Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

Published by Koya University
Online ISSN: 2522-3259
Publications
Article
يهدف البحث الى ما يأتي: ١-بناء اختبار يقيس القوة الانفجارية بالذراع المميزة في لعبة الكرة الطائرة. ٢-تقنين اختبار يقيس القوة الانفجارية بالذراع المميزة في لعبة الكرة الطائرة. ٣-وضع درجات ومستويات معيارية للاختبار القوة الانفجارية بالذراع المميزة في لعبة الكرة الطائرة. واشتملت عينة البحث علىناشئي الكرة الطائرة بأعمار(14-16) سنة في محافظة اربيل، وقد اختار الباحث العينة بطريقة عمدية والمتمثلة (بمراكز الشباب في محافظة اربيل) والبالغ عددهم (106) لاعباً للكرة الطائرة . وقد استخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي، وتم استعمال عدد من الأجهزة والأدوات ووسائل جمع البيانات ونم معالجتها إحصائيا وتم التوصل الى المواصفات الكاملة للاختبار لقياس صفة القوة الانفجارية للذراع المميزة في لعبة الكرة الطائرة تتوفر فيها المعاملات العلمية من صدق وثبات وموضوعية وأوصى الباحث باستخدامه في قياس القوة الانفجارية للاعبين(الناشئين) في الكرة الطائرة. وتكمن اهمية البحث في محاولة بناء اختبار رمي الكرة الطبية زنة (1كغم) بالذراع المميزة من وضع الجلوس على الكرسي في لعبة الكرة الطائرة. من أجل القياس القوة الانفجارية للذراع المميزة بشكل مستخلصوالعمل على تطوير ادوات القياس والتقويم في مجال لعبة الكرة الطائرة.
 
Article
This study is a modest attempt to shed light on the political changes in Turkey after the Second World War، on the margins of the role and influence of the internal and external factors، and at the same time, it is a comparative study between these two factors and the extent of their impact on political changes and their results. The political، social and economic developments that took place after the Second World War in Turkey had a suitable basis for applying this historical equation. In fact, the political changes that occurred in Turkey from this historical stage were more influenced by external factors compared to internal factors، and from this standpoint, this study tries to prove that، which was a major reason in order not to form a democratic political system in the past، bypassing the political parties. Its political activity is open-minded. From this point of view، the second half of the fourth and fifth decade of the last century was the political system in Turkey is not democratic from a practical point of view، because the political reality is not of an ambitious level. Democracy with others، even the political parties did not reach the level of accepting opposition parties with a democratic self.
 
Article
This article examines the reflection of the September Revolution in the New York Times Newspaper between June, 1961 and December, 1970 during the cold war. During the period under this study, many events, political and military advancements, which were related to the Kurdish issue in the Middle East, have been reported in New York Times. This newspaper endeavored to explore the Kurdish issue and the politics of the regional player specifically that of Iran, Turkey and Iraq towards the Kurds, what is more, the objective of Kurdish leaders of declaring uprisings and revolts against the regional powers to the world in general and the United States of America in particular. This study consists of a theoretical background, two sections and a conclusion. In its introduction, this article sheds light on the reflection of the September Revolution in Iraqi Kurdistan in the reports of the New York Times Newspaper and how it has introduced the Kurdish issue in the Cold war warmness from 1961 to 1962. In addition, it shows the significance, objectives and method of it.
 
Article
The current research sheds light on some of the activities related to trading the nineteenth century in the Kurdish cities, markets, storehouses, travel routes, merchants, crops, products, natural or locally made products. The research also discusses the local or regional partners who were parts of the trade business, especially the Iranian cities and the cities in the south of Anatol. The research examines the most important imported and exported goods. The research also shows that trading was not restricted to certain merchants, all people had the chance to trade. In addition, the obstacles faced by the tradesmen in this area, such as the instability because of the policy of the walli (governors) or because of the bad roads, or the because of tribal rules, are discussed. The research offers more details concerning the life in the Kurdish society at that time through the trade business of this region. Due to lack of literature related to the trade in the Kurdish cities during the Ottoman empire, especially the numbers and statistics about the size of the goods imported and exported in the southern Kurdistan region during that period, more focus is placed on the nineteenth century as there is clearer information about this period. The research depends on the valuable observations provided by the travelers who visited southern Kurdistan as well as some information available on the registry of the Iraqi willayat about the trade business of the Kurdish cities.
 
Article
تمتاز لعبة المصارعة بكثرة مسكاتها ومهاراتها الحركية الأساسية والمتنوعة الدفاعية والهجومية لذا وجب على ان يكون الحكم على قدر واسع من المعرفة واليقظة وخصوصا في المنافسات القوية ومن خلال خبرة احد الباحثون في مجال لعبة المصارعة ومشاركته في العديد من البطولات والدورات التحكيمية لاحظ ان هنالك عدم موضوعية في عملية تقيم مستوى الحكام , لهذا ارتأى الباحثون اعداد اختبار لتقيم مستوى اداء الحكام ,هدفت الدراسة إلى استعمال التقنيات الحديثة بخاصية 3D في بناء اختبار لتقييم مستوى اداء الحكام و تحديد درجات مستويات معيارية لتقييم مستوى اداء الحكام في رياضة المصارعة.وايظاً التعرف على مستوى اداء الحكام باستعمال التقنيات ذاتها . استعمل الباحثون المنهج الوصفي بأسلوب المسحي لملائمته طبيعة مشكلة البحث ، وتم تحديد مجتمع البحث والمتمثل بحكام المعتمدين لدى لجنة الحكام في الاتحاد المركزي للمصارعة والبالغ عددهم (38) حكم وبعد ذلك قام الباحثون باستعمال نضارة بخاصية 3D في بناء اختبار لتقييم مستوى اداء الحكام في رياضة المصارعة مع استعمال استمارة لتقيم الاداء وتم اجراء الاسس العلمية للاختبار وبعد تصميم الاختبار تم التوصل الى ان الاختبار المصمم من قبل الباحثون قد حقق الغاية منه وهي تقييم مستوى الحكام في لعبة رياضة المصارعة وكان المستوى العام لعينة البحث بناءا على وسطهم الحسابي يقعون ضمن المستوى المتوسط .
 
Article
This study considers the question whether the changes in Accounting Standards has led to companies making less use of earnings management. The paper is an attempt to investigate whether the application of high quality standards like International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is related to high financial reporting quality. This study addresses this issue empirically. Furthermore, this research examines whether German companies that have applied IFRS have less earnings management compared to German companies that report according to the German Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GGAAP). The sample, consisting of two equally large listed companies in Germany (Südzucker Group and Henkel Group) from 2003-2014. The study suggests that IFRS-adopters show different earnings management performance compared to companies reporting under German GAAP. This finding contributes to the discussion on whether high quality standards are appropriate and operational in countries with weak investor protection rights. The result shows that adopters of IFRS in Germany can be related with less use of earnings management as a result of changes in accounting standards. This result is contradictory with previous research that was done by Van Tendeloo and Vanstraelen, (2005), and consistent with the previous research conducted by Ball et al. (2003).
 
