Bu çalışmada, Karadeniz Bölgesinde yer alan 5 ilde (Samsun, Sinop, Ordu, Amasya ve Tokat) bulunan 200 sığır, 200 koyun ve 223 tek tırnaklıdan (114 at, 67 eşek, 42 katır) alınan kan örnekleri kullanıldı. Kan serumu örneklerinde mavidil antikorlarını tespit etmek için competitive ELISA (cELISA), akabane ve üç gün hastalığı antikorlarını belirlemek için blocking ELISA ve equine infeksiyöz anemi antikorlarının tespiti için ise agar jel immunodiffuzyon testi (AGID) kullanıldı. Elde edilen verilere göre mavidil enfeksiyonunun seroprevalansı koyunlarda %3, sığırlarda %11; akabane enfeksiyonunun seroprevalansı koyunlarda %0.5, sığırlarda %22; üç gün hastalığı seroprevalansı ise sığırlarda %13.5 olarak belirlendi. Tek tırnaklılarda equine infeksiyöz anemi virusuna karşı antikor tespit edilemedi. (In this study, serum samples collected from 200 cattle, 200 sheep and 223 equids (114 horse, 67 donkey, 42 mule) in five province include (Samsun, Sinop, Ordu, Amasya and Tokat) in Blacksea Region. The seroprevalances were detected for bluetongue by competitive ELISA (cELISA), for akabane and bovine ephemeral fever by blocking ELISA, and for equine infectious anemia by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). According to obtained data, the seroprevalance of bluetongue was recorded as 3% (6/200) in sheep, 11% (22/200) in cattle, the seroprevalance of akabane was recorded as 0.5% (1/200) in sheep, 22% (44/200) in cattle, the seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever infection was found as 13.5% (27/200) in cattle. No antibody against EIAV was detected in equids.)
In this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype Asia-1 viruses (n=131) were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating
since 2011 within the Group VII (Sind-08). The isolates recovered during 2011-2017 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of
Group VII (Sind-08). The time of the most recent common ancestor for this cluster was estimated to be approximately 2004. In comparison to
the older isolates of Group VII (2001-2004), the re-emerging viruses showed variation at fourteen amino acid positions, including substitutions
at the antigenically critical residues VP1140, VP1142 and VP277. In Group VII (Sind-08), all three major antigenic sites have mutations (Site
I and II had four consensus changes at positions 140, 141 and 77, 79 respectively, while site IV had a replacement at position 59) relative to
the internationally recommended vaccine strain (Shamir 89). This study also explains the development and optimization of a new RT-PCR
method that may be employed to amplify and sequence a 2901 base pair (bp) section covering entire capsid coding region (P1) of the FMDV
genome. This method offers a tool that can be employed for antigenic profiling and phylogenetic analyses of FMDV to help vaccine matching
or strain selection in the episode of outbreaks.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 and/or zeolite supplementation in the presence of phytase enzyme on serum total cholesterol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) and oestradiol-17β levels in laying hens. A total of 60 laying hens, 28-wkold were separated to 4 equal groups. The hens were fed control diet (300 phytase units (FTU) phytase per kilogram), experimental 1 diet (300 FTU phytase + 400 IU vitamin D3), experimental 2 diet (300 FTU phytase + 400 IU vitamin D3 + 2% zeolite) and experimental 3 diet (300 FTU phytase + 2% zeolite). Serum total cholesterol levels were not statistically different between groups except for week 12. On week 12, these levels were significantly higher in the phytase and zeolite added group than in the phytase and vitamin D3 added group (P<0.05). Serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels were higher in the only phytase added group than in the other groups on week 16 and lower in the phytase and zeolite added group than in the other groups on week 8 (P<0.05). Serum oestradiol-17β levels were higher in the phytase and zeolite added group than in the other groups on weeks 4 and 12, and lower in the phytase, vitamin D3 and zeolite added group than in the other groups on week 12 (P<0.05). Consequently, serum total cholesterol levels were not affected by different feeding regimes, phytase enzyme added to ration increased serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels, and phytase enzyme and vitamin D3 supplementation increased serum oestradiol-17β levels.
In this study, the recombinant plasmid pTE353-beta G was created by inserting the p353-2 cryptic plasmid region of pLP3537 into pTEG5 recombinant plasmid contains pUC18 and beta-1,3-glucanase gene of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans. The recombinant plasmid pTE353-beta G was then introduced into Lactobacillus plantarum by electroporation. Insert analysis of pTE353-beta G digested with SacI produced 1.9 kbp beta-1,3-glucanase gene band on agarose gel as well as 1.9 kbp DNA encoding beta-1,3-glucanase gene insert amplified on the recombinant vector via PCR indicated the integration of the gene into the plasmid. Recombinant L. plantarum colonies with pTE353-beta G on MRS-laminarin-agar plate showed clear positive zones by Congo-red staining that revealed the expression of beta-1,3-glucanase encoding gene. The beta-1,3-glucanase enzyme of recombinant strain produced the same activity band with C. cellulans enzyme in terms of molecular weight, which showed the activity of secreted protein without any proteolytic degradation. Optimal temperature and pH values of L. plantarum beta-1,3-glucanase have been determined 40 degrees C and 6.0 respectively, by enzymatic analysis. These results revealed that recombinant L. plantarum could be considered as a silage inoculant for aerobic spoilage of silage.
Aim of this study is to analyze the genetic structure of long-crowing Denizli chicken, a Turkish local fowl, using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA 12S and D-loop regions. DNA isolation was carried out using feather samples of cocks of this local breed. D-loop and 12S regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction technique and ca 1230 bp and 950 pb PCR products were obtained respectively. Native genotype Denizli fowl's D-loop and 12S regions were sequenced and sequencing data were analyzed and compared with the related published data. Nucleotide content of the 12S region showed a 32% A, 19% T, 19% G and 30% C, whilst AT and GC ratios were found as 59.88% and 40.12% respectively for D-loop region. D-loop sequence data analysis clearly identified the Denizli fowl within the clade of long-crowing cocks. The results give the first informative data about the mitochondrial DNA D-loop and 12S regions of this local breed from Turkey.
The present study was aimed at the determination of the rate of infection with intestinal parasites in children cared for at the Nigde Orphanage, and the demonstration of the distribution of infection in these children for age and gender. Faecal samples collected from 110 children, aged 13 to 18 years, were examined by the native method using physiological saline. Of the 110 faecal samples examined, 41 (37.3%) contained intestinal parasites, and of the samples containing parasites, 25 (61%) contained helminths and 16 (39%) contained protozoa. The number of faecal samples identified to contain a single parasite species was 39 (95%), while 2 (5%) samples contained more than one parasite species. As regards the distribution of the intestinal parasites for gender, it was ascertained that of the 75 females 30 (40%) individuals and of the 35 males 11 (31.5%) individuals were infected with intestinal parasites. The difference between the two sexes was considered to be insignificant. Faecal examination revealed the presence of the following parasite species at the indicated rates: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (29.3%), Taenia saginata (17.1%), Giardia intestinalis (9.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (7.3%) Trichuris trichiura (2.4%). The present study demonstrated that the environment of the orphanage was favourable for autoinfection and the spread of infection by direct contact. Furthermore, it was determined that the rate of parasitic infection was higher in the age group of 13 to 14 years, compared to the age group of 15 to 18 years.
We had previously reported in one of our studies that the irradiated males of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were not able to compete with the normal males while mating with the females. In this study, it is aimed to determine the limitations of the competitiveness of irradiated males of H. marginatum in copulation in accordance with their numerical superiority over the nonirradiated males. We also intend to assign the applicable propotions and furthermore we would like to identify the main principles and conditions of possible field examinations. In this study, the male ticks were subjected to gamma radiation with a dose of 10 Gy emitted by a gamma-ray source of Caesium 137. Biological parameters such as feeding periods, weight, number of eggs and larvae hatching from the eggs of female 34 ticks that were placed in rabbit ears together with different numbers of irradiated, nonirradiated or a combination of both irradiated and nonirradiated male ticks were recorded. Reasonable numbers of ticks were employed in order to reach statistically reliable results. In conclusion, statistical analyses showed that the irradiated males of H. marginatum could not compete with the nonirradiated males in the case where these two groups had equal numbers of males. However, data analyzed from the study also deduced that the average number of eggs and larvae of females showed a reduction in trials for cases in which there were more irradiated males and this incident was found to be statistically significant. Finally, we came to the conclusion that our presented results have to be one of the key parameters which must be considered for field applications.
The MisL autotransporter protein is encoded in the genome of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is expressed within an infected host system but not the laboratory cultures of this bacterium. In this study, in vitro production of MisL autotransporter protein was produced by cloning of marT gene, a positive transcriptional regulator controlling expression of misL gene, to the pBAD24 vector and by transforming to marT gene blocked (ΔmarT) S. Typhimurium strain 14028. MisL production in S. Typhimurium 14028 containing lacZYA: misL fusion was determined using both.-galactosidase activity test (460 Miller units) and Western blotting. Results of immunelectron microscopy studies showed that MisL was localized to outer surface of this bacterium. These data pointed out that MisL is an extracellular matrix adhesin of S. Typhimurium.
Cancer is a major health problem in dogs. Types of cancer seen in dogs include melanoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcomas and prostate, breast, lung and colorectal carcinomas. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant primary bone tumor in domestic dogs. It constitutes 85% of skeletal tumors. It is derived from primitive bone cells that occur in both the appendicular (~75%) and axial (~25%) skeleton. The present study was intended to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of curcumin administration at certain
doses and in certain periods on D-17 canine osteosarcoma cells. Canine osteosarcoma cells were treated with curcumin and the effects of
it on proliferation were determined by WST-1, apoptosis by caspase 3/7 activity (MuseCaspase 3/7) and the ratio of proapoptotic Bax gene to antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression level by qRT-PCR. Our data demonstrated that curcumin decreased cell proliferation and viability, ultimately inducing caspase 3/7 mediated apoptosis in treated D-17 canine osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, the application of curcumin
on canine osteosarcoma cells downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and upregulated the expression of proapoptotic gene Bax. Thus, these results may provide a basis for further study of curcumin in the treatment of canine osteosarcoma.
Many stabled horses perform a variety of stereotypic behaviours such as cribbing, circling, wall kicking, self-mutilation, weaving and headshaking. It is difficult to know why exactly each horse performs these behaviours, there may be specific causal factors for these activities in the horse. Homeopathy can contribute to the treatment of these disorders, because it approaches the organism as the sum of the specific characteristics of an animal when it is in a state of health or illness, at the physical, mental and psychological level. The application of homeopathic laws during anamnesis allows us to achieve a deeper understanding of the horse, considering all its special characteristics. This study has been conducted with 17 horses showing one of the stereotypic behaviours of cribbing, circling, wall kicking and self mutilation. Homeopathic remedies are determined specifically according to the constitution and stereotypic behaviour problem of each horse. One month after the begining of the treatment, the symptoms of stereotypical behaviours were found to be decreased and after two months considerable regression were detected. Cribbing and self-mutilation were completely treated. Circling and wall kicking were decreased. To our knowledge, this study is the first report to cure the stereotypic behaviours of horses with using homeopathic remedies. This study suggests that homeopathy is as an effective therapy method which is used uncommonly in stereotypic behaviours of horses.
The aim of this study was to detect hormone residues such as 17 β-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and zeranol used anabolic agents in bovine meat. In the study, a total of 204 samples used as test materials (51 neck, thoracic, leg meat and urine samples) were obtained from local abattoirs in Erzurum. The hormone residues in the sample extracts were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). 17 β-estradiol (4), diethylstilbestrol (4), and zeranol (8) were detected in 16 meat samples at ≥0.5 ng/kg, on the other hand, diethylstilbestrol (4) and zeranol (2) were detected in 6 urine samples at ≥0.5 ng/L in this study. However, concentrations and identities of the hormones in the samples were confirmed by independent accredited laboratory (TUBITAK-MAM) via LC-MS-MS. In conclusion, since presence of hormones in meat and meat products is harmful for consumers, utilization of anabolic agents must be strictly controlled in Turkey.
The sampling studies were carried out to determine parasitic isopod species of Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) from Antalya Gulf between September 2006 - May 2007. At the end of study five parasitic isopod species [Ceratothoa parallela (Otto, 1828), Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), Ceratothoa capri (Trilles, 1964), Anilocra frontalis Milne-Edwards, 1840 and Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758)] were recorded. Two (C. parallela and C. capri) of these species were new records for the Isopoda fauna at the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Prevelance and intensity of infection have been obtained.
In this research, the determination of heavy metals in fishes (anchovy and whiting) caught in Samsun which is the province of Middle Black Sea was aimed. Having been washed, dried and cut in to small pieces the fishes HNO3 and HClO4 were added and using wet ash method, heavy metal concentrations were determined. By taking three samples from each fish the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd were determined with Flame AAS to be the result of analysis in fishes. In the resulting analysis, in 2009, metal concentration of anchovy have been found 34.0±2.5 μg/g for Fe; 2.0±0.0 μg/g for Mn; 129.3±15.0 μg/g for Zn; 3.7±1.6 μg/g for Cu; 0.4±0.2 μg/g for Pb; 0.2±0.05 μg/g for Cd in 2009, metal concentration of whiting have been found 9.9±2.1 μg/g for Fe; 4.3±0.7 μg/g for Mn; 58.0±3.5 μg/g for Zn; 2.3±0.7 μg/g for Cu; 0.9±0.2 μg/g for Pb; 0.2±0.03 μg/g for Cd in 2010, metal concentration of anchovy have been found 51.5±5.3 μg/g for Fe; 4.2±0.9 μg/g for Mn; 221.0±10.5 μg/g for Zn; 3.8±1.9 μg/g for Cu in 2010, metal concentration of whiting have been found 7.0±4.6 μg/g for Fe; 3.0±0.0 μg/g for Mn; 28.3±1.0 μg/g for Zn; 2.7±0.7 μg/g for Cu. Anchovies and whiting in the study as a result of heavy metal concentration were high in general. In order to determine the accuracy of the method used in the wet ash method to the reference fish protein samples (DORM-3) was applied.
During 12-week growing trial aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in practical diets for gilthead seabream with a complementary mixture of vegetable proteins (soybean, wheat and corn) and oils (soybean and rapeseed), in terms of growth performance, feed utilization and apparent digestibility of nutrients. Fifteen homogenous groups of 180 sea bream each (mean initial body weight: 190.4±5.4 g) were stocked in 2000-L tanks and fed one of five experimental pelleted diets formulated to be isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic. A control diet (Control) was formulated with practical ingredients to contain 49% protein, 20% fat and 24 kJ/g energy. Two other diets were formulated in order to replace 40 and 60% of fish meal by increasing levels of selected plant-protein (PP) ingredients and fish oil (FO) (PP40FO and PP60FO, respectively). Based on these two last diets, two others were formulated in which fish oil was replaced at a 62.5% level by a mixture of soybean and rapeseed oils (Vegetable Oil-VO) (PP40VO and PP60VO). Growth of gilthead seabream, expressed either as weight gain or daily growth index was not significantly affected by the replacement at either 40 or 60% of fishmeal by plant-protein sources. At 40% fishmeal replacement level, the further replacement of 62.5% of fish oil by vegetable oils had no effect on growth performance. However, the replacement of 60% fishmeal and 62.5% replacement of fish oil caused reduction in weight gain slightly, but essentially a significant decrease in feed efficiency (FE). Growth performance of gilthead seabream during grow-out was sustained by a practical diet formulation containing as little as 12% of fish meal protein.
A survey was made of monogenean parasites on 123 Blicca bjoerkna caught from Lake Sapanca between December 2007 and November 2008. Nine monogenean species were found: Dactylogyrus sphyrna Linstow, 1878, D. falcatus (Wedl, 1857), D. difformoides Glaser and Gussev, 1971, D. wunderi Bykhovskii, 1931, D. cornu Linstow, 1878, D. cornoides Glaser and Gussev, 1971, D. distinguendus Nybelin, 1937, Gyrodactylus sp. and Paradiplozoon sp. Of these monogeneans, D. sphyrna, D. cornu and D. cornoides were numerically dominant in all the host specimens examined, each having a prevalence of 100% in some spring and summer months. These were followed in numerical dominance and prevalence by D. distinguendus and Gyrodactylus sp. The other parasite species were found infrequently, four or five species groups predominated particularly during the spring and summer months. D. wunderi and D. falcatus, found only in June and July on just three host specimens, are new records for Turkey.
This study investigated the presence of parasitic annelids on Carassius gibelio in Lake Uluabat, Turkey. Data were obtainedfrom on-site surveys carried out between March 2006 and February 2007. Only one parasite species, Piscicola geometra(Linnaeus, 1761), was identified on only one samples of Carassius gibelio's operculum. Although P. geometra was reportedfrom various lakes in Turkey (such as Sapanca, Keban Dam Lake, Terkos, Çavusçu and Uluabat), up to now there has been no report on Carassius gibelio from lake Uluabat.
In this study, PCR-based RAPD method was used to determine the genetic variation in three Turkish local silkworm breeds (Alaca, Bursa Beyazi and Hatay Sarisi) and SDS-PAGE method was used to analyse the sericin proteins of their cocoons. Three local breeds were analysed by randomly chosen 40 primers and 68 total RAPD bands observed with 7 of them. Percentages of polymorphic loci were determined higher in Hatay Sarisi (55.88), lower in Bursa Beyazi and Alaca (44.12). Nei's genetic distance was determined 0.0637 between Bursa Beyazi and Alaca, 0.1012 between Bursa Beyazi and Hatay Sarisi, 0.0793 between Alaca and Hatay Sarisi. In SDS-PAGE sericin proteins of three breeds was yielded a single band of 200 kDa.
The aim of this study was to investigate plasma total sialic acid (TSA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in response to different doses of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) in Capoeta capoeta. The fishes were kept in tanks for 15 days for adaptation. Three groups of fish (control, 1st, and 2nd), each containing 9 fishes, were placed in separate tanks containing no, 5 and 10 mg/L ZnSO4, respectively for 10 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and plasma TSA, NO and MDA levels were analyzed. An increase in plasma TSA and MDA levels were found along with increasing ZnSO4 amounts, and a decrease in NO levels was observed. In conclusion, it was determined that levels of TSA, MDA and NO were altered depending on ZnSO4 doses applied in C. capoeta.
In this study, the protective effects of L-carnitine (LC) against Lead (II) acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2) toxicity in Capoeta capoeta were investigated
by means of histopathologically, via electrophoretic and biochemical methods. Fish caught from Kars creek were divided into four
groups, which include 10 fish each in 500 L tanks. Lead and liquid LC were added to water. Fish in the first group were adjusted as
control. Fish in the II. group were applied 1 mg/L lead (as Lead (II) acetate) for 10 days. Fish in the III. group were administered 100
mg/L LC. Fish in the IV. group were administered 1 mg/L lead and 100 mg/L LC. Degenerations in liver, gill, intestine and kidney tissues
were observed to reduce LC administration against the toxic effects of lead acetate. Electrophoretically, inhibitions of some protein
bands in the group, which was applied lead acetate, were caused, and increases in protein expression in the group, which was applied
L-carnitine, have occurred. While high a level of total protein in the group that was administered lead was found; in the group that was
treated lead + LC, it was found to be lower (P<0.05). Levels of globulin in the group that was administered LC + lead were observed to
be significantly lower (P<0.05). Total oxidant capacity (TOC) in lead treatment group were higher than the control group, TOC levels in
lead + LC treatment group were determined to be between the control and lead group. LC was concluded to show a protective effect
on Capoeta capoeta that were exposed to lead.
In this study, the karyotype, C-heterochromatin blocks, and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of four specimens of Lepus europaeus from Turkey were examined. The diploid number of chromosomes (2n), the fundamental number of chromosome arms (FN), and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) were determined as 48, 90, and 86, respectively. All of the chromosomes have been determined to be possessed of centromeric constitutive heterochromatin, except of the pair no. 10. The X chromosome had centromeric heterochromatin and Y chromosome had pericentromeric heterochromatin. There were no distal C-bands in any chromosome of samples. The NORs have been determined to be located in the terminal regions of the long arms of three subtelocentric chromosomes (nos. 15, 16, and 18). Any relation was not determined between the localization of the NORs and C-positive regions of autosomes.
In this study, the presence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was investigated in farmed rainbow trout in different
regions of Turkey. For this purpose, total of 243 isolation materials (47 seminal fluids, 62 ovarian fluids and 134 fingerling) were
collected from 30 farms in the period of December and March 2010-2011. Isolation materials were passaged twice in BF-2 (Bluegill
fry-2) cell cultures for virus isolation. The cell culture supernatants showed cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested by antigen-capture
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for IPNV identification. All isolation materials were tested also by reverse transcriptase polymerase cahin reaction (RT-PCR) in order to compare with the test ofthe virus isolation. IPNV was detected from 26 (10.7%) of total 243 isolation materials obtained from 17 (56.6%) of 30 farms in 7 (63.6%) of 11 provinces. In addition, that RT-PCR test can be used as an alternative method in the IPNV-diagnosis by directly tissue-testing due to less expensive and faster than the virus isolation method was determined.
In this study, the presence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was investigated in farmed rainbow trout in different regions of Turkey. For this purpose, total of 243 isolation materials (47 seminal fluids, 62 ovarian fluids and 134 fingerling) were collected from 30 farms in the period of December and March 2010-2011. Isolation materials were passaged twice in BF-2 (Bluegill fry-2) cell cultures for virus isolation. The cell culture supernatants showed cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested by antigen-capture enzyme linked imnnunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for IPNV identification. All isolation materials were tested also by reverse transcriptase polymerase cahin reaction (RT-PCR) in order to compare with the test of the virus isolation. IPNV was detected from 26(10.7%) of total 243 isolation materials obtained from 17 (56.6%) of 30 farms in 7 (63.6%) of 11 provinces. In addition, that RT-PCR test can be used as an alternative method in the IPNV-diagnosis by directly tissue-testing due to less expensive and faster than the virus isolation method was determined.
Experimental furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida was induced in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) using intraperitoneal injection and immersion challenge methods. A total of 65 (50 experimental and 15 control) rainbow trouts (weight 155±15 g and 20-25 cm in size) were used for this experimental work. Aeromonas salmonicida at a concentration of 3x10 5 cfu/ml (0.1 ml per fish) was intraperitoneally injected to twenty-five fish (first group). A second group of 25 fish was immersed in 30 l water inoculated to which 3 ml of bacterial inoculum (3x10 5 cfu/ml) had been added for one hour. Sterile saline solution (0.1 ml/fish) was intraperitoneally injected to control group. Necropsy of the fish was performed, macroscopic and microscopic findings were evaluated. The chronic form of disease was observed in both groups. Anorexia, irregular swimming, hemorrhages at the dorsal, ventral and pectoral base of fins were the main clinic and macroscopic findings. However, in some fish, diffused or focal scale eruption on the dermis from operculum to caudal fin, periocular hemorrhages and exophtalmos were observed. Similar microscopic findings were determined in the both experiment groups. Microscopically, foci of bacteria with no inflammatory response especially in the muscles, gills, heart, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestines, kidney, spleen and liquefactive necrosis in the muscles were the main microscopic findings.
During the summer of 2006, an outbreak of lactococcosis took place in a rainbow trout farm in the southern Aegean region of Turkey. Clinically lethargie, erratic swimming, darkness in colour and exophthalmia were observed. Histopathological examination revealed epicarditis, peritonitis, enteritis and panophthalmitis. The gills had lamellar edema, hemorrhage and telangiectasia. Histopathological findings were also found in the liver, kidney, pyloric caeca and swim-bladder. In conclusion, the bacterium isolated from the rainbow trout farm was identified as Lactococcus garvieae by biochemically, and its pathological affects on the rainbow trout tissues were widely evaluated firstly in Turkey.