Poland has experienced a significant decrease in net migration losses resulting from migrations from rural to urban areas, from 200 000 people per year in the 1970s to approximately 120 000-140 000 per year currently. However, the spatial concentration of this phenomenon in particular areas had and will yet lead to serious disturbances in the socio-economic development of these areas because the migrating population is usually young, and very often women of marrying age. This paper considers the course of rural-to-urban migration processes in Poland from 1950 to 1988 against the background of the general demographic transformations in the country. It also considers changes in the population of particular voivodships (provinces) and qminas (communes) over the period 1970-1985, with an indication of the spatial concentration of the phenomenon. It concludes with a forecast of trends to the year 2000, bazed on these observed changes.
Models of vertebrate distributions based on dominant vegetation cover or land-use classification are commonly used for conservation planning, but these models may be inappropriate for species that choose sites based on criteria other than land cover or within urban areas that are not adequately described by cover-type alone. We compared the accuracy of predicted occupancy of birds for a set of cover-type models—Alabama Gap Analysis Program's (ALGAP) vertebrate distribution maps—between an urban and a rural landscape in east-central Alabama. We performed analysis at two scales of investigation—0.03-km2 point-count surveys or 28.26-km2 landscapes—using point counts conducted during summers 2004–2006. We tested ALGAP's ability to predict the occupancy of habitat by birds grouped by life-history parameters: migrant, resident, insectivore, carnivore, and omnivore, forest dweller, and cavity nester. ALGAP performed well at the scale of entire landscapes but poorly at the scale of individual point counts. At the point-count scale, ALGAP was most accurate for species requiring interior forest conditions. At the landscape scale, ALGAP was more accurate in the rural landscape than the urban landscape, and it had higher commission errors in the urban landscape. Variation in the ability of ALGAP to predict species occupancy was likely due to (1) poor model performance when applied to species that choose sites using criteria other than cover type and (2) the inadequacy of ALGAP to describe a heterogeneous urbanized landscape. Our results highlight pitfalls of using land cover information to model species distributions in situations where it may be inappropriate.
"Internal migration patterns during the second half of the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s are evaluated at a regional scale intermediate to those utilized in previous core-to-periphery and urbanization-to-counterurbanization studies of West Germany. A spatial deconcentration of the West German population is evident in the form of redistribution down the metropolitan size hierarchy....A spatial deconcentration of manufacturing and service employment partially explains the net migration losses experienced by the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhine-Main-Neckar [regions].... This study provides an alternative core-periphery delimitation scheme which can be applied to the metropolitan system in the western part of newly unified Germany."
Interest in urban neighborhood form is strong among scholars trained in multiple disciplines. The increasing popularity of this field calls for a set of metrics that can be used to describe meaningful patterns of built features in neighborhood environments. This study employs national-level datasets from Add Health, the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2001, the U.S. Census TIGER, and the U.S. Geological Survey to construct neighborhood form metrics for 20,467 residents, whose residential environments cover a wide array of geographic areas representative of comprehensive neighborhood types across the United States. Buffers of different sizes (1 km, 3 km, 5 km, and 8 km, respectively) are drawn around each resident's location as the unit of analysis. For the four sets of 20,467 neighborhood environments, 27 neighborhood form metrics are selected, computed, and further reduced through factor analysis. The results suggest that the derived subsets of univariate metrics can be applied across neighborhood types to characterize diverse neighborhood environments.
The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the value of the multivariate method, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on data relating to landscape elements, to determine the relative directions of change and illustrate landscape dynamics. Data were retrieved from retrospective studies based on interpretation of aerial photographs and old cadastral maps at three time periods, 1741–1811, 1946 and 1993 covering 56 selected hamlets in a parish in Småland, south Sweden. To carry out the analysis, data were summarised into five principal land cover groups; (1) arable and grassland composite; (2) open semi-natural grasslands; (3) wooded grasslands; (4) water; and (5) forest/remaining land. During the 200-year period investigated, the landscape shifted in most hamlets from a more open rural landscape with fields and areas of semi-natural grassland vegetation, to a non-rural landscape with closed forests and fragmented rural areas dominated by cultivated grasslands. The range and distribution of hamlets along the principal axes over time indicate a reduction of complexity, and suggest a negative relationship between the degree of open agricultural landscape and the relative proportion of semi-natural and wooded grasslands. PCA was shown to be a useful tool to simplify the complex landscape data sets and indicate the character of change in terms of dynamics of spatial organisation, and the direction of change in the rural landscape of Virestad. In the analysis, three hamlet types with diverging development were distinguished; (A) major change from a semi-open rural landscape to a closed non-rural forest landscape; (B) intermediate change, where hamlets were already closely related to the closed forest type landscape from the beginning; (C) intermediate change, where hamlets have remained closer to a relatively open rural landscape over the 200 years of the study period.
Agricultural landscapes structured by trees are substitution habitats for some species that inhabited mature trees of primeval forest. Those agricultural landscapes have a complex heterogeneous structure that changes over centuries. These dynamics could affect the persistence of such relict species. We studied factors affecting the occurrence of the endangered habitat-tracking beetle Osmoderma eremita in a landscape structured by hedgerows and orchards. By surveying the mature trees in 2003 and the change of landscape features between 1947 and 2003 in a 16-km2 area in northwestern France, we tested several hypotheses. The first hypothesis was that the occupancy rate of microhabitat would be affected by tree species. The second was that landscape openness and microhabitat density would influence the occurrence of O. eremita. Third, the spatio-temporal change of landscape features after land consolidation was tested as a predictor of O. eremita presence. We showed that O. eremita preferred apple trees of orchards and pollard oaks of hedgerows in the most open parts of the landscape. Short range microhabitat density and aggregation of populations were significantly highest in orchards. Populations subsisted in areas where few changes occurred with time in hedgerow density, revealing the sensitivity of this habitat-tracking species to landscape changes in a complex human made landscape. All these results should be considered for conservation planning of this endangered species.
