LUMAT International Journal on Math Science and Technology Education

Published by LUMA Centre Finland
Online ISSN: 2323-7112
The history and evolution of science assessment remains poorly known, especially in the context of the exam question contents. Here we analyze the Finnish matriculation examination in biology from the 1920s to 1960s to understand how the exam has evolved in both its knowledge content and educational form. Each question was classified according to its topic in biology, and its cognitive level by Bloom’s taxonomy. Overall, the exam progressed from a rather dichotomous test of botany and zoology to a modern exam covering biology from biochemistry to environmental science, reflecting the development of biology as a scientific discipline. The contribution of genetics increased steadily, while ecology witnessed a decline and a renaissance during the same time period. The biological profile of the questions was established by the 1950s. The educational standard and cognitive demand of the questions was always high and established by the 1940s.
The July 2014 issue of the Chemistry Education Research and Practice is dedicated to physical chemistry education. Major sub-themes are: the role of controversies in PC education, quantum chemistry, chemical thermodynamics (including a review of research on the teaching and learning of thermodynamics) and PC textbooks. Topics covered include: the significance of the origin of PC in connection with the case of electrolyte solution chemistry; the true nature of the hydrogen bond; using the history of science and science education for teaching introductory quantum physics and quantum chemistry; a module for teaching elementary quantum chemistry; undergraduate students’ conceptions of enthalpy, enthalpy change and related concepts; particulate level models of adiabatic and isothermal processes; prospective teachers’ mental models of vapor pressure; an instrument that can be used to identify students’ alternative conceptions regarding thermochemistry concepts; and the organization/sequencing of the major areas of PC in many PC textbooks.
The aim of the study was to examine how different book series support teacher in the pupil assessment. The focus of the study was on the demand of many-sidedness and continuity of assessment expressed in the curriculum. All materials in three different book series made for 2nd grade were analyzed. All the assessment instructions were collected from the materials and they were quantitatively examined based on their amount and location. The instructions were divided in two groups based on qualitative analysis: hands-on instructions and pedagogical instructions. Based on results Finnish textbook series follow well the concrete aims set out in the curriculum (Opetushallitus, 2004). Instead it is not so straightforward to interpret many-sidedness and continuity because the concepts can be defined in many ways. However, it can be noted that the assessment emphasizes one-sided traditional assessment: teacher gives the assessment, the aim of the assessment is to collect information, the target of the assessment is the learning result, and the method for assessment is quantitative tests. Newer forms of assessment could be found from the researched materials but they didn’t appear very systematically. When researching the continuity of the assessment it was found out that the materials guided teachers to make assessments several times during the semester. The assessment was suggested to perform at the end of the study module. The materials didn’t guide systematically to assess during the study module. FULL TEXT IN FINNISH
This work presents the result of the application of a didactic sequence designed to understand the concept of the Cavalieri’s Principle, supported by the GeoGebra application in its version for mobile phones - 3D Calculator. For this study, the Theory of Categories of Intuitive Reasoning, by Efraim Fischbein, was used as a conceptual basis. The objective of this work was to elaborate and develop a didactic sequence aiming to subsidize the learning of the Cavalieri’s Principle from GeoGebra, as a way to help the student in the construction of geometric reasoning, through visualization, perception and intuition. The methodology of this work is qualitative research, exploratory type, being carried out from a didactic sequence developed in two meetings remotely, due to the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic. The target audience of this research is a group of students aged 15-17 years from a public school in Fortaleza - CE, Brazil. In summary, it is pointed out that the intuitive reasoning categories mobilized from the use of GeoGebra have great potential to stimulate the evolution of the student's geometric thinking, through the development of perception, intuition and geometric visualization.
Mean and standard deviation (SD) of both experimental and control groups.
Summary of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for the significance of difference in physics test scores between students exposed to 5E learning cycle and lecture method.
Mean and standard deviation between urban and rural students taught using lecture method.
Result of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of test scores between urban and rural students on achievement in groups taught using lecture method
Summary of ANCOVA for significant interaction effect between the methods used and school location on achievement in Physics.
This study examined the effects of school location on secondary school students’ academic achievement in Physics based on the 5E learning cycle. The design of the study was a non – randomized prêt-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The population of the study was 66,345. Two hundred and forty-three students were sampled from six schools. Four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The hypotheses state that there is no significant difference in mean achievement scores in Physics between urban and rural students taught using 5E leaning cycle among others. The statistical tools used were mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used in testing the hypotheses formulated. The result amongst others showed there is no significant difference between rural and urban students’ achievement taught using 5E learning circle (Fcal. (113) = F crit (0.005), p>0.05). Based on the findings, it was recommended among others, that 5E learning cycle be adopted in Nigeria secondary schools as a teaching method and that faculties of education in various schools of higher learning should ensure that 5E learning cycle is included as a method of teaching Physics
The typology of personal meaning with relation to the intensity of relatedness to mathematics and the individual consisting of 18 personal meanings. Note that amendments have been made with respect to the typology suggested by Vollstedt (2011b).
Descriptive results per personal meaning of the Welch two sample t-test between Finland (FIN) and Germany (GER).
This study focuses on a comparison of personal meanings that students from Finland (FIN) and Germany (GER) assign to (learning) mathematics. Participants are 256 Finnish and 276 German ninth graders. The survey consists of 18 scales that are based on the theory of personal meaning. The original German version was translated into Finnish. Using item response theory (IRT) partial credit models, the psychometric properties of the scales were found to be good. As statistical procedure, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis and mean comparisons were conducted to compare the two groups’ (FIN and GER) responses. Indicators of educational system and curriculum could be found in students’ responses to explain similarities and differences between the two samples. In both countries, social inclusion is meaningful for most of the students (Support by teacher, Experience of relatedness, and Emotional-affective relation to teacher). In addition, it is personally meaningful for Finnish students to do well in mathematics. This shows a link to identity-related questions such as confirming important aspects of the self. Hence, personal meanings related to mathematics are more common in Finland than in Germany (Active practice of mathematics, Cognitive challenge, and Self-perfection).
The article discusses the significance of science theatre and the role of nature of science in it, as well as the significance of history of chemistry, and different methods for popularizing it and using it in teaching. The study includes two surveys (N=45 and N=126) conducted among the audiences of “Virtanen!” play, performed in 2011. The data was analyzed using content analysis. Based on the results, the history of science was mainly portrayed through the life of the protagonist of the play, and the play showed the human side of science to the audience. In addition, from the viewpoint of nature of science, the play emphasized the role of social interaction in science as well as the interaction between science and the society. According to the audiences, national expertise in chemistry should be emphasized more in order to increase interest towards the subject and also to promote national self-esteem. It was suggested that history of chemistry should be presented through different methods, such as science theater, school teaching, exhibitions, and documentary films, in future. Also, it was hoped that history would be included in chemistry teaching together with other chemistry contents, through historical portraits of scientists, in collaboration with other school subjects or as a separate lesson on history of science. Science theatre was found to be a good method to teach history of chemistry and nature of science, and to popularize chemistry.
The first solar cell was invented nearly two centuries ago, but during the recent years the progress has been rapid. In addition to the well known silicon soler cells, there is now a large number of other solar cells. These solar cells have many interesting properties, such as the the color, design and manufacturing processes. This paper discusses the solar cells based on light-absorbing dyes and perovskites.
Students’ challenges in learning mechanics are well documented from test situations, and group discussions are considered a fruitful way to meet these challenges. In this paper, we present a study from an authentic teaching setting where upper secondary students in groups solve the task of calculating the acceleration of an elevator by means of a scale. The group work was audio recorded in three groups with different ability levels. Analysis was performed inductively using the analytical tool of semantic gravity and semantic waves. The results reveal multiple challenges solving the task, even among high-achieving secondary physics students. The study shows that for group discussions to be fruitful, students must be able to negotiate for meaning by alternating between different levels of semantic gravity. In this study, only the group consisting of relatively high-achieving students was able to do this. For the groups that did not succeed, this is found to be due to insufficient knowledge base, poor integration of the required concepts in their own language and inappropriate epistemological framing of the situation. It is concluded that more effort should be put into learning basic concepts than curricula and teaching traditions normally provide. This should include tasks carefully adapted to students’ ability, where students can practice alternation between levels of semantic gravity.
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of Post-Achievement by Treatment and Verbal ability
Estimated Marginal Means for Post-Achievement by Treatment and Control group
Estimated Marginal Means for Post-Achievement by Verbal ability
Education is changing rapidly. Schools are gradually shifting away from the traditional mode of instruction and toward a more active model of learning, in which students are collaborating on projects in small groups and then sharing their work with the class. Africa cannot afford to be left behind in this change. Though collaborative teaching and learning are quite popular in Africa, its variants/forms, consensus group and cooperative reflective journal writing are not. The effect of collaborative instructional strategies (consensus group and cooperative reflective journal writing) on students' achievement in biology as moderated by verbal ability was determined in this study. Three hundred five senior secondary school II students from two local governments' area within Ibadan Metropolis participated in the study. The Students' Biology Achievement Test (SBAT) and the Students' Verbal Ability Test (SVAT) were the main data collection tools used for this study. Data generated were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Bonferonni post hoc test. Results show that both forms of collaborative instructional strategies improved students' achievement in biology. Results showed that students exposed to the cooperative reflective journal writing achieved more in biology followed by students in the consensus group strategy. Collaborative strategy can be a feasible alternative approach to teaching biology as it fairly addresses issues of interaction in the classroom. This has helped students develop their communication and also improve their socialisation skills in the classroom and beyond.
Small child has a natural ability to ask, wonder, and explore. In the spring 2013, Finland’s Science Education Centre LUMA, operating within University of Helsinki, targeted its traditional Jippo science clubs for the first time for children as young as 3 to 6 years of age. This article discusses the model for the club and experiences from its implementation in the first stage of a design research project. The aims of the developed Pikku-Jipot (Little Jippos) science club model are to train the inquiry, thinking, and discussion skills of small children, and support the comprehensive social and emotional learning (SEL) through the joy of learning and achievement. The science club with six sessions was implemented during the spring 2013 for 3 to 4 and 5 to 6-year-old children. In total, 25 children and their guardians participated in the club activities. The developed model combined science, technology, art, and emotions through stories, inquiry, role-playing, and music. According to the guardians, the goals of the first science club were reached very well. According to the feedback from the children, especially the characters played by the club guides proved to be a rousing model.
Practical laboratory activities have become more common in primary and secondary education with the current curriculum. In lower secondary school, laboratory work in chemistry and physics has been used even longer. The central issues of laboratory work becoming more common are how the activities are organized, safety of the laboratory work, and evaluation. Laboratory work has been taken into account in evaluation in many different ways, for example, a written assignment has been complemented with a practical assignment. The evaluation method provides those who can practically and manually demonstrate activeness and skill with the possibility to succeed.