Article
يهدف هذا البحث دراسة تقييم الواقع الحالي للتعليم المحاسبي في أقليم كوردستان لكي تخدم أهداف التنمية الاقتصادية في الاقليم. والخطوة الأولى التي يجب اتخاذها تكمن في تحديد والتعَرف على التحديات التي تواجه التقدم والتطور المحاسبي في كوردستان وسبل مواجهتها. وفي بداية، تم تحديد التحديات المهمة التي تواجه التعليم المحاسبي والتي قد صنفت إلى عدة أقسام رئيسية المتمثلة بالتحديات السائدة في المناهج الدراسية للمحاسبة، والتحديات الادارية والاقتصادية وكذلك التحديات التي تواجه الهيئة التدريسيية لاقسام المحاسبة في الجامعات، والتحديات التي تواجه النظام المحاسبي من قلة المصادر والكتب العلمية المحاسبية. وأخيرا ضعف الترابط بين متطلبات سوق العمل وبرامج التعليم المحاسبي المطبقة حاليا في ظل استخدام تكنولوجيا المعلومات في المجال المحاسبي. ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم إتباع المنهج الوصفي التحليلي وتم استخدام قائمة الاستبيان ومن ثم تحليلها. وأهم النتائج التي توصلت اليها الدراسة أن التحديات مجتمعة لها تأثير عميق على التعليم المحاسبي. واوصت الدراسة بمجموعة من التوصيات منها، تهيئة ظروف مناسبة لتوفير الكوادر العلمية وايجاد التغييرات اللازمة في المناهج الدراسية وايجاد التمويل الكافي لتوافر المصادر والكتب العلمية المتخصصة واللجوء الى ايجاد برامج تدريبية اثناء الدراسة وايجاد ارتباط ونسق بين قسم المحاسبة ومناهج المراحل الاعدادية. وايجاد الخدمات الكافية للطلاب اثناء الدراسة والسعي لايجاد علاقة بين الجامعات والنقابات المهنية المحاسبية.
 
Article
The current paper attempts to study the effectiveness of internal marketing (IM) dimensions as an effective internal tool for the economic unit to enhance the organizational commitment (OC) in the private universities of Kurdistan Region. The importance of the research can be stemmed from the important role of IM in the economic unit, which can increase the activity of economic unit and achieve the OC in private universities of Kurdistan Region. So, the applying of IM in the economic unit effectively can help to strengthen the loyalty of the employees and help economic units to keep their employees. The researchers concluded that there is a good level of agreement for the employees of private universities in Kurdistan Region of Iraq about the activities of IM in the study sample and their role to enhance OC. The researchers recommended making more efforts for meeting the material and moral needs of the employees and gaining their satisfaction to ensure their continued work and keep them from thinking about moving to other economic units.
 
Article
Literature has a positive influence on children and it is an appropriate field whereby they can be disciplined, motivated and encouraged. It also helps children to surpass their education and develop a charismatic personality. According to philosophers and experts, children literature involves a number of dimensions; therefore it is purposeful and it has a mission through which children children can get a high or a typical model.This study is an attempt to understand the content and the literary dimensions of children literature in Zara Ahmad Jaf’s writings, an outstanding pen from Raparin area, to show the educational, religious, social, psychological, environmental, and physical well being facets reflected in her works. Children could be acquainted to these dimensions so much so that they are instilled in them and become part of their personality. We aim to pay more attention to the moral lessons and values put at the service of the pure and innocent world of children through this rich literature. Children’s literature can be an accurate mirror of children’s future life so that they will be able to see the blue sky (positive side) of life, as directing them to thses principles will encourage them to be more hopeful and optimistic. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study these issues scientifically through which children can be fine-tuned, can identify their skills and can have a clear vision. The paper ends with the list of references and the abstract in English.
 
Article
Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita (1955) and Martin Amis’ Money (1984) discuss the disadvantages of mass media. Amis uses John Self to reflect the disintegration of the self in the modern, Capitalist society of England in 1980s. Self represents the failure of the postmodern world by portraying a dystopian society. Amis and Nabokov tackle subjects pertaining to money, incest, delusion, and disappointment. Lights are shed on the moral aspect of the characters. The modernity of Amis’ fiction lies in its double deception of its characters; there is the American motif and a character who is not able to resist the magic of such motif. It is about consumerism or how aspects of post modernity and the consumer culture are portrayed. This paper aims to show the impact of mass media on the characters who are self-deluded and indulged in loving money, advertisements, and sex. It also aims at showing duality and corruption in both texts, John Self is bankrupt and wants to commit suicide. Humbert cheats many and is imprisoned and Lolita dies. Lolita becomes the victim of incest. It is an attempt to urge human beings to refuse cultural divisions and encourage human spirituality instead of Materialistic point of view.
 
Article
This study investigates the differences that can be detected in the language produced by male and female talk. The study’s specific focus is on gender performance by both interlocutors. It concentrates on the way gender is represented in the 20th century British novel by considering social, cultural and ideological factors. The data used for such analysis is a modern British novel “Ann Veronica,” which is written by H. G. Wells, a feminist writer, in 1909. The approach that is used for the analysis is Critical discourse analysis, which is used to investigate the way the characters in the novel perform gender, which also concentrates on revealing gender ideologies and gender power that cause gender inequality. The study also uses conversation analysis to show the organization of the conversation between the characters, male and female, which explain how the conversation is opened and closed and how the sequences are arranged between the characters. The most important conclusions are: gender stereotypes that cause gender inequality are performed in British society. Women are constructed as inferior to men. The study also concludes that women’s gender identities are only limited to domestics. Besides, men have the most power in the society; that is why women are not allowed to be free and independent.
 
Descriptive Statistics; Testing Normality of Data
Reliability Statistics of the Questioners
Pearson Correlations; Global L2 Writing with Writing Self-Efficacy, Writing Anxiety and Writing Motivation
Regression Coefficients a
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictability of global L2 writing performance of Iraqi Kurdistan English as a foreign language (EFL) learners through the affective and linguistic variable of L2 writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy and writing motivation. To this end three types of lingua-affective questionnaires were distributed among 129 EFL learners whose age range was between 18 to 24. They were also required to hand in a writing performance in one session which were scored by two different scorers to have inter-rater reliability. Using a correlational design and running a linear regression test, the researchers investigated the correlation of L2 witting anxiety, writing self-efficacy, writing motivation with global L2 witting performance. The results indicated that writing self-efficacy and writing motivation had a positive and significant relationship with global L2 writing performance while L2 writing anxiety was a different variable from them, indicating a significant but negative correlation with L2 writing performance. The linear regression also indicated that the sole predicting variable to predict L2 writing performance was observed to be writing motivation and the writing self-efficacy though having a high and significant relationship with L2 writing performance and expected to be among the predictors, did not do this.
 
Article
This research deals with the horse image in some English and Iraqi Arabic proverbs showing how English and Iraqi Arabs interpret, understand, and use these proverbs which include horse image. The selected proverbs are analyzed depending on Holme’s (2013) social factors which are: social distance variable, status variable and formality variable of setting. The English population of the research includes two universities in England. To make the project more applicable, the focus is on Leeds and London universities. The researcher chooses students randomly from “University of Leeds” in Leeds and a university named “London School of Economics and Political Sciences” in London. As for the Iraqi Arabic population, the people who represent the Arabic sample of the current study are from Tikrit and Anbar cities. They are enrolled at “Tikrit University” and “Anbar University” respectively. Among the findings, it is found out that English and Iraqi Arabs have somehow similar connotations concerning the horse image in relation to cultural, occupational, social distance, and formality variables. This denotes that though the two cultures are different, they share some social variables as they have similar connotations for some concepts as in the selected topic. The occupational variable shows that native speakers of both languages indicate that the proverbs which include the horse image are used more frequently by farmers other than other occupations.
 
Article
Formative assessment (FA) is an essential element of EFL classrooms. It allows instructors to amend, adjust, and monitor the process of teaching to reach their desired goals. However, this form of assessment is often overlooked in Iraqi EFL classrooms. As such, this study aims to investigate the challenges of implementing the FA strategies by Iraqi EFL university instructors and their attitudes to improve its use effectively in teaching. The data for this study were gathered through the observation of six EFL classes and semi-structured interviews conducted with three EFL instructors from three different Iraqi universities. The results revealed that there are many challenges for FA strategies implementation. Some of them were related to the EFL instructors’ insufficient knowledge to conduct FA strategies effectively and also their inability to create assessment criteria for their tasks and activities. Moreover, the time-consuming nature of the FA strategies and time limit of the class sessions makes it impossible for the instructors to integrate these strategies into their teaching. Furthermore, the instructors also reported that their students do not have enough knowledge of FA strategies, and cannot be involved in their implementation. Finally, the study recommends that training is needed for the Iraqi EFL instructors especially those with less experience on how to integrate and use FA strategies in the classroom.
 
Comparison of The Two Groups T-Test Results on the Pre-Posttests Scores in Listening sub- skills
Article
Many studies have described the use of mobile assisted language learning in language teaching and learning; yet, the number of studies in listening skill remains unsatisfactory, at least in Iraqi Kurdistan context. Few researchers appear to have considered how to use mobile learning devices to support pedagogical approach to develop academic listening skills. Several studies in the past, required learners to read from mobile phones rather than listening to audios. There were attempts to use computer technology integration into instruction; however, few were in mobile technology. The interest in research related to the impact of mobile assisted language learning on developing students’ listening skills remains relatively low and consequently listening has been neglected. Thus, the current paper aims at exploring the effectiveness of mobile assisted language learning devices both as instructional tools and learning resources within and beyond classroom learning environments to develop language skills in particular listening sub-skills. The experimental design is pretest-experiment-post-test. To conduct the study two groups of experimental (n=31) and control (n=26) out of 57 second year students at koya university/ faculty of education/ school of education English department were made. Both groups were taught the same material, but using different methods. The results of the post-test indicated that the use of mobile assisted language learning devices had impacts on developing experimental group’s listening skills and outperformed the control group.
 
Article
August Wilson’s The Piano Lesson (1987) is a play which deals with the social life of a broken African American family in Pittsburg – a city in Pennsylvania – who migrated from the South. The family’s grandparents, who were slaves on a Southern plantation, were separated and exchanged with a piano. This shocking incident causes cross-generational trauma and other traumatic incidents for the family as they retrieved the piano. This study examines the play through the lens of Literary Trauma Theory. This theory appeared in the middle of 1990s, henceforth it has been developed by so many scholars, and the latest revision is made by Joshua Pederson, an Associate Professor of Humanities at Boston University, in 2014. The first wave of the theorists claim that trauma causes amnesia for the victims; they can neither remember nor describe what they have experienced, but Pederson in his revised edition of the theory proves the opposite. By applying the latest version of trauma theory this study shows how slavery, its aftermath or its legacy affected and haunted African Americans, and created trauma or historical trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the African Americans.
 
Article
Hilal Bin Badr published his noted message after imprisoning his father. The brutality of his illegitimate action gave birth to a lot of resentment among the people. This research is divided into two sections. In the first section, we spoke about the reasons for the spread for Hilal’s message by shedding light on two matters. In the first point, we explained the reaction of people towards (Hilal) and its effect on the spread of his letter. While in the second point we spoke about the credibility, prestige, and legitimacy of the prince (Badir). We pointed out the populace and the Abbasid Caliph had held Prince Badr with high esteem. In the first part of this section, we spoke about the manipulation of religion by (Hilal) to legitimate his coup against his father. and in the second part we pointed out the extent to which (Hilal) has gone by attributing an exaggerated image of himself and drawing a negative and unauthentic picture of the prince (Badr). It became obvious to us that this accusation was against of what historians and historical sources that mentioned prince (Badir) respectfully and for being innocent from this accusation.
 
CorrelationTable
Statistics
Article
Purpose: This study studies the effect of capital structure on the performance of some Iraqi private banks. Six banks based in Iraq namely: Babylon bank, Investment bank, Credit bank, Commercial bank, Sharq Al-Awsat bank, and Baghdad bank were selected for the present study over the period 2005 to 2015. Methodology: Annual reports of these banks were studied and relevant ratios were calculated. The variables that were identified as independent for capital structure were total debt to capital, bank size and asset growth, while return on assets and return on equity were considered to be dependent variables for bank performance. The panel Least Square model has been used to examine the impact of capital structure on bank performance. Findings: Outcomes indicate that none of the independent variables has a significant impact on return on assets (ROA), while total debt to capital (TDC) has a positive impact on return on equity (ROE). Originality: Depending on this result, Iraqi banks should keep sufficient amount of capital to avoid any financial risks and increase the probability of survival.
 
Article
This study examines the romantic poetry of one of the pioneers of this genre known in the area of Badinan (Saleh Yousif). Saleh Yousif is taken as a model of poets of his time specifically in the area of Badinan. It is the period that gathered the poets of South Kurdistan in general and the poets of the region of Badenin to especially study this new literary type of poetry called romance or doctrine of Romanticism. The living conditions and nature of life at that time were a major factor for the emergence of this poetic doctrine when the poet expressed his situation or a particular idea directly or indirectly so that the reader enjoys this type of poetry. This poetic doctrine had a special framework in terms of quality, principles and the core topics with the mentioned poet because it was related to his private life where he was composing poetry in many periods and of special events to be a model in the portrayal of these events and to gain the interest of readers to reach their goals. The importance of this study, on the one hand, is that it follows the analytical descriptive approach to include the characteristics and types of the texts of the Kurdish romantic literature. On the other hand, this research is to enrich the literature of this topic and assist researchers in the field of literature in general and the romantic doctrine in particular.
 
Article
The emergence of writing biographies among Kurds has a long history which began in the late19 th century. More specifically, it started with Wafaey in 1895 who wrote down his autobiography butthis was not developed until 1990s and their number was very limited. Following that, more attentionwas paid to writing biographies. The present study, entitled' Younis Rauf's (Dildar's) AutobiographyBiography and Novel Interface', is an attempt to investigate, in particular, Dildar's autobiography.Lack of scientific investigation about biography in general, having no academic research specificallyabout Dildar and the importance of this biography in Kurdish literature was among the major reasonsfor choosing this topic. Throughout the paper, it is maintained that the text is highly literary as well asstylistic and an attempt is made to specify the mechanisms which make the text seem as a novel.The field of this investigation is two literature genres which are novel and personal biography.
 
