el mayor número de trabajos científicos (14) son Citrus (Rutaceae) y Quassia (Simaroubaceae). </div
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> ¡He allí al hombre, conocido por su sabiduría! Esta frase latina del título resume mi memoria del Dr. Luis Alberto Fournier Origgi, eminente ecólogo, botánico y agrónomo de la Universidad de Costa Rica (U.C.R.) fallecido sorpresivamente el pasado 5 de julio. La gran labor científica y agronómica del Dr. Fournier pasó desapercibida para muchos, porque él nunca buscó imagen o renombre. </div
 
div class="page" title="Page 2"> El 12 de julio de 2001 murió Dora E. Mora de Retana, quien desde 1979 hasta febrero de 2000 fue directora del Jardín Botánico Lankester, de la Universidad de Costa Rica (U.C.R.). Ella dedicó la mayor parte de su energía vital a estudiar las orquídeas y a promover la conservación de la flora tropical; esto último desde su nombramiento como autoridad científica en el Comité de Flora de la Convención Internacional sobre Comercio de Especies Amenazadas (CITES). Después de Rafael Lucas Rodríguez (1915-1981), ella fue durante mucho tiempo la única orquideóloga costarricense con formación académica y científica en el campo de la botánica. </div
 
No nos recuperábamos del pesar causado por la muerte de la ex directora del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Dora Emilia Mora-Retana, cuando recibimos con gran dolor la noticia del fallecimiento de su gran amigo colaborador, el Dr. Joaquín García Castro.
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> La orquídea Rhynchostele bictoniensis ha sido estu- diada por más de 25 años en las cercanías de la ciu- dad de Guatemala. Aunque el área se ha protegido, la población de esta especie ha ido progresivamente reduciéndose desde 1992. </div
 
En febrero 12 de 2009, el mundo celebro el 200avo cumpleanos de Charles Darwin. Sus contribuciones al estudio de la evolucion y los origenes del hombre son bien conocidos, pero su investigacion botanica no ha sido apreciada en su justa medida. Darwin publico nueve libros diferentes que se enfocaron sobre plantas domesticadas, plantas insectivoras plantas trepadoras, y otros temas botanicos, pero el mas notable es su estudio sobre las orquideas, ya que fue el primer libro publicado despues del Origen de las Especies (1859). El libro de Darwin, Sobre las estrategias por las cuales las orquideas britanicas y las introducidas son fertilizadas por insectos (Darwin, 1862), fue una vision a la sistematica de las orquideas de zonas templadas y tropicales y de sus polinizadores. Los nueve capitulos tratan especies de Orchideae, Arethuseae, Neottieae, Vanilleae, Malaxideae, Epidendreae, Vandeae, Cymbidieae (especialmente Catasetum) y Cypripedioideae. Las flores de las orquideas fueron descritas y estudiadas por Darwin con gran detalle, cuidadosos registros del comportamiento de los polinizadores fueron mantenidos, y una gran dosis de especulacion fue agregada. Nuestra comprension de la filogenia, polinizacion, fisiologia, y toda la historia natural de estos grupos han avanzado tremendamente en los ultimos 150 anos. Pocas personas han notado que “el libro de las orquideas”, se subtitula… “y sobre el Buen Efecto del Entrecruzamiento”. Fenomeno que fue de gran interes para Darwin y las orquideas brindaron ejemplos concretos para substanciar su teoria. Aun en nuestros tiempos, el libro de “Orquideas” de Darwin, continua inspirando a los biologos e volucionistas y ejemplifica el poder de la seleccion natural
 
Catasetum colidense. A. Habit. B. Flattened perianth. C. Sectioned lip in lateral view. D. Column in frontal view. E. Column in lateral view. F. Anther in dorsal view. G. Anther in ventral view. H. Pollinarium (M.E.Engels 4639). Illustration by M.E.Engels.  
Catasetum colidense. A. Habit. B. Flower in frontal view. C–D. Flower in diagonal view. E. Flower in lateral view. F. Lateral view of lip in sagittal section (A. M.E.Engels 4638, B–F. M.E.Engels 4640). Photos by M.E.Engels.  
It is described and illustrated Catasetum colidense, from margins of the Teles Pires River, in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species is compared and discussed with the morphologically related species. É descrita e ilustrada Catasetum colidense, oriunda das margens do rio Teles Pires, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. A nova espécie é comparada e discutida com as espécies morfologicamente próximas.
 
Resumen The idea for this book was proposed by Dr. Joseph Arditti during the 1st. International Conference on Neotropical Orchidology that was held in San José, Costa Rica, in May 2003. In its first chapters, this is without doubt a history of orchids, relating the role they played in the life of our ancient indigenous people and later in that of the Spanish conquerors, and the ornamental, medicinal and economical uses they gave to these plants. It is not until the late XVIII century, but above all in the XIX century that we can talk about a history of orchidology, with the development of botanical science and the establishment of the bases of modern orchidology by Lindley. But the XIX century was also the time of legendary commercial collectors who, frequently with the complicity of men of science, collected with a frenzy often bordering on madness. Orchid knowledge became sometimes a synonym of orchid destruction. During the second half of the XX century the world developed a growing conscience of the negative impact of man on his natural habitat and I would like to believe that, in the future, orchidology will devote itself in an increasing manner to the study of orchids as a means to preserve them. Motivated by this belief, I decided to write this history, that will be more a story about orchids and men than a story about orchids and science, hoping that mankind will rediscover the harmonious relation with nature that characterized the life of the first inhabitants of our region. The great naturalist Alexander F. Skutch, who chose a life of study and contemplation amidst the forests of southern Costa Rica, expressed it in much better words: “Sometimes, before leaving the hilltop, I visit the old Indian burial ground. Despite promises of golden ornaments, I have never permitted anyone to excavate these graves, for I believe that we should treat the burials of alien races with the same respect that we desire for our own. Sometimes, in a meditative mood, I ask myself whether, from the moral standpoint, my title to this land is as valid as that of the men whose dust lies beneath the red clay. Perhaps the only answer to this perplexing question is that he most deserves to have the land who makes the best use of it. If my love of the mountains and rivers and forests is greater than theirs, if these things speak more meaningfully to me and I am more keenly appreciative of their beauty; if I strive harder to preserve this natural setting in its pristine splendor and to conserve the soil’s fertility — then perhaps I can justify my possession of this land that once belonged to them. If I fall short of the aborigines in these respects, then I — and the whole line of too-aggressive palefaces who transmitted to me what was once theirs — are but piratical intruders, whose right to this land would be hard to defend. Enlarging on this theme, it seems to me that, unless evolution miscarries, the ultimate possessor of the earth will be the race that most appreciates its grandeur and beauty and cherishes it most carefully, that rules it as a generous and compassionate lord instead of raping it like a greedy tyrant, as men have all too commonly done” (Skutch, 1971: 223-224).
 
Desde diciembre de 2005, el Herbario de la Universidad de Costa Rica (USJ) lleva el nombre de uno de sus fundadores: el Dr. Luis A. Fournier. En 2006 este herbario cumple 75 años de contribuir con la investigación botánica en Costa Rica. Se incluye una actualización del catálogo de tipos de plantas vasculares de USJ.
 
Aa weddelliana. A. Habit. B. Flower, three views. C. Lip in natural position. D. Dissected perianth. E. Floral bract. F. Column, three views. Drawing by D. Trujillo based on K. Rahn 198, USM.  
Las especies del genero Aa han sido descritas como orquideas restringidas generalmente a zonas altas de los Andes y montañas de Costa Rica. Se presenta el registro de poblaciones de Aa weddelliana a elevaciones mas bajas, en formaciones de lomas en la costa desertica del Peru, siendo esta la cuarta especie de Orchidaceae registrada para las formaciones de lomas. Asimismo, ilustramos y discutimos algunos aspectos floristicos de Aa weddelliana .
 
Inflorescence of Aa aurantiaca. Photograph by D. Trujillo.
Myrosmodes gymnandra (Rchb.f.) C. Vargas. A — Flower. B — Dissected perianth. C — Lip, left natural, right expanded out. D — Column, dorsal and ventral view. E — Floral bract. Drawing by D. Trujillo based on a specimen from Reichenbach Herbarium (W).  
Myrosmodes inaequalis (Rchb.f.) C. Vargas. A-Flower. B-Dissected perianth. C-Column and lip. D-Lip. E-Column, dorsal and ventral view. F-Floral bract. Drawing by D. Trujillo based on Lechler 1950 (W).
Se describe una nueva especie de Aa del norte del Perú: Aa aurantiaca; la cual tiene las flores de color naranja, siendo éste un color inusual para el género. Se proponen además dos nuevas combinaciones de Myrosmodes: M. inaequalis y M. gymnandra; se presentan ilustraciones y se discuten rasgos diagnósticos de las nuevas especies.
 
Protandry has been described in orchids since Darwin (1862) as a strategy to promote cross-pollination. Three different forms of protandry have been reported in tribe Cranichideae: downward movement of the labellum in Spiranthes species, upward movement of the column in Sauroglossum elatum Lindl. and Manniella spp., and downward movement of the column in Prescottia stachyodes (Sw.) Lindl. In the present work, through longitudinal and transverse sections of flowers of different developmental stages, we reported column movement of Aa erosa (Rchb.f.) Schltr. and the mechanism responsible for the movement. Our result shows that in an early flower stage (male phase), the column of Aa erosa is straight. The gradual cell death of the dorsal side of the column and size increase of the cells of the ventral side cause the column to bend downward to almost 90o representing the female stage. Some authors have suggested self-pollination in Aa. But flies exploring inflorescences of Aa species have been observed in the field by the author. This observation plus the evidence of protandry in Aa erosa could discard self- pollination as the only strategy of pollination in this genus.
 
Una nueva especie de Justicia L. (Acanthaceae) con una inflorescencia cimoso-paniculada de gran tamaño y brácteas foliosas vistosas se describe de la Fila Costeña, en la región sur de Costa Rica.
 
In preparation for the forthcoming orchid accounts of the Flore des Mascareignes lectotypifications are made for Angraecum cadetii, A. cornigerum, A. corrugatum, A. costatum, A. eburneum, A. mauritianum, A, patens, A. pingue, A. tenuifolium, Benthamia erinacea, B. perfecundum, Bulbophyllum commersonii, B. compressum, B. conicum, B. cordemoyi, B. densum, B. pusillum, B. variegatum, Cynorkis arnottioides, C. calcarata, C. calcaripotens, C. cordemoyi, C. falcata, C. fastigiata, C. flexuosatis, C. graminea, C. lilacina, C. nervilabris, C. paradoxa, C. pleiadea, C. purpurascens, C. reticulate, C. squamosa, C. trilinguis, C. variegata, Disperis cordata, Gastrorchis villosa, Habenaria arachnoides, H. lancifolia, H. praealta, H. undulata, Platylepis densiflora, P. margartifera, P. occlusa, Oeceoclades analavelensis and O. pulchra. Neotypifications are made for Angraecum tenuifolium, Benthamia spiraloides, Cynorkis coccinelloides and C. constellata. Clarification is provided of the taxonomy of Angraecum crassifolium, A. tenellum, Benthamia erinacea, Bulbophyllum densum, B. elliotii, B. incurvum, B. pendulum, Cheirostylis boryi, C. gymnochiloides, C. nuda, Cynorkis calcarata, C. coccinelloides, C. falcata, C. flexuosatis, C. squamosa, Habenaria sigillum, Oeceoclades analavelensis, Platylepis densiflora, P. margaritifera and P. occulta. New combinations are made for Benthamia spiraloides, Bulbophyllum elliotii var. latibracteatum, Cheirostylis boryi, Cynorkis aristei and C. flexuosatis. Key words/Palabras clave: Mauritius, new combinations, nuevas combinaciones, new synonyms, nuevos sinónimos, Reunion, Rodrigues, typification, tipificación
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> S e o f r e c e u n a r e v i s i ó n y u n l i s t a d o d e l a f a m i l i a O r c h i d a c e a e d e p o s i t a d a e n e l H e r b a r i o d e l a Facultad de Biología del Instituto Superior Pedagógico de Pinar del Río, Cuba. La colección de orquídeas depositada en este Herbario es casi desconocida para los estudiantes de la orquideoflora cubana y se dis- tingue por el mejor y más extenso número de ejemplares provenientes de la provincia de Pinar del Río, para la cual se comunica alrededor de la tercera parte de todas las orquídeas registradas en Cuba. </div
 
Holotype of Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f. at W. By permission of the Keeper, Herbarium Natural History Museum in Vienna. 
Epitype of Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb.f., proposed here. Original plate prepared by Walter Fitch and reproduced in Refugium Botanicum plate 120. Reproduced with the permission of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Acianthera bidentula (Barb.Rodr.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase. Barbosa Rodrigues's original illustration reproduced in Sprunger et al. (1996: vol. 1: 216, fig. B, as Pleurothallis bidentula Barb.Rodr.) and here modified to show this species with estimated scales. Reproduced with permission of the Reinhardt Verlag, Basel. 
Two new Brazilian species of the orchid genus Acianthera, Acianthera calopedilon and Acianthera cephalopodiglossa, are described and illustrated. The identities of Acianthera bidentula, Acianthera saundersiana, and Acianthera serpentula are discussed. Acianthera velteniana, recently described for Espírito Santo, is placed in the synonymy of Acianthera bidentula. An epitype is selected for Pleurothallis saundersiana and a lectotype for Pleurothallis serpentula. Updated synonymy lists are provided for the taxa treated in the article.
 
Número de yemas axilares en plántulas de E. microtos a los 120 días de edad y sometidos a diferentes concentraciones de IBA y BAP. FIGURA 4. Número de hojas en plántulas de E. microtos a los 120 días de edad y sometidos a diferentes concentraciones de IBA y BAP. 
Encyclia microtos (Rchb.f.) Hoehne, is an endemic orchid that are distributed in the north of Peru (Tumbes and Piura) and it is being depredy illegally causing the extinction of the same one. With inter- est to maintain his conservation, is an alternative by means of the propagation in vitro. For that reason the objective of this research is to evaluate the indolbutiric acid effect (AIB) and 6-bencilaminopurine (BAP) in the development in vitro of axillar bud of E. microtos. The experience with plant of 120 days of age began, it was introduced in medium MS (Murashige and Skoog) suplement with sucrose, phytagel, AIB , BAP (sin- gle or combined) and adjusting to pH of 5.5. Nine treatments were made, in a rank of 0; 1 and 2 ppm (sin- gle or combined). The results showed that BAP (2 ppm) promoted the greater development of axillary buds with a rate of multiplication of the double of plant to the 90 days in which they were exposed to the growth regulators. To single concentrations of AIB (1 ppm and 2 ppm), promoted a better development of leaves, roots and length of the same ones.
 
Orchid micropropagation of species Euchile mariae was achieved from the in vitro culture of protocorms sections, obtained from the germination of seeds. The top and bottom protocorms sections, used as explants, were cultivated in modified MS culture medium, added with different concentrations of α-naph- thaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). The morphogenetic response obtained of both types of explants, was the formation of protocorm like bodies (PLB’s), that gave place to the formation of new plantlets. Of two tested explants the biggest formation of PLB’s was obtained from the bottom proto- corms sections. The acclimatization of the plantlets was successful, with a 100% percent survival. Plant cell tissue culture represents a useful alternative for the study, conservation and massive propagation of this and other endangered species.
 
We developed a new and novel seed baiting technique sowing mature seeds of the epiphyitic orchid Rhynchostele cervantesii under natural conditions, We introduced a sponge in each package that may serve as a reservoir for water retention to benefit germination; In three of 22 packets we found protocorms in an early stage of development, six of wich were of sufficient size to warrant fungal isolations; Nine strains were isolated in pure culture and were inoculated on seeds and protocorms under in vitro conditions.
 
The Cores Project, intent to collect biological and antropic informations on nine species of orchids that are included on the official list of threatened species of Brazil (Cattleya schilleriana, Laelia fidelensis, L. lobata, L. grandis, L. jongheana, L. virens, L. perrini, L. tenebrosa and L. xanthina) aiming to revaluate its conservation status and elaborate an action plan to each one in particular.
 
Los Almacenes de Semillas de Orquideas para Uso Sostenible (Orchid Seed Stores for Sustainable Use – oSSSu Po r sus siglas en ingles) es una iniciativa de tres años del proyecto Iniciativa Darwin del Reino Unido, con el principal objetivo de establecer una red global de bancos de semillas de orquideas, enfocandose inicialmente en aquellos “puntos calientes” de biodiversidad en Asia y America Latina. Al momento de escribir este documento, hay 20 instituciones participantes en 16 paises. A mas largo plazo, nuestro objetivo es el de incluir un mayor numero de instituciones de todo el mundo, y especialmente de paises africanos. Tenemos la confianza de que una semilla seca de orquidea de buena calidad tiene el potencial sobrevivir durante muchas decadas bajo condiciones de temperatura de un banco de semillas convencional de alrededor de -20 C. Las instituciones participantes han recibido tubos para el almacenamiento de semillas, junto con los fondos para adquirir una congeladora de baul especificamente dedicada asi como algunos de los suministros consumibles necesarios. Se ha acordado una serie de protocolos, que por primera vez permitiran la comparacion de la germinacion de semillas de mas de 250 especies de orquideas de paises tropicales y templados que cubren una amplia gama de tipos de habitat en un solo medio de germinacion (Knudson C) y compararlas con su viabilidad de largo plazo. El rol de la OSSSU tanto en conservacion ex situ e in situ queda ilustrado con el caso de Cattleya quadricolor , una endemica colombiana. La historia de C. quadricolor es algo muy familiar: perdida de habitat combinada con la ilegal recoleccion de esta especie tan hermosa debido a intereses comerciales. Sin embargo, aqui tenemos un proyecto en el cual todas las piezas del rompecabezas de la conservacion de orquideas calzan en forma exacta: una Lista Roja actualizada para las orquideas de Colombia que seria de gran ayuda para apuntar a las especies raras y amenazadas, un Plan Nacional de Accion para las especies de Cattleya , la participacion en OSSSU, un grupo de cultivadores amateur y profesionales con los conocimientos necesarios para germinar las semillas para el proyecto y estar en capacidad de producir plantulas, un cultivador comercial comprometido que este dispuesto a proporcionar plantas para polinizacion y realizar la cosecha de semillas, y un jardin botanico que esta dispuesto a actuar como punto focal para re-introducir plantas de C. quadricolor cultivadas por el proyecto a un numero de sitios que ofrezcan seguridad.
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> Se ofrecen notas sobre la ecología y la distribución del género Lepanthes en Cuba, con una lista de las especies registradas en la isla y de los herbarios donde se encuentran depositados los tipos. </div
 
div class="page" title="Page 1"> Desde el siglo pasado las especies de orquídeas que habitan el territorio cubano han estado en el punto de mira de los estudiosos del tema por ser la isla de Cuba la mayor de las Antillas. </div
 
Sixteen orchid species are first reported for the area of Quepos in addition to those recorded for Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica. Generic descriptions are provided for the genera not previously recorded for the area, and each species is described and illustrated. Data on distribution and phenology are provided, together with keys to the genera including more than one species in the area. A new species, Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L.Sánchez, is decribed and illustrated. Two previously recorded species, Epidendrum isomerum and Oncidium polycladium, are illistrated from material collected within the study area.
 
Holotype of Pleurothallis affinis Lindl. (≡ Myoxanthus affinis) deposited at K. Reproduced with the kind permission of the Director and the Board of Trustees Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Holotype of Pleurothallis cerea Ames (≡ Myoxanthus cereus), deposited at K. Reproduced with the kind permission of the Director and the Board of Trustees Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Lankester Composite Dissection Plate (LCDP) of Myoxanthus cereus (Ames) Luer ex Rojas-Alv. & Karremans. A. Habit. B. Inflorescence. C. Flower. D. Dissected perianth. E. Column with lip, lateral view. F. Column without lip, ventral and lateral view. G. Lip. H. Pollinarium and anther cap. Photographs by A.P. Karremans and G. Rojas-Alvarado based on A. P. Karremans 5693 (JBL-Spirit). 
Myoxanthus cereus photographed in situ at La Carpintera (A. Cascante 2444). Photograph by A. Cascante, reproduced with his kind permission. 
Distribution map of Myoxanthus cereus (Ames) Luer ex Rojas-Alv. & Karremans in Costa Rica. 
Pleurothallis cerea, a species described based on a specimen collected by Lankester in Costa Rica, and commonly placed under the synonymy of Myoxanthus octomeriae or M. congestus, is here recognized as distinct. The species is easily distinguished by the shape and size of the leaf, as well as various floral details, especially of the lip. A new combination, tentatively suggested by Carl Luer but never published, is required and therefore validated. Additionally, the vegetatively striking Myoxanthus affinis is recorded from Costa Rica for the first time based on two recent collections. The species is variable within its broad distribution from Colombia to Bolivia and, although differences with the original material from Peru are evident, we cannot be sure at this time that ours represents a different species. Both species are described and illustrated based on living plants.
 
The general aim of conservation is to ensure persi- stence of biodiversity value. Given certain measures (financial, logistic, etc.) the specific goal must be to maximize the amount of biodiversity value to be secured by these means. Several area selection met- hods are available for such purpose, and they repres- ent very different conservation philosophies (Williams et al. 1996; Humphries 2006). Two funda- mentally different approaches exist: (1) locating hot- spots of species richness or narrow endemism, and (2) designating conservation areas according to com- plementarity methods.
 
Regeneration protocols were established from the in vitro culture of protocormos of Stanhopea tigrina, Epidendrum veroscriptum, Laelia anceps and Cattleya x esbetts using the Murashige and Skoog culture medium added with different concentrations of N6-benzyladenine (BA) (0, 1, 3, y 5 mg/l) y 2,4 dichlorofenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D). The regeneration and formation of new plantlets was achieved by multiple shoot and also through protocorm like bodies (PLBs). For each species the best concentration of growth regulator, as well as the time of acquisition of competence for the highest shoot formation and/or PLBs were deter- mined. As far as we know there are no reports with reference to the acquisition of competence within the Orchidaceae family that allow the production of many individuals within the shortest time and reducing the financial cost. This could form the base that covers their commercial demand and also contribute to the con- servation and sustainable use of mainly wild species.
 
Esta conferencia decribe el trabajo empezado por un Colegio Británico único, que se ha concen- trado intensamente en el campo de la conservación de las orquídeas para crear el Proyecto de Orquídeas del Colegio Writhlington. A través de la perspectiva de uno de los estudiantes con más experiencia en el proyec- to, se analizan los resultados de los últimos siete años del proyecto, para ver como y porqué el proyecto ha alcanzado su situación actual. Se indican tambien las finalidades y objetivos futuros del proyecto. La confer- encia subraya el enfoque del proyecto hacia una conservación efectiva en el Reino Unido y afuera, así como el envolucramiento de una comunidad tanto a nivel local como en una escala global. Se exploran también la experiencia educativa y el contexto curricular del proyecto.
 
Resumen While the presence of nectar is the most common floral reward offered by orchids, approximately one-third of orchid species have evolved mechanisms of deceit whereby the pollinator receives no reward. Lack of reward has been shown to have a significant negative effect on reproductive success in the Orchidaceae, however the phenomenon of nectar-robbery has been poorly studied. Here we investigate the effect of nectar-robbery induced deceit by invasive ants in the nectariferous orchid Aeranthes arachnitis. Fruiting success was found to be below 5% at three sites, including two conservation areas, compared with 48.5% at a site next to plantations. All the populations showed loss of floral nectar, ranging from 64.3% to 100% of flowers observed. Loss of nectar to robbers that do not facilitate pollination not only represents a cost to fruiting success but also a loss of a resource to the orchid through reabsorption of any excess. Using Bell's Theory of nectar concealment it is possible to determine the critical point, below which nectar-robbery negatively affects fruiting success. Based on related angraecoid orchids the proportion of nectar bearing flowers would, theoretically, need to be 70%. The higher levels of reproductive success surrounded by plantations may due to the presence of the non-native Callistemon citrinus acting as nectar source, thus maintaining an increased local abundance of the pollinator. This has important implications for the conservation and management of Aeranthes arachnitis and other species, which rely on nectariferous pollinators, particularly when a nectar bearing species becomes essentially deceptive. The result suggests that management of this nectar-robbery induced deceptive species should involve the manipulation of rewarding species within the surrounding area.
 
A new epiphytic Phalaenopsis is described from tropical evergreen forests of Ziro Valley in Arunachal Pradesh, India, and illustrated with colored photos. It is allied to the similarly colored P. taenialis (Lindl.) Christenson & Pradhan in having non-deciduous leaves, larger perianth segments, the shorter and convex (not flat) lip mid-lobe, and the yellowish-green (not purplish) spur. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. honghenensis from China, but differs most easily by the light pinkish flowers versus bronzy green to brownish flowers of the latter species. A detailed description with corresponding color photos and information on the habitat is provided. The voucher specimens have been deposited at the Herbarium of the Orchid Research Centre Tippi, Arunachal Pradesh, and the Herbarium of The Orchid Society of Eastern Himalaya (TOSEHIM), Regional Orchid Germplasm Conservation and Propagation Centre (Assam Circle), Assam. Key Words: Flora of India, new Phalaenopsis, Phalaenopsis honghenensis, Phalaenopsis subgen. Aphyllae, P. taenialis
 
Top-cited authors
Lorena Endara
  • Clemson University
David Grimaldi
  • American Museum of Natural History
Bitty Roy
  • University of Oregon
Eduardo Borba
  • Federal University of Minas Gerais
Ariane Barbosa
  • Federal University of Minas Gerais