Abstract in English - Fulltext in Finnish. The study is part of a longitudinal research. Students belonging to the same age group were followed from the third grade of primary education to the end of upper secondary level. The data was collected by EDUFI and FINEEC during 2005–2015. The data consists of 3896 students. The target group consists of mathematically high-achieving students at the end of their studies in upper secondary school. The definition of high-achieving students based on success in matriculation examination of advanced math (n = 146). First we examine how high-achieving students’ attitudes towards mathematics change from primary education to the end of upper secondary level and then how pedagogical solutions in grades 7–9 and in upper secondary level explain boys’ and girls’ changes in attitudes. Decision tree analysis (DTA) and regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The results indicated that high-achieving students liked more mathematics during upper secondary school but self-concept and experience of usefulness of mathematics decreased. The changes of high-achieving girls’ attitudes differed from the general trend of change. High-achieving girls’ self-concept increased almost to the same level than high-achieving boys’ during grades 7–9 and in upper secondary school. Additionally, girls liked mathematics more than boys at the end of upper secondary level. The development of high-achieving girls’ and boys’ attitudes was explained by different pedagogical solutions. Both girls’ and boys’ positive attitudes were generally reinforced by pedagogical solutions related to student-centeredness, cooperative learning and paying attention to students’ needs. Fulltext in Finnish. Tutkimus perustuu Opetushallituksen ja Kansallisen koulutuksen arviointikeskuksen keräämään pitkittäisaineistoon. Samaan ikäluokkaan kuuluvat oppilaat ovat osallistuneet kansallisiin matematiikan kokeisiin ja matematiikka-asenteita kartoittaviin kyselyihin vuosien 2005–2015 aikana neljällä eri mittauskerralla perusopetuksen kolmannelta vuosiluokalta toisen asteen loppuun. Tutkimusaineiston kokonaisotos käsittää yhteensä 3896 oppilasta. Tutkimuksessa keskitytään tarkastelemaan matematiikassa parhaiten menestyneitä opiskelijoita. Matematiikan parhaiksi osaajiksi määritetään kansalliseen matematiikan kokeeseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset, jotka saivat pitkän matematiikan ylioppilaskokeesta arvosanan laudatur tai eximia cum laude approbatur (n = 146). Ensin tutkimuksessa selvitetään, miten parhaiden osaajien matematiikka-asenteet muuttuivat perusopetuksesta lukion loppuun ja toiseksi, miten opetuksen pedagogiset ratkaisut yläkoulussa ja lukiossa selittävät osaamiseltaan parhaiden tyttöjen ja poikien asenteissa tapahtuneita muutoksia. Selittävien tekijöiden analyysissa käytetään päätöspuuanalyysia (DTA) ja lineaarista regressioanalyysia. Matematiikan parhaiden osaajien matematiikasta pitäminen kasvoi lukio-opintojen aikana, mutta minäkäsitys ja kokemus matematiikan hyödyllisyydestä laskivat. Matematiikassa parhaiten menestyneiden tyttöjen asenteissa tapahtuneet muutokset poikkesivat asenteiden yleisestä muutossuunnasta. Parhaiden tyttöjen minäkäsitys kasvoi yläkoulun ja lukion aikana lähes parhaiten menestyneiden poikien tasolle ja tytöt pitivät matematiikasta lukion lopussa poikia enemmän. Matematiikassa parhaiten menestyneiden tyttöjen ja poikien asenteiden kehittymistä selittivät erilaiset opetuksen pedagogiset ratkaisut. Molemmilla myönteisiä asenteita vahvistivat yleisesti oppilaskeskeisyyteen, yhteistoiminnallisuuteen ja oppijoiden tarpeiden huomioimiseen liittyvät pedagogiset ratkaisut.
The aim of the new material is to support students’ learning of chemistry: acidity and pH-indicators, especially anthocyans, and their argumentation. The material presented here was tested with both teachers and students. This material can be used with elementary school students and high school students. It is also an example on how to bring molecular gastronomy and food chemistry into the chemistry teaching.
Chain of Reactions and Calculations Related to Them in a Way Activating Students
The article assesses the effects of a math club for girls that was held in spring 2013. The effects were evaluated by mapping the changes in the views of mathematics among girls, who participated in the club activities. The SoMa Club for female lower secondary school pupils focused on applied mathematics. The activities were developed in collaboration with researchers form University of Helsinki’s Department of Mathematics and Statistics.
Educational design research provides opportunities for both the theoretical understanding and practical explanations of teaching. In educational design research, mathematics teachers’ learning is essential. However, research shows that little consideration is given to teachers and the participation of teachers throughout the entire design process as well as in continued learning. With this in mind, an educational teacher-focused design research was used to explore the challenges teachers face and the opportunities teachers are given when they participate as actors in all the phases of educational design research - designing, teaching, and refining theoretical concepts within the teaching. In this study, the mathematics focus of the design research was generalizations in patterns with Design Principles as the theoretical frame. The results show that the participation of teachers in all the phases of a design process is central for the teachers’ learning. Moreover, challenges that the teachers encounter in the classroom provide opportunities and consequences for the continued design process and lead to changes in the teachers’ understanding of generalizations. The results also indicate that functional thinking and linear equations contributed to both the teachers’ and students’ learning about generalizations in patterns.
This qualitative case study aims to obtain information about the conceptions of the students and university staff concerning the new student admission process of subject teacher education at the University of Oulu. The new process was developed based on constructivist teaching and learning theories. A total of 206 students and 51 university teachers from the Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Education and Faculty of Natural Sciences participated in the research voluntarily. The data were collected by questionnaires in 2010–2012. It was analysed by the deductive and inductive content analysis method. Based on the conceptions of the respondents, the guidelines for student admission are quite adequate. The new admission criteria (opening speech, interaction skills, motivation, conception of schoool and learners, and academic skills) were evaluated to be suitable for the purpose. The wide range of skills required for working as a teacher was found to be well reflected in the criteria. Most students and interviewers thought that the students participated in and directed the discussions actively. Positive characteristics of students and supportive behaviour of the interviewers helped discussion along. The goal of the new student admission process was to remove the differences in student admission processes and criteria between different faculties at the University of Oulu. It seems that this was successful. Most respondents evaluated the new admission process as useful.
Gaze-tracking gear.
Based on Dewey’s theory of art, aesthetics, and experiences and photographer Barnbaums’ writing about expanded perception through photography, we conducted a one-day experimental mathematics education unit. Using photography in outdoor conditions had a positive impact on teacher students’ perception of the use of photography for teaching mathematics. To study the changes in students’ visual attention deeper, we used gaze-tracking to analyse one student’s visual attention when walking outdoors after the activity. The gaze data indicated that more visual attention was given to objects he had photographed or discussed during the group activity in comparison to other objects.
As a part of this research, a survey and four student interviews were done on the motivation of chemistry students of University of Oulu. The aim was to find out the formation of motivation, and seek factors that affect the students’ motivation to study chemistry. The survey measured the inner motivation, outer motivation and lack of motivation based on self-determination theory. The most common aspect of motivation among the students was the inner motivation to learn more about chemistry. Among the common aspects were also the aspects of outer motivation: outside regulation and benefit. By interviewing four of the students, a deeper understanding of the factors behind motivation was sought. Among the positive factors were the parallel lectures and laboratory practices, and including recent research results into teaching. The significance of laboratory practice was the most evident factor. Among the factors reducing motivation were problems with group formation, unclear issues and lectures where everything was readily given. By paying attention to group formation, motivation to study could be increased relatively easily.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics or "STEM" focused pedagogy has been influenced changes in education for decades. Responding to the need for interdisciplinary skilled workforces, the STEM approach has been revised firstly to reflect the incorporation of Arts, (STEAM) and, more recently, to place stronger emphasis on cross-disciplinary connections. However, there is little empirical evidence to drive the development of a practical model for classroom implementation. This systematic review aims to consolidate existing empirical evidence on the incorporation of interdisciplinary learning via a STEM/STEAM approach in high-school environments using a PRISMA review scaffolding. The review identified ninety-nine articles that addressed interdisciplinary learning. However, the majority of them were excluded due to the lack of empirical evidence for such improvements, resulting in only eleven studies being included in the final synthesis. This suggests that more research is required prior to wide-scale implementation within high school education systems. Of those that met the selection criteria, the overarching theme was that improved outcomes were best achieved via either a real-world project-based or problem-based learning pedagogy with the use of community and industry support. However, due to the low number of studies found to fit the criteria, it is recommended that further research is conducted to provide greater empirical evidence to support this finding.
Verkko-oppimisympäristöjen suosio kasvaa kiihtyvällä tahdilla maailman laajuisesti ja samaan aikaan tarve uusille lähestymistavoille verkko-oppimisen ja -opetuksen kehittämisessä ja tutkimuksessa on kasvanut. Vaikka lokitiedot mahdollistavat verkkokäyttäytymisen tutkimisen, on tätä mahdollisuutta hyödynnetty verkko-oppimisen ja -opetuksen tutkimuskontekstissa verrattain vähän. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin lokitietoja verkkokurssin arvioinnissa ja kehittämisessä MOOC-ympäristössä. Tässä artikkelissa kuvataan oppimisprosessia lokitietojen avulla sekä pohditaan sitä, minkälaista ymmärrystä oppimisesta lokitiedot voivat tuottaa ja miten tällaisen tiedon voisi tulevaisuudessa valjastaa oppimisen tueksi. Tutkimusaineisto koostui matematiikan opettajien (N=58) täydennyskoulutusverkkokurssin lokitiedoista. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että syvällisemmät tai enemmän aikaa vaativat aktiviteetit keskeyttävät yhtenäisen opiskelun herkemmin kuin esimerkiksi videoluennot. Lyhytkestoiset videot ja nopeasti vastattavat kyselyt sen sijaan sitouttavat osallistujia yhtenäiseen opiskeluun. Vaikka suoristustavoissa on yksilöllisiä eroja, verkkokurssin kehittämistarvetta on mahdollista arvioida lokitietojen avulla. Esitämme artikkelissa vision siitä, kuinka tulevaisuudessa lokitiedot voisivat automaattisesti analysoitua, järjestelmä tunnistaisi oppimisprofiileja ja verkko-oppimisympäristö muokkautuisi automaattisesti tunnistettujen opiskelutaipumusten mukaan. Kun prosessiin yhdistetään tekoäly myös profilointialgoritmi kehittyisi automaattisesti käyttäjädatan kasvun myötä. In English Web-based learning enviroments have become increasingly popular world-wide. At the same time, the need for new approaches to both supporting and investigating teaching and learning have emerged. Although log information enables research of online behavior, this opportunity is not used to its full potential in the context of web-based teaching and learning. This research utilized log information in the assessment of a MOOC course and its development. This article describes the learning process with the help of log information. It also envisions what kind of understanding of the learning process log information can provide and how this understanding may be harnessed to support learning in the future. The data consisted of the log information of mathematic teachers (N=58) participating in an online continuing training course. The results show that in-depth time-consuming activities interrupt studying more easily than video lectures for example. Short videos and quick queries engage the participant in more coherent study. Although there are individual differences in the studying, less well-functioning teaching content and tasks can be recognized through log information. We present a vision of how log information can be automatically analyzed; the system would recognize learning profiles and the online environment would automatically modify itself according to the profile. When AI (artificial intelligence) is utilized the profiling algorithm would develop automatically as user data accumulates. Fulltext in Finnish.
Successful teaching using mathematical visual aids?
We present how the education of subject teachers is organized in mathematics, science and computer science in Tampere. It is based on the idea that both engineering students and students from mathematics and science may choose to become a subject teacher. Students are accepted either to the master’s degree program in Science and Engineering of Tampere University of Technology or the master’s program of Mathematics and Statistics of University of Tampere. Students from different universities are giving opportunities to learn from each other. They study physics and chemistry in Tampere University of Technology and do pedagogical studies in University of Tampere. Both universities have also developed special motivating courses based on the didactical research to their students. In mathematics, there is a joined course for the second or third year students motivating towards teaching carrier. In both universities there are possibilities to do the master or bachelor thesis in didactics of mathematics or science. Both universities have an important role in education of subject teachers in Finland. Tampere University of Technology is providing opportunities during studies to cooperate between schools and industry. It gives ideas how science and mathematics are applied in the modern society. University of Tampere also trains primary school teachers with specialization in mathematics.
Jyväskylän yliopistosta valmistuu aineenopettajia LUMA-aineissa kaikilta matemaattisluonnontieteellisen tiedekunnan ainelaitoksilta, lisäksi tietotekniikan opettajia informaatioteknologian tiedekunnasta. Matemaattis-luonnontieteellisestä tiedekunnasta valmistuu vuosittain reilut 40 aineenopettajaa, kaikkiaan valmistuneista maistereista noin joka neljännellä on opettajan pätevyys. Tietotekniikan laitokselta valmistuu vuosittain noin 10 aineenopettajaa. Tulevan aineenopettajan opintopolku muodostuu opinnoista ainelaitoksilla, opettajankoulutuslaitoksella ja Normaalikoulussa. Opettajia kouluttavien yhteistyö on tärkeää opintojen kokonaisvaltaisessa suunnittelussa. Ainelaitosten, opettajankoulutuslaitoksen ja Normaalikoulun kolmikantayhteistyö on kehittämistyössä avaintekijä.
Tieto- ja viestintätekniikan (TVT) monipuolinen käyttö on olennainen osa tulevien kemian aineenopettajien koulutusta Helsingin yliopistossa. Kemian aineenopettajakoulutusyksikön tavoitteena on kouluttaa osaavia tutkivia ja yhteisöllisiä opettajia tulevaisuuden kouluihin. Tuleville kemian opettajille pyritään läpi koko koulutuksen kehittämään hyvät TVT-taidot sekä taitoa käyttää digitaalisia opetusvälineitä ja ohjelmia osaavasti ja ennakkoluulottomasti omassa opetuksessaan kemian opetussuunnitelman perusteiden tavoitteiden mukaisesti. Teknologis-pedagogisen sisältötiedon (TPCK) sekä tieto- ja viestintätekniikan mahdollisuuksien ja haasteiden esille tuominen ovat tärkeä osa tulevien kemian opettajien koulutusta. Tämä artikkeli esittelee Kemian opettajankoulutusyksikössä laaditun TVT-strategian ja pohtii sen soveltuvuutta kemian aineenopettajakoulutukseen. Lisäksi esitellään esimerkin avulla, miten strategian käytännön toteutuksen vaikutusta kemian aineenopettajaopiskelijoiden tietoihin ja taitoihin on seurattu. Sen mukaan suunnitelmallinen TVT-strategiaan pohjautuva opetus näyttäisi edistävän monipuolisesti kemian opettajaksi opiskelevien TVT-taitoja. Erityisesti opiskelijat kokivat oppineensa simulaatiosovelluksia kemian käsitteiden ja ilmiöiden opettamiseen sekä relevantteja ohjelmia materiaalien ja ideoiden jakamiseen. Kurssien jälkeen opiskelijat arvioivat TVT-taitonsa erityisen vahvoiksi sähköisten oppimisalustojen, yhteisöllisen tekstinkäsittelyn, ja kemian opetusmateriaalien etsimisen suhteen. Tässä esiteltyä TVT-strategiaa ollaan tutkimuspohjaisesti kehittämässä ja suuntaamassa kemian oppimisen ja opetuksen kannalta tärkeisiin tulevaisuuden taitoihin sekä osaamisalueisiin.
Matematiikan osaamisen ja matemaattisen minäkäsityksen välillä on vahva positiivinen yhteys. Matematiikkaan liittyvän minäkäsityksen ja osaamistason pitkittäiset muutokset ja näiden vaikutukset auttavat ymmärtämään erilaisten oppijoiden valintojen taustoja suomalaisen koulu-uran aikana aina toisen asteen loppuun asti. Kartoitimme suomalaisten oppijoiden minäkäsityksen ja osaamistason yhteyttä Kansallisen koulutuksen arviointikeskuksen (KARVIn) vuosina 2008–2015 keräämän matematiikan arviointiaineiston pohjalta. Tarkasteluun käytimme ristiviiveyhteyksien paneelimallia (cross-lagged panel model, CLPM) sekä KARVIn pitkittäistutkimuksessa tunnistettua lukiolaisten luokittelua heidän suorittamiensa matematiikan kurssien määrän perusteella. Havaitsimme opiskelijoiden minäkäsityksen heikkenevän ja eri koulupolkujen osaamistasojen välisten erojen kasvavan. Ammatillisella puolella minäkäsitys vakiintuu peruskoulun lopun tasolle, kun taas lukiossa paljon kursseja suorittaneiden keskuudessa peruskoulun aikainen korkea minäkäsitys laskee voimakkaasti. Näillä ryhmillä peruskoulun osaamistaso on voimakkaammin yhteydessä toisen asteen lopun minäkäsitykseen kuin peruskoulun lopun minäkäsitys toisen asteen lopun osaamistasoon. Muissa luokittelun ryhmissä vastaavissa yhteyksissä ainoastaan peruskoulun lopun minäkäsityksellä on merkitsevä yhteys toisen asteen lopun osaamistasoon. Tutkimuksemme mukaan oppilaan vertaisryhmän tason vaikutus (ns. ”Big Fish, Little Pond” -vaikutus) selittää minäkäsityksen muutoksia toisella asteella. Development of self-concept and proficiency in mathematics from primary school to upper secondary school The positive correlations between mathematics achievement, enjoyment in mathematics, and self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics are well established. In this study, examining the longitudinal changes in mathematics attitudes and their effects help us to understand the reasons behind different choices the Finnish students make in their school path until the end of secondary grade. We have examined the relation between self-concept and proficiency in mathematics using the national longitudinal mathematics learning outcomes evaluation data collected by the Finnish Education Evaluation Centre (FINEEC) during 2008–2015. The relation between the variables is analysed using a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) and FINEEC’s classification of mathematics course completed (2017) in the upper secondary education. Proficiency level gap increased over time between students and self-concept decreased. For students who chose the vocational track, there was no decrease in self-concept after lower secondary school. In the academic track, self-efficacy decrease strongest in high achievers group. In transition to upper secondary education, among vocational school and high achievers strongest cross-effect was from proficiency to self-concept. For others, only significant cross-effect was from previous self-concept to profession. Based on our research, “Big Fish Little Pond Effect” is related to changes in self-concept.
The overarching aim of this article is to exemplify and analyse how some algebraic aspects of equations can be theoretically explored and reflected upon by young students in collaboration with their teacher. The article is based upon an empirical example from a case study in a grade 1 in a primary school. The chosen lesson is framed by the El’konin-Davydov curriculum (ED Curriculum) and learning activity theory in which the concept of a learning model is crucial. Of the 23 participating students, 12 were girls and 11 boys, approximately seven to eight years old. The analysis of data focuses on the use of learning models and reflective elaboration and discussions exploring algebraic structures of whole and parts. The findings indicate that it is possible to promote the youngest students’ algebraic understanding of equations through the collective and reflective use of learning models, and we conclude that the students had opportunity to develop algebraic thinking about equations as a result of their participation in the learning activity.
Vuodesta 2004 lähtien järjestetyt Valtakunnalliset LUMA-päivät järjestettiin ensimmäistä kertaa Joensuussa 1.–3.6.2015. Päivät järjestettiin ensimmäistä kertaa myös uutena ajankohtana, kesäkuun alussa heti koulutyön kesäkeskeytyksen alettua. Tapahtuma oli ensimmäistä kertaa myös kolmipäiväinen, laajan ohjelmatarjonnan vuoksi. LUMA-päiville osallistui kaikkiaan kolmesataa LUMA-opetusalan nykyistä tai kasvavaa asiantuntijaa varhaiskasvatuksesta korkeakouluihin: opettajia, opettajaksi opiskelevia, opettajankouluttajia, opetuksen tutkijoita ja opetuksen kehittäjiä Suomesta ja ulkomailtakin. Tapahtuman teemoina olivat uudistuvat opetussuunnitelmien perusteet, digitalisoituvat oppimisympäristöt ja arviointi sekä Kansainvälinen valon vuosi 2015. Osa ohjelmasta oli englanniksi tapahtuman yhteydessä järjestetyn kansainvälisen ISSE 2015 -symposiumin osallistujia varten. Ohjelmaan kuului LUMA-keskus Suomen johdon ja Itä-Suomen yliopiston tervehdykset osallistujille, viisi luentoa, kaksi paneelikeskustelua sekä kymmeniä tietoiskuja ja työpajoja. Keynote-luennoitsija oli Stanfordin yliopiston professori Jonathan Osborne, joka puhui opetussuunnitelman uudistuksista yhdysvaltalaisesta näkökulmasta. Paneelikeskusteluissa asiantuntijat opetushallinnosta, yliopistoista ja kustannusalalta pohtivat uudistuvien opetussuunnitelmien sekä digitaalisten oppimisympäristöjen ja digitaalisen arvioinnin käyttöönoton mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita. Tietoiskuja/työpajoja oli mm. reilusta kolmestakymmenestä LUMA SUOMI -ohjelmaan kuuluvasta kehittämishankkeesta, lisäksi kansallisten Scientix-lähettiläiden sekä useiden muiden asiantuntijoiden vetäminä. Tähän teemanumeroon pyydettiin kaikilta päivien esiintyjiltä kirjoitukset. Numeroon on koottu saapuneita, tietoiskuja tai työpajoja vetäneiden asiantuntijoiden artikkeleita hankkeistaan tai erityisalastaan LUMA-aineiden opetuksen näkökulmasta. Seuraavat valtakunnalliset LUMA-päivät järjestetään Lahdessa (6.–8.6.2016) ja Jyväskylässä (5.–7.6.2017). Oivaltamisen ja onnistumisen iloa matematiikasta, luonnontieteistä ja teknologiasta!
Percentages of different categories for each prompt and age group. For statistical significance *p<.05 and **p<.005 when compared to the comic prompt. The inter-rater reliability measured with Cohen's Kappa is presented in last column.
The early years of primary school are important in shaping how children see scientists and science, but researching younger children is known to be difficult. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST), in which students are asked to draw a scientist, has been one of the most popular ways to chart children’s conceptions of scientists and science. However, DAST tends to focus mainly on children’s conceptions about the appearance of scientists. To focus more on children’s conceptions of scientific activities as well as the emotions and attitudes associated with science, the Draw-A-Science-Comic test (DASC) was recently introduced. This study compares three alternative DASC prompts for two age groups of respondents (8- to 10-year-olds and 10- to 13-year-olds). The prompts asking students to draw a comic or a set of pictures produced significantly more sequential storytelling and depictions of science related emotions and attitudes than the prompt asking students to depict a story. The depictions of elements of danger, such as accidents and hazards in the laboratory, were also frequent in drawings with sequential storytelling. A more detailed analysis of the depictions showed that the frequency of elements of danger was closely associated with depictions of activity especially in the field of chemistry. For example, several comics included failed chemical experiments leading to explosions. Although depictions of danger are sometimes interpreted as a negative conception, in the children’s drawings the explosions and overflowing flasks were often seen also as a source of excitement and joy. Based on the result of this study, the use of DASC seems a suitable way for charting children’s conceptions of scientific activities as well as the emotions and attitudes associated with science from the early years of primary education until the beginning of secondary education.
Understanding Concepts for Calculations: Amount of Substance and Mole
Problem solving is central in chemical education. In order to succeed as a chemistry student or professionally as a chemist it is highly crucial to develop skills that enhance problem solving. Prioritizing the development of problem solving a lesson on electrolysis was planned for 11th graders. This article presents significant teaching and learning methods that according to research enhance problem solving and other related skills. Additionally the article presents successful applications of these methods into teaching electrolysis concepts. The methods introduced are solving problems cooperatively in groups, solving problems with students rather than for students, the use of animations and provoking class participation and discussion.
Different categories of teacher questioning during problem solving. The rows indicate the categories identified by different studies, and the columns unite these categories under similar concepts.
Sample of teachers' questions
Summary of the questions asked by teachers
Summary of the main results per teacher
This case study focuses on teachers’ actions during problem-solving lessons. The aim of this study was to find out how teachers guide students during mathematics problem-solving lessons: What kinds of questions do teachers ask? How do students arrive at solutions to problems? The dataset contained videotaped fourth-grade math lessons in which students solved a mathematical problem. The research reveals that teachers can guide students in numerous ways and possibly in ways that prevent students from searching for their own solution strategies. For this reason, problem-solving exercises alone are not sufficient for teaching students problem solving, as teachers must also be instructed in how to properly guide students. In the conclusion section, we discuss the types of questions that enable teachers to promote active learning in students, which should be the goal of instruction according to the constructive learning theory.
This tudy aims at better understanding of the use of self-assessment to support high-achieving students in first-year university mathematics. The students, who had not previously self-assessed their skills and knowledge in mathematics, were given two self-assessment exercises during a calculus course: they assessed their prior knowledge and learning goals in the beginning of the course and the quality of their learning outcomes in the end. Their approaches to learning and perceptions of self-assessment were studied with questionnaires in the beginning and at the end of the course. The students felt that they were able to assess their performance and that self-assessment exercises helped them to learn. Their self-ratings agreed well with the teacher's grading. Self-assessment was implemented to support novice students to adopt a deep approach to learning, and the results showing a statistically significant decrease in unreflective approach give an encouraging signal.
Reform movements in mathematics education advocate that mathematical argumentation play a central role in all classrooms. However, research shows that mathematics teachers at all grade level find it challenging to support argumentation in mathematics classrooms. This study examines the role of teachers’ mathematical knowledge in teachers’ support of argumentation in mathematics classroom. The study addresses a documented need for a better understanding of the relationship between mathematical knowledge for teaching and instruction by focusing on how the knowledge influences teachers’ support of argumentation. The results provide insights into particular aspects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge that influence teachers’ support of students’ development of valid mathematical arguments in mathematics classrooms and suggest implications for research and practice.
The aim of this study is to find out whether there is a connection between teacher’s request and guidance for written explanation and third-graders’ achievements in solving a non-standard problem. Pupils’ task was to solve a simplified arithmagon and to explain their solution. The lessons of seven teachers were recorded and their actions were examined and categorized during a problem-solving lesson. Also pupils’ solutions were checked and classified. The teacher’s behavior seems to have a crucial role in the quality of pupils’ written explanations. The third-graders had difficulties in writing their reasoning for solving the problem.
As an integral part of scientific way of thinking, practical laboratory tasks are a pivotal part of chemistry education. element of chemistry education. The first section begins with a discussion of how to assess laboratory work according to the current frame curricula for comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The second section discusses laboratory work as a learning method. Several studies have shown, that laboratory work is used mostly to liven up the lessons and to arouse interest rather that to teach something in a goal oriented way. The systematic study on what students learn from laboratory tasks has begun as recently as the 2000s. This paper focuses on the results of two separate studies. In interconnected papers, Abrahams and Millar (2008) as well as Abrahams and Reiss (2012) analyze learning in laboratory tasks using a 2 x 2 effectiveness matrix for practical work. Lewthwaite (2014) discusses the teachers’ choice of laboratory tasks. Both studies highlight the influence of evaluation practices on learning. At the end section, the paper presents some tasks and evaluation models suited for comprehensive and upper secondary school chemistry education. These tasks are based on the levels of learning and taxonomy of leaning presented by Doran and colleagues (2002).
This study explored student-teacher conceptions of explanations for the science classroom during teacher education programs through peer-assessments of 20 pre-service teachers from three universities. The peer-assessments were reciprocal and focused on the explanation of scientific concepts during microteaching episodes. Student-teacher conceptions about the quality of scientific explanations were obtained by analysing their assessment-feedback comments to peers and by focus groups. The results showed that student-teacher conceptions about the quality of explanations for the science classroom were related to constructivist theory applied to science teaching, for instance, the participants noticed that better explanations were those that connected the concepts with the students' ideas and experiences. A follow-up with a sub-sample of six participants during a practicum in schools explored through interviews the perceived enablers and obstacles that affected their explanation construction in real settings leading to reframing their conceptions. This study revealed that peer assessment and feedback could play a significant role in teacher education by eliciting student-teacher conceptions about essential teaching practices and the challenges of explaining in real teaching, which might enhance and empower their skill development. We discuss implications for research and practice, with emphasis on peer assessment as a tool for internalising assessment criteria for fruitful science teaching.
Practical laboratory work is an essential part of the teaching of analytical chemistry. During the assignments, the routine of laboratory work is taught, theory from the lectures is given a concrete form, and the basic skills of using laboratory equipment are acquired. During laboratory work, it is also possible to develop student interaction and problem solving skills. In this research, it was studied how a project work following the principles of problem based learning can be implemented during a tight-scheduled lecture course on atom spectrometric methods. The research pays particular attention on the evaluation of work burden and choosing of the project topics. In addition, the research examines the effects of project work on motivation and learning in students. According to this research, the chosen project topics and project as a working method are suitable to be implemented with a lecture course. The students found the project work to be burdensome but had positive attitudes towards the working method as a whole.
Syftet med artikeln är att lyfta fram om, och i sådant fall på vilka sätt, en specifik strukturell modell kan utgöra stöd när elever utforskar matematiska strukturer i ekvationer. Artikeln bygger på en empirisk forskningsstudie där elever utforskade matematiska strukturer med stöd av modellen, vilken är avsedd att visualisera strukturer. Lärare och forskare arbetade i en kollaborativ och intervenerande studie i iterativa processer. Sammantaget 149 elever från grundskolans årskurser 3, 8 och 9 deltog i filmade forskningslektioner utifrån forskningsansatsen learning study. Lektionerna designades med inspiration från ramverket lärandeverksamhet och eleverna utmanades i ett teoretiskt arbete. Analysen utfördes utifrån tematisk ansats och två kvalitativt skilda kärnteman identifierades: Formulär respektive Lärandemodell. I analysen framträdde att undervisningen behöver vara tillräckligt utmanande för att eleverna ska finna modellen meningsfull. Undervisningen behöver möjliggöra för eleverna att urskilja relationer mellan alla tal i en ekvation, där relationerna kan beskrivas som en del-helhetsstruktur. A model to support exploring equations The aim of the article is to highlight whether, and if so in what ways, a selected model can constitute support when students explore mathematical structures in equations. The article is based on an empirical research study where students explored mathematical structures with support by the model, which is intended to visualize structures. Teachers and researchers worked in a collaborative and interventional study in iterative processes. A total of 149 students from compulsory school grades 3, 8 and 9 participated in video recorded research lessons based on the research approach learning study. The lessons were designed with inspiration from the framework of learning activity and the students were challenged in a theoretical work. The analysis was performed on the basis of a thematic approach and two qualitatively different core themes were identified: Template respectively Learning model. In the analysis, it emerged that the teaching has to be challenging enough for the students to find the model meaningful. The teaching needs to enable students to discern relationships between all numbers in an equation, where the relationships can be described as a part-whole structure.
The effects of Concept Mapping (CM) and Cooperative Mastery Learning (CML) strategies on students' attitudes towards biology were investigated in this study to instill a positive attitude in students toward biology. The study adopted a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design with pre-and post-tests. A total of 449 senior secondary students (SS2) from Nyamagabe District, Rwanda was studied. Pre- and post-administration of biology Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ) with the reliability (α= 0.95) was used to obtain data. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of covariance, and Bonferroni test were applied for data analysis. The findings showed that students exposed to the CM and CLM strategies have a significantly higher attitude towards biology than those taught using conventional teaching methods (CTM) (F (2, 445) =26.717, p=.000<.05). There was no significant difference in mean attitude scores between male and female students who were taught biology using CM (F (1,148) =.635, p=.427>0.05) and CML (F (1,141) =. 670, p=.796>0.05). Also, the results showed no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on the attitude of students towards biology (F (2,442) =.586, p=.557>0.05). The study concluded that the CM and CML are effective teaching strategies in raising students’ attitudes towards biology regardless of gender. It is recommended among other things that biology teachers should adopt the CM and CML strategies during instruction to help students develop a positive attitude toward biology.
This mixed-methods case study examines parental motivation for participation in a Canadian university-based STEM outreach event. Parents responded to a post-event questionnaire that was followed by individual interviews. The quantitative part revealed how and why parents engaged with their children’s STEM education. Surprisingly, neither university admission requirements nor STEM-related job opportunities were top motivating factors. The qualitative part indicated that some parents found it challenging to connect their children’s learning experience in school with the government-mandated curriculum or with their own experiences. Most interviewees were satisfied with their children’s STEM education and considered family support crucial in this process.
Biographies of scientists are often used in the teaching environment, both in textbooks and in course contents - sections from the lives of scientists are often included to encourage students to pursue and enjoy science. This research investigated the effect of social content biographical texts of scientists on students' attitudes towards science courses. The research was a mixed-method study and consisted of 51 science teachers. The participants were determined according to a convenience sampling method. Focus group interviews, repertory grid technique, and individual interviews were used to collect data in the study. Through focus group interviews with teachers, it was discussed what kind of changes biographical texts might make to students' attitudes to science. Later, 51 teachers explained the social biographical texts to their students and observed the changes in the students. Based on their observations, they scored the repertory grids. Finally, an individual interview was held with fifteen teachers. As a result, it has been determined that social biographical texts were able to increase students' interest, motivation and questioning skills, while able to decrease their anxiety.
This study investigated common features of students' attitudes towards studying science and mathematics in comprehensive and secondary schools in three countries. Data were obtained by conducting a survey (N = 581) in Norway, Finland and Russia. A Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided a model with a three-factor solution consisting of factors: the perception of the teacher, anxiety towards science and mathematics, and motivation. The results suggest that most students are motivated to study sciences and mathematics. Data analysis indicate gender differences in attitudes to students' future studies and career plans. Most girls recognized the importance of these subjects for their future studies and careers, while boys showed more interest than girls in local career opportunities in industry. Teachers have a significant role in directing students' attitudes toward science and mathematics. Students experienced that the teachers who use innovative teaching approaches, both motivate and reduce anxiety, in their learning process.
The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of middle school 7th and 8th grade students towards STEM education in Turkey and Ghana. The research was conducted to a total of 974 grade 7 & 8 middle school students (480 from Turkey-Mugla Province and 494 from Ghana-Accra Province) during the spring semester of 2018-2019 academic year. A quantitative research method was used in this research. The attitudes of the students towards STEM show statistically significant difference in each dimension depending on which country the schools are located. The study revealed that the students' attitudes towards STEM education were “positive”. While there was no significant relationship between students' attitudes towards STEM and their gender and grade levels, there was a significant difference between their attitudes and the place where their schools were located.
The contribution of different working methods and learning environments to grade nine students’ performance in biology as well as their attitudes towards biology as school subject were studied. The research is based on the data collected for the assessment in natural sciences at comprehensive schools by the Finnish Board of Education in 2011. The survey data of the present study consisted of 2989 ninth grade students from 97 comprehensive schools. Students’ performance in biology was clearly correlated with the positive attitude towards biology as a school subject. There were strong correlations between the performance and teaching approaches, which emphasize students’ activity in experimental investigations, making observations, pondering of causes and effects as well as applying knowledge to everyday live. These inquiry-oriented approaches correlated also with the positive attitude towards biology. There were also correlations between positive attitude to biology and teacher-led conversations, pondering of different viewpoints, taking account of students’ opinions and ideas in teaching and the methods emphasizing students’ autonomy and self-evaluation. Positive attitude correlated also with the teaching approach, by which students received information about the development, structures and mechanisms of the world. Directed teaching did not correlate with the performance in biology or the positive attitude towards biology. To enhance students’ performance and positive attitudes in biology, it would be important use experimental work and inquiry-based learning in biology education.
Edumol on kemian opetuksen tueksi suunniteltu avoin ja ilmainen verkkopohjainen molekyylien mallinnus- ja visualisointiympäristö, joka toimii kaikilla päätelaitteilla. Se on rakennettu Jsmol-kirjaston päälle, joka on avoimen lähdekoodin JavaScript-kirjasto molekyylien visualisointiin. Edumol tarjoaa monipuolisen kemian opetuksen visualisointiympäristön, jossa kaikki toiminnot on suunniteltu kemian opetuksen tutkimuksen avulla. Edumolilla voi rakentaa molekyylejä itse tai hakea niitä suoraan rakennetietokannoista, kuten esim. Protein Data Bank, NCI ja PubChem. Rakenteet voi optimoida molekyylimekaniikkatasolla ja niitä voi visualisoida eri molekyylimalleilla. Sovelluksella voi mitata sidospituudet ja sidoskulmat, laskea osittaisvaraukset ja visualisoida molekyylien elektrostaattiset potentiaalipinnat. Verkossa tehtävän visualisoinnin lisäksi Edumolilla voi myös tallentaa työn tiedostona, kuvana, 3D-mallina tai molekyylitiedostona, joita voi jatkomuokata myöhemmin Edumolissa, toisissa ohjelmistoissa tai 3D-tulostaa.
Bagdad – Mathematics from here to eternity is an exhibition produced by Swedish Navet Sicence Center that was held in Museum Centre Vapriikki in Tampere 11 April–31 May 2013. The Bagdad exhibition was a fascinating journey to the history of mathematics guided by few historical mathematicians. Al-Khwarizmi, Hypatia, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Archimedes, Brahmagupta and other mathematical masters led the audience to the world of mathematics through drama, games and different problems to be solved. Each exhibition session lasted an hour and a half and included introduction, problems to be solved together and in groups, and individual activities. The introduction was in the form of drama and guided the audience to the mathematical problems. After the introduction, a mathematical problem was solved in groups. After that the audience had the opportunity to explore the tent and games and problems inside of it. At the end, the audience pondered and solved a mathematical problem together.
Hollandaise sauce has been part of western gastronomy since 1593. Being both an emulsion and a foam, it is a good educational platform for heterophasic systems. Preparing Hollandaise sauce generally includes two phases: forming the foam and forming the emulsion. The sauce is a challenging product and fails easily. Improved preparation techniques have been introduced throughout history. This work combines food historical, scientific and educational perspectives to Hollandaise sauce and introduces an experimental setup to compare the quality of sauces prepared with different techniques.
Top-cited authors
Maija Aksela
  • University of Helsinki
Marina Milner-Bolotin
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Anu Laine
  • University of Helsinki
Markku S. Hannula
  • University of Helsinki
Anna Uitto
  • University of Helsinki