Kew Bulletin

Published by Springer Verlag
Print ISSN: 0075-5974
The papers in this issue of Kew Bulletin were delivered at a conference with the above title in the Jodrell Laboratory of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew on 12 – 16 October, 2009. Attracting 193 registrants from 34 countries, 50 speakers (including 10 keynote speakers) and 55 poster presenters, the conference proved most successful, as the papers herein highlight. Why was plant conservation chosen as the theme for such an important moment in the history of Kew? This certainly represents a significant shift in focus for the world's largest botanical garden. A brief historical analysis may help place this shift in context. Although we have no first-hand history of Kew written for its 50th anniversary in 1809 or its centenary in 1859, the enterprise of empire was uppermost in the botanical science and economic botany of Kew during these eras under the respective leadership of Sir Joseph Banks and Sir William Hooker. By the sesquicentenary in 1909, staff had written a first history in which we were told (Bean & Thiselton-Dyer 1908): "Kew is the headquarters of botanical science in the British Empire — one might, without extravagance, say in the whole world. That is its highest purpose. What Greenwich is to astronomy, the National Gallery to painting, the British Museum to archaeology, such is Kew to botany." The Director, Professor Sir William Thiselton-Dyer (1908) emphasised the important work of Kew on economic botany as well as taxonomy at the time: "Kew, in truth, has no politics or any aim but to accomplish useful work." Fifty years later, in celebrating the bicentenary of Kew, the essential thrust of the organisation was identified both as a centre for botanical science and as a visitor attraction (Turrill 1959a): "The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, function essentially as a botanical not as a horticultural institution. Never-theless, the Gardens proper as open to the general public are very beautiful and give recreation and pleasure to thousands of visitors who are not botanists." This view of Kew as a centre of scientific excellence in botany was further reinforced by Vistas in Botany (Turrill 1959b), an edited volume of essays across the discipline written by global experts of the day. With considerable prescience, the then Director, Sir George Taylor wrote in Turrill (1959b): "The massive contri-butions to taxonomy [by Kew] have tended to over-shadow the more limited output from the Jodrell Laboratory … [for which] it is confidently expected that there will be early significant expansion in … [its] activities]. …Kew is proud of its long traditions of service to botanical science and horticulture and is confident in its power not only to maintain its high position but is poised to add further lustre to its reputation in the field of botanical research in its widest sense" (Taylor 1959). Over the subsequent 50 years, Kew's Jodrell Labo-ratory has indeed risen to international eminence alongside the Herbarium, Library, Art and Archives, and RBG, Kew was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2003, according contemporary global recogni-tion of its collections, gardens and scientific pro-grammes — see the recent histories of Kew by Desmond (2006) and Paterson (2008). While the focus on the science of plant and fungal diversity and the sustainable use of plants continue to underpin the work of Kew, dramatic changes in the global environment precipitated a new focus on conservation over the past four decades. Professor Sir Ghillean Prance, Director of Kew from 1988 to 1999, provides in this issue an authoritative review of how this happened. The change of focus towards plant conservation was initiated under the visionary director-ship of Professor Jack Heslop-Harrison (McDowell 1996; Desmond 2006; Gunning & Heslop-Harrison 2005), and carried through by his successors and their staff and global partners to today's cutting edge projects, including the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership. In recent years, Kew has formulated a new set of corporate strategies placed under the umbrella of the Breathing Planet Programme. This is a global partner-ship programme of existing activities which will be scaled up, resources willing, over the next decade with the aim of inspiring and delivering science-based plant and fungal conservation worldwide, enhancing the quality of life (Fig. 1).
Abarema villosa. A habit; B petiolar nectary; C leaflet and detail showing the abaxial surface; D basal flower; E apical flower; F ovary; G fruit; H seed. All from P. R. Farag 214. DRAWN BY J. R. V. IGANCI. 
Abarema barnebyana. A habit; B petiolar nectary; C leaflet and detail showing the abaxial surface; D basal flower; E apical flower (stamens cut short); F central flower (stamens cut short); G ovary; H fruit; J seed. A, D, E-G from D. A. Folli 5549; B, C, H, J from D. A. Folli 755. DRAWN BY J. R. V. IGANCI. 
Abarema limae. A habit; B petiolar nectary; C leaflet and detail showing the abaxial surface; D basal flower; E apical flower (stamens cut short); F central flower (stamens cut short); G ovary; H fruit; J seed. All from H. C. Lima 6600. DRAWN BY J. R. V. IGANCI. 
Three new species of Abarema Pittier (Leguminosae) are described and illustrated: A. villosa Iganci & Morim, A. limae Iganci & Morim and A. barnebyana Iganci & Morim from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. A. villosa is similar to A. brachystachya (DC.) Barneby & J. W. Grimes, but has villous leaflets, a pilose and truncate ovary and a corolla three times longer than the calyx. Both A. limae and A. barnebyana resemble A. jupunba (Willd.) Britton & Killip in having rhombic leaflets and heteromorphic inflorescences, but are differentiated by leaflet size and indumentum, and pod size and shape.
The delimitation of Barleria L. sect. Cavirostrata M. Balkwill is discussed with particular emphasis on capsule and seed characters. An expanded circumscription of the section is adopted in which all species having a (potentially) 4-seeded capsule with a conspicuous beak and with subellipsoid, subglobose or discoid seeds are included. Barleria descampsii Lindau, previously placed within sect. Stellatohirta M. Balkwill largely on account of its stellate indumentum, is transferred to sect. Cavirostrata together with the closely related B. grandipetala De Wild. and B. richardsiae I. Darbysh., the latter being formally described here. A key to the four eastern African species of the newly expanded sect. Cavirostrata is presented, together with taxonomic notes and conservation assessments for each species.
Three new species are described in Barleria L. sect. Stellatohirta M. Balkwill from tropical Africa: B. aristata from south-central Tanzania, B. aenea from south-western Tanzania and northeast Zambia, and B. purpureotincta from south-western Zambia. Their affinities and conservation status are discussed.
A review of the genus Isoglossa Oerst. in east Africa is presented in preparation for the FTEA Acanthaceae treatment. Variation in pollen type within the African Isoglossa is summarised and its implications for generic circumscription are considered. The occurrence of periodic gregarious monocarpy (a plietesial life cycle) within Isoglossa is reviewed, with reference to other occurrences of this phenomenon in the Acanthaceae. The relationship of African taxa of Isoglossa to the Asian I. dichotoma (Hassk.) B. Hansen is reviewed and a tabular synopsis and key are presented for this group in east Africa, together with the description of three new species (I. paucinervis, I. ventricosa, I. bondwaensis), one new subspecies (I. membranacea subsp. septentrionalis) and one new name (I. bruceae) within the group. A further three new east African species (I. variegata, I. faulknerae, I. multinervis) and one new subspecies (I. substrobilina subsp. tenuispicata) are described, and the status of I. salviiflora in relation to I. floribunda is reassessed. The conservation status of each taxon is considered.
Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of the Neotropical genus Lophostachys showed that it is congeneric with Lepidagathis. The following new combinations of species previously described under Lophostachys are proposed: Lepidagathis chiapensis (Acosta) Kameyama, L. cyanea (Leonard) Kameyama, L. guatemalensis (Donn. Sm.) Kameyama, L. laxifolia (Nees) Kameyama, L. montana (Nees) Kameyama, L. nemoralis (Mart. ex Nees) Kameyama, L. soconuscana (T. F. Daniel) Kameyama, and L. uxpanapensis (Acosta) Kameyama. Five new species are described: Lepidagathis callistachys, L. cuneiformis, L. meridionalis, L. paraensis and L. wasshausenii. Three lectotypes are also designated. A key to the Neotropical secundiflorous species is provided.
Descriptions and information about 26 species of Strobilanthes Blume are provided. Sixteen species are described as new: Strobilanthes bilabiata J. R. I. Wood, S. fragrans J. R. I. Wood and S. trichantha J. R. I. Wood from Thailand, S. borii J. R. I. Wood and S. parvifolia J. R. I. Wood from India, S. chrysodelta, J. R. I. Wood, S. muratae J. R. I. Wood, S. ramulosa J. R. I. Wood, S. tanakae J. R. I. Wood and S. wardiana J. R. I. Wood from Burma, S. disparifolia J. R. I. Wood from Laos, S. fusca J. R. I. Wood from the Philippines, S. longipedunculata Terao ex J. R. I. Wood from Vietnam, S. longistaminea J. R. I. Wood and S. pusilla J. R. I. Wood from Indonesia and S. orientalis J. R. I. Wood from East Timor. Species placed in Aechmanthera Nees and Sericocalyx Bremek. are transferred to Strobilanthes, resulting in the new name Strobilanthes sulewesiana J. R. I. Wood for Sericocalyx collina Bremek. and the new combinations Strobilanthes tomentosa (Nees) J. R. I. Wood, Strobilanthes celebica (Bremek.) J. R. I. Wood and Strobilanthes schomburgkii (Craib) J. R. I. Wood for the species hitherto known respectively as Aechmanthera gossypina (Wall.) Nees, Sericocalyx celebicus Bremek. and S. schomburgkii (Craib) Bremek. The new combinations Strobilanthes barisanensis (Bremek.) J. R. I. Wood and S. persicifolia (Lindl.) J. R. I. Wood are made, the latter based on an earlier name for the relatively well-known S. anisiphylla (G. Lodd.) T. Anderson. Kjellbergia celebica Bremek. is renamed Strobilanthes kjellbergii J. R. I. Wood. Some 22 species are illustrated with line drawings for the first time. Pollen of 16 species is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. The more widespread species are mapped.
Preparation of a catalogue of the plants of Colombia requires 30 new combinations in Stenostephanus Nees and five in Justicia L. to bring nomenclature up to date. Three new names Justicia littoralis J. R. I. Wood, J. albicans J. R. I. Wood and J. magdalenensis J. R. I. Wood are coined for Jacobinia lindaviana Rusby, Chaetothylax leucantha Leonard and Justicia disparifolia J. R. I. Wood respectively. The genus Pelecostemon Leonard is considered to belong to sect. Chaetothylax (Nees) V. A. W. Graham of Justicia L. Several species of Stenostephanus from Colombia and Venezuela are treated as synonyms of earlier species.
Five new species are described within the genus Dicliptera Juss. (Acanthaceae) from eastern Africa: D. inconspicua I. Darbysh., D. cordibracteata I. Darbysh., D. latibracteata I. Darbysh., D. cicatricosa I. Darbysh. and D. vollesenii I. Darbysh. The Dicliptera maculata Nees and D. carvalhoi Lindau complexes are reassessed with emphasis upon eastern Africa, resulting in two new statuses and two new subspecies being formalised: D. maculata Nees subsp. usambarica (Lindau) I. Darbysh., D. carvalhoi Lindau subsp. nemorum (Milne-Redh.) I. Darbysh. and D. carvalhoi subsp. laxiflora I. Darbysh. and D. carvalhoi subsp. erinacea I. Darbysh. D. nilotica C. B. Clarke and D. colorata C. B. Clarke are lectotypified and the past confusion over these names is discussed. The description of D. grandiflora Gilli is amplified and its affinities discussed. An assessment of the conservation status of each taxon is made.
Achillea sivasica Çelik & Akpulat sp. nov. (Asteraceae) from Turkey is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, a description and taxonomic comments on the species are given. It is compared with the closely related A. magnifica. The geographical distribution of the new species and related species is shown. IUCN threatened category and observations on the population are noted.
Gymnosiphon samoritoureanus. A habit, in situ (from photograph); B habit, flowering plant; C habit, fruiting plant; D rootstock (herbarium specimen); E perianth, oblique view from above (from photograph); F flower, lateral view (from photograph); G flower, lateral view (from spirit material); H flower, dissected; J stigmatic surface, lateral view; K stigmatic surface, oblique view from above; L stamen, frontal view; M fruit, lateral view; N fruit, sagittal section; P fruit, transverse section. From van der Burgt 1275 (spirit collections unless otherwise indicated). DRAWN BY ANDREW BROWN.  
Five species of saprophytes found in a single locality in the Simandou Range in Guinea (Figs. K, L, Q, R were taken elsewhere). A – D Gymnosiphon samoritoureanus (van der Burgt 1275); A, B corolla; C whole plant with one fresh and one old flower; D white and yellow flower. E – G G. bekensis (van der Burgt 1274). H G. bekensis (left; van der Burgt 1274) and G. samoritoureanus (right; van der Burgt 1275). J – L G. longistylus corolla with 6 filiform stigmatic appendages (J: van der Burgt 1310; K, L: van der Burgt 1282A). M G. longistylus (left; van der Burgt 1310) and G. bekensis (right; van der Burgt 1274). N, P Burmannia congesta (van der Burgt 1276). Q, R Sebaea oligantha (van der Burgt 1278).  