Article
The purpose of conducting this study is to identify and handle the problems arising from translating conversational words and phrases rooted in culture from English into Kurdish and vice versa. To achieve the objectives of the current research, source language conversational texts associated with greetings, politeness terms, kinship terms, address terms and words and phrases used on different occasions are translated into their counterparts in the target language. The results obtained from the translations show that translating cultural concepts is problematic and burdensome, and the problems identified result from cultural differences between the two languages and from literal translation which often leads to unnatural and incomprehensible expressions although this technique is used to borrow a source language expression. The results also indicate that translating culturally-bound conversational words and phrases requires good knowledge and mastery of both languages and cultures and proper use of various translation techniques. This research paper is an attempt to identify the problems that arise in translating culturally-specific conversational words and phrases from English into Kurdish and vice versa. It also aims to find out effective ways of overcoming the problem through implementing appropriate techniques for translating culturally-loaded words and phrases associated with greetings, terms of address, politeness terms, family relationship, in both languages.
 
Article
There are a number of literary texts which earn their raison d’etre from the exotic nature or unfamiliar features in the subject matter of the creative work. One of the brilliant and of standing poets of all ages is Robert Browning. Robert Browning (1812-1889) chose a literary genre alien to his powers as a poet, and a topic beyond the range of a man who had little firsthand knowledge of the Levant. Since he had the power to transfer historical stories magically to forever recited and read poems all over the world and through all ages till the recent one. This poet composed a tragic play entitled The return of the Druses (1843). Literary histories tell us that it was a failure on all accounts. One of the logical reasons for this failure was presumably Browning’s ignorance of the culture he wished to depict in this work. This article is an analysis of the play, to which very little attention was paid even by the specialists in Browning studies. The conclusion is that Browning provided for the readers and spectators a rather weak image of the Druses as individuals and as a community. They are shown to be gullible and misguided as a community. Their leadership is shown as cunning, dishonest, and Machiavellian.
 
Article
The current study aims to describe and diagnose the elements of Knowledge capital (human capital, structural capital, client capital) and areas of organizational change which are (structural change, change of tasks, technological change) in the surveyed organizations, as well as this study emphasizes to the importance of the role and having of knowledge capital to reach an effective organizational change. The study has depended on (SPSS-20) program and a number of statistical tools to analyze and to find out the relationship between variables. To achieve the objective of the study, the questionnaire has been distributed to (40) of head of departments and administrative units in the University of Zakho, and only (30) questionnaires have retrieved. The study has reached to a number of findings. Most importantly, the availability of knowledge capital in organizations is an essential and important requirement to achieve effective organizational change and supports the direction of organizations that seek to survive, grow and adapt to the external environment surrounding them. On the other hand, the study has suggested that it’s necessary to give more attention and support knowledge capital in organizations. This is because the individuals who work in these organizations and have knowledge are considered the power for moving and driving the process of change.
 
Article
Children's stories have a significant role in American literature. Such a role is regarded as both instructive and entertaining. A child narration, to Harper Lee (1926–2016), the American novelist, reveals some hidden messages about how a child can develop and can succeed to conform to society. A narrator, to her, could or could not be a character in the events. If a child narrates the events of a novel, he/she will definitely simplify the topics he/she narrates. Hence, Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird portrays a world that is exotic to the reader. The present paper aims to explore how the novel introduces the struggles and the disadvantages of Western society through a child’s narration, which includes the point of view and language. It also tackles how the capacity of childhood innocence shows people’ behavior clearly. This study tries to find some answers to the following questions: Why did Lee use child narration? What is the aim of using first-person narration? Was the narrator successful in reflecting the truth of events as adults did? The paper also aims at shedding light on the western problems through the child’s eyes. It attempts through child narration to expose people’s deceptive appearances, racism, and class distinction.
 
Article
Many authors often employ irony as a powerful literary device since it makes the language of their literary works more suggestive and more emphatic. They usually use irony as a kind of satire, thereby to emphasize faults in their characters or in society in general. Among the American writers who use irony in their short stories is Kate Chopin. This study aims to discuss the nature of irony in Kate Chopin’s three short stories, “The Story of an Hour”, “The Storm”, and “Desiree’s Baby”. The study tries to analyze the presence of three main types of irony, their functions, their relation to the theme or message of the story, and the reasons behind the use of irony. The study concludes that though Chopin satirizes her contemporary society through irony, her irony is neither humorous nor funny but invariably tragic. She deliberately uses irony in her stories. She creates an atmosphere of suspense by adding turns and twists to the stories in order to shock the reader. Another reason for using irony is to employ her unconventional ideas about the condition of women and to bring the reader to the main theme of the story. Moreover, the ultimate goal behind all is to criticize as well as to highlight the flaws of the American patriarchal society of her lifetime and to support her feminist ideas.
 
Article
Much is said about the importance of the plot in literature. Through history different understand is offered about plot, one of which is “fantastic plot” by Tzvetan Todorov. The fantastic plot is about plots which are extraordinary and many references to reality are involved. The current research adopts Todorov’s fantastic plot theory to approach two Kurdish novels, namely Bakhtiyar Ali’s The City of White Musician’s and Khasraw Jaff’s Dagdw. The research is divided into three parts, in the first part, the methodology and theortical background of the study is provided, then the two analytic chapters are followed which are dedicated to analyzing Bakhtyiar Ali and Khasraw Jaff’s novels.
 
Article
Colour is a powerful communication tool and can convey different positive and negative messages. Apart from their denotative meanings, colours have different connotations in different languages and cultures. Many of these connotations are very clearly observed in their use of colour idiomatic expressions. This study explores the different meanings and connotations of the basic colour terms[1] and their usage in idiomatic expressions in English and Kurdish to find out areas of similarity and difference between them. To this end data were collected from different English dictionaries and from English idiom dictionaries; while for the Kurdish idiomatic expressions data were collected from Kurdish idiom books (See methodology 4.1 &4.2). The findings obtained from the analysis of the data show that despite similarities in the number of the basic colour terms and their general meanings and connotations in the two languages, the symbolic use of the colour terms in idiomatic expressions is, to a great extent, culture and language specific.
 
Article
Deafness has been considered an exceptional condition and people who have this individuality are recognized all over the world as weak, fragile, deformed, and in great need for help from other “fit “people. The problem of integrating deaf people in their societies has been risen since the 19th century. There appeared two camps; one which advocated for teaching the deaf individuals the skills that enable them to blend in the world of “hearing people “while the other camp, the manualists, called for teaching and learning sign language as a means of communication. Amid all the conflicts between those two camps appeared literary works that dealt with this issue. In Children of a Lesser God which was written 1980 by the American playwright Mark Medoff, there is a manifestation of this conflict presented by the dramatist through the characters of his play and through a love relationship between a hearing man and a deaf woman. The play depicts the suffering of a deaf woman in a hearing society and the abuse she gets from people who are unable to appreciate her uniqueness as a human being. She faces a hostile attitude starting from her parents, society, and eventually from the man she love. The current work aims at exploring the leading female character in the play and how her deafness has added to the restrictions she experiences as a woman
 
Article
This paper explores the mapping process which is used to conceptualize trauma in one of the post-9/11 novels, namely DeLillo’s Falling Man. The paper focuses on how the traumatic experiences are represented through metaphors. Although many previous studies have attempted stylistic investigations to DeLillo’s novel, very little research approached its metaphorical language. As far as trauma experience is concerned, most of the previous studies discussed these experiences thematically (Kensiton and Quinn, 2008; Gray, 2012; Pozorski, 2014; Keeble, 2014). This study, therefore, offers a stylistic examination of the metaphors of trauma which are used to communicate the negative mental experiences in this novel. It examines the conceptualization of traumatic experiences encountered by the main characters as they are exposed to disturbing events. The study applies insights from Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980; 2003) to selected metaphors from the novel. The application of conceptual metaphor theory allows better understanding of how the abstract state of trauma is conceptualized and communicated through the course of the novel. The experience of trauma is represented variously in this novel, sometimes it is communicated through idiosyncratic metaphors (Moncef, 2016) and sometimes it is represented through using conventional metaphors. The study also examines the mapping process to see how conceptual structures are selected from different source domains and mapped onto the domain of the abstract state of trauma to convey the effects of these distressing experiences.
 
Article
The title of this research is (The Syntax-Pragmatics of the Conjunctions in Kurdish Language). The conjunctions have a great role in language by connecting between words, phrases and sentences. They also have a significant role in deletion of reduction extra elements. These are some examples of them in Kurdish; ‘belam, û, belku, ne…ne, keçî, and so on’. They have a great role in clarifying the aims of the speaker and its ideas. The study consists of two main parts and the bibliography. In the first part of the research, the syntactical role of the conjunctions is shown. Furthermore, the places of the conjunctions in compound sentences are explained. According to the Kurdish language grammatical rules, there is not a specified gap for the conjunctions, and their places are changeable within compound sentences. Besides that, compound sentences also categorized according their dual or multi branches. Each part of the compound sentences have its importance, and their level are not same. The second part of the research deals with the pragmatics role of the conjunction. The focus is on the new meaning that are made in collocation with other parts of the sentence to send the message of the speaker. This is because their meaning is very related with the context. Eventually, the conclusion is drawn.
 
Article
  • Sozan MustafaSozan Mustafa
Costume is part of any nation’s civilization and it is one of the distinctive features of any nation and its culture. Costumes are a distinctive feature of national identities of any nation. Kurds as one of the ancient nations in this region were able to preserve their identity despite the eradication or obliteration attempts by other nations and were able to preserve their cultural Costume. Kurdish history records tend to concentrate more on the political status of Kurds rather than their cultural history, however, Kurdologists documented different aspects of Kurdish society, including traditional Kurdish costume in their historical records and their memos. These records are considered authentic and valuable resources for Kurdish history and it also provides an exclusive insight into Kurdish rich and independent culture from the surrounding nations that attempted to obliterate and sideline unique Kurdish culture. Hence, studying the Kurdish costume from the Kurdiologists perspective is crucial to understand the history of Kurdish people. This study attempts to shed lights on the traditional and historical Kurdish costume.
 
Data of the Study Sample
Individualism and Collectivism Mean Scores of the Pre-test
Individualism and Collectivism Mean Scores of the Post-test
Article
In this explorative study, the response to individualism in Robinson Crusoe as a character in the novel written by Daniel Defoe is scrutinized. Over 40 participants in English Language Department took role while they were studying the novel in their full academic year. In conformity with data collection, pre-test and post-test were administered on the students using individualism inventory. Their opinions in both tests were analyzed using quantitative measures. The focus of the study is to determine if students get any lessons of life from the novel namely, Crusoe's lonely life on the island, and how they are going to apply it in their own real lives on the one hand. On the other, whether or not their attitudes get affected by the individual and solitude life Crusoe experienced. That is, their psychological status and self-awareness about their individual life and community as collective. The findings confirm that students of English department on Faculty of Education were psychologically changed and have more appreciation of collective which is the community and their self-awareness as individuals. This suggests that novels provide not only knowledge chiefly related to language proficiency, but also psychological, social, and intellectual in the long run.
 
Article
This paper harnesses the term Other, though not in a strictly postcolonial sense, to uncover an essential role war poetry played to reveal a hidden side often overshadowed by war propaganda. The two poems, Hardy’s “The Man He Killed” and Owen’s “Strange Meeting,” serve as effective counter war propaganda tools that demystify a crucial element of war ideology that the enemy is an Other: The enemy is unlike me. Wilfred, an outspoken poet of the evils of war, and Thomas Hardy, who penned in some of his poems his abhorrence to war, show that the Other which stands for their enemies could have been a friend had the spatiotemporal factors been different. Both poets enact an imaginary meeting between the speakers and their enemies. Moreover, the paper traces the various poetic techniques that are employed by those poets to achieve this goal. Whereas Owen, for instance, uses pararhyme to depict the fallacy of war claims by drawing attention to the unlikelihood of the meeting in real life, Hardy resorts to punctuation marks to probe the sense of guilt his speaker endures as a result of killing his “enemy.” The form of the two poems contributes to the sense that war propaganda fails to sustain itself in legitimizing the act of killing and thus providing a shield against the feeling of remorse. Throughout the two poems, the Other is no longer a stranger nor is an enemy in the first place. Owen finds that his enemy is a poet who has had similar dreams and ambitions. Thomas Hardy, on the Other hand, reflects how he could have offered the man he killed in battle a drink or even lent him money had they met elsewhere.
 
Article
Literature is language itself; writers draw an aesthetic and effective portrait by playing on the meaning and the canonical grammatical structure, and depending on their literary artistry, they reconceptualise and rearrange the picture. This study is mainly concerned with Dildar’s viewpoint about the relation between language and literature to this end, three articles have been chosen as the data for analysis, namely ‘Kurdish language and literature', 'misconceptions of Literature' and 'Kurdish writing’, all of which were published in ‘Daldar: the Kurdish revolutionary poet’ by Abdulkhaliq Alaaddin, and available in ‘100-116 pp.’ The study consists of three parts. In the first part, literature, language, and the linguistic definition of literature are presented. Then, the role of language in literature is discussed inasmuch as literature adds an aesthetic role to the major functions of language. Next, based on Dildar's perspective, the role language plays in literature is given an account. In the second part, the functions and the components of language from Dildar's perspective are dealt with. In particular the psychological and the emotive functions of language, ‘tewzîf’ in literature, and Dildar's view on the role that language plays in literary innovations are highlighted. The third part covers his views regarding writing style and the writer's duty in Kurdish language development. It is mainly concluded that Dildar's approach to language and its functions is purely scientific. In addition, Dildar tackles style, the background, and the enterprise of the author from a linguistic perspective.
 
Article
In this query-based study, body language as an important non-verbal communicative technique in teaching English as a foreign language is inquired. In literature, little attention has been given to practical teaching approaches and techniques that will help English language teachers incorporate this essential element into their classrooms. This research aims at investigating the needful role of body language in the overall teaching and learning process. It considers the interplay of body language, particularly gestures, facial expressions and eye-contact behavior, between teachers and students and gives special consideration to the second language learner preferences in decoding and encoding bodily language behaviors. Likewise, specific questionnaires are used to collect data about teachers' and students’ opinions and experiences in their teaching and mannerism along with observing teachers and interviewing them. The results will help stimulating teachers' innovativeness in producing their own classroom activities and movements while teaching and better non-verbally communicate with their students in class in one hand. On the other, it facilitates students learning. It is recommended that the use and integration of body language should not be ignored by instructors.
 
Article
There is a long tradition among scholars to establish a link between the practice of black magic and culture. Black magic is seen as a category under which various beliefs and practices which are usually separated from religion and science are placed. These practices are most of the time associated with evil and demons. It has been observed that the role of black magic and witchcraft influenced Western societies to a large extent as it was not only the subject of literature but also of the interest to the whole society. Fears of witchcraft and black magic grew more intense and consequently led to “witch hunts” in many Western societies. In this paper, I argue that in English literature, the practice of black magic and witchcraft has been represented as a cultural practice. My paper provides a quick survey to trace back the practices of witchcraft in selected literary works from English literature. In my analysis, I focus of how the practice of black magic and sorcery is embedded within the texts to reflect people’s obsession of it. For the sake of my argument, I will use the word “Maleficium” as an umbrella term to refer to all the practices, which include: Black magic, witchcraft, sorcery, necromancy, and voodoo
 
Article
In modern world, hell is not the punishment but the society in which we live and the people who surround us. Through their interference in our affairs, those people make our life miserable and look like hell. This research deals with Jean Paul Sartre's play No Exit (1944) illuminating the afterlife of the others. He used three dead characters that are punished by being imprisoned into a room together for eternity. He symbolizes the room as a hell in order to represent the real world around us. Their coming into this small hell shows their indispensability to one another. They represent the essential idea of the play that others are torture for us. By emphasizing on the notion of hell being other people, Sartre shows that man's pain, suffering, depression are due to others. By repeating his prominent line 'Hell is Other People', Sartre concentrates on the relation of people that is always conflict; meaning that other people just being annoying. For him, the mere presence of another person will definitely trouble the others due to his interference in private matters. For that reason, Sartre portrays hell as a room with no torture or flames as the real torture is the presence of others. Through concentrating on the nature of man's existence, Sartre can reveal the problems of both man and society as well.
 
Article
The problem that this paper deals with is that the unexplained or surprising endings in some of William Golding’s novels can affect the thematic structures of the novels concerned. Furthermore, they influence the nature of the messages desired to be communicated by the author. Unexpected incidents in stories, such as uncalled for discoveries and revelations, can occur at any part of a story, serving the intention of heightening the readers’ suspense. Story endings (especially when they are vaguely unexpected, unprepared for, and unexplained) are influential in turning the direction of events completely. Golding, as a famous modern British writer, is successful in employing special ways or tricks (he calls them “gimmicks”) to conclude the plots of his novels strikingly. Because of this complicated manner of presentation, the endings of the first three of his novels, namely, Lord of the Flies (1954), The Inheritors (1955), and Pincher Martin (1956) all share tricky endings. Gindin, in his study of the gimmick in Golding’s novels (1960: 145-152), tries to relate the shift of emphasis in Golding’s endings to the use of metaphor. The aim of this paper is to examine how such seemingly unfitting endings are organized in such a way as to fit into the whole thematic structure of the novels. Likewise, it aims at examining the plots and the nature of characters and other elements that twist the course of events in the stories, causing some radical changes in readers’ views. Among the findings of the paper is that Golding, through certain incidents, presents hints that help in preparing for unexpected later results.
 
Article
Haqqa Movement is a religious Sufism movement which was established in the first quarter of the 20th century by Sheikh Abdul-Karimi Shadala. Originally, this movement belongs to Naqshabandi order but with some notable modification. These modifications include collective work, defending farmers, working very hard and freedom for women. Therefore, this movement is seen as a natural socialism which does not have any philosophical background of socialism. The research shows that leftism developed rapidly among this group, though Haqqa followers preserved their tradition but they distanced from their religious rituals. This created a lot of obstacles for them in confrontation with feudals and Iraqi state officials. The research shows that the Haqqa movement was seen as a religious tendency, but they haven’t departed from nationalism by taking part in political activities, especially approaching the leftist parties and working among them. After the death of Abdulkarimi Shadala، Haqqa has divided into certain groups; the notable ones are Hamasurians and Mamarazaians which were very close to socialists and they acted differently from the groups of their time that is why we can appreciate their deeds and should be investigated scientifically.
 
Article
This paper explores imagism and studies the intrinsic literary features of some poems to show how the authors combine all the elements such as style, sentence structure, figures of speech and poetic diction to paint concrete and abstract images in the mind of the readers. Imagism was an early 20th century literary movement and a reaction against the Romantic and Victorian mainstreams. Imagism is known as an Anglo-American literary movement since it borrows from the English and American verse style of modern poetry. The leaders of the movement set some rules for writing imagist poems. The authors of the group believed that poets are like painters; what the painters can do with brush and dye, poets can do it with language i.e. painting pictures with words. The poems are descriptive; the poets capture the images they experience with one or more of the five senses. They believed that readers could see the realities from their eyes because the texts are like a painting. In this paper, six poems by six prominent leaders of the movement will be scrutinized according to the main principles of the formalistic approach which is the interpretation and analysis of the literary devices pertained to the concrete and abstract images drawn by the poets. The poems are: In a Station of the Metro by Ezra Pound, Autumn by T. E. Hulme, November by Amy Lowell, Oread by Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), and Bombardment by Richard Aldington
 
Article
The studies conducted about Qur'an are still trending and modern linguistic studies are not new to the Qur'an, even if they come in different names. The verses of the Qur'an include general, specific and partial purposes, and the researchers should pay attention to these studies and explain their intent through interpreting and analyzing the verses. Any linguistic or non-linguistic examination must contain the subconscious meaning behind the virtual terms, as the gathering of clouds indicates the possibility of rain, but the storm may come and dispersal of these clouds and rain does not fall, and so is the meaning of the intent and see something apparent but in the subconscious, it means something else and it is implicitly understood by discourse analysis and digging for the deep meaning. The ancient Arab scholars had a great role in this field, but as it is mentioned in the research, it was dispersed and scattered between the books and literature. The semantics (المقصدية), is one aspect of these dispersed topics and it was not a separate subject as it was in the western studies. The fence, which lies beyond the meaning, and each word in it indicates certain aspects, and each researcher understands what is meant according to his psychological state or what suits his thinking, and this is the core of the intent. This research examines The Fence of Makkah.
 
Article
This paper addresses the theme of Keats and place in which I explore the problem of Keats and no place. The existence of “no place” is a key element in the poetry of John Keats. One of the obvious manifestations of “no place” is the use of nothingness which occupies a particular symbolic significance in his works. In my paper, I argue that Keats’s poems show evidence that the poet featured nothingness as a place which is characterized by emptiness and void where things fall and disappear forever. The abstract state of nothingness is represented as a hateful and undesired destination that the poet does not want to be placed in. The paper focuses on the representations of nothingness in three selected poems: “Sleep and Poetry,” “Endymion,” and “When I Have Fears,” respectively. In these poems, Keats constructs nothingness as a “locus” which is associated with negativity and passivity. My paper suggests another possible reading of Keats’s poems in relation to the themes of place and space.
 
Article
This paper is an attempt to explore Yeats’s quest for order and how this quest found expression in his works. Throughout his life, Yeats was dissatisfied with the religious, artistic, political, anthropological and intellectual aspects of life, in both Ireland and England which have taken away from modern man the sense of order. His father's skepticism, his dissatisfaction with the spiritless religion of his time, a religion which seems dead and his sense of alienation at school among British students were behind his ceaseless search for alternative orders which became the preoccupation of all his life and triggered his [] engagements in numerous nationalistic, occult, and mystical societies which he joined early in his life. Among the societies he joined was the Balvatsky Lodge of the Russian lady Madam Balvatsky through which he came into close contact with the occult. One of the most important societies he joined and presided was the occult society the Golden Dawn. This paper, therefore, sheds light on his quest for nationalist, intellectual, philosophical, and mystical orders and how this is reflected in his poetry. The paper attempts to explore this quest for order selected poems such as "The Lake Isle of Innisfree", "The Second Coming", "Leda and the Swan", "Sailing to Byzantium" and some other poems together with reference to his philosophical book A Vision. However, the dominating quest in Yeats's poetry is his quest for a mystical order which can be traced in almost all his poetical works.
 
Article
يعني القرآن الكريم بالجرس والإيقاع ويختار الألفاظ على أساس الموسيقى المتناسقة مع جو الآية والسياق، وللأصوات والمقاطع الصوتيّة جرس خاص وإيقاع متميز يتناغمان مع المعنى والدلالة، ويتغيَّران بتغيير الألفاظ والصيغ والتراكيب، ويكون لذلك أثر كبير في مجموع الأصوات ونسبتها المئوية ودلالتها، فكلُّ تغيير في اللفظ، أو الصيغة يتسبَّب بتغيير صوتيّ أو مقطعيّ، و قد لاحظنا تناغم الكثير من صفات الأصوات مع المعنى كالأصواتُ المجهورة التي شكَّلت نسبة عالية تناسبت وموضوع آية الكرسي، الجهر بالوحدانيّة لله، وتبيان قدرة الله ومشيئته، وقد أسهم في توضيح ذلك صوت اللام بوروده مفخَّما مرَّة واحدة فقط، مقترنا بلفظ الجلالة (الله) في أوَّل الآية وحصل على أعلى نسبة بين أصوات الآية، فللكثرة دلالتها، وللقلّة دلالتها. أمّا إيقاعيّا فقد وردت أصوات العلّة بمعدل ثاني أعلى نسبة بعد صوت اللام مجتمعة، مع اختلاف أطوالها مُدّةً في النطق، وهذا ما يرسم الإيقاع، وكان للتكرار الصوتي موسيقى إيقاعية اقترنت بالمعنى والدلالة كتكرار صائت الألف حصرا في أوّل الآية الذي تناسب والحديث عن وحدانية الله، فضلا عن تكرار الألف في الجمل التي تحدَّثت عن مشيئة الله، وكذلك لوحظ تناوب تكرار صائتي الواو والألف بشكل متعاقب فعكس علاقة السِنة أو النوم بالتعب، وأمّا اجتماع صائتي: الياء والواو في سياق الحديث عن نفي الشفاعة و نفي الإحاطة رسم ربط الشفاعة بالعلم كمرتبة لها ميزتها.
 
Article
يهدف البحث إلى دراسة دور التجارة الالكترونية في تحقيق الميزة التنافسية في عدد من شركات الاتصال في إقليم كردستان العراق ، منطلقا من مخطط فرضي يأخذ بنظر الاعتبار اتجاه العلاقة بين المتغيرين ، ولتحقيق هدف البحث وإكمال متطلباته، باشر الباحثان بإعداد الإطار النظري للبحث بالاستفادة من أدبيات الموضوع ، وثم استخدام استمارة الاستبيان لأخذ آراء عينة البحث ، كما تم استخدام بعض الأساليب لتحليل و تفسير النتائج ، تمثلت أهم الاستنتاجات في إن الشركات التي تعتمد على التجارة الالكترونية كان لها اثر مهم في تحقيق و تعزيز الميزة التنافسية مقارنة مع منافسيها، وتوصل البحث إلى جملة من التوصيات كان من أهمها هو العمل على تفعيل شبكة الانترنت كعامل مهم من عوامل نجاح الشركات والمؤسسات الاتصال في العصر الحديث.
 
Article
أدى التقدم المستمر في الوسائل التكنولوجية الى زيادة التواصل بين المؤسسات الصناعية والمؤسسات الخدمية، وسوف يتأثر النظام التعليمي نتيجة لذلك إذ شجع ذلك على إيجاد مصادر للمعلومات وتدعيم نماذج عصرية للتعليم والتعلم مدفوعة بالوسائل التكنولوجية الحديثة. ونظراً لعدم قدرة المجتمع على الهروب من التغير خاصة إذا ما أرادت مواكبة العالم المتقدم، لهذا تحتاج المؤسسات التعليمية بشكل عام للتغيير استجابة الى ضرورات التطور التكنولوجي من خلال دمج التكنولوجيا في العملية التعليمية. مما تولد عن ذلك الكثير من المشاريع والأفكار والمصطلحات التـي تهدف إلى الاستفادة من هذه التقنيات في مجال التربية والتعليم. ومواكبة للتطورات المتلاحقة في هذا المجال كان واجباً على المهتمين بمجـال تكنولوجيا التعليم والباحثين فيه استكشاف أهمية وفائدة هذه التكنولوجيات، وقد أثبت الواقع والدراسات الأهمية والنجاح الباهرين التي حققته هذه التكنولوجيات في مجال التربية والتعليم، والتي من أبرزها تنمية المهارات التقنية لدى الطلبة. بناءاً على ما تقدم يهدف البحث الحالي الى التعرف على أثر التعلم المدمج في تنمية بعض المهارات التقنية لدى الطلاب، ولتحقيق ذلك اتبعت الباحثة المنهج التجريبي وتصميم المجموعتين المتكافئين ذو الاختبار القبلي - البعدي، وتكونت العينة من (40) طالب وطالبة وزعت على مجموعتين الضابطة والتجريبية وبشكل عشوائي، وتألفت اداة البحث من بطاقة الملاحظة تم بنائه من قبل الباحثة لقياس الجانب المهاري لعينة البحث حيث توفرت لأداة الدراسة دلالات الصدق والثبات المناسبة، وقد اظهرت النتائج وجود فروق دالة إحصائياً في الجانبين المعرفي والمهاري في التطبيق بين متوسطي درجات المجموعة التجريبية والضابطة في الاختبار البعدي ولصالح المجموعة التجريبية، واتصف بفاعليته في تنمية بعض المهارات التقنية لدى الطلاب. وفي ضوء ما توصلت اليه الباحثة من نتائج تم وضع عدد من التوصيات والمقترحات.
 
Article
يعد الانفاق العام العنصر الاساس في التأثير على المتغيرات الاقتصادية الكلية ويعد أحد أدوات السياسة المالية فهو يمثل ويعبر عن دور الدولة وتدخلها في الحياة الاقتصادية وذلك عن طريق توجيه النشاط الاقتصادي في القطاعات الاقتصادية المختلفة لتحقيق الأهداف الاقتصادية والاجتماعية المرسومة من قبل الدولة، يعاني الاقتصاد العراقي جملة تحديات تتعلق بالمتغيرات الاقتصادية الكلية فضلاً عن الاختلال الهيكلي فيه وضعف مساهمة القطاعات الاقتصادية في الناتج المحلي باستثناء قطاع النفط. ومن هنا تبرز مشكلة البحث التي تناولت الدور الذي يمكن ان يؤديه الانفاق العام بالتأثير على المتغيرات الاقتصادية الكلية. هدفت البحث الى معرفة أثر الانفاق العام على المتغيرات الاقتصادية الكلية (النمو الاقتصادي، الاستهلاك، الاستثمار، البطالة، التضخم). وقد توصلت البحث الى أن أثر الانفاق العام ايجابي ومهم على أغلب متغيرات البحث وهذا بطبيعته يتفق مع النظرية الاقتصادية والتجارب الدولية المتعلقة بالنمو والتنمية الاقتصادية، وأوصت البحث بضرورة تعزيز الانفاق العام ولاسيما الانفاق الاستثماري على القطاعات الاقتصادية الاساسية وتوفير القاعدة الاساسية التي تنطلق منها القطاعات الاقتصادية، وانتهاج سياسة استثمارية جديدة لاسيما في مرحلة اعداد الميزانية، تستند على رؤية اقتصادية واجتماعية واضحة تتبنى مبدأ التنوع في المجالات الاستثمارية تهدف الى تحويل موارد البلاد الطبيعية الى ثروة اخرى لتحقيق النمو الاقتصادي المستدام، وهذا يمكن ان يساعد على توفير التحتية التي ينطلق منها الاقتصاد العراقي لتجاوز العقبات التي يواجهها في المتغيرات قيد البحث من أجل النهوض في الانتاج المحلي وتحقيق التنمية المستدامة، فضلا عن فسح المجال امام القطاع الخاص ليساهم في تعزيز الانفاق الخاص عبر المشاريع الاستثمارية التي تناط به مما يعزز مجمل التنمية الاقتصادية للبلد .
 
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يهدف البحث الى التعرف على أسلوب الاستقلال – الاعتماد لدى افراد عينة البحث .التعرف على مستوى التحصيل لدى طلب المرحلة الثانية سكول التربية الرياضية –جامعة كويه في فعالية الوثب الثلاثي.التعرف على العلاقة الارتباطية بين الاسلوب المعرفي (الاستقلال – الاعتماد) وتحصيل أفراد عينة البحث في فعالية الوثب الثلاثي . استخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي لملائمته وطبيعة البحث، وتمثل مجتمع البحث من طلبة المرحلة الثانية في سكول التربية الرياضية – جامعة كويه والبالغ عددهم(57)طالب وطالبة، وتم اختيار (34) طالب لعينة البحث بالطريقة العشوائية والتعرف على قوة واتجاه العلاقة الارتباطية بين أسلوب (الاستقلال –الاعتماد) والتحصيل لأفراد عينة البحث في فعالية الوثب الثلاثي وتحقيقاً لأهداف الدراسة واختبار فرضيتها لدراسة العلاقات الارتباطية، ومن خلال تحليل النتائج ومناقشتها النتائج باستخدام قانون ارتباط (بيرسون). تم جمع البيانات ومعالجتها إحصائياً ومن خلالها تم التوصل إلى عدة استنتاجات أهمها : بلغ عدد الطلاب المستقلين (22) طالب من طلاب عينة البحث ،في حين كان عدد الطلاب المعتمدين (12) طالب . العلاقة التي ظهرت بين اسلوب الاستقلال -الاعتماد وتحصيل طلاب عينة البحث في فعالية الوثب الثلاثي علاقة ارتباطية موجبة الكلمات المرشدة: أسلوب ،(الاستقلال – الاعتماد)، المجال الادراكي ،تحصيل، فعالية الوثب الثلاثي.
 
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تناولت الدراسة جانبًا فنيًا مهمًا في تجربة الكاتب الكوردي مسعود محمد ولا سيَّما في كتابه(اعادة التوازن إلى ميزان مختل)، تمثَّل في ظاهرة المنافرة التي استثمر الكاتب تجلياتها الفنية، وفاعليتها الدلالية، وأبعادها الجمالية، لتشكيل لغته على نحو يكسبها طاقات إيحائية، وإمكانات تعبيرية، قادرة على تجسيد رؤيته التجديدية، والإيحاء بحالاته الانفعالية،، إذ ينزع نصُّه إلى تحقيق هويته من خلال الاختلاف عن الخطاب الشائع، والتعالي على مرتكزات التعبير التقليدي، وتمثَّلت تلك التجليات بالمنافرة بين المضاف والمضاف إليه، وبين الصفة وموصوفها، وبين المسند والمسند إليه. وقد شكَّلت نصوص مسعود محمد خرقا لافتا في بناء لغته عن طريق المنافرة، ويتجلى المظهر الأبرز من مظاهرها في أشكال متعددة تأتي في مقدمتها الاضافة، إذ طغى هذا النمط من المنافرة على بقية الأنواع، وأسهم في بناء نصوص الكاتب، وإعلاء شعريتها، وتدعيم الدوال بمدلولات جديدة. وحرص الكاتب على توليد دلالات جديدة للمفردات في إحداثه تشكيلات متميزة عن سابقاتها عن طريق التنافر بين الصفة وموصوفها. وسعت المنافرة بين المسند والمسند إليه في أسلوب مسعود محمد _على الرغم من قلتها-إلى تجديد الوظائف النحوية المألوفة، وتحقيق قدر عال من التطور الدلالي، واكساب النص خصوبة دلالية منبثقة عن تباعد الأطراف، أو عدم تجانسها، وهذا يفسح المجال واسعا أمام آفاق تأويلية متجددة، لتحقيق قدر عالٍ من الشعرية.
 
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النبي والرسول في فكر إخوان الصفا وخلان الوفاء دراسة كلامية ـــ، بيّنت فيه أفكار ومعتقدات إخوان الصفا من خلال رسائلهم الإثنتين وخمسين المنسوبة إليهم، فقمت بدراسة أفكارهم وحللتها تحليلاً علمياً بدون تعصب، ويتكون بحثي من مقدمة ومبحثين، والمقدمة فيها بيان لهذه الجماعة والتعرف بهم، ولرسائلهم، وإختلاف الناس في الطعن بهم، وفي المدح لهم، حيث العالم الإسلامي كان يعيش في فوضى وإضطراب وقت نشأتهم وتكوينهم، وذكرت أقوال العلماء في أسماء من كتب هذه الرسائل من جماعة إخوان الصفا، ثمّ ذكرت أقوالهم في معنى النبي والرسول من خلال رسائلهم، وكلا المعنيين واحد عندهم، فهما: أي النبي والرسول لفظان مختلفان لفظاً متحدان معناً، وبيّنت أيضاً آرائهم في صفات الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة السلام، الصفات الخَلقية، والصفات الخُلقية، والنبوة عندهم غير منتهية، بل هي مستمرّة ودائمة. معتقد إخوان الصفا في الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام، حيث بينت فيه أنّ الأنبياء عندهم غير محصورين في عدد، ولا يؤمنون بأن الوحي ينزل عليهم، بل كلّ إنسان صالح وفيلسوف فهو نبي عندهم، لأنّهم لا يؤمنون بالملائكة، ولا بالوحي ولا بالجنّ والشياطين، بل لا يؤمون باليوم الآخر، ثمّ ذكرت في المطلب الثاني بياناً للعقيدة الصحيحة التي جاء بها الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام، حتى يكون ردّاً على شبهاتهم، وبياناً لما يوافق القرآن والسنة النبويّة
 
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