Learning the history of a landscape is critical to understanding present land-use patterns. We document the history of landscape change in the lower St. Croix River valley from 1830 to the present. Significant changes in land use and cover have occurred during this time. Because of the convergence of prairie, savanna and forest vegetation in this area, and because of the proximity of the St. Croix River valley to metropolitan Minneapolis/St. Paul (MN), the region is ecologically and culturally very important. A variety of information sources was used to reconstruct the lower St. Croix landscape over time. The primary sources of material were federal census records, records of lumber and agricultural production, descriptive accounts by early settlers and historians, scientific reports, the General Land Office land survey records, maps and photographs. Two periods of rapid change were identified. Change was rapid from 1850 to 1880 as first loggers and then farmers converted a lightly populated landscape of oak savanna, prairie, mixed hardwood and conifer forests and wetlands, maintained by frequent fires, into a largely deforested agricultural landscape. A second period of rapid change was from 1940 to the present as the urban area has expanded outward. Urbanization has further fragmented the remaining areas of natural habitat and has the potential to accelerate soil erosion, stream sediment transport, and oxidation of organic matter. The results of this study illustrate how landscape change can have significant impacts on ecological systems. Understanding the history of landscape change in the lower St. Croix River valley provides an analogue to help understand how other mid-western US landscapes have changed over time.
Landscape change occurs through the interaction of a multitude of natural and human driving forces at a range of organisational levels, with humans playing an increasingly dominant role in many regions of the world. Building on the current knowledge of the underlying drivers of landscape change, a conceptual framework of regional landscape change was developed which integrated population, economic and cultural values, policy and science/technology. Using the Southern Brigalow Belt biogeographic region of Queensland as a case study, the role of natural and human drivers in landscape change was investigated in four phases of settlement since 1840. The Brigalow Belt has experienced comparable rates of vegetation clearance over the past 50 years to areas of tropical deforestation. Economic factors were important during all phases of development, but the five regional drivers often acted in synergy. Environmental constraints played a significant role in slowing rates of change. Temporal trends of deforestation followed a sigmoidal curve, with initial slow change accelerating though the middle phases then slowing in recent times. Future landscape management needs to take account of the influence of all the components of the conceptual framework, at a range of organisational levels, if more ecologically sustainable outcomes are to be achieved.
Assessment of the environmental impact of urban sprawl being understood here as the conversion of non-urban to urban land is still a subject for debate. Another shortcoming of the current discourse on urban sprawl is that it largely fails to reflect the interconnection of environmental and socio-economic aspects. In presenting a case study on the German city of Leipzig and applying the conceptual framework of driving forces, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR-concept), this paper strives to assess the impact of urban sprawl on water balance and explores the repercussions of this impact upon the causation of and policies on urban sprawl. The study establishes that urban sprawl and related surface sealing have considerable impact on water fluxes and the urban water balance that may become imminent in the longer run. However, the study also shows that societal reactions on urban sprawl, first of all the attempts of both authorities and public initiatives to contain sprawl, are hardly motivated or influenced by concerns about environmental problems in a particular place (affected by urban sprawl). These attempts are mainly carried out on a national and regional level and reflect a general orientation in environmental politics rather than the desire to respond to individual urban developments. The study thus shows that the environmental impact of sprawl elicits only indirect repercussions in society.
One hundred years after the 1890 massacre of Lakota Indians by the United States Army at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the U.S. National Park Service undertook a special resource study to examine options for commemorating the tragic event and preserving the site. Authorized by Congress, the study evaluated strategies ranging from establishing a national historic site or memorial to a national tribal park. This paper calls attention to the bi-cultural interactions of the multi-disciplinary study team with various Lakota groups to gather data and develop alternatives. It emphasizes the importance of establishing and maintaining trust with the Lakota groups through ethnographic interviewing, small-group meetings, and frequent other ongoing communications. Absolute honesty between all groups was essential to a successful outcome of the study, which is not to imply that any of the report's options will be adopted.
Parcelization of land ownership is a process that has dramatic implications for how landscapes are managed and how socio-economic changes ultimately affect the pattern, composition and characteristics of the landscape. For a study area in south-central Indiana, a digital spatial dataset of ownership parcels was created from historical plat maps for the period of 1928–1997. The patterns of ownership parcelization were categorized into a typology based on characteristics of the parent and child parcels using a cluster analysis. These types were then used to describe the trajectory of parcelization, or life history, of a parcel using a transition matrix approach. Results show that the most common type of parcelization is one where a parent parcel splits into two equally sized child parcels. The results from the transition matrix analysis suggest that the history of a parcel is of importance in that it does enable and constrain future parcelization types. Possible relationships between the results from the quantitative analysis and underlying household social processes are also discussed and evaluated.
In this paper I present a method to analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of land use change at representative sites in England and Wales between 1930 and 1998. Multiple data sources have been integrated to provide an estimate of land use change at 23 randomly located sites for 6 time-steps ranging from 1930 through to 1998. The method is called ‘stability mapping’ and exploits the spatial data handling capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to pinpoint those specific areas of individual sites most prone to land use change. It involves the calculation of three indices: similarity, turnover and diversity as well as the detailed analysis of trajectories of change. An assessment is made of the impact of changing spatial and temporal resolution on the behaviour of these metrics and recommendations on their use are offered. The approach as outlined would be equally applicable in other locations where good quality historical map data are available.
The spatial deconcentration of population during the 20th century and the resulting expansion of human settlements has been a significant cause of anthropogenic landscape change in the United States and many other countries. In the seven-state North Central Region, as in other regions of the US, changing human settlement patterns are most prominent at the outlying fringe of metropolitan areas and in rural regions with attractive recreational and aesthetic amenities. This process of growth and change has profound implications for the ecology of the region that will require the reformulation of resource management policies.We use attribute clustering of both housing density and housing growth for each decade from 1940 to 1990 to illuminate the dynamic process of housing density change in the North Central Region. While cross-sectional housing density maps display the uniformity of residential density within urban, suburban, and rural areas, historic density clustering demonstrates the spatial variability of density trajectories in urban and suburban areas, and the relative stability and homogeneity of more rural density trajectories. Clusters based on housing growth, without regard to absolute density, reveal similarities between urban cores and rural areas, where in both cases, housing growth has been very slow in recent decades. We identify density/growth clusters with high potential for future growth, which are spatially clustered on the periphery of metropolitan areas, in smaller urban centers, and in recreational areas throughout the region.
The study of the temporal changes of spatial patterns in cultural landscapes is important to understand the underlying factors and the functional effects. This paper addresses a multitemporal analysis of land cover and use changes during 56 years (1940–1996) in part of the Bogotá highplain, based on two study sites. The study used black and white aerial photography, fieldwork and GIS. The changes in natural forest area found are small, with opposite trends in the study sites (1.2 and −0.4 per year). The plantation forests have been steadily increasing in both sites. The area of crop and pasture covers show opposite complementary trends. The remnant forest patches are located in the steeper topographic conditions, and their persistence during the last 56 years is related to the use function assigned by landowners. It is suggested that the observed temporal changes and distributions of agricultural land covers are closely related to the historical events of Colombian macroeconomic policies.
This paper reports on the changes in the spatial structure of landscape in the years 1950–1990 within the Warsaw metropolitan area. The analysis was aimed at identification of (a) the influence of the distance from the center of the city and from the transport routes on the values of landscape metrics, (b) changes in time of the landscape metrics of forests and built-up areas, (c) the influence of habitats, transportation network and the distance from the center on the directions and intensity of urban growth. Several landscape metrics were chosen to describe the landscape pattern (spatial share, mean patch size, patch size coefficient of variance, mean shape index, mean nearest neighbor distance, mean proximity index, and interspersion and juxtaposition index). The majority of changes in land cover took place in the years 1950–1970, but relations between landscape metrics and the distance from the center of Warsaw as well as from the transport routes, had a persistent character over the entire period studied. The influence of the habitat differentiation (expressed in categories of potential natural vegetation) in land cover is relatively unimportant in the vicinity of the city center and in the direct neighborhood of roads, while it would become the dominating factor in the periphery. The landscape metrics enable the description of the spatial regularities and trends, and constitute useful indirect indicators of the impact of urbanization on cultural (rural) landscape and of the general ecosystem disturbance.
Since 1960, the Israeli coastal dunes have undergone a stabilization process that is manifested in the increase of vegetation cover and in a decrease in the abundance of sand-living flora and fauna species. The objective of the study was to quantify, using remote sensing and GIS, the rate and extent of vegetation expansion and their resultant temporal changes on Israel’s southern coastal dunes between the years 1965 and 1999.The results indicate that during the entire study period, the vegetation-covered area grew by 82% at an annual average growth rate of 1.75%. Concurrently, the bare shifting dune area decreased by 37% at an annual average growth rate of 1.34%.The conspicuous trend over the period studied, despite regressive processes, is a transition from bare shifting dunes to stabilized, vegetation-covered dunes. The extrapolation of the results, assuming continuation of processes and no destruction effects, indicates that with the decrease in the bare shifting dunes, the ratio of bare shifting dunes and sparse vegetation coverage landscape will equalize by between 2007 and 2010.According to this extrapolation, between 2012 and 2015, no bare shifting dune landscape will remain, and the study area will be covered with sparse- and dense-level vegetation cover. Beginning in 2035, the entire study area will be covered in vegetation whose density will be between 60 and 100%. Meso-climate and land use changes are among the factors that might explain this phenomenon.
High levels of population growth in coastal U.S. settings give cause for concern about development's effects. Urban sprawl, a potential manifestation of development, is known for its negative environmental and social impacts; however, there have been few efforts to define and measure it in coastal regions where beach-oriented tourism and amenity-driven population growth and land development are prominent. This study describes residential expansion patterns and identifies trajectories for a set of sprawl metrics in New Hanover County, North Carolina over a 30-year time period. Using parcel data and GIS techniques, I developed a set of metrics for nine townships that nest within three township groups classified as: most coastal, transitional, and least coastal. Metrics measuring land consumption, leapfrog distance, land use diversity, and highway strip development are quantified and compared across regions. Most of the metrics were weakly correlated with each other suggesting that they capture different dimensions of sprawl. Results demonstrate that transitional settings located near estuaries between the oceanfront and the interior mainland were consistently the most sprawling. Behaviors of many metrics had complex, non-linear trajectories that would be invisible using either a cross-sectional or two-date approach. The approach can be extended to other regions, both coastal and non-coastal, to determine if there are differences in sprawl patterns that are unique to other environments.
Dispersed patterns of rapid rural, or “exurban,” growth in the American West are recognized as key threats to the region's biodiversity through habitat loss and fragmentation. Both planners and ecologists have responded with strategies to minimize the impact of these patterns—strategies which have appeared in local planning policies since the 1990s. This research examined the degree to which these changing policies were effective in changing subdivision patterns in Gallatin County, Montana. Using landscape metrics drawn from landscape ecology and urban sprawl literature, this study tracked changes in metrics across the 1973–2004 time period for regulated subdivision, major and minor, at several spatial scales. The results revealed several distinct trends: (1) major subdivisions became more “clustered” and less land consumptive, (2) minor subdivisions revealed the opposite trend and are recently consuming the more land, (3) distances from existing development decreased for major subdivisions, and (4) increasing numbers of parcels were near or within riparian areas. These findings indicated a differential impact of planning across scales and types of subdivision and a mixed success of planning in mitigating the environmental impacts of rural residential development.
The accumulated impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation (HCE) on the landscape are greater than the simple sum of the impacts from a single dam. The spatial–temporal landscape characteristics resulting from the accumulated impacts of HCE from 1977 to 2006 in Longliu Watershed, a part of the Yellow River basin, were investigated. In this innovative approach, the FRAGSTATS model was employed to calculate landscape indices, which characterized landscape in term of its fragmentation, shape and diversity. Three fragmentation indicators and four shape indicators were analyzed at patch scale for each land use type in period of 1977–2006. The diversity simulators were calculated also at landscape scale. Furthermore, two hydroelectric cascade exploitation indicators, summed dam heights and hydroelectric generator capacities, were used to explore the correlated impact with landscape pattern. The analysis revealed that landscape fragmentation variations are strongly dependent on the magnitude of exploitation. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.95. Except for PAFRAC value of water area, all other shape metric variations were closely linked to the level of HCE and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.5267 to 0.9514. This study also demonstrated that landscape diversity changes were exponentially related to hydro-exploitation parameters, with correlation coefficients arranging from 0.7487 to 0.9856. The correlation analysis also demonstrated that HCE a critical factor determining regional landscape variation. It is concluded that these correlation analysis assist in predicting landscape variation about future HCE. The findings will also be helpful for regional environmental management and for the understanding expected landscape transformations.
This paper presents first, a brief overview of research activities in the Landscape Architecture Program at the University of Arizona. Included is both the pedagogical foundation for the research emphasis and a brief summary of research topics pursued by faculty and graduate students during the past 15 years. The second and major part of the paper summarizes selected components of a long-term research project in which graduate students in Landscape Architecture and Renewable Natural Resources Studies played significant roles. Primary emphasis is on riparian landscapes located in southeastern Arizona. The research was developed in three phases. First was an exploration of people-landscape relationships via open-ended interviews; second, was survey research to explore perceptions of landscape values and attitudes about appropriate uses for these landscapes; and third, was the assessment of landscape change, both perceived and physical, in the same landscapes. Together, the three phases span 15 years, from 1981 to 1996. Case studies of two riparian areas that represent diverse contextual settings are discussed.
Marble extraction is an economically important and widespread activity in Greece that exists since historical times. The extraction takes place by open-pit quarries in hill slopes. The original landform is permanently altered and the original vegetation cover is destroyed. The visual impact of the quarries extends over larger areas as noticeable scars of high colour contrast, reducing the aesthetic appeal of the landscape and deteriorating the scenic quality of areas where tourism often is a major constituent of income. The aim of this work was to assess the ecological, landscape and visual impacts of marble quarries on the island of Thasos, NE Greece by employing remote sensing, geographical analysis and landscape metrics. Change detection and object-based classification were used to monitor the landscape dynamics (1984–2000) of marble quarries. A new index was defined to estimate the ‘cumulative visibility load’ on the landscape.An expansion trend of marble quarries was identified by the creation of new and the enlargement of existing quarries in the NE part of the island on areas previously covered by semi-natural pine forest. The visual impact increased by a factor of 2.52 and although the area of quarries was less than 1% of the landscape in 2000, it affected 13.5% of the island, including areas such as the island's capital and nearby coasts.
Land use has changed dramatically over the last 30–40 years throughout the Mediterranean. Much of this change has been driven by shifts in agricultural and socio-economic policy. This paper explores landscape dynamics in the SPA ‘Encinares del rı́o Alberche y Cofio’ Central Spain between 1984 and 1999 in an area of approximately 83,000 ha. Categorical land cover maps, derived from three (1984, 1991 and 1999) remotely sensed Landsat images, are analyzed using a suite of landscape pattern metrics, and a simple transition matrix model of landscape change is developed. As with other landscapes in the Mediterranean a key trend is that of the abandonment of agricultural land and its subsequent succession to scrubland and woodland. Although there were significant composition changes in the landscape over the study period configurational changes are less evident. The transition matrix model suggests that there were differences in landscape dynamics between 1984–1991 and 1991–1999—most importantly an increase in the rate of land abandonment is evident. The model predicts a steady state landscape containing a higher abundance of scrubland and woodland, and a corresponding decline in pastureland and cropland. Finally, the underlying socio-economic and other drivers of landscape change in the Encinares del rı́o Alberche y Cofio and some of the implications of recent changes are discussed in terms of increased wildfire risk. Sustainable management of landscapes to protect biodiversity requires the type of study described here. A necessary pre-requisite of such management activities or planning is an assessment of changes in landscape pattern and process, the social and economic pressures driving them, and their possible effects on ecosystem structure and function.
Resolving environmental impacts caused by the wildland–urban interface (WUI) expansion such as wildlife habitat fragmentation, or increased fire risk entails an accurate delineating of WUI boundary and its dynamics prediction. This study identified WUIs throughout the 11 states of southeastern U.S. in 1990 and 2000 and observed their change during this period utilizing census surveyed housing density and remotely sensed land-cover data. In 1990 and 2000, states of North Carolina and Virginia had the highest, while the state of Arkansas had the lowest proportion of WUI coverage. From 1990 to 2000, states of South Carolina, Florida and Mississippi have seen a radical WUI expansion, while North Carolina has experienced no noticeable WUI transformation. Total WUI area increased from 241,983 km2 in 1990 to 285,415 km2 in 2000. Wildland–urban interface patch number decreased from 1362 to 1282 and mean WUI patch size enlarged from 178 km2 to 233 km2. Total WUI area in each single year and new added WUI from 1990 to 2000 have high sensitivity to threshold adjustment of low housing density, vegetation density, while subtle sensitivity to threshold modification of high housing density. Vegetation density is a more significant factor than housing density in determining WUI coverage in both 1990 and 2000 and WUI dynamics from 1990 to 2000 in each state. Urban aggregation index is a significant factor related with WUI coverage in each state as well.
During the 1990s, the largest changes in land use in the Baltic states ocurred in the agricultural land sector. The changes can be summarised as the abandonment of arable land and the overgrowing of grasslands with shrubs. Both types of formerly agricultural land become successional oldfields. A national land-use map of Estonia is currently not available. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes combining winter, spring and summer data were used to classify land use in Estonia in 1990 and 1993. Satellite data discriminated `arable land' and `other,' but failed to differentiate `grasslands currently in use' from `successional oldfields'. One-third of the arable land in use in Estonia in 1990 had been abandoned by 1993.
Recent changes in the post-Soviet Russia suggest rapid privatization of previously protected green space around many metropolitan areas. Nowhere is the trend more apparent than near the capital Moscow. Since 1992, formerly protected forests of the Green Belt have been heavily pursued for elite suburban housing development. With the help of two Landsat images (1991 and 2002) and some on-theground analysis, we investigate areas that have experienced the most mature forest loss. We also examine the spatial pattern of this change, as measured objectively by landscape metrics. Within 20 km from the beltline, about 14.6% of the forested land was converted to suburban residential and commercial uses in the 10-year period. The amount of mature forest loss ranged from 14 to 35% per district, but was partially compensated by some new tree plantings and reforestation for a combined tree cover loss of 14.6% for the entire area, including the city of Moscow. If the city proper is excluded, the loss in the suburban green belt was 12.4%. While this is a moderate decrease, it still represents a trend towards less tree cover and more suburban development in the immediate vicinity of a large city, which is likely to result in worsening air quality and negative impacts on wildlife and opportunities for public recreation in suburban forests in the near future.
Urbanization was associated with loss and transformation of the oak forest in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul) metropolitan area (TCMA) over a recent 7-year interval. Between 1991 and 1998, urbanization increased based on several indicators: population density, area of developed land, and area of impervious surface—total impervious area and area within three classes of increasing degree of imperviousness (protected, affected, and degraded). We quantified relationships between changes in urbanization and changes in several parameters describing the oak forest at the scale of ecological subsection. Increased total and affected impervious area were strongly correlated with decreased area of oak forest when changes of the urbanization indicators and oak were expressed as percentages of the subsection area. Relationships were reversed when changes were expressed as percentages of the 1991 values. Increased population density was strongly correlated with increased loss in numbers and increased isolation of oak patches, but weakly correlated with loss of oak forest area. This is the first study to quantify relationships between changes in urbanization and changes in a specific forest cover type. Our results demonstrate complexities of urbanization impacts on a metropolitan forest resource, and highlight the importance of selected variables, spatial and temporal scales, and expressions of change when quantifying these relationships.
Flooding in the Upper Mississippi River Basin during the summer of 1993 caused between US$ 12 and 16 billion worth of damage. Since 1993, millions of dollars of new development have poured into the flood-impacted areas contrary to the recommendations of Interagency Floodplain Management Review Committee, among others. Tracking development has been difficult. A diverse set of regulations and land use controls have caused varying amounts of development in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, with Missouri leading the way with over 17.31 km2 of new development. This study documents the changes in the basin affected by the 1993 floods 10 years after the event by conducting an analysis to identify new development within the 500-year floodplain and in the floodwater inundated areas. This study used Landsat satellite data to identify areas experiencing development.
Debates on the urban form have become strongly polarized between the advocates and opponents of the compact and of the dispersed or “sprawled” city. In this paper we argue that this may be the result of an excessive concentration on the study of the American experience and the neglect of other urban contexts, and examine the recent process of urban growth against the background of urban compactness and extreme densification represented by the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR). The comparison of two detailed land-cover maps of 1993 and 2000 shows a progressive transformation in the traditional urban character of the region. Lower urban densities, high losses of non-urban land covers, depopulation of the metropolitan inner core, an increasing importance of single housing or the expansion of transportation infrastructures confirm the generalization of the dispersed urban model. However, the presence of numerous medium sized towns has also proved to be a deterrent of excessive dispersion. In conclusion, polycentric metropolitan areas such as the BMR may be more adjusted to absorb the negative effects of dispersion than monocentric areas.
In this paper we document a historical example of high aesthetic valuation of one urban bird species, the thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), in the late 19th century Helsinki, capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The species is famous for its territorial song that is mostly heard at night. The urban thrush nightingales were widely praised and documented in contemporary newspapers. For instance, the birds of the Kaisaniemi Park were mentioned in 1872 26 times in 11 different Finnish newspapers. Even poetry dedicated to the birds was published. The urban thrush nightingales of the Finnish capital had an impact on contemporary pioneers of animal welfare, bird conservation, and urban ecology. Bird conservation movement organized as Spring Societies (later Sylvia Society), with thrush nightingale as one of its symbols, probably had an impact on legal protection granted for nearly all Finnish passerine birds in 1898. Paradoxically, aesthetic improvement of the urban park favoured by nightingales destroyed their habitat, and the species disappeared for this and other reasons from the capital for several decades.
I describe grassroots resistance that evolved in the rural municipality of Karvia in SW-Finland in response to the introduction and development of the EU-wide protected areas system known as Natura 2000 Reserve Network. I have two main aims in this paper. First, I explore the local forest economy, looking at how it works and how it is structured. This I do by focusing on the multilevel well-being of key actors and by exploring the motives lying behind the behaviours and decisions of people working within the forest economy, particularly forest owners. Second, I identify and describe the principles that can help uncover the conflicts and contradictions between forest economy and conservation planning and create a framework for innovative solutions to such contradictions on the local level.
The development of a Pan-European Ecological Network is nowwidely recognised as an important policy initiative in support of protected Natura 2000 sites. The site selection is based on habitats as defined in the Annex I of the Habitats Directive. Whilst there is information about the presence of these habitats in Natura 2000 sites, there is no detail of their distribution elsewhere in Europe. The present paper describes amethodology that identifies the spatial distribution of habitats across Europe so that their actual extent can be determined. Five methodological steps are involved starting with selection of appropriate spatial data sets, defining knowledge rules from the descriptions of Annex I habitats, continuing with additional
ecological expert knowledge when needed, implementation of the models, and finally the validation.
Spatial distribution models were derived for 27 habitats representing the most significant ecosystems. This spatial modelling approach is illustrated with one detailed example. Validation showed that mapping accuracy depends on the habitat description available but also upon its spatial character. Thus widespread habitats such as forests were accurately assessed whereas dispersed classes such as freshwater systems were more difficult to assess. Possible methodological improvements are suggested, such as inclusion
of vegetation relevés to improve the knowledge rules. Extension of the methodology to other habitats would require a moderate effort since data collection and processing has nowbeencompleted and it is this which is the most time consuming part of the process. We conclude that our method maps widespread European habitats with unprecedented accuracy.
A major program of research aimed at measuring the quality of community life using subjective and objective indicators is described. Impetus for the research was a need to inform planning and policy decisions in the Detroit metropolitan area. The study also addresses theoretical concerns about relationships between objective conditions in cities, towns and rural areas and people’s subjective and behavioral responses to the conditions. In addition to measuring subjective well being of Detroit area residents, issues explored in the study include travel and transportation, neighborhoods and neighboring, parks and recreation behavior, housing and residential mobility, and sprawl and open space preservation. The program of research also involves parallel studies in other world cities.
Though landscape vegetation in cities is human-mediated and often more diverse than that in surrounding environments, little work has been done to quantify ways that humans shape its composition. Our study identified important sources of variation in perennial vegetation composition within residential neighborhoods of Phoenix, AZ, USA. We hypothesized that neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) should offer some capacity for predicting landscape vegetation richness and abundance in both residential neighborhoods and embedded small city parks. As predicted, neighborhood vegetation richness increased across a gradient of low to high SES (R2=0.89) with the most variation explained by median family income (R2=0.86). In contrast, neighborhood vegetation abundance decreased across a gradient of increased time since disturbance (R2=0.62) with the most variation explained by median year of neighborhood development (R2=0.56). Median year of neighborhood development was also the dominant factor (R2=0.47) in explaining decreased park vegetation abundance across a gradient of increased time since disturbance. We were least able to predict park vegetation richness and could account for only 29% of variation using a SES gradient model with percent of population having a graduate education as the most dominant factor. In residential neighborhoods, we identified more than 3 times the number of landscape vegetation taxa than an earlier report and also found a higher percentage of native vegetation in parks than in surrounding neighborhoods. We discuss these different compositional patterns of perennial vegetation in neighborhoods and embedded parks in terms of their relationship to socioeconomic and disturbance gradients, and a conceptual framework of “top-down” and “bottom-up” human management influences. Our study intimates that residential vegetation composition in rapidly expanding, arid cities like Phoenix is largely driven by “luxury” and legacy effects and should be most rich in neighborhoods with the highest socioeconomic standing and most abundant in newest neighborhoods.
Land planners operate under the assumption that good things can happen if we plan for them. Land planners are optimistic about the future. Hurricane Katrina changed that for land planners along the Gulf Coast of the southern United States. The consequences of the devastation showed everyone what can happen when natural disasters foil our plans for the future.The aftermath of Katrina was most destructive. In New Orleans, Louisiana, flood waters broke through the levee system. Widespread flooding covered most portions of the city leaving it in total chaos. The damage throughout the Gulf Coast left transportation corridors in ruin. Communication and power systems failed. Water supplies and food stores were rendered useless or inaccessible. Consequently government officials, rescue teams, medical services, and security people could not handle the needs of the survivors trapped in the area.Almost immediately the media began reporting the chaos. Soon after there was much finger pointing, blaming and hindsight logic offered in a never-ending stream of acrimonious indignation to anyone who would listen. Some of this behavior is understandable. A year later, however, the carping continues. It is time for more reasonable thinking and action to take place. We need to make some sense out of this tragedy and convert our dissatisfaction and frustration into constructive thinking.We must look deeper into the problem to gain a more significant understanding of what went wrong and how we can plan better in the future. The land planning aspects of both the recovery and continued development of the region need to be reconsidered.The following discussion offers the reader three proposals for modifying how we might plan better. (I) Planning for recovery and sustainable growth speaks to the need to upgrade our land planning conventions. (II) Regional landscape sustainability addresses the need to reorganize the scale and emphasis of future development plans. (III) Spatial solutions concepts are reviewed as a possible means to integrate landscape ecology theory in future planning for the natural landscape and the people who will live in this region.
How the future landscape will look depends particularly on the outcome of the socio-economically motivated decisions of farmers, food processors, retailers and consumers, all members of the food supply chain. However, a long-term perspective on the food supply chain and its landscape effects is confronted with a great deal of uncertainty and data constraints. These difficulties can be partly avoided by using the personal judgements of agents whose decisions control the structure of present and future food supply chains. A well-established agent-based method for dealing with and describing variation in the future is the method of scenario planning. The aim of this paper is to present the application of the scenario approach to the Austrian food supply chain in 2020 and its landscape impacts. A critical discussion of the scenarios should reflect their explanatory power regarding future development options for landscapes. The first section of the paper outlines the interactions between society, the food supply chain and the landscape in a conceptual model. It describes the applied scenario technique and the research setting involving agents from agriculture, the food industry, retailing, gastronomy, and consumer organisations. Four scenarios for the food chain in 2020 are presented (Liberal Market Scenario, Protective Policy Scenario, Fast World Scenario, Slow World Scenario) and their respective consequences and strategies are discussed. The scenario technique used is found to be a useful means of gathering and structuring disperse expert knowledge. The paper concludes that—despite some methodological limitations—scenarios can deal with uncertainty concerning the socio-economic driving forces of landscape change and therefore can be used as a preliminary step in formulating robust strategies for landscape management.
Severe competition for water and augmented agricultural and urban development in Israel have modified and destroyed wetland habitats. Using historical maps, we mapped the past extent of swamps and natural rain pools along the central coastal plain of Israel and compared this with the present extent as reflected in reports, field surveys and satellite images. Out of 192 swamps and rain pools recorded in historical sources, only 18% (35) still exist today. Extrapolation from 69 new records of rain pools (missing in historical sources), suggests that in the 19th century, before many of the wetlands were drained, transformed to agricultural land, or built over, the number of wetland habitats in the coastal plain was threefold higher. In addition to reduction of wetland number, human activity has also diminished wetland size. In rainy winters wetland areas in the coastal plain in the past were an order of magnitude larger than they are today (27.6 and 2.4 km2, respectively). At present, the existing natural water bodies along the coastal plain are temporary, small, and surrounded by built-up areas and roads. The grave state of the wetlands in Israel underscores the urgent need for protection of the remnant wetland sites. Following the successful example of wetland restoration in the Hula Valley, we recommend restoring various historical wetlands that have been drained.
During the 20th century in Sweden, industrial landscape design has reflected different ideals at different times. Roughly, four different periods can be distinguished, two in which the leit motif has been the encouragement of industrial objects, two in which the aim has been to hide them or tone them down.During the period 1909–1929, environmentalists usually viewed industrial exploitation as a necessity, but maintained that the industrial object should be made aesthetically pleasing. Pride in the technical achievements of the time permeated physical design and manifested itself in buildings in a nationalistic, monumental style.During the period 1930–1949, the dominating design principle was that the complexes should harmonize with their surroundings. The monumental style of the buildings was replaced by a more frugal, functional architecture and rounded land-forms, and natural vegetation was used.The aesthetic ideals from the period 1950–1964 reflected a significant change from the previous period. More emphasis was laid on the character of industry and human influence. Geometrically exact land-forms, large open areas and horticultural vegetation characterized this period.During the period 1965–1985, at the same time as the visual aspect became less important in environmental protection debates, aesthetic ideals shifted from a heavy emphasis on the industrial character to its almost complete subordination.In summary, one can say that the predominant design principles have, to a considerable extent, been characterized by adaptation to the industrial structures themselves. Industrial landscape design in Sweden has been overshadowed in recent years by the one-sided emphasis on preservation issues demonstrated by authorities as well as the ‘green movement’. If this development continues, it will result in an unfortunate polarization of untouched nature on the one hand and industrial landscape on the other. It should be a reasonable aim of landscape development to see that also positive values are given to the industrially affected landscapes.
This paper asks what should be demanded from urban open space in the 21st century. It explores the social and spatial implications of new lifestyles, values, attitudes to nature and sustainability, and the models for future city life and the patterns of urban open space that might accommodate these. One vital role that urban parks play is providing space for the expression of diversity, both personal and cultural; this raises issues of democratic provision for and access to public open space. It suggests, inter alia, that the role of the urban street as public space may need to be re-thought. The social and cultural values of open space include attitudes towards nature and the desire for contact with it; contemporary understandings of ecology offer new insights into ways to serve both human needs and the broader ecological framework of urban open space structures. It has been suggested that the urbanity of public open space is threatened by the increase in ‘virtual’ transactions, obviating the need for real, social interaction, but there is also evidence that use of new communications technology can increase and enhance use of public open space; this may include engagement in the productive aspect of our landscape. A more flexible approach to open space definition and usage is proposed, recognising ‘loose-fit’ landscapes which allow opportunities for the socially marginalised and the ecologically shifting within a dynamic framework of urban structures and networks.
The history of landscape quality assessment has featured a contest between expert and perception-based approaches, paralleling a long-standing debate in the philosophy of aesthetics. The expert approach has dominated in environmental management practice and the perception-based approach has dominated in research. Both approaches generally accept that landscape quality derives from an interaction between biophysical features of the landscape and perceptual/judgmental processes of the human viewer. The approaches differ in the conceptualizations of and the relative importance of the landscape and human viewer components. At the close of the 20th century landscape quality assessment practice evolved toward a shaky marriage whereby both expert and perceptual approaches are applied in parallel and then, in some as yet unspecified way, merged in the final environmental management decision making process. The 21st century will feature continued momentum toward ecosystem management where the effects of changing spatial and temporal patterns of landscape features, at multiple scales and resolutions, will be more important than any given set of features at any one place at any one time. Valid representation of the visual implications of complex geo-temporal dynamics central to ecosystem management will present major challenges to landscape quality assessment. Technological developments in geographic information systems, simulation modeling and environmental data visualization will continue to help meet those challenges. At a more fundamental level traditional landscape assessment approaches will be challenged by the deep ecology and green philosophy movements which advocate a strongly bio-centric approach to landscape quality assessment where neither expert design principles nor human perceptions and preferences are deemed relevant. On the opposite side of the landscape–human interaction, social/cultural construction models that construe the landscape as the product of socially instructed human interpretation leave little or no role for biophysical landscape features and processes. A psychophysical approach is advocated to provide a more appropriate balance between biophysical and human perception/judgement components of an operationally delimited landscape quality assessment system.
This article presents some questions concerning development in the education of landscape architects in the future. The questions arise from changes observable in programs of some schools of landscape architecture as well as in technical and scientific disciplines that share with landscape architecture activity in the landscape. The aim of the article is to highlight the relationship between landscape planning and science and the technical disciplines that are active in the landscape, as well as the special tasks landscape planning has in environmental conservation. The article stresses that landscape architecture—and landscape planning in particular—is from its inception based on scientific analysis, which, however, it builds upon with a search for solutions to problems of land use and management. Creativity is crucial in this process: it is capable of fulfilling the basic conservation requirement—to employ the environmental intervention alternative that is least harmful to the environment.
Building on the legacy of historic greenway planning in the U.S., several new initiatives have been taking shape and gaining recognition in the past decade. One is ‘Green Infrastructure’ planning which is a ‘must have’ inter-connected system of green spaces. Another is ‘Smart Conservation’—the counterpoint of another planning initiative that preceded it known as ‘Smart Growth’. This is the establishment of critical green corridors that should be preserved and maintained for predominantly ecological functions, in advance of or in conjunction with new development. ‘New Urbanism’ has focused on bringing order and coherence to escalating ‘Edge Cities’ on the urban fringe, based on walkable, mixed-use towns, villages and neighborhoods with integrated open-space systems. Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) are transportation plans for accommodating regional growth around clustered ‘pedestrian pockets’ linked by transit systems. Both New Urbanism and TODs have applied similar principles to ‘brown sites’ and declining city neighborhoods.All these initiatives are different aspects of the greenway movement, expressing its many possibilities, enriching its original concepts, enlarging its credibility—if need be—and emphasizing its importance for and relevance to current issues of sustainability and ‘green’ planning and design. The author, a teacher/practitioner, discusses recent U.S. greenway examples at site, metropolitan and regional scales for which he has been the principal planner/designer or a consultant, and compares New Urbanism and TOD methodologies and approaches to established greenway-planning practices and the premises of Smart Conservation.
Conversion of rural lands to urban and other built-up uses affects the mix of commodities and services produced from the global land base. In the United States, there was a 34% increase in the amount of land devoted to urban and built-up uses between 1982 and 1997. This increase came predominantly from the conversion of croplands and forestland, with the largest increases in developed area happening in the southern region of the country. In an analysis of drivers influencing developed land uses in the US, we found results that were consistent with hypothesized relationships, including significant increases in development as a result of increases in population density and personal income. From these results, we projected changes in potential future urbanization and development by 2025 given estimated increases in population and real personal income. The projections suggest continued urban expansion over the next 25 years, with the magnitude of increase varying by region. US developed area is projected to increase by 79%, raising the proportion of the total land base that is developed from 5.2 to 9.2%. Because much of the growth is expected in areas relatively stressed with respect to human–environment interactions, such as some coastal counties, implications for landscape and urban planning include potential impacts on sensitive watersheds, riparian areas, wildlife habitat, and water supplies.
During the last two decades, a large amount of research has been published in German on the reduction of rainwater runoff for different types of roof greening. This paper analyzes the original measurements reported in 18 publications. Rainfall–runoff relationships for an annual and seasonal time scale were obtained from the analysis of the available 628 data records. The derived empirical models allowed us to assess the surface runoff from various types of roofs, when roof characteristics and the annual or seasonal precipitation are given. The annual rainfall–runoff relationship for green roofs is strongly determined by the depth of the substrate layer. The retention of rainwater on green roofs is lower in winter than in summer. The application of the derived annual relationship for the region of Brussels showed that extensive roof greening on just 10% of the buildings would already results in a runoff reduction of 2.7% for the region and of 54% for the individual buildings. Green roofs can therefore be a useful tool for reducing urban rainfall runoff. Yet in order to provide a greater effect on overall runoff they should be accompanied by other means of runoff reduction and/or water retention.
This research investigates spatial configuration changes of five forest types and introduces uncommon exploration of urban changes in Mount Lebanon. A forest map of 1965 and satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and Spot 5 (2003) were used. Forest area has reduced by 7%, having low annual deforestation rate (<1%). Oak, cedar and cypress forests increased from 13% to 15%, 0.8% to 1% and 0% to 0.1% respectively; while pine and juniper forests decreased from 1% to 0.8% and 12% to 3% respectively. Grassland covered 20% of the original forest area followed by agriculture and urban. Forest patches were investigated in each 100 m distance from the edge of the old forests. Regenerated oaks were found within the first 100 m. Pine and cedar forests appeared at the 400 m distance. Urban settlements showed 4 m yr−1 moving progress toward forest patches. Landscape indices demonstrated increase in the number of forest patches (from 169 to 432) and in the mean proximity index (from 78.29 to 225.15) and decrease in mean patch area (from 219 to 70 ha) and largest patch index (from 15.45 to 10.32). The observed trends revealed major deforestation and fragmentation in 1965–1987, followed by a lesser deforestation tendency in 1987–2003. Each forest type behaves differently to deforestation and therefore requires special management practices.
Geographical information systems (GIS) coupled to 3D visualisation technology is an emerging tool for urban planning and landscape design applications. The utility of 3D GIS for realistically visualising the built environment and proposed development scenarios is much advocated in the literature. Planners assess the merits of proposed changes using visual impact assessment (VIA). We have used Arcview GIS and visualisation software called PolyTRIM from the University of Toronto, Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to create a 3D scene for the entrance to a University campus. The paper investigates the thesis that to facilitate VIA in planning and design requires not only visualisation, but also a structured evaluation technique (Delphi) to arbitrate the decision-making process.
This study explored the impact of speed on shared trail preferences of students (N = 168) in relation to social, managerial and physical trail features, using a latent-class choice experiment with 3D computer animated trail scenarios. The trail scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated films that systematically displayed six social, managerial and physical attributes. On-trail walkers and bicyclists were animated, using 3D character modelling and animation, moving at different speed levels. Respondents preferred litter-free, well designed and managed settings with gravel trails and low user numbers organized in larger groups, and shorter sight distances. Lower speed levels were preferred but speed perception depended on the trail environment. Heterogeneity in trail preferences was found, resulting in two classes with different preferences for social, managerial and physical trail features. Results also indicate that high-quality trail design can absorb more visitors than a less maintained trail environment. 3D computer animation seems to be a useful tool for investigating motion-related factors in environmental perception research.
Habitat loss is the leading cause of biodiversity reduction in the world today, with wetlands having experienced especially large losses in the United States and elsewhere. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques, this study quantified cumulative habitat loss in two Southern California watersheds associated with Clean Water Act Section 404 permits, primarily for developments, issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from 1984 to 2002. While the majority of habitat loss occurred outside of explicitly 404-authorized developments, non-explicitly authorized development represented a substantial fraction of observed habitat loss.The spatial distribution of habitat loss and 404 permits were analyzed statistically. In almost all cases, percent habitat loss was significantly correlated with variables representing 404 authorizations. These correlations may indicate the presence of incidental authorizations, suggesting that 404 authorizations within the study area may have indirectly facilitated nearby development (i.e., growth-inducing impacts). This study expanded the use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial statistics for the purpose of regulatory-driven cumulative impact assessment. Until resource agencies quantify cumulative impacts in a spatially explicit manner and analyze those data statistically, there can be little rigorous scientific basis for formulating regulatory or policy decisions regarding cumulative impacts.
Preference judgements were obtained for a set of scenes consisting entirely of vegetation. The scenes, however, were systematically selected on the basis of three ecological variables – type of vegetation formation, structural integrity and foliar density and a fourth variable, extent of view. Preference varied significantly as a function of these variables but within the mid to upper range of the preference scale. Vegetation as such is, therefore, important in preference, however, the range in preference judgements indicates significant differentiation within the general category identified as vegetation. Type of vegetation interacted significantly with structural integrity, foliar density and extent of view and foliar density and extent of view interacted independently of the other two variables. This pattern of interactions is interpreted in terms of [Kaplan, S., Kaplan, R., 1982. Cognition and Environment: Functioning in an uncertain world. Praeger Publishers, New York] information processing model of environmental preference. However, a number of the aspects of the results are not covered by this model and are interpreted in terms of the role of tacit learning processes.
Change in a riparian landscape was studied for the Azusa River of Central Japan, where Chosenia arbutifolia A. Skav. and Robinia pseudo-acacia L. grow. The objectives were: 1) to describe the dynamics of plant communities over a 46-year period (1948–1994) by using air photographs; and 2) to evaluate the effects of C. arbutifolia and R. pseudo-acacia on riparian landscape diversity. Both species could colonize throughout the study period because their ecological niches differ, i.e. C. arbutifolia grows mainly on the islands and terraces along streams newly formed by channel-changing, whereas R. pseudo-acacia establishes itself primarily on the terraces supporting the revetment. After R. pseudo-acacia scrubs established near the revetment, they invaded the land which different vegetation types, such as native Salicaceous and Pinus densiflora forests, already occupied. In particular, the stability of beaches promoted the succession of beaches in various forest types during the period 1975–1989 and contributed to the increase in riparian landscape diversity. The rapid increase and wide ecological niche of R. pseudo-acacia patches, however, may bring about a decline in the landscape diversity and biodiversity in the near future.
Development and preservation of the vernacular landscape has drawn the attention of scholars worldwide. This study examines the vernacular landscape of Al-Alkhalaf, an agricultural community located in the Asir region of southwestern Saudi Arabia. The vernacular landscape is viewed in the context of the interaction between the built environment agricultural and natural landscapes and the inhabitants.This paper provides the reader with historical, cultural and ethnographic perspectives on the planning and management of land in Al-Alkhalaf. The study discusses the interaction of ecological, economic, and social-structural factors during a particular historical period and shows their role in shaping human life and the vernacular landscape.Al-Alkhalaf is an example of outstanding land management in a traditional society from which modern planners can learn.