Five species of achlorophyllous heteromycotrophs, better known as saprophytes, are here reported from Guinea for the first time, raising the national total to six. They include a new species, Gymnosiphon samoritoureanus Cheek, which is described and illustrated, and assessed as Vulnerable using IUCN (2001). Key wordsachlorophyllous heteromycotroph- Auxopus - Burmannia -conservation- Gymnosiphon -Liberia-Mt Nimba- Sebaea -Simandou-Ziama
A Banksia anatona (IMAGE: S. BARRETT) ; B Banksia montana (IMAGE: J. A. COCHRANE) ; C Banksia brownii (IMAGE: R. HARTLEY) ; D 
Overview of numbers (and percentage) of extant and extinct wild populations of Banksia anatona, B. brownii, B. montana and Lambertia fairallii.
Combined percentage of wild mature and juvenile in situ and inter situ plants in 2009 of A Banksia anatona from three populations, including one extinct population, Stirling Range National Park; B Banksia brownii from three upland populations, including one extinct population, Stirling Range National Park; C Banksia brownii from three lowland coastal populations, including one extinct population; D Banksia montana from four extant and two extinct populations, Stirling Range National Park; E Lambertia fairallii from all four extant populations, Stirling Range National Park. 
South West Western Australia has a rich endemic flora of global significance. The threats facing this floral diversity are increasing in type, severity and scale, demonstrated by the rising numbers of species threatened with extinction. In particular, the root-rot pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi is causing widespread destruction, threatening the survival of many of the region’s unique plants. In situ conservation of wild plants is considered the most essential component of a flora conservation program, but the ability to conserve some species adequately is often unachievable in the short term and urgent management intervention is required to prevent extinction. We present data on the status and management of wild populations of four threatened species from the region, including an ex situ program, and describe our efforts to bridge the gap between these two components. Such inter situ conservation recovery work enables monitoring of biological attributes, research into reproductive biology and collection of genetic material for further ex situ conservation, and provides the source of material for future restoration of wild populations. Key Words Ex situ conservation– in situ conservation– Phytophthora cinnamomi –Stirling Range National Park–threatening processes.
Senecio albus. A habit; B capitula; C floret; D stamen; E style. All from the holotype (HUFU). DRAWN BY MYRIAN MORATO DUARTE.  
Senecio albus J. N. Nakaj. & A. M. Teles, a new species of Senecio (Senecioneae - Asteraceae), is described from the National Park of Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species shares discoid capitula with S. gertii Zardini and is assigned to sect. Adamantina. This character is not in the circumscription for the sect. Adamantina and thus the description of the section is emended accordingly. A key to species of Senecio sect. Adamantina is provided. © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2009.
Adelobotrys atlantica. A habit showing adaxial and abaxial sides of laminae, old infructescence, and adherent adventitious roots on internode of axillary branch; B detail of lamina margin from abaxial side showing ciliolation of malpighian trichomes and unbranched setulae; C fruiting hypanthium with persistent calyx, and pedicel; D old fruit without seeds showing persistent, apically detached vascular strands of disintegrated hypanthium, fruit walls, and axile sessile placentae (front part of hypanthium and fruit removed); E seed; F malpighian hairs from vein of abaxial side of lamina; G malpighian hairs from stem. Scalebar: for A 2 cm, B – C 4 mm, E 1 mm, F and G 2 mm. All from R. L. Fróes 20032. DRAWN BY R. ILMANEN.  
A new species of Adelobotrys DC., A. atlantica Schulman, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus in the Atlantic rainforests of Brazil. The only known specimen of the new species was collected in 1943 close to the sizeable city of Ilhéus in an area that has probably now been converted to managed land. It is therefore possible that A. atlantica is already extinct.
Deinbollia oreophila. A habit sketch, drawn from photo.; B habit, flowering stem; C leaf rhachis, portion showing transverse section; D petal, inner surface, male flower; E extrastaminal disc, longitudinal section; F stamens and disc, male flower; G stamen, male flower; H female flower at anthesis; J petal, inner surface, female flower; K female flower, petals, sepals and proximal stamens removed to show gynoecium; L fruits. A – L from Cheek 9580. Drawn By Margaret Tebbs.
The more significant differences between Deinbollia maxima and D. oreophila.
Deinbollia oreophila Cheek (Sapindaceae) is described from the submontane forests of the Cameroon Highlands, extending to the Obudu Plateau of Nigeria. It is unusual in being the only submontane species of the genus in West and Central Africa, and in being glabrous, with bright white raised lenticels. Its morphological variation and its conservation status are assessed.
Dacryodes villiersiana. A leaf and inflorescence; B bract; C female cyme with alternate lateral flowers; D female flower; E male flower; F longitudinal section of male flower; G longitudinal section of female flower; H stamen; J staminode; K transverse section of ovary. (A, B, C, D, G, J & K from de Wilde J. J. F. E 8115; E, F, H from Le Testu 5958). DRAWN BY JEAN MICHEL ONANA.
A synoptic revision is presented for the genus Dacryodes Vahl in Africa. The studies are based on examination of herbarium material. Eighteen species are recognised, including two not well known due to poor material. The new species Dacryodes villiersiana Onana is described and illustrated. The conservation status of the species is discussed following the categories and criteria of IUCN (2001).
Lectotype of Catabrosa drakensbergense (Hedberg & I. Hedberg) Soreng & Fish, O. Hedberg 82088 “ A ” (UPS). The specimen marked “ B ” has about equal numbers of 2- fl owered spikelets, both fl orets well developed and fertile, and 1- fl owered spikelets. 2- fl owered spikelets are rare in two shoots, and absent in one shoot. 
Comparison of Colpodium, Catabrosa and Catabrosa drakensbergense.
Differences between the genera Colpodium Trin. and Catabrosa P. Beauv. are discussed. Colpodium drakensbergense Hedberg & I. Hedberg is transferred to Catabrosa drakensbergense (Hedberg & I. Hedberg) Soreng & Fish and a lectotype is chosen for the species. This leaves only two Colpodium species in Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania), and extends the range of Catabrosa from northwestern Africa to southern Africa. Key wordsAfrica– Catabrosa – Colpodium –Miliinae–Poaceae–Poeae–Puccinelliinae
A-C Asclepias stathmostelmoides. A habit; B fruit; C flower. D A. longissima, flower, with detail of coronal papillae. E A. crassicoronata, flower. F A. tanganyikensis, flower. A & C from Bidgood et al. 2647; B from Congdon s.n.; D from Johnston 257; E from Bidgood et al. 2388; F from Lynes IH 90. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
Asclepias longirostra. A & B habit, with rootstock; C flower; D back of anther, with anther wings and long anther appendage. A & B from Robson 1105; C & D from Jackson 2295. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
A, B Asclepias occidentalis. A habit, with rootstock and single dehisced follicle; B flower. C, D A. mtorwiensis. C habit. D flower. A & B from Baldwin 14170; C & D from Brummitt et al. 18142. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
Asclepias inaequalis. A habit; B rootstock; C young follicle; D flower; E adaxial face of corona lobe; F pollinarium; G anther, with contorted margins. A & B from Goyder et al. 3888; C & G from Goyder et al. 3895; D-F from Richards 18489. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
A-C Asclepias randii. A habit; B flower; C corona lobe. D-G A. grandirandii. D habit; E flower; F pollinarium; G corona lobe. A-C from Goyder et al. 3854; D-G from Robson 373. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
In preparation for two major regional Flora accounts, Asclepias has been reassessed in tropical Africa. 38 species not assigned to the allied genera Aspidoglossum, Glossostelma, Gomphocarpus, Margaretta, Pachycarpus, Stathmostelma, Stenostelma or Xysmalobium are recognised in the region. Nine species and one subspecies are described for the first time. The inclusion of Trachycalymma again within Asclepias requires four new combinations. A further three new names or combinations are required for the transfer of Odontostelma welwitschii, Schizoglossum alpestre and Stathmostelma verdickii to Asclepias. Five names are lectotypified, and a neotype proposed for Gomphocarpus meliodorus. The conservation status of all species is assessed.
The holomycotrophic terrestrial orchids of tropical Africa are reassessed. Two new species of Gastrodia from tropical Africa are described, G. rwandensis from Rwanda and G. ballii from south-central Africa. The genus now comprises three species in tropical Africa. A key is provided to distinguish them from Gastrodia africana Kraenzl. Key words Gastrodia -holomycotrophic orchids-new records for Central and South-central Africa-new species
Critical re-examination of the type of Cynanchum clavidens N. E. Br. has resulted in revised synonymy for C. hastifolium K. Schum. and the description of a new subspecies, C. hastifolium subsp. longirostrum Goyder. The geographical and morphological pattern of variation showed by another species pair, C. gerrardii (Harv.) Liede and C. lenewtonii Liede, is comparable to that shown by the two subspecies of C. hastifolium, so C. lenewtonii is reduced to subspecific rank under C. gerrardii. Finally, C. ledermannii Schltr. is transferred to Pentarrhinum E. Mey., and P. abyssinicum Decne. subsp. ijimense Goyder placed in synonymy with it.
Sleumer’s (1971) revision of Casearia (formerly Flacourtiaceae, now Salicaceae) is reviewed to correct the specific delimitation, nomenclature and geography of some of the West and Central African species. As a result, Casearia inaequalis Hutch. & Dalz. and C. prismatocarpa Mast. are resurrected, the latter to replace C. calodendron Gilg ex Engl. Casearia michelsonii, from the mountains of East Congo (Kinshasa), is described as new. A revised key to the species of West and Central Africa is presented and their distributions are mapped.
A new Athyrium species, A. crassicaule J. P. Roux (Woodsiaceae), is described from the Drakensberg in Lesotho and South Africa. A key to the Athyrium species in Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland is provided.
Vernonia excelsa Jongkind, a liana from Central Africa, is described here as new and the closely related species V. doniana DC. and V. andohii C. D. Adams, with more westerly distributions, are resurrected as separate species. Key wordsAfrica–Asteraceae–taxonomy– Vernonia
Habit and habitat of the three new species of South African Sarcocornia . S. decussata ( A , B ), S. freitagii ( C , D ) and S. tegetaria ( E , F ). PHOTOGRAPHS L. MUCINA . 
Sarcocornia decussata. A major branch; B vegetative branchlet; C fertile branchlet; D close-up of inflorescence. From Steffen & Mucina 260306/10, holotype NBG. DRAWN BY DORIS FRANKE.
Sarcocornia decussata. A longitudinal section of inflorescence; B fertile segment, bracts removed, view from below; C three flowers of a cyme, presenting stigmas, with lateral flowers almost as large as central one; D fertile segment, flowers removed, view from above. From Steffen & Mucina 260306/10, holotype NBG. DRAWN BY DORIS FRANKE.
Sarcocornia freitagii. A habit; B fertile branchlet, flowers hidden behind bracts; C longitudinal section, segments in flowering and fruiting stage; D fertile segment, three flowers of a cyme, central flower slightly larger than lateral ones, view from above. From Steffen & Mucina 170506/01, holotype NBG. DRAWN BY DORIS FRANKE.
SEM photographs of seeds and close-up of testa. Sarcocornia freitagii ( A , B ), S. tegetaria ( C , D ), S. mossambicensis ( E , F ). Scale bars A, C , E = 500 m, B, D = 100 m, F = 50 m. 
Sarcocornia decussata, S. freitagii and S. tegetaria from South Africa are described as new taxa. Sarcocornia decussata and S. freitagii are narrow endemics of the West Coast of South Africa where they are found in inland saline habitats (quartz patches, salt pans and saline alluvia) while S. tegetaria is an endemic of southern African coasts (spanning Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique) where it is confined to low-lying intertidal habitats of estuaries. © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2009.
A new species of Dioscorea from South Africa, D. strydomiana Wilkin, is described and illustrated. It differs from the related species D. elephantipes (L’Hér.) Engl., D. hemicrypta Burkill and D. sylvatica Eckl. in its tuber surface, leaf morphology, texture and habit, male flower tepal, filament and pistillode size, the length of the stipe between the ovary apex and the torus in female flowers and in capsule shape. Just two populations and c. 200 individuals in total exist, and significant threats have been reported, making D. strydomiana critically endangered. Thus its conservation and sustainable use are discussed. Key Wordsconservation-critically endangered- Dioscorea -new species-principal components analysis-South Africa-systematics
Xysmalobium samoritourei. A habit; B apex of stem with follicle; C base of corolla lobes and gynostegium drawn from herbarium material to show collapsed corona lobes; D fresh flower showing fleshy corona lobes at base of gynostegium; E sepal, adaxial view; F pollinarium. A-E from Couch et al. 556; F from Jordan 1060. DRAWN BY MARGARET TEBBS.
Xysmalobium samoritourei Goyder (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) is described from the highlands of Sierra Leone and Guinea (Conakry) and illustrated. Its conservation status is assessed.
We describe and illustrate Coccinia pwaniensis Holstein from eastern Tanzania and southeast Kenya, and C. samburuensis Holstein from the Samburu area in Kenya. The new species were already recognised by Charles Jeffrey in 1967 and are now known from eight and four collections, respectively. Ongoing monographic work also revealed three new synonyms and the need for a new combination, Coccinia heterophylla (Hook. f.) Holstein. Key wordsCoastal forests- Coccinia pwaniensis - Coccinia samburuensis -Kenya-Tanzania
Fuirena bidgoodae Hoenselaar & Muasya, a new species of Fuirena Rottb. from eastern Africa, is described and illustrated. KeywordsCyperaceae-East Africa- Fuirena -new species-taxonomy
Recently collected material of Sesbania (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) from western Ethiopia shows variation and character combinations not recorded in J. B. Gillett’s revision of Sesbania from Africa and tropical Arabia from 1963 and combines three taxa in his revision, S. sudanica J. B. Gillett, S. sudanica subsp. occidentalis J. B. Gillett and S. hepperi J. B. Gillett. The three taxa are therefore united into one more variable species, S. sudanica, that can still be distinguished from other Sesbania species with no or hardly any free tips on the appendages on the standard by having the style pilose or tomentose and a long sterile rostrum on a non- or only faintly torulose pod. The amended S. sudanica is distributed throughout the Sudanian woodland zone from near the Atlantic to the foothills of the Ethiopian highlands. The distribution area agrees well with the Sudanian region in Frank White’s classification of African phytochoria.
Two new combinations, one new and one resurrected name in Plectranthus L’Hér. are provided for species formerly placed in Leocus A. Chev.; conservation assessments are made for five species.
Oricia lecomteana Pierre (Rutaceae), a rare and threatened shrub or tree of coastal lowland and lower submontane evergreen forest from Southeast Nigeria to Congo-Brazzaville, is transferred to Vepris A. Juss. as Vepris lecomteana (Pierre) Cheek & T. Heller and its taxonomic, geographic and conservation status is assessed.
Asteraceae phylogeny showing position of Welwitschiella in tribe Astereae. Strict consensus tree based on jackknife analysis of 184 DNA sequences of ndh F; only nodes with jackknife support >50% are resolved; several tribes are here shown abbreviated (indicated by triangles), since they are not subjects of the main discussion in the present paper. For more details, see Eldenäs et al . (1998) and Anderberg et al . (2005). 
Strict consensus of 10 most parsimonious trees of tribe Astereae based on ITS sequence data; L 2492, CI 0.306, RI0.667. Bootstrap support indicated by numbers above lines. A refers to the second part of the tree. H indicates taxa that are included in subtribe Hinterhuberinae and C taxa that are part of subtribe Conyzinae in Nesom & Robinson (2007).
50% majority rule consensus of 15,000 trees of tribe Astereae based on ITS sequence data, including indels. Posterior probabilities indicated by numbers below lines (or to right of line in a few cases where placement of number was impossible below line). A refers to the second part of the tree. H indicates taxa that are included in subtribe Hinterhuberinae and C taxa that are part of subtribe Conyzinae in Nesom & Robinson (2007). Continent of origin: A south Asia, AF Africa, AU Australia, EA east Asia, EU Europe, NA North America, NZ New Zealand, SA South America.
The African genus Welwitschiella has traditionally been placed in tribe Heliantheae. Our phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA ndhF sequence data, however, reveals that it is part of tribe Astereae. In order to assess the relationships of this genus within the tribe, we produced a phylogeny based on ITS (nrDNA) sequence data of a sample including Amellus, African Conyza, Chrysocoma, Felicia spp., Mairia, Poeciliopsis, Printzia, Welwitschiella and Zyrphelis. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses were done. The Bayesian analysis showed that African genera form a basal grade in tribe Astereae along with the Chinese Nannoglottis and South American and New Zealand genera, with Printzia being the earliest diverging member of the tribe. Mairia occupies an isolated position. Amellus, Chrysocoma, Felicia, Poecilolepis and Zyrphelis belong to subtribe Homochrominae, a South African radiation that also includes the St Helena endemics Commidendron and Melanodendron. Pteronia appears isolated, though it might be close to the Homochrominae. Welwitschiella is placed in the latest diverging African clade, subtribe Grangeinae, which also includes Grangea, Psiadia, Nidorella, and the African Conyza species except C. gouani. This subtribe is sister to the Eurasiatic subtribe Bellidinae, and together they are sister to the Astereae crown lineages of Australasia-Asia and South and North America. KeywordsAfrica-Asteraceae-Astereae-biogeography-ITS-molecular phylogeny- ndhF- Welwitschiella
Seven new names at species rank are proposed in Memecylon sect. Afzeliana Jacq.-Fél., a group of forest shrubs and small trees confined to Guineo-Congolian Africa. The group is centred in Cameroon, where 17 of the 20 species occur. A new flower type, the “star-flower” in Memecylon is revealed, and its taxonomic and ecological importance discussed. Three new, locally endemic species from the South West Province of Cameroon are described, mapped and illustrated: M. kupeanum R. D. Stone, Ghogue & Cheek, M. bakossiense R. D. Stone, Ghogue & Cheek, and M. rheophyticum R. D. Stone, Ghogue & Cheek. Two new names, M. accedens R. D. Stone, Ghogue & Cheek and M. hyleastrum R. D. Stone & Ghogue and one new combination, M. mamfeanum (Jacq.-Fél.) R. D. Stone, Ghogue & Cheek are provided at species level for three taxa originally proposed as varieties of M. afzelii G. Don. The taxon M. arcuatomarginatum var. simulans Jacq.-Fél. is also elevated to species status, as M. simulans (Jacq.-Fél.) R. D. Stone & Ghogue. Conservation assessments are provided for all the newly named taxa. A key is provided to the species of Memecylon sect. Afzeliana.
Twelve new species are described: Conocybe sordescens, Coprinus cinnamomeotinctus, C. griseofoetidus (a renaming of C. narcoticus (Batsch: Fr.) Fr. sensu J. Lange), Galerina paludinella, G. viscidula, Leccinum rigidipes, Lepiota olivaceobrunnea, Mycena fusconigra (a renaming of M. atrocyanea (Batsch: Fr.) Gillet), Pholiota ceriferoides, P. persicina, P. xanthophaea, and Tephrocybe ellisii. Hygrophorus micaceus is transferred to Hygrocybe and the necessary new combination is proposed and a recent collection is described. Descriptions are given of recent British material of Clitocybe ornamentalis, C. truncicola, Cortinarius (Phlegmaciurn) gracilior, C. (P.) magicus, C. (P.) varius, C. (P.) xanthophyllus, Entoloma myrmecophilum, E. sphagneti, Gymnopilus bellulus, Hebeloma funariophyllum, Lepiota tomentella, Mycena leucogala, M. trichoderma, Stropharia albonitens and Tephrocybe platypus. The following taxa are discussed but not described: Cortinarius (Telamonia) pseudocolus, C. (T.) haematochelis (both of which are newly recorded for Britain), Leccinum quercinum (occurring under aspen in Scotland) and Pluteus villosus (amended dimensions of cap and stem).
Chart of CYNARES' project organisation and working packages (WP) interactions.
Field data collection sheet developed by project partner (CNR-IGV) to run morphological evaluation using UPOV descriptors. 
The European Commission (Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development under Council Regulation (EC) No 870/2004), has sponsored the European Project ‘CYNARES’ for the characterisation and conservation of Cynara species germplasm, focusing predominantly on artichokes. The project (2008 – 2012) involves seven project partners from France, Spain and Italy which share European germplasm collections. The accessions are currently being assessed at the morphological, biochemical and molecular levels as well as for disease resistance. Policy aspects addressed within this project include patenting resources to increase value to farmers producing well-recognised varieties and with known nutriceutical values. Moreover, European germplasm will be assessed, classified and patented hence protected by the third country, to avoid fraud and valorise the European products; three clones have already been sent for evaluation by registration authorities in Italy. The conservation of Cynara spp. germplasm and its utilisation are crucial to the project and were developed based on the CBD, the FAO’s GPA for PGRFA, and the ITPGRFA. A CYNARES website documenting Cynara germplasm with project updating and information is available at: http:// www. cynares. com/ or http:// www. cynares. eu/ . The site will also target farmers as well as other stakeholder needs. The website aims to be a focal point for all the activities related to Cynara spp. Anyone can register and contribute to the news updating, inserting scientific results, germplasm information or events announcement.
The number of references reporting the identi fi cation and transfer of useful traits from 185 CWR taxa to 29 crop species, showing the number of CWR taxa used in each crop (Maxted & Kell 2009). 
Numbers of primary and secondary CWR species in 14 crop gene pools (Maxted & Kell 2009).
Model for the development of national CWR strategies (Maxted et al. 2007).
In light of the growing concern over the potentially devastating impacts on biodiversity and food security of climate change and the massively growing world population, taking action to conserve crop wild relatives (CWR), is no longer an option — it is a priority. Crop wild relatives are species closely related to crops, including their progenitors, many of which have the potential to contribute beneficial traits to crops, such as pest or disease resistance, yield improvement or stability. They are a critical component of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), have already made major contributions to crop production and are vital for future food security; their systematic conservation in ways that ensure their continuing availability for use is therefore imperative. This is a complex, interdisciplinary, global issue that has been addressed by various national and international initiatives. Drawing on the lessons learnt from these initiatives we can now propose a global approach to CWR conservation, the key elements of which are: (1) estimating global CWR numbers, (2) assessment of the global importance of CWR diversity, (3) current conservation status, (4) threats to CWR diversity, (5) systematic approaches to CWR conservation, (6) CWR informatics, and (7) enhancing the use of CWR diversity. Key Wordsconservation–crop diversity–crop wild relatives–genetic diversity–plant genetic resources for food and agriculture
A study of the 26 Cyperaceae published in G. Raddi’s Agrostografia brasiliensis is presented. Several new synonyms and a re-evaluation of some taxa described by G. Raddi are proposed. The first citation of Fimbristylis pilosa Vahl for Brazil is reported. The new combination, Pleurostachys pilulifera (Bertol.) Longhi-Wagner, Baldini & A. C. Araújo is made. Key wordsCyperaceae-Giuseppe Raddi-new synonymy-new taxa-South America
Alchornea lojaensis, a new species of Euphorbiaceae collected in tropical montane rainforest of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The species belongs to the group of Alchornea with pinnately nerved leaves and its affinities and differences in relation to A. discolor and A. fluviatilis are discussed. Alchornea lojaensis, uma nova Euphorbiaceae coletada em floresta tropical montanhosa do Equador, é descrita e ilustrada. A espécie faz parte do grupo das Alchornea com folhas peninérveas e suas afinidades e diferenças em relação à A. discolor e A. fluviatilis são discutidas.
Collections of three fungal species described from Germany by Alexander von Humboldt have been rediscovered in the mycological herbarium at Kew. These collections are considered lectotypes of Boletus patella, B. venosus, and Clavaria aurea and are assigned to Postia stiptica, Physisporinus vitreus, and Calocera viscosa respectively. Humboldt’s Central & South American collections are also at Kew and a list of specimens is appended. Based on the rediscovered type collection, Favolus humboldtii is considered a synonym of Polyporus tenuiculus. Key wordsAscomycota–Basidiomycota–Colombia–Ecuador–Freiberg
The invasion of native habitats by exotic, or alien, plant species has received considerable attention recently from policy, research, and practical conservation management perspectives. However, a new hypothesis for species dynamics in Britain suggests that a small number of aggressive native plant species (termed ‘thugs’) may have an equal, or greater, impact on native species and habitats than exotic species. Here, we examine this hypothesis using multivariate techniques with field-layer cover data collected during a country-wide survey of British woodlands. Multivariate analysis of these data identified a north-south gradient on the first axis, and that 20 of the 25 National Vegetation Classification woodland types were sampled within the study. The most abundant field-layer species included three of the proposed native ‘thugs’, i.e. Rubus fruticosus, Pteridium aquilinum and Hedera helix in addition to the native woodland indicator species Mercurialis perennis. Variation partitioning was used to compare the relative importance of native field-layer ‘thug’ species with invading alien shrub and tree species relative to other environmental drivers. The variation in the field-layer data-set explained by the three native ‘thug’ species was significant, but they explained a relatively small proportion of the variation relative to other environmental variables (climate, soil, management factors etc.). They did, however, explain almost four times as much variation as the three alien species that were significantly correlated with field-layer species composition (Acer pseudoplatanus, Impatiens glandulifera, Rhododendron ponticum). The results of this analysis suggest that the field-layer of British woodlands is impacted as much by native ‘thug’ species, as it is from ‘aliens’. Concern about the impact of these native ‘thug’ species has been reported previously, but their impact has not previously been compared to the impact of invading aliens. It is hoped that this analysis will do two things, first to act as a sound baseline for assessing any changing balance that should occur in the future, and second, to prompt both ecologists and conservationists to develop woodland management policies based on sound science. Key WordsDetrended correspondence analysis–National Woodland Survey–native species–resource assessment–variation partitioning–woodland field-layer species–woodland herb
Taxonomy of the genus Echinodorus is partially revisited in the light of current understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of the genus. As a result of new taxonomy, the species status of some previously synonymised taxa are restored, other names are synonymised, and some nomenclatural problems unnoticed by previous authors are resolved. Two new species, Echinodorus reptilis and E. emersus are described. The subgeneric divisions of the genus are not accepted, and all subspecific taxa are either rejected or established as species. As a result, 28 species based on a phylogenetic species concept are now recognised in Echinodorus and an identification key to these species is provided.
Aloe benishangulana : A habit ( left ); B fruiting in fl orescence; C whitish marginal leaf spines. 
Aloe ghibensis : A habit and habitat at type locality; B habit in cultivation; C fl owering in fl orescence. 
Aloe weloensis : A habit in cultivation; B in fl orescence with fl owering buds; C in fl orescence and infructescence. 
Aloe weloensis: A habit in cultivation; B inflorescence with flowering buds; C inflorescence and infructescence.
Aloe welmelensis : A habit and habitat at type locality; B leaf arrangement on the stem; C part of in fl orescence. 
Subsequent to the treatment of the Aloaceae, with 38 species of Aloe, in the Flora of Ethiopia (Sebsebe Demissew & Gilbert 1997), four more species, Aloe bertemariae Sebsebe & Dioli (2000), A. friisii Sebsebe & M. G. Gilbert (2000), A. clarkei L. E. Newton (2002) and A. elkerriana Dioli & T. A. McCoy (2007) have been described from that country. Here four additional new species are described: Aloe benishangulana Sebsebe & Tesfaye from near Assosa, Benishangul-Gumuz in Welega floristic region; A. ghibensis Sebsebe & Friis from the Ghibe Gorge, Kefa floristic region; A. weloensis Sebsebe from near Dessie in Welo floristic region and A. welmelensis Sebsebe & Nordal along the Welmel River in Bale floristic region. The phytogeographical positions of the new species are assessed by comparison with the previously known species. Complications with the deposition of type material of A. clarkei and A. elkerriana is used to raise various issues regarding the ethics of describing new taxa from foreign countries. Key WordsAloaceae– Aloe –Asphodelaceae–CITES–Flora of Ethiopia–new species–phytogeography–Xanthorrhoeaeeae
Taxonomic and ecological notes on all species of Aloysia Palau occurring in Bolivia are provided together with a key to the species. Variation within several species is discussed and questions are raised about the status of many varieties recognised by earlier botanists. A. arcuifolia Nesom and A. herrerae Moldenke are treated as synonyms of A. fiebrigii (Hayek) Moldenke, A. beckii Moldenke and A. mizquensis Ravenna are treated as synonyms of A. gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc., A. boliviensis Moldenke, A. depressa Ravenna and A. peruviana Turcz. are treated as synonyms of a very variable A. scorodonoides (Kunth) Cham. ex Moldenke which intergrades with A. virgata (Ruiz & Pav.) Juss. ex Moldenke. A table of differences is provided to help distinguish these two ill-defined species. A. axillaris J. R. I. Wood, a Bolivian endemic is described as new, its solitary axillary flowers extending the definition of Aloysia to include species with this kind of inflorescence. The new species is illustrated.
The crisis facing the conservation of biodiversity is reflected in a parallel crisis in alpha taxonomy. On one hand, there is an acute need from government and non-government organisations for large-scale and relatively stable species inventories on which to build major biodiversity information systems. On the other, molecular information will have an increasingly important impact on the evidential basis for delimiting species and is likely to result in greater scientific debate and controversy on their circumscription. This paper argues that alpha-taxonomy built on the Internet (alpha e-taxonomy) can provide a key component of the solution. Two main themes are considered: (1) the potential of e-taxonomic revisions for engaging both the specialist taxonomic community and a wider public in gathering taxonomic knowledge and deepening understanding of it, and (2) why alpha-species will continue to play an essential role in the conventional definition of species and what kinds of methodological development this implies for descriptive species taxonomy. The challenges and requirements for sustaining e-taxonomic revisions in the long-term are discussed, with particular reference to models being developed by five initiatives with botanical exemplar websites: CATE (Creating a Taxonomic E-Science), Solanaceae Source, GrassBase and EDIT (European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy) exemplar groups and scratchpads. These projects give a clear indication of the crucially important role of the national and regional taxonomic organisations and their networks in providing both leadership and a fruitful and beneficial human and technical environment for taxonomists, both amateur and professional, to contribute their expertise towards a collective global enterprise.
Sales figures 1991-2009 (US$) for Dioon edule from Monte Oscuro. Note time intervals not even.
Nursery grown Dioon edule plants used in municipal landscaping and road verges in Xalapa, Veracruz. 
Sales figures in USD from 2008 to 2000 for four cycad species from the Chiapas nurseries.
Rescued Dioon edule plants sheltered at the Monte Oscuro nursery from affected habitat during the Xalapa bypass construction, Sr. Concepción Díaz-Villa, nursery owner standing by large adult cycad. 
Propagation of the cycad Dioon edule aimed at sustainable management in the state of Veracruz, Mexico has been ongoing since 1990 under the supervision of staff at Francisco Javier Botanic Garden, with the principal objectives of addressing illegal trafficking and habitat destruction. Plant sales have been limited. Nevertheless these, along with the sale of other managed forest products, have given the cycad producers and other villagers enough incentive to conserve 80 hectares of cycad habitat and to discourage illegal collecting. This model was taken up by four similar nurseries in the buffer zones of two biosphere reserves in Chiapas for the propagation of four additional cycad species and two endangered Chamaedorea palms. A further biosphere reserve in Puebla hosts a similar nursery for the critically endangered D. caputoi. Here the producers are paid through the Reserve authority for cultivation and reintroduction of the cycad. All species were studied at the population level prior to and during nursery establishment. Cultivation knowledge has been passed on to the farmers as well as limited help in marketing. Seedling reintroduction experiments have been carried out but further demographic studies of D. edule and C. mirandae have given reason to re-think reintroduction strategies. There is great potential for these nurseries to act as shelter for rescued plants during civil engineering projects. The marketing problem is still an issue and has been approached by the involvement of conservation authorities in Chiapas to assist the producers with permit paperwork and to seek markets. This experience is an important example of botanic garden extension to rural communities in Mexico that covers several articles of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Key wordsCultivation–endangered species–reintroduction–sustainable management
During floristic work on Espinhaço Range-Brazil, we recognised five Habranthus species, plus two new species, described and illustrated here: Habranthus botumirimensis R. S. Oliveira is similar to H. datensis Ravenna as both have a paraperigone of fimbrae, but is distinguished by possessing narrower leaves (c. 3mm wide), erect stigma lobes, tepals with narrower bases, and by the arrangement of papillae in a longitudinal strip on the outer tepals; Habranthus lucidus R. S. Oliveira closely resembles H. itaobinus Ravenna, having staminal filaments in two lengths with the style not exceeding the longest filaments, but is distinguished by possessing funnelform and more distinctly zygomorphic flowers, oblanceolate tepals, darker nerves, and outer tepals with obtuse apices. An identification key to Habranthus species from the Espinhaço Range is provided. Durante levantamento florístico na Cadeia do Espinhaço reconhecemos cinco espécies de Habranthus, além de duas novas espécies que são aqui descritas e ilustradas: Habranthus botumirimensis R. S. Oliveira é similar a H. datensis Ravenna, por apresentarem paraperigonio fimbriado, mas difere por folhas mais estreitas (c. 3mm larg.), estigma com lobos eretos, base das tépalas mais estreito, e papilas distribuídas em faixa longitudinal no ápice das tépalas externas; Habranthus lucidus R. S. Oliveira é similar a H. itaobinus Ravenna, por possuirem filamentos em dois comprimentos com estilete não excedendo o comprimento destes, mas se diferencia por flores infundibuliformes e mais zigomorfas, tépalas oblanceoladas e ápice obtuso nas tépalas externas. Chave de identificação para as espécies de Habranthus da Cadeia do Espinhaço é apresentada.
In spite of the existence of a vast body of information on the plant diversity of the Amazon, there remain significant obstacles to informed decision-making and management for conservation. Species distributions are poorly understood and the relationships between diversity and composition of vegetation, ecosystem services and resilience to climatic fluctuations are insufficiently clear. The geographic distribution of phylogenetic diversity in relation to current protected areas is unexplored and very little is known about intraspecific genetic variability and its practical significance. Interpretation of vegetation differentiation and distribution remains relatively simplistic; there are still large parts of the basin for which few or no botanical data exist, and many rare and sparsely distributed species remain undiscovered. Improved understanding of the ecological roles, dynamics and associations of the species of greatest importance for the maintenance of sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem services, habitat restoration and adaptation to climate change is a high priority. In many cases these are common and widespread species. Some of these issues are explored by looking at the Cristalino region in northern Mato Grosso as a case-study. Effective integration, quality assessment, synthesis and application of existing data on the plant diversity of the Amazon will help to address these issues. However, more targeted information is needed from the ground. Future prioritisation of research effort will require a careful and pragmatic balance between the ‘traditional’ focus on rare and endemic species and species-rich communities, and the growing need to understand the key ‘framework’ elements that will determine the future of the Amazon environment. Similar situations are faced elsewhere in the tropics: for botanical research institutes in the 21st century this demands an urgent re-evaluation of core activities and concerted engagement with the issues and challenges facing conservation in a context of rampant population growth, climate change and environmental destruction. Apesar da existência de um grande volume de informação a respeito da diversidade vegetal da Amazônia, uma série de obstáculos ainda dificulta a tomada de decisões devidamente informadas sobre conservação e manejo sustentável da região. Falta conhecimento com relação à distribuição das espécies, e às interações entre diversidade e composição da vegetação, aos serviços do ecossistema e sua adaptabilidade e resistência às flutuações climáticas. A distribuição da diversidade filogenética das espécies em relação às áreas atualmente protegidas ainda é desconhecida, e muito pouco é sabido sobre o significado prático da variabilidade intraespecífica. A interpretação dos diferentes tipos de vegetação permanece extremamente simplificada, com grandes áreas da bacia para as quais não há dados botânicos disponíveis ou os mesmos são insuficientes, e muitas espécies raras ou esparsamente distribuídas ainda aguardam descobrimento. Uma melhor compreensão dos papéis ecológicos, da dinâmica e das associações das espécies mais importantes para a manutenção de estilos de vida sustentáveis e dos serviços do ecossistema, recuperação de áreas degradadas e adaptabilidade às mudanças climáticas, são as grandes prioridades. Em muitos casos essas espécies são comuns e amplamente distribuídas. Alguns desses temas são explorados utilizando a região do Cristalino, no norte do Mato Grosso, como um estudo de caso. A integração efetiva, o controle da qualidade, a síntese e a aplicação dos dados existentes da diversidade vegetal da Amazônia serão fundamentais para a solução dessas questões. No entanto, ainda é necessário gerar a informação relevante a partir do estudo da área. A priorização das pesquisas futuras requer um equilíbrio cuidadoso e prático entre o foco ‘tradicional’, interessado em espécies raras e endêmicas e nas comunidades ricas em termos de espécies e a necessidade crescente de compreender os elementos da ‘estrutura’ que irá determinar o futuro do bioma amazônico. Situações semelhantes estão sendo enfrentadas nos trópicos como um todo: os institutos botânicos do século 21 precisam reavaliar urgentemente as suas principais atividades e engajar-se de modo coordenado para incluir os tópicos e desafios causados pelo crescimento populacional desordenado, mudanças climáticas e destruição ambiental. Key WordsAlpha–Amazon–Amazonia–beta and gamma diversity–botanical survey–climate change–conservation challenges–Mato Grosso–Parque Estadual Cristalino–vegetation
Eugenia pallidopunctata. A flowering branch; B flower; C medial section of ovary. All from N. A. Rosa 245. DRAWN BY MARIA ALICE REZENDE.
Eugenia caducibracteata. A flowering branch; B flower; C flower bud; D medial section of ovary; E detail of the indumentum of the hypanthium. All from J. M. Pires & N. T. Silva 2015. DRAWN BY MARIA ALICE REZENDE.
Eugenia tenuiflora. A flowering branch; B flower bud; C flower; D medial section of ovary. All from G. T. Prance et al. 3222. DRAWN BY MARIA ALICE REZENDE.
Eugenia breviracemosa. A flowering and fruiting branch; B fruit; C flower bud; D medial section of ovary. All from G. T. Prance et al. 10428. DRAWN BY MARIA ALICE REZENDE.
The new species Eugenia pallidopunctata, E. caducibracteata, E. tenuiflora and E. breviracemosa from the Brazilian Amazon, all belonging to Eugenia sect. Racemosae (Myrtaceae), are described, illustrated and compared with their putative close relatives. Data on the geographic distribution and habitat are given for the new taxa, as well as illustrations.
Top-cited authors
Mark Chase
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
David Mabberley
  • Macquarie University
Michael F Fay
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Martin Cheek
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Geoffrey C Kite
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew