Language

Published by Linguistic Society of America
Online ISSN: 1535-0665
Print ISSN: 0097-8507
Publications
Deaf children whose hearing losses are so severe that they cannot acquire spoken language and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language nevertheless use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Homesigners have been shown to refer to entities by pointing at that entity (a demonstrative, that). They also use iconic gestures and category points that refer, not to a particular entity, but to its class (a noun, bird). We used longitudinal data from a homesigner called David to test the hypothesis that these different types of gestures are combined to form larger, multi-gesture nominal constituents (that bird). We verified this hypothesis by showing that David's multi-gesture combinations served the same semantic and syntactic functions as demonstrative gestures or noun gestures used on their own. In other words, the larger unit substituted for the smaller units and, in this way, functioned as a nominal constituent. Children are thus able to refer to entities using multi-gesture units that contain both nouns and demonstratives, even when they do not have a conventional language to provide a model for this type of hierarchical constituent structure.
 
Mean residual reading times in experiment 2, ranging from first word after WH-phrase to three words after the subcategorizing verb. Error bars show (+/-) one standard error. 
Mean judgment ratios of embedded WH-island violations: BARE = bare WH-phrase, WHICH = which-N ¯ phrase. Error bars show (+/-) one standard error. 
Mean residual reading times from matrix verb to embedded verb in experiment 3. Error bars show (+/-) one standard error. 
Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that nonstructural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Paul Deane, Robert Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies that explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of nonisland filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single nonstructural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold, resulting in unacceptability. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.
 
Two forms of the ISL agreement verb HELP. 19 Lillo-Martin and Klima point out that 'The difference between ASL and English, then, is that in many cases what are unspoken referential indices in English are overtly manifested in ASL' (1990:198). 20 Movement itself is not especially particular to agreement or to agreement verbs, since virtually all lexical signs in sign languages have movement (Brentari 1990). 21 This description of agreement in ISL is simplified. A more detailed analysis of the agreement facts is presented in §4.3. 
ASL sign with grammaticized negative suffix. 
Allomorphy in words with the ISL suffix:-NOT-EXIST. 
ISL sign with grammaticized sense prefix. 
ISL signs with sense prefixes in which the base does not otherwise occur. 
Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiotemporal cognition, while the sequential patterns can be traced to normal historical development. We attribute the paucity of sequential morphology in sign languages to their youth. This research both brings sign languages much closer to spoken languages in their morphological structure and shows how the medium of communication contributes to the structure of languages.
 
The chapters in this volume were originally separate research reports from longitudinal study of a group of four children. As a collection, the reports present a developmental story of language acquisition in the third year of life – a time of great achievement as children acquire a basic knowledge of semantics, syntax, and discourse. The early chapters show the children learning to form simple sentences; later chapters show them beginning to acquire the structures of complex sentences. Several conceptual themes in current language acquisition research and theory were first articulated in the studies reproduced here: the centrality of verbs for learning syntax; the role of meaning in acquisition; the importance of context; the relationship of language learning to other aspects of cognitive development; and individual differences among children learning the same language. These themes are discussed in an introductory chapter that unifies the studies and places the reports in the context of current research and theory in child language.
 
The underlying theme in this revised edition is the great shift in how linguists view the structure of signs. The perspective of analyzability has changed how many aspects of sign language linguistics are conducted: the kinds of descriptions of signs themselves, the approach to psycholinguistic studies of memory and perception, the study of sign language acquisition and the notion of what is "complex" for a child. For this reason, after a general overview (Chapter 1), the reader is assaulted with two chapters on sign phonology, the traditional descriptions (Chapter 2) and the current approaches, including such notions as syllables and segments (Chapter 3). . . . In order, for example, to understand how signs can be productively constructed (Chapter 4), the notion of particular phonological pieces and their relationship to ASL [American Sign Language] morphemes is crucial. The elegance and importance of a memory study (Chapter 7) that demonstrates that morphological inflections in ASL are separable from the lexical items themselves hinge on the understanding of how phonological pieces can be added simultaneously or sequentially to lexical items without destroying the basic form (Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5). The role of facial expression in sentence structure (Chapter 6), breakdown of the use of space in sign language aphasics (Chapter 7), complexity in child language acquisition (Chapter 8), variation in dialects (Chapter 9) all in some way depend on the reader's familiarity with the analyzability of signs. Both the original version and this revised version contain a second section on the applied aspects of sign language research. This section contains descriptions of educational signing systems (Chapter 10), implications for deaf students' acquisition of English reading, writing, and speaking skills (Chapter 11), and sign training results with communicatively handicapped people who are not deaf (Chapter 12). . . . Intervention programs with the communicatively handicapped who are not deaf are still struggling to understand what aspects of sign training make it effective with various populations and what characteristics of signs make some easier for these populations to learn than others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In "Father Knows Best: The Use and Abuse of Power in Freud's Case of Dora," Robin Tolmach Lakoff and James C. Coyne take a revolutionary look at one of the most famous of Sigmund Freud's cases and make significant connections from the conversations between Freud and his patient Dora to therapeutic relationships in the 1990s. In their careful examination of the case history, the authors demonstrate that while much of Freud's method has changed, the basic relationship between therapist and client, their power relations, and the consequences thereof, remain intrinsically unaltered. Lakoff and Coyne raise difficult and important questions about the nature of gender differences in therapy, the roles of men and women as therapists and clients, the use and misuse of science, and the relation of content to form and context. Thus, the book challenges the very basis of psychoanalysis itself. Through their linguistic approach, the authors show how the communicative strategies that are unavoidable within the psychoanalytic process create and reinforce an imbalance of power, itself a potent creator of psychic distress. "Father Knows Best" will be of great interest to students, professors, and all scholars of Women's Studies, linguistics, sociolinguistics, psychology and sociology of women, sex roles, and communications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Introduction 1.1 History The systematic study of Dutch children's syntactic development is fairly young. In the first two decades of the 20th century, some linguists published observations about the linguistic development of their own children (de Vooys 1916, van Ginneken 1917, Tinbergen 1919). These studies were based on diary notes. They are rich in observation, discussing phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of the children's linguistic output. But apart from these `incidental' studies, hardly any research on Dutch children's syntactic development appeared until the 1960s. The late 1960s and the 1970s saw a number of studies of Dutch child language that were heavily influenced by psycholinguistic studies in the United States (see Van Besien 1981 for an overview). In the 1980s, a new variety of research into the acquisition of syntax was born. This `modern' approach is firmly grounded in a particular theory of language, Generative Gram
 
Emergence of language(s)
Mean tness with language emergence VSO-N-P-C. 30 However, neither this nor the OVS language survived beyond cycle 14. Instead a VSO language emerged at cycle 10, which has the same minimal expressiveness of the VOS language but is more parsable, and this language dominated rapidly and eclipsed all others by cycle 40. Figure 17 is a plot of the mean tness of all LAgts at the end of each interaction cycle through this entire run. As can be seen, mean tness improves rapidly early in the run, once a single dominant language emerges. Subsequent downward uctuations are mostly caused by the occasional re-emergence of a few non-speaking LAgts who fail to learn the language, and upward uctuations by a lower proportion of learners in the population, or by the increased use of a more learnable and/or parsable language. As full languages did not emerge in these runs, a second identical series of runs was undertaken, except that the initial population now contained 2 speakers of one of the full languages deened in section 4.1. This resulted in the evolution of acquisition procedures capable of acquiring such full languages across the population. For example, in 10 runs initialized with two SOVv2 \German" speaking adult LAgts, the population converged on a full SOVv2 language 7 times, on the intermediate subset language SOVv2-N 2 times, and once on the minimal subset language SOVv2-N-P-C. These experiments suggest that if a full language deenes the environment of adaptation then a population of randomly initialized LAgts is more likely to converge on a (related) full language, evolving a LAD capable of acquiring such a full language. Thus, although the simulation does not model the development of expressiveness well, it does appear that it can model the emergence of eeective acquisition procedures for (some) full languages.
Selection for SOVv2 over SOV
Language costs with natural selection and migrations  
An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parametersetting framework applied to a generalized categorial grammar (GCG). The GCG is embedded in a default inheritance network yielding a natural partial ordering (reflecting generality) of parameters which determines a partial order for parameter setting. Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct full languages and over 200 subset languages. The effects on acquisition of inductive bias, that is, of differing initial parameter settings, are explored via computational simulation. Computational simulation of populations of language learners and users instantiating the acquisition model show: 1) that variant acquisition procedures, with differing inductive biases, exert differing selective pressures on the evolution of language(s); 2) acquisition proc...
 
In the body of the book we explore the emerging finding that talk between the generations may have characteristic configurations, that cross- and within-generation talk can be modelled in terms of recurring discourse strategies that intersect in important ways with beliefs and ideologies of ageing (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
this paper is to develop an alternative proposal whereby long-distance agreement is brokered via a correspondence-theoretic relation established between the participant segments. We term this approach Long-Distance Agreement through Correspondence or LDAC. A chief assertion of the LDAC proposal is that agreement is determined by Identity constraints which check feature matching in corresponding consonants, thereby obviating representations in which feature linkage skips over spans of neutral segments. Another key claim is that similarity plays a decisive role in identifying which segments stand in correspondence
 
This book describes the approaches to language which are made in the fields of linguistics, psychology, anthropology, sociology, philosophy, education, and communication engineering. Relations between these approaches are pointed out, with considerable attention to applications (e.g., the problem of an international language; foreign language teaching). The final chapter presents recommendations on needed research and development. 23-page bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
report). Obviously, Skousen's approach to analogy is radically different from that of the older writers. One difference is that he gives an explicit definition of analogy, as if in response to a criticism such as Chomsky's (cf. above) and Langacker's (1967, p. 22), who remarks that since both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences may be the outcome of analogical inference, analogy is not a credible explanation of the human ability to create and understand novel sentences. A weak point in Langacker's argument is that he derives his "alse analogies" from individual sentences, e.g. I like kittens, I like snow, Kittens are white, hence *Snow are white. In Skousen's model, on the other hand, analogical inference is based on all relevant examples of usage stored in the speaker's mind. Another difference between Skousen's approach to analogy and the traditional one results from his attitude toward rules. These are not used in his model, in contrast to the usual practice of employing rules
 
Presents a survey of the theories of the role of analogy and association in human behavior from the time of the ancient Greeks to the present. Topics covered include definitions of the term "analogy," studies with miniature linguistic systems, and linguistics in the laboratory. (12 p. ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Over the past decade generative grammarians have viewed language acquisition as a process of fixing option points or parameters defined in Universal Grammar. Here David Lightfoot addresses the crucial question of what it takes to set a parameter, of what kind of experience is needed to trigger the emergence of a natural kind of grammar. Lightfoot asserts that parameter setting is not sensitive to embedded material, and that it is triggered only by robust, structurally simple elements. He observes that morphological properties play a significant role in setting parameters that have widespread syntactic effects. Using data on diachronic changes and evidence from current work in syntactic theory, Lightfoot makes precise claims about the triggering experience that can explain a number of historical puzzles. He argues that the changes can have taken place in the way they did only if language acquisition proceeds on the basis of simple, unembedded experiences. Along the way Lightfoot examines consequences of the loss of the rich Old English case system and of the breakdown of the verb classes and takes up particularly illuminating cases of obsolescent structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Contents 1 Spoken Language Input 1 Ron Cole & Victor Zue, chapter editors 1.1 Overview : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 Victor Zue & Ron Cole 1.2 Speech Recognition : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 Victor Zue, Ron Cole, & Wayne Ward 1.3 Signal Representation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 Melvyn J. Hunt 1.4 Robust Speech Recognition : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 Richard M. Stern 1.5 HMM Methods in Speech Recognition : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 24 Renato De Mori & Fabio Brugnara 1.6 Language Representation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 35 Salim Roukos 1.7 Speaker Recognition : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :<F35.37
 
X-bar theory is widely regarded as a substantive theory of phrase structure properties in natural languages. In this paper we will demonstrate that a formalization of its content reveals very little substance in its claims. We state and discuss six conditions that encapsulate the claims of X-bar theory: LEXICALITY—each nonterminal is a projection of a preterminal; SUCCESSION—each Xn + 1 dominates an Xn for all n ≥ 0; UNIFORMITY—all maximal projections have the same bar-level; MAXIMALITY—all nonheads are maximal projections; CENTRALITY—the start symbol is a maximal projection; and OPTIONALITY—all and only nonheads are optional. We then consider recent proposals to 'eliminate' base components from transformational grammars and to reinterpret X-bar theory as a set of universal constraints holding for all languages at D-structure, arguing that this strategy fails. We show that, as constraints on phrase-structure rule systems, the X-bar conditions have hardly any effect on the descriptive power of grammars, and that the principles with the most chance of making some descriptive difference are the least adhered to in practice. Finally, we reconstruct X-bar theory in a way that makes no reference to the notion of bar-level but instead makes the notion 'head of the central one.
 
Irregular and Regular Verbs Blocked by Type
* Jaeger, Lockwood, Kemmerer, Van Valin, Murphy, and Khalak (1996) reported an experimental study that provided reaction time and PET neuroimaging data said to support Pinker's (1991) theory of inflectional morphology in which rule-governed forms and exceptions are processed by separate mechanisms. The results were also taken as evidence against connectionist accounts in which a single processing system generates both types of forms. We provide a critical analysis of the study that yields three main conclusions: First, Jaeger et al.'s data do not provide strong evidence that rule-governed forms and exceptions are processed in separate brain regions. Second, there are problems with the design of the study that contaminate critical comparisons between conditions. The results therefore afford alternative interpretations related to experimentspecific factors rather than the regular-irregular distinction. Third, the dissociations between rulegoverned forms and exceptions observed in studies...
 
ieties. In chapters 1, 2, 4, and 5, Biber usefully overviews much previous work on register variation and the methods of register analysis that he developed in his 1988 work. He illustrates in detail the problems of trying to compare registers on the basis of isolated linguistic features. And he argues for an alternative multidimensional approach, where each dimension consists of a set of features that have been found to co-occur frequently in texts. He summarizes methods of grammatically tagging corpora, calculating the frequency of occurrence of features, using factor analysis to identify the dimensions, and then attributing functional interpretations to the dimensions. The main data comprise: 1.7 million words of E, 153,000 words of T, 136,000 words of K, and 480,000 words of S. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 present the main findings. First, Biber shows differences in register variation across the languages. For example: T has a restricted range of registers, all interpersonal in some sens
 
Presents a study of articulatory motions with "organized and detailed quantitative data derived from tracings of a lateral cineradiograph. The data, in graph form, are interpreted in relation to known physical attributes and physiology and relevant linguistic features. Findings from the data are incorporated into a model which presents an approach toward understanding the organization and control of the speech-producing mechanism. The model is constructed to be compatible with linguistic feature systems and methods of computer simulation." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
In this paper, we propose an alternative account of linking patterns which does away with intermediary mechanisms such as thematic or actor/undergoer hierarchies. The basis of this theory is constraints on word classes, defined by both syntactic and semantic criteria, which encode generalizations between semantic roles and syntactic arguments. We show that the generalizations a linking theory needs to capture can be modeled via the same mechanisms as other lexical generalizations. In particular, we posit a set of hierarchically organized conditions, specified on word classes. Each condition provides a partial specification of the mapping between semantic roles and syntactic arguments. We argue that this constraint, verb-class-based view of linking present several empirical advantages: partial regularities and exceptions are easily accomodated, fine-grained semantic distinctions relevant to linking are countenanced, cross-cutting similarities between semantic and syntactic verb classes ...
 
In an introductory and necessarily superficial way the book tries to suggest the breadth of the spectrum of linguistic studies. These various approaches are discussed in terms that make sense to a modern psychologist. The bias is behavioristic-not fanatically behavioristic, but certainly tainted by a preference. There does not seem to be a more scientific kind of bias, or, if there is, it turns out to be behaviorism after all. The careful reader will discover occasional subjective lapses. Undoubtedly in these instances, a scientific approach is possible, but the author was unable to find one or think of one. The argument nonetheless goes as far down the behavioristic path as one can clearly see the way. It is necessary to be explicit about this behavioristic bias, for there is much talk in the pages that follow about patterns and organizations. Psychological interest in patterning is traditionally subjective, but not necessarily so. Discussion of the patterning of symbols and the influences of context run through the manuscript like clotheslines on which the variegated laundry of language and communication is hung out to dry. It is not pleasant to think that these clotheslines must be made from the sand of subjectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
he spirit of Minsky's Society of Mind (1986) and connectionist models. It takes a nontrivial amount of time for some knowledge units to be activated and to complete their processing steps; if the processing is not completed by some deadline temporal duration, then a knowledge unit might not have any impact on the final interpretation of a text. Readers differ in their processing time parameters (such as learning rate, activation rate, and memory decay rate), which also results in fluctuations in interpretations among readers. Once again, these basic claims about memory and processing time are adopted by many of today's researchers who develop psychological models of reading and comprehension, so these researchers would applaud Corriveau's efforts in the field of computational linguistics. Corriveau uses IDIOT to simulate a broad spectrum of linguistic and discourse phenomena: constructing syntactic trees, resolving the referents of nouns and pronouns, determining the context-appropria
 
this paper is to introduce, by means of the detailed analysis of a single grammatical problem, the rudiments of a grammatical theory which assigns a central role to the notion of grammatical construction. To adopt a constructional approach is to undertake a commitment in principle to account for the entirety of each language. 2 This means that the relatively general patterns of the language, such as the one licensing the ordering of a finite auxiliary verb before its subject in English as illustrated in (1), and the more idiomatic patterns, such as those exemplified in (2), stand on an equal footing as data for which the grammar must provide an account. (1) a What have you done? b Never will I leave you. c So will she. d Long may you prosper! e Had I known, . . . f Am I tired! g . . . as were the others h Thus did the hen reward Beecher. (2) a by and large b [to] have a field day c [to] have to hand it to [someone] d (*A/*The) Fool that I was, . . . e in x's own right Given such a commitment, the construction grammarian is required to develop an explicit system of representation, capable of encoding economically and without loss of generalization, all the constructions (or patterns) of the language, from the most idiomatic to the most general. This goal was advanced in the form of a promissory note in an earlier paper that dealt with the English let alone construction: "It appears to us that the machinery needed for describing the so-called minor or peripheral constructions of the sort which has occupied us here will have 1 The authors gratefully acknowledge much fruitful discussion regarding the content of this paper with Mary Catherine O'Connor. We are indebted to Yunsook Chung, Ron Kaplan, Ray Jackendoff, Susanne Riehemann and Ivan Sag for comments on earlier dr...
 
English resultative expressions have been a major focus of research on the syntax-semantics interface. The present paper argues that a family of related constructions is required to account for their distribution. We demonstrate that a number of generalizations follow from the semantics of the constructions we posit: the syntactic argument structure of the sentence is predic ted by general principles of argument linking; the aspectual structure of the sentence is determined by the aspectual structure of the constructional subevent, which is in turn predictable from general principles correlating event structure with change, extension, motion, and paths. Finally, the semantics and syntax of resultatives explain the possibilities for temporal relations between the two subevents. At the same time that these generalizations clearly exist, there is also a great deal of idiosyncrasy involved in resultatives. Many idiosyncratic instances and small subclasses of the construction must be learned and stored individually. The account serves to justify aspects of what we share in our overall vision of grammar, what we might call the "constructional" view. To the extent that our treatment of the resultative can be stated only within the constructional view, it serves as evidence for this view as a whole. 1. A constructional view of grammar For fifteen years, the English resultative construction has been a focus of research on the syntaxsemantics interface. Each of us has made proposals about the resultative (Goldberg 1991; Goldberg 1995; Jackendoff 1997a; Jackendoff 1990) proposals that share a certain family resemblance. The present paper is an attempt to consolidate what our approaches have in common and to add some new wrinkles to our common understanding. Our larger purpose is ...
 
Discusses glossolalia as spoken and practiced by Apostolic congregations in Mexico City, in the Yucatan by Maya Indians, and by a group in Hammond, Indiana. A selection of conversion stories is included, and an analysis of the phonological and suprasegmental features of the recorded utterances, which show surprising cross-cultural agreement, is detailed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
s also describe the LDB as "a model of a database appropriate to a corpus-linguistic setting" (p. 3). Their manual outlines the current range of possibilities in syntactic corpus research, and LDB exemplifies the kind of editorial capabilities, displays, and file management facilities that a working database management system for syntactic trees should have. The book also tests both the function-category description model developed by F. Aarts and J. Aarts in 1982 and the contemporary English grammar published by Randolph Quirk and others ten years earlier. Both are important contributions to corpus linguistics. 1. The Program The authors make LDB available free of charge to academic institutions (and for Dfl 5000 to others) together with the 130,000-word Nijmegen corpus of modern An MS-DOS demonstration diskette for the examples and exercises in the book is available free of charge from the authors. 457 English. 2 Remarkably, the MS/PC-DOS demo version has all the tree-display and
 
this paper, the authors report on work in progress. They set up a general database for phonotactic statements for (at the moment) more than 200 languages. Queries supported includes examples such as `Is [qi] a possible syllable in a certain language or language family?' or `What percentage of languages allow onsetless syllables?'
 
The contemporary study of language processes emerged around 1970 from the psycholinguistic tradition of the 1960s, which in turn had been stimulated by twin revolutions in cognitive psychology and linguistics in the 1950s. . . . The study of language processes, furthermore, is recognized as an interdisciplinary endeavor, pursued within the framework of cognitive science. . . . There is growing consensus, for example, that discourse understanding results in the construction of representations of the form and idea content of a message, and of the situation to which it refers. [This] book addresses the central issues of sentence and discourse processes, with particular emphasis on reading and listening comprehension. Throughout, I have strived to make the material accessible to upper level undergraduate students. In this regard, I have tried to identify the logic of the specific experimental manipulations that are described, and of the more general on-line and memory measures that are frequently invoked. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Subtypes of same semantic polarity constructions  
A colloquial English sentence like Fooled us, didn't they? contains a finite main verb but no expressed subject. The identity of the missing subject of fooled is recovered from the tag subject they: compare Fooled us, didn't she?, Fooled us, didn't you? This paper argues (1) that such subjectless tagged sentences (STSs) pose a problem for grammatical approaches based on movement and empty categories and (2) that STSs receive a revealing analysis as part of a finely articulated family of tagged sentence constructions when viewed within a non-derivational, constructional, multiple-inheritance-based approach. 0. INTRODUCTION. In recent years it has been argued from several points of view that whatever can be done with empty categories (ecs) can be done without them (Ades and Steedman 1982, Gazdar et al. 1984, Kaplan and Zaenen 1989, Pollard and Sag 1994 chapter 9, Sag and Fodor 1994, Kay and Fillmore 1999, Sag 1999). It has also been argued that, because there is no hard evidence for thei...
 
Four of these essays fall within the general field of historical and comparative linguistics. The remaining 4 concern, respectively, language as a sign system, the definition of linguistic units, structure and function in language, and the order of affixing as a problem in general linguistics. Several psychological hypotheses, including that of convergent and divergent hierarchies of responses, are considered as possible explanations for the fact that suffixing is more prevalent than prefixing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
this paper, I will discuss four major topics relating to current research in lexical semantics: methodology, descriptive coverage, adequacy of the representation, and the computational usefulness of representations. In addressing these issues, I will discuss what I think are some of the central problems facing the lexical semantics community, and suggest ways of best approaching these issues. Then, I will provide a method for the decomposition of lexical categories and outline a theory of lexical semantics embodying a notion of cocompositionality and type coercion, as well as several levels of semantic description, where the semantic load is spread more evenly throughout the lexicon. I argue that lexical decomposition is possible if it is performed generatively. Rather than assuming a fixed set of primitives, I will assume a fixed number of generative devices that can be seen as constructing semantic expressions. I develop a theory of Qualia Structure, a representation language for lexical items, which renders much lexical ambiguity in the lexicon unnecessary, while still explaining the systematic polysemy that words carry. Finally, I discuss how individual lexical structures can be integrated into the larger lexical knowledge base through a theory of lexical inheritance. This provides us with the necessary principles of global organization for the lexicon, enabling us to fully integrate our natural language lexicon into a conceptual whole
 
The study of language and its use has been one of the significant growth areas of social psychology in recent years; it is therefore timely to publish this handbook written by experts in their fields, each of whom has combined a state of the art review with ideas for future directions of research. Their concern is with the integration of verbal and non-verbal features in communication—how systems work, especially in applied settings and social relationships. With its strong reviews of many of the important theoretical and practical areas in which progress has been achieved, or needs to be, the "Handbook of Language and Social Psychology" will be essential reading for all those social psychologists who are interested in language and how it functions in communication. The handbook should also be of value to developmental, clinical and community psychologists and those professionals working in the areas of communication and social relationships. It provides rapid access to a social psychological perspective for linguists, anthropologists, sociologists and other academics concerned with language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Adetailed analysis of the first 5 minutes of Gill, Newman, Redlich, and Sommers' first interview in The Initial Interview in Psychiatric Practice: With Phonograph Records (see 28: 8747). The upper slit-pages are: a typescript of the interview, a phonetic transcription (in symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet), and a paralinguistic transcription (showing loudness of voice, pitch, sighing, laughter, etc.). The corresponding lower slit-pages are interpretive commentary. Besides this analysis of the 5-minute segment, there is discussion of the authors' methods and of conclusions to be drawn from their work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
IntroductionEvidence from Anthropology and ArcheologyGenetic EvidencePrimatological EvidenceNeurobiological EvidenceLinguistic EvidenceConclusion
 
Linguistic theory is extended to embrace all those areas of human behavior which are learned and in greater or less degree culturally patterned. "Etic" and "emic" approaches (on the analogy of phon etic and phon emic) investigate, respectively, generalized phenomena of culturally patterned behavior, and phenomena peculiar to one language or culture system. Various units, such as the behavioreme and the grameme, are proposed. Part II considers further the behavioreme and the uttereme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This collection of 9 papers grew out of a symposium on "New Approaches to a Realistic Model of Language" held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976. Authors and chapters include the following: (1) Joan Bresnan on "A Realistic Transformational Grammar," (2) George A. Miller on "Semantic Relations among Words," (3) Eric Wanner & Michael Maratsos on "An ATN [Augmented Transmission Networks] Approach to Comprehension," (4) Keith Stenning on "Anaphora as an Approach to Pragmatics," (5) Ray Jackendoff on "Grammar as Evidence for Conceptual Structure," (6) Edgar B. Zurif & Sheila E. Blumstein on "Language and the Brain," (7) M. Maratsos on "New Models in Linguistics and Language Acquisition," (8) Susan Carey on "The Child as Word Learner," and (9) Morris Halle on "Knowledge Unlearned and Untaught: What Speakers Know about the Sounds of Their Language." (16 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This article presents an analysis of the conjugational systems of West Germanic that highlights the central role of two basic stem types and suggests some consequences for the description of inflectional systems in general. The analyses distinguish morphomic stems, which underlie morphosyntactically distinct word forms, from inflectional stems, which realize tense and mood features and provide the input to regular agreement rules. It is argued that the recognition of these stem types simplifies the description of West Germanic conjugations, supports a general realization-based approach, and suggests a reinterpretation of current realizational models
 
This comprehensive collection of current research in the development of speech perception and perceptual learning documents the striking changes that take place both in early childhood and throughout life and speculates about the mechanisms responsible for those changes. Examining transitions in the perceptual processing of speech from infancy to adulthood as well as what causes these transitions, the contributors take up a broad range of issues that are central to constructing a theory of speech perception and to understanding the development of this ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
s. Both clauses appear to be problematic with respect to the formation of prosodic words. As to the first clause, the prosodization of affixes, clitics, and compound members can induce violations of the requirements on prosodic domination. Specifically, some of these elements neither incorporate into an adjacent prosodic word nor form an independent prosodic word. An example is provided by prefixation in Spanish. 2 In Spanish, words cannot begin with [s] followed by another consonant; a rule of e-epenthesis applies at the left edge of underlying /sC/-clusters (2a). Crucially, I show that whereas the process does not generally apply word-internally (2b), it does apply at the left edge of the base of productively formed prefixed words (2c). (2) a. estable stable esnob snob b. instruccin instruction obstaculo obstacle c. inestable unstable biescalar biscalar Contrary to Cressey (1978) and Harris (1983, 1986), I argue that e-epenthe
 
recise concept boundaries (p. 36). This is a real delusion of grandeur, especially as a glance at, say, Charniak and Wilks (1976) would have shown him not only lots of such conceptual codings, their relationship to preference rules, etc., but even a brief tutorial on Wittgenstein explaining exactly why such systems won't solve philosophical problems as well, They say middle age is when everyone you meet reminds you of someone you've met before, and the academic equivalent must be that everyone's work starts to remind you of your own. The true situation might be the very reverse of what I'm suggesting: perhaps the AI and CL semantics of the late 1960s and early 1970s was systematically 95 Computational Linguistics Volume 18, Number 1 copying the ideas of contemporary linguists: Fodor, Katz, Weinreich, Giv6n, Gruber, and even Jackendoff. A glance at the codings of those days shows that that is not so, though everyone on both sides was probably more in Fillmore's debt than they admitted
 
The process of documenting and describing the world's languages is undergoing radical transformation with the rapid uptake of new digital technologies for capture, storage, annotation and dissemination. However, uncritical adoption of new tools and technologies is leading to resources that are difficult to reuse and which are less portable than the conventional printed resources they replace. We begin by reviewing current uses of software tools and digital technologies for language documentation and description. This sheds light on how digital language documentation and description are created and managed, leading to an analysis of seven portability problems under the following headings: content, format, discovery, access, citation, preservation and rights. After characterizing each problem we provide a series of value statements, and this provides the framework for a broad range of best practice recommendations.
 
Top-cited authors
Joan Bybee
  • University of New Mexico
Thomas Wasow
  • Stanford University
Adele E. Goldberg
  • Princeton University
Heidi Harley
  • The University of Arizona
Elizabeth Ritter
  • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev