The investigation of the dependence of the cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) film characteristics on the reaction pressures, growth temperatures and hydrogen dilution rates was carried out by rapid thermal triode plasma CVD using dimethylsilane as a source gas. The stoichiometric 3C-SiC films with good crystallinity and crystal orientation were successfully grown at 1100-1200degC. The crystallinity and the crystal orientation of SiC films grown at large dilution rate of above 200 and growth pressure of 0.3 ~ 0.7 Torr were better than those grown at small dilution rate and high growth pressure. Under large dilution rate, large amount of hydrogen radicals can be generated. It is speculated that excessive carbon atoms or weak bonds formed in SiC films were effectively extracted by the large amount of hydrogen radicals.
In the wake of large-scale DNA sequencing projects, accurate tools are needed to predict protein structures. The problem of predicting protein structure from DNA sequence remains fundamentally unsolved even after more than three decades of intensive research. In this paper, fundamental theory of the protein structure will be presented as a general guide to protein secondary structure prediction research. An overview of the state-of-the-art in sequence analysis and some principles of the methods involved will be described.
The modern trend in industrial application problem deserves modeling of all relevant vague or fuzzy information involved in a real decision making problem. In the first part of the paper, some explanations on tri partite fuzzy linear programming approach and its importance have been given. In the second part, the usefulness of the proposed S-curve membership function is established using a real life industrial production planning of a chocolate manufacturing unit. The unit produces 8 products using 8 raw materials, mixed in various proportions by 9 different processes under 29 constraints. A solution to this problem establishes the usefulness of the suggested membership function for decision making in industrial production planning.
Key words: Fuzzy linear programming, Satisfactory solution; Decision maker; Implementer; Analyst; Fuzzy constraint; Vagueness.
Item bias or differential item function (DIF) refers to the situation in which the probability of correct responses to an item for examinees with equal ability measured by test but belong to different groups are not equal. The existence of bias in items decreases the validity of the test. In this study the range of item difficulty among surveyed groups, has been used as a method for detecting the item bias in Persian literature subtest as part of the Entrance Examination to Universities of Iran in 2003-2004. For this purpose, report cards of 5000 (each group of 1000 examinees) participants in this examination from three provinces i.e. Yazd, Azerbaijan Sharghi and Kurdistan as sample groups were analyzed using the computerized program, BILOG-MG. Out of 25, two items, numbers 9 and 10 showed bias between gender groups and both were in favour of female group and were identified as biased items. Of this number, four items numbers 2, 7, 9, and 12 showed bias among linguistic groups.
Recent Workplace Studies Claim That The Latest Advancements In Information And Communication Technologies (Icts) And Flexible Work Arrangements Have Enabled Alternative Ways Of Working That Can Now Provide A Wider Scope Of Interactivity Across Geographic Distances, A Scope That Would Have Once Restricted Interaction Among Groups, If Not Prohibited It Altogether. Such Claim Has Challenged The Conventional Understanding Which Asserts That Proximity Among Firms Provides Crucial Face-To-Face Interaction In The Inter-Organisation Collaboration. It Is, However, Debatable That The Acceptance Of The Alternative Workplace Depends On The Nature Of The Work, Context, And Culture Of The Organisation Or Nation. Therefore, This Research Examines The Extent To Which Traditional Locational Assumptions And The Proclaimed Transformations Performed In A Developing Country, Such As Malaysia. The Aim Is To Investigate The Impact Of University Location â€“ In Terms Of The Characteristics Of Place And Distance Between Places â€“ To Usersâ€™ Face-To-Face, And ICT Interactions In The Collaborations. This Research Analysed A Structured Interview Conducted With 32 Academic Staffs In Two Universities, And 25 Scientists And Engineers In 15 Research Organisations. The Findings Showed That Face-To-Face Interaction Has Strong Relationship With Distance, And The Impact Of Telecommunication Technology In Replacing Face-To-Face Interaction Is Rather Small.
Dialysis membrane containing cellulose acetate (CA) as polymer, formic acid (FA) as solvent and D-glucose monohydrate as additive was prepared by phase inversion method. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of D-glucose monohydrate as an additive on the performance of dialysis membrane in terms of urea and creatinine clearance. The concentration of D-glucose is varied from 2 to 10 wt%. Microwave heating which is capable of reducing dissolution time was used to dissolve the CA polymer in the formic acid solvent. Results revealed that the membrane produced from the 20 wt% cellulose acetate, 70 wt% formic acid and 10 wt% D-glucose monohydrate gives the best performance with urea and creatinine clearance of 49.77% and 19.54% respectively. When testing the same membranes with BSA solutions, it gives a BSA rejection rate as high as 96.78%, which seems to be comparable with the commercial cellulose acetate dialysis membranes. Membrane morphology was observed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images illustrated that the increment of D-glucose monohydrate in casting solution tends to promote macrovoid formation.
Polyethersulfone (PES) asymmetric membranes were prepared by the wet/dry phase inversion process. Membrane dope formulation consisting of commercial-grade PES resin and a mixture of two different solvents dimethyleformamide (DMF) and commercial grade acetone with control ratio 3.47 were prepared. Tap water was used as the coagulant bath at room temperature. With a focus on the PES solvent mixtures DMF/acetone economical system, the effect of lithium chloride anhydrous (LiClH2O) as additive on the membrane’s performance was investigated. The performance of the PES membranes were evaluated in terms of PEG separation and its molecular weight determined. The PES membranes prepared from the two solvent mixture systems with LiClH2O additive possess excellent hydrophilic properties exhibited by the high permeation rates. Its solute rejection rates obtained were also superior compared to the membrane prepared from single solvent without LiClH2O additive.
A simulation study of a cold-flow in coaxial pipes was carried out with varying drivepipe
diameter and entrance displacement (?L). The current work has studied the effect of the temperature
of the entrance flow inlet with variation of ?L to the entrained flow characteristics. To predict these
flow characteristics, a numerical method was employed by the differencing scheme for integrating the
continuity equation and energy equation. A k-? turbulent model was used to simulate the turbulent
transport quantities. The 2-D flow pattern was created as the result of using Fluent version 4.4 CFD
modeling package. Results showed that increasing the air entrained temperature until 600 K would
decrease the airflow rate. It was found that the diameter ratio of 2.81 has the highest entrained flow rate
Kajian ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk menentukan perkaitan di antara kemahiran berfikir kritis dengan Purata Nilai Gred Kumulatif (PNGK) dalam kalangan pelajar yang mengikuti program pendidikan Fizik di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Seramai 109 orang pelajar tahun satu dan empat program Pendidikan Fizik terlibat dalam kajian ini iaitu 26 orang pelajar lelaki dan 83 pelajar perempuan. Julat umur pelajar adalah di antara 19 hingga 28 tahun. Alat kajian yang digunakan dalam kajian ini ialah Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA-A). Korelasi Pearson-r merupakan statistik utama yang digunakan dalam kajian ini. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat pertalian yang bererti antara kemahiran berfikir kritis dengan CPA pelajar pada aras .05. Kemahiran interpretasi merupakan aspek WGCTA yang bererti dalam meramal PNGK pelajar berbanding kemahiran membuat inferens, mengusul periksa andaian, membuat deduksi dan penilaian hujah. Seterusnya, hasil kajian menunjukkan tidak terdapat pertalian yang bererti di antara tahun pengajian dengan tahap kemahiran berfikir kritis pelajar.
With the tremendous growth of World Wide Web (WWW), finding relevant source through this boundless world becomes a challenging task. In order to make web user easier to seek for their desire information, several famous search engines such as Google, LookSmart, Altavista and Yahoo have been introduced to WWW in these recent years. One of the most crucial components in search engine is web crawler. Web crawler also name as web ant or web robot which uses to crawl all resources or information in the WWW. As the current design of search engines do not have the communication capabilities between the web crawler and the users who dispatched the crawler which cause the imprecise phenomena. Almost the result of finding is outdated or incorrect. Therefore, an intelligent web crawler which namely UtmCrawler has been designed to solve the imprecise phenomena. The methodology of UtmCrawler is consisting of several phases such as literature review, crawling, preprocessing, processing, testing and documentation phase. During the processing phase, genetic algorithm (GA) works as keyword optimization where it expends initial keywords to certain appropriate threshold. The experimental results has shown that a web crawler with GA design has achieved higher precision (95.19%) than the usual crawler which without GA (85.07%). As conclusion, UtmCrawler could provide a better search result for current web user.
The effect of low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasonic irradiation on the removal of sodium Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) from aqueous solutions has been investigated. Sonication of three different initial concentrations of LAS, 500 Î¼gmol/l, 750 Î¼gmol/l and 1000 Î¼gmol/l, were performed. All experiments used a temperature of 30Â°C, frequency of 20 kHz, power of 125 W, a batch time of 120 min and the pH was left uncontrolled. It was found that the main degradation of LAS at micromolar concentrations proceeded via a reaction with OHÂ· radicals. The initial degradation rate increased with an increase in the surfactant concentration over the whole concentration range studied. The sonolysis of LAS showed a strong inhibition of H2O2 production at a higher concentration. Sonication of LAS in the presence of BrÂ¯ suggested that OHÂ· radicals induced degradation pathway was the dominating sonochemical degradation mechanism.
The RBD palm oil was converted to gasoline by passing its vapor through HZSM-catalyst. Three samples of HZSM-5 with different silica-alumina ratio (SiO2/ Al2O3) of 30, 50 and 70 were prepared and used to investigate the effect of silica-alumina ratio of HZSM-5 to the process. XRD was employed to confirm that the catalyst prepared were HZSM-5. FT-IR analysis for middle range spectra and near range spectra both were engaged to give structural characteristic of the catalyst and to analyze the hydroxyl (OH) groups of the catalyst respectively. The effect of silica-alumina ratio can be seen clearly from the result as HZSM-5 with 30 silica-alumina ratio produced the highest gasoline selectivity compare with the other two catalysts.
Intermetallics Based On Ti-Al Compounds Exhibits Promising Properties For High
Temperature Applications. However, Only Two Phase Near Gamma Alloys Are Able To Some Extent
Fulfill The Crucial High Temperature Applications. Therefore During The Past Decade, A Number Of
Research Efforts Were Directed To Optimise The Application Of This Recently Emerging Class Of Alloy.
Since The High Temperature Property Which Mainly Concerns Creep Is Strongly Microstructure
Dependent, A Comprehensive Understanding On The Microstructure Is Needed. In This Paper, The
Current Knowledge On The Microstructures Of As-Cast Binary Near Gamma Titanium Aluminides Will
A Pilot-Scale Investigation With Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Of Nox Were Carried Out By Employing The Aqueous Solution Of Commercial Grade Ammonia Liquor As Nox Reducing Agent In Diesel Burning Exhaust At 6% Excess Oxygen And Injection Temperatures Between 923 And 1323 K. The Furnace Simulated The Small-Scale Combustion Systems Such As Low Capacity Boilers, Water Heaters, Oil Heaters Etc., Which Produce Low Level Of Baseline Nox, Usually Below 100 Ppm And Where The Operating Temperatures Remain Within The Investigated Temperature Range. With 5% Aqueous Ammonia Solution, At A Normalised Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) Of 4, As Much As 57% Reduction Was Achieved At An Optimum Temperature Of 1063 K, Which Is Quite Significant For The Investigated Level Of Baseline Nox. The Nox Reduction Was Observed To Increase As The Value Of NSR Increased. The Residence Time Of The Reagent Has Significant Effect On The Reaction Performance, However, Most Of The Reduction Occurred Within A Short Range Of Residence Time And After That Further Increase In Residence Time Showed Very Insignificant Effect. The Ammonia Slip Measurement Showed That At Optimum Temperature And NSR Of 4, The Slip Was About 18 Ppm. The Investigations Demonstrate That Commercial Grade Liquor Ammonia Is A Potential Nox Reducing Agent, Which Could Be Used Effectively And Safely Considering The Health Hazards.
Interference from electro-active chemicals such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen can be a problem for peroxide based glucose biosensors. Most works focused on the employment of a perm-selective membrane sandwiched between the electrode and the active component of the sensor to overcome this problem. In this work, a mathematical model has been developed to study the effect of membrane permeability and selectivity on peroxide based glucose biosensor performance. Digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference method. As expected, membrane selectivity to peroxide played a major role in interference reduction. However, interestingly, the model also suggested that the manipulation of the transport properties of the protective outer layer would also result in acceptable interference reduction.
The internal selective membrane for an amperometric glucose biosensor was selected quantitatively based on its transport properties. A rotating disk electrode was used to obtain the permeability of acetaminophen, a common interferent for peroxide-based glucose biosensor, and hydrogen peroxide through cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). All diffusion experiments were performed using a gold rotating electrode as platinum electrode exhibited slow electron transfer on its surface during the oxidation of acetaminophen, thus rendering it ineffective for this work. Selectivity of crosslinked PVA to peroxide was based on the permeability of peroxide compared to that acetaminophen. As hydrogen peroxide is small, its permeability was only affected when the mesh size of cross-linked PVA was significantly reduced. The permeability of the bigger acetaminophen, on the other hand, was linearly proportional to the mesh size of the cross-linked PVA. Cross-linked PVA membrane was found to display marginal selectivity towards peroxide.
Kertas ini bertujuan menjalankan kajian analisis frekuensi banjir serantau bagi aliran sungai tahunan maksimum di Semananjung Malaysia menggunakan pendekatan LQ-momen. Kaedah LQ-momen dibangunkan untuk digunakan dalam analisis frekuensi banjir serantau bagi mengukur keserasian data, kehomogenan rantau dan pengujian pemadanan bagi mengenal pasti taburan serantau terbaik. Algoritma Gustafson-Kessel (GK) diperkenalkan dalam mengenal pasti
rantau homogen Semenanjung Malaysia, dan telah menghasilkan enam rantau homogen yang
diuji menggunakan kaedah LQ-momen. Hasil kajian ini menyokong bahawa kaedah LQ-momen
secara umumnya berupaya, ringkas dan teguh. Ini membuatkan ianya sebagai alternatif pilihan
untuk digunakan dalam analisis frekuensi banjir serantau.
Recently, there are many software tools that have been used to estimate software development project. Conventionally, most organization that involved in developing software development project used the software to ease the estimation problems. However, project manager has faced some difficulties in finding the convenient software for their needs because of the availability of many estimation software projects in the market and the cost are very expensive. In order to achieve local economic market in budgeting, this research has focused on the analysis of System Estimation of Software Development Project (SESDP) using early design model in Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) 2.0. The software development prototype model has been used to develop the SESDP as it can be rapidly developed. At the end, each type of model, technique and method involved in the development software has been tested for estimating the measurement in latest software development project. From the analysis, the project manager has found that the tool has been easily used to estimate the early software cost development project.
This paper presents the effect of varying the blade angle of a small radial air swirler on reducing emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). In this research a liquid fuel burner system with four different radial air swirler blade angles has been investigated using 163 mm inside diameter combustor of 280 mm length. Tests were conducted using kerosene as fuel. A radial flow air swirler with curved blades having 40 mm outlet diameter was inserted at the inlet plane of the combustor to produce swirling flow. Fuel was injected at the back plate of the swirler outlet using central fuel injector with two fuel nozzles pointing axially outwards. The swirler blade angles and equivalence ratios were varied. Tests were carried out using four different air swirlers having 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° blade angles, respectively. A NOx reduction of more than 50 percent was achieved for blade angle of 60° compared to the 30° blade angle. CO emissions were also reduced by 72 percent for 60° blade angle compared 30° blade angle.
Microstrip patch antennas has a variety of feeding technique applicable to them. It can be categorized in accordance to the main power transfer mechanism from the feed line to the patch. Contacting feeds investigated in this work are coaxial probe feed and transmission line feed; while noncontacting feeds which are proximity-coupled-fed and the aperture-coupled-fed. This work is an effort to design, model, simulate, fabricate and measure all four different types of microstrip antennaâ€™s of noncontacting feed and contacting feed techniques on a similar sized, rectangular patch. Simulation is done using the circuit model (CM) derived from the Transmission Line Model (TLM), and is compared with another simulation set of feeding methods produced using the Method of Moments (MoM). Both methods are simulated on Microwave Office. This design intends to focus on studying the differences in measured and simulated parameters of the patch and its respective feeds, simulate it using MoM, and finally, the fabrication process. Radiation measurements are also presented. Designs for each feeding technique achieved the best return loss (RL) at the desired frequency range of 2.4 GHz. The fabricated hardware produced good RL, bandwidth (BW), and comparable radiation performance compared against simulation using MoM. All antennas produced maximum E-and H-plane co- and crosspolarization difference in the magnitude of -18 dB and half-power beam widths (HPBW) in the magnitude of 90o
This paper describes four different configurations of active devices integration into log periodic antennas (LPAs). The first configuration involves the integration of a single amplifier at the input feed line of a five element log periodic antenna (LPA). The second configuration involves the integration of an amplifier in the middle of the five elements LPA. The third configuration is the five element LPA with individual amplifiers in each element. The last configuration involves the integration of the individual amplifiers and filters with five element LPA in each element. The performance of these configurations have been investigated and compared in terms of the bandwidth, gain relative to a passive LPA, cross polar isolation and half power beamwidth.
Pengembangan perniagaan terutama dalam mendapat pasaran memerlukan komitmen yang sepenuhnya daripada para pengusaha tanpa mengambil kira saiz syarikat termasuklah perusahaan yang tergolong dalam Perusahaan Kecil dan Sederhana (PKS). Selain faktor kualiti dan kos sebagai salah satu jaminan kejayaan di pasaran, aspek keselamatan dan kesihatan juga perlu diambil kira bagi menghadapi persaingan dalam pasaran global terutamanya dalam produk makanan. Artikel ini merupakan satu sorotan kajian yang menyentuh aspek amalan keselamatan dan kebersihan dalam kalangan PKS pemprosesan makanan di Malaysia. Aspek pengaruh demografi pengeluar makanan terhadap kualiti dan keselamatan produk makanan serta standard pemprosesan makanan yang digunakan oleh PKS pemprosesan makanan turut dibincangkan dalam artikel ini. Di samping itu, aspek kebersihan makanan dan keselamatan makanan yang memenuhi keperluan populasi majoriti rakyat Malaysia yang beragama Islam, standard Halal (MS1500:2004), turut dibincangkan, selain standard-standard antarabangsa yang diamalkan dalam industri pemprosesan makanan.
This paper attempts to discuss how qualitative (intensive) and quantitative (extensive) research strategies differ by contrasting epistemological and ontological aspects and how these beliefs and views fit with their different intellectual goals. Firstly, this paper discusses the importance of understanding philosophy in social science research and its relation to qualitative (intensive) and quantitative (extensive) research strategies. Then it develops by contrasting these two types of research strategies in relation to the principle orientation to the role of theory, epistemological and ontological assumptions. Epistemological assumptions consist of interpretivism for qualitative (intensive) research strategies and positivism for quantitative (extensive) research strategies. Whereas ontological assumptions constitute subjectivism/constructivism for qualitative (intensive) research and objectivism for quantitative (extensive) research strategies. Further it will explain how these two types of research strategies fit the different intellectual goals and finally concludes by discussing an alternative research strategi namely mixed method that may be employed in social science research.
Kertas kerja ini membincangkan metodologi dan parameter berkaitan yang perlu diambilkira apabila melibatkan proses peramalan menggunakan teknik rambatan balik. Lazimnya, kejituan peramalan banyak dipengaruhi oleh pemilihan parameter iaitu pemalar pembelajaran (pemalar momentum (b) dan kadar pembelajaran (a)), bilangan nod tersembunyi dan jenis fungsi keaktifan. Ketidaksesuaian nilai parameter dan bilangan nod di aras tersembunyi akan menyebabkan rangkaian memberi jawapan yang mencapah daripada sasaran sebenar. Oleh yang demikian, penulis cuba mengkaji nilai parameter yang bersesuaian, perkaitan yang wujud di antara parameter tersebut serta kesannya terhadap prestasi ramalan model rambatan balik. Parameter yang dicadangkan ini diuji ke atas data pengeluaran hasil getah daripada tahun 1989 sehingga 1998.
Improving plant energy efficiency requires monitoring, analysis and adjustments of the appropriate plant operating parameters and in some cases, plant modifications. This involves studies of plant energy distribution and the corresponding losses associated with the various uses of energy. The scope and duration of a study may vary depending on the complexity of a plant and various operational requirements and constraints. The recommended practice is to run a preliminary energy audit on a plant before conducting a detailed retrofit project. Such exercise helps plant managers to differentiate between the immediate energy saving potentials from those requiring either some investments or further studies. This paper outlines the methodology and the scope involved in a preliminary study to improve overall plant energy efficiency. The procedure includes plant familiarization, data collection and parameter measurement, analysis of energy consumption and losses in the various sections of a process plant, analysis of the results and recommendation of measures supported by economic justifications. Examples of studies completed for two different plants are also presented.
This article reviews the value of new business activity to industry growth, in the context of the building and construction (B&C) sector. A brief empirical analysis of the pattern of new business growth in the Australian B&C sector between 1997 and 1998 is presented. It is found that significant new business entry has taken place in many of industries making up the sector. Further research is required to extend this initial work. In particular, it would be useful to explore in more depth, the value of particular patterns of new business activity within the sector.
This paper compares the classification and management of non-performing loans between Islamic banks in Malaysia and conventional banks in the UK and Japan. The objective of this paper is to investigate if there are differences in the classification and management of non-performing loans in Islamic banks as a result of the existence of the Investment Account Depositors (IADs). The nature of profit and sharing loss agreement has made the position of IADs in an Islamic bank unique. This uniqueness, however, has posed some degree of risk where in case the bank incurs a loss, the IADs are liable to share this loss. This has made the investment of IADs very risky and is subject to the potential problem of asymmetric information. This paper finds that the Islamic banks define and manage their non-performing loans differently from the conventional banks in the UK and Japan. The analysis shows that even though Islamic banks have special characteristics, the classification and management of its non-performing loans are quite lenient. This is evidenced in the way non-performing loans are defined, the way loss provision is made and the level of disclosure made by an Islamic bank.
This paper investigates the acquisition rate for a multi-projection technique using optical fibre sensors for a fan beam optical tomography system. The multi-projection technique allows more than one emitter to project light at the same time. For the 32 pairs of sensors used, the 2-projection technique is being investigated whereby 16 sets of projections will complete one frame of light emission. Compared to the conventional single light projection technique used in switch-mode fan beam, multiple light projections technique has shown to be able to achieve a higher data acquisition rate
The purpose of this study is to synthesize samples of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) nanofluids and investigate its stability, particle structure and flow behaviour characteristics. Carbon nanotubes were dispersed in the base fluids of ethylene glycol (EG) and de-ionized water (DI-water) by the two-step method. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a surfactant was used to assist the dispersion of nanoparticles in the fluid. The mixture was then homogenized using an ultrasonic bath. Observations showed that DI-water nanofluids were stable for more than 1 month, while diluted EG nanofluids lasted only 1 week. The SDS surfactant worked better in water-based liquids to reduce agglomeration in nanofluids. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging showed the catalyst supports were still attached to the nanotubes, hence reducing its purity. Massive crystallization on the structure of CNT in EG nanofluids also supported the theory that SDS has reduced functionality in EG. For both base fluids, viscosity was shown to increase with particle concentration and decrease with increasing temperature between 30 °C and 60 °C. The magnitude of viscosity increments were underestimated by Einstein’s conventional viscosity model.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is the most successful and widely used alternative fuel for vehicles in the market today. Petrol fuelled vehicles are fitted with natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion kit to enable bi-fuel operation between CNG and petrol. This experimental approach is focused on the fuel consumption, exhaust emission and fuel cost between natural gas and petrol operations. The specially constructed test rig comprises of the bi-fuel fuel system employed in the 1500 cc 12 valves carburettor engine NGV taxis. The inherent fuel consumption and corresponding exhaust emission are acquired at different engine revolution per minute (rpm) during petrol and CNG operation separately. The engine rpm operating without load is varied from idle to more than 5000 rpm to acquire the fuel consumption and exhaust emission profile. These two acquired data are then used to calculate the engineâ€™s air fuel ratio. All three parameters acquired are used to conduct comparisons between petrol and natural gas operation. It is seen that the bi-fuel system operates with air fuel ratio ranging from 19 to 16.3 for petrol operation and ranges from 40 to 18.7 for natural gas operations. The emission during CNG operation clearly shows significant decrease in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) over the use of petrol. In terms of cost, the use of CNG provides savings exceeding 50% through all engine rpm compared to petrol non-loaded operations.
The paper describes the development of a handwritten signature verification system incorporating pen pressure of signature path, time duration of the signing procedure, velocity profile of signature and position of signature shape. The handwritten signals have been captured and digitized using a tablet. The main features of the proposed signature verification system are the dynamically update of handwritten signature, retries capability in verification, application of tolerance bands and threshold values, development of user friendly Graphic User Interface, application of Common Time Axes and verification of signatures using a class of a multilayer feed-forward neural network. A novel algorithm has been applied that provides the ability to produce consistent and high accuracy verification result and maintain the speed of verification. The system has yielded 1.33% of False Reject Rate and 0% False Acceptation Rate with the verification using random forgery signatures.
A partial glucose biosensor was constructed using a selective internal layer, an enzyme layer and a gold electrode. Both membrane layers are based on cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The performance of the partial glucose biosensor was analyzed particularly with respect to the interfering effects of acetaminophen, a non-ionic molecule. The sensitivity of the immobilized enzyme to glucose was high but it was not high enough to counter acetaminophen interference. The addition of the moderately selective PVA internal layer did not seem to have a significant effect on interference. A mathematical model was then used to analyze the performance of a completed biosensor. A simulated external layer was added to the two layers. The mathematical model predicted that the addition of an external layer with lowered permeability to solutes could improve the performance of the sensor.
The Study On Various Methods Of Reducing The Resistance Of Patrol Craft Have Been Carried Out By Many Researchers. These Methods Included The Application Of Stern Flaps, Stern
Wedges, And Microbubble Injection. However, Due To Its Simplicity And Practicality, Stern Flap Is The Most Promising And Cost Effective Method. The Effect Of A Stern Flap On The Resistance Performance Of The Planing Hull Crew Boat Is Presented. Model Tests Were Conducted To Prove The Effectiveness Of The Stern Flap On Reducing Planing Hull Craft Resistance. Five Different Stern Flap Designs Were
Tested As Part Of Systematic Investigation To Determine The Optimum Geometrical Characteristics Of The Stern Flap. Results Of Model Resistance Experiments Showed That Four Of The Flaps Tested Showed An Increase In Resistance While The Flap At Zero Degree Angle Reduced The Total Resistance By 7.2 Percent At 23 Knots, And An Average Reduction Rate Of 4.5 Percent. At 23 Knots, An 8.2 Percent Reduction In Effective Power Was Predicted.
In Recent Years, Prediction Of Contact Pressure Distributions Is Regarded As An Important Step In Studying Disc Brake Squeal Noise. Contact Analysis Forms Part Of The Whole Procedure In The Complex Eigenvalue Method. The Essence Of Such A Method Lies In The Asymmetric Stiffness Matrix Derived From The Contact Stiffness And The Friction Coefficient At The Disc/Pads Interfaces. This Paper
Presents The Analysis Of The Contact Pressure Distributions At The Disc/Pad Interfaces Using A Detailed 3-Dimensional Finite Element Model Of A Real Car Disc Brake. A General-Purpose Commercial Software Package Was Utilised And Assessed. The Paper Also Investigates Different Levels In Modeling A Disc Brake And Simulating Contact Pressure Distributions. Having Obtained The Suitable Model, Prediction Of Interface Pressure Distributions On An Original Disc Brake Was Carried Out. Finally, Modifications
On The Geometry And/Or Materials Of Disc Brake Components Were Performed To Search For A More Uniform Contact Pressure Distribution. It Is Believed That A Uniform Contact Pressure Distribution Could Prevent Excessive Tapered Wear On The Pads And Subsequently Could Prolong The Life Of Pads.
Flour milling has evolved into an efficient operation; however, process modelling, simulation, and optimisation can make significant improvements to the operation. A challenge of single kernel testing using an instrument such as the Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System (SKCS) is to relate the results to actual breakage achieved during roller milling. As a step toward this, wheat varieties covering a wide hardness range were broken in the SKCS and in the Satake STRâ€“100 test roller mill (roll gaps of 0.3 â€“ 0.8 mm; sharpâ€“toâ€“sharp and dullâ€“toâ€“dull roll dispositions) and the resulting breakage materials were studied for the two systems. The particle size distribution (psd) produced on breakage of wheat by the SKCS itself was measured using laboratory scale plansifting, and compared with the psd produced from first break milling at different roll gaps and under different roll dispositions. Under both sharpâ€“toâ€“sharp and dullâ€“toâ€“dull milling in the roller mill, the effect of increasing kernel hardness was due to the increase in the average size of the broken particles which showed that harder kernels do not break so readily. However, milling under dullâ€“toâ€“dull disposition at larger roll gaps showed the average psd decreased slightly with increasing kernel hardness. This unexpected result was also observed from the SKCS. Harder kernels resulted in smaller particles in the broken material which indicates a very positive crushing action within the SKCS. The psd from the SKCS was most similar to that produced from the roller mill at a roll gap of 0.8 mm under a dullâ€“todull disposition
Wheat flour milling involves repeated breakage (by roller milling) and separation (by sifting) of flour particles to give efficient recovery of fine flour relatively free from bran contamination. A starting point for modelling the behaviour of mixtures of wheat kernels is to be able to measure the variation in kernel properties within the mixture. The Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System (SKCS) gives the distributions of kernel mass, moisture content, diameter and hardness within a mixture, from 300 kernels within 5 minutes. A challenge remains to relate these measured distributions to predictions of milling performance. To this end, a breakage function in terms of these measured parameters for individual kernels has been constructed, and integrated over the distribution of kernel properties using the breakage equation. These models allow prediction of the output particle size distribution delivered by First Break roller milling of kernels varying in size, hardness and variety, based entirely on SKCS characteristics. Predictions have been developed for both sharp-to-sharp and dull-to-dull roll dispositions, and show encouraging agreement with independent data.
Timber is a well-known brittle material under tensile load and is also an inhomogeneous material. Although Weibull's theory of brittle fracture is well established for softwood timber, the verification of this theory to hardwood species, particularly to the timber of local species is very limited. This paper presents the verification of Weibullâ€™s theory to local timber of Meranti species loaded in tension parallel to the grain. The theoretical prediction is compared to the test results. It is found that the variation of tensile strength at several probabilities is in close agreement with theoretical prediction. Two values of Weibull's parameters were proposed in the formulation to predict the tensile strength for local timber. It is also found that the tensile strength of local timber is affected by its volume.
Productivity has been identified as an important role in any organization, especially for manufacturing sectors to gain more profit that leads to prosperity . This paper reports a work improvement project in a car manufacturing company. It involves problem identification at the metal finish line and proposing recommendation to improve the current situation more efficiently. Based on the observation and data online work-in-progress (WIP) has been identified as a major problem and this is caused by the insufficient movements due to material handlings and unbalanced workload.
Method improvement technique is used to determine the best method of carrying out a task in order to eliminate the unnecessary movements. Then, line-balancing technique is used to minimize the idle time at every station or the percentage of line balance loss (LBL). In order to verify the results that were obtained from the generated line-balancing alternative, Witness simulation package is used to obtain the output. One effective alternative is chosen based on the results obtained from the simulation and cost justification. Then, a proper planning is suggested to maximize the resource utilization at the metal finish line.
Simulation results showed that productivity increases roughly three times higher than the current
situation. However, the results were obtained based on several assumptions that had been made during
carry out this project.
In a normal practice of stir casting technique, cast metal matrix composites (MMC) is produced by melting the matrix material in a vessel, then the molten metal is stirred thoroughly to form a vortex and the reinforcement particles are introduced through the side of the vortex formed. From some point of view this approach has disadvantages, mainly arising from the particle addition and the stirring methods. During particle addition there is undoubtedly local solidification of the melt induced by the particles, and this increase the viscosity of the slurry. A top addition method also will introduced air into the slurry which appears as air pockets between the particles. The rate of particle addition also needs to be slowed down especially when the volume fraction of
the particles to be used increases. This is time consuming for a bigger product. This study propose a new approach of producing cast MMC. When all substances are placed in a graphite crucible and heated in an inert atmosphere until the matrix alloy is melted and then followed by a two-step stirring action before pouring into a mould has advantages in terms of promoting wettability between the silicon carbide particle and the A359 matrix alloy. The success of the incorporation of silicon carbide particles into the matrix alloy showed that the wettability between silicon carbide particles and mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength are comparable with previous data produced by other researchers.
Reclamation and drainage of peat basin is an important land development in Malaysia. A clear understanding on the hydrologic behavior of a drained peat basin is the essential factor towards an optimal management of the resource. Hydrological data from Madirono peat catchment located in Johor State, Malaysia was collected and used to characterise its hydrologic characteristics. The characterizations were made using the ordinary quantitative hydrologic approach. The magnitude of changes in the major hydrologic component of the study catchment was quantified. The study catchment experienced a large variation in runoff coefficient, indicating that a drained peat basin is a highly dynamic hydrologic system. A decaying trend in the annual runoff coefficient was observed. The annual runoff coefficients were large, ranging from 0.32 to 0.92. This indicates that the hydrology of the study catchment was extremely dynamics, highly permeable and very flashy. The low flow condition of the basin was extremely small but improving over time indicating that the basin could not sustain river flow during dry spell. The mean annual water table decreased over time by 2.7 cm per year.
The role of universities in commercialising their patents has been studied extensively. Some universities have succeeded in commercialising their patents especially through the route of licensing to established companies or forming new spin-off companies. However, there are some university patents remained unexploited, which represent wastage to the universities. This paper discusses what are the features of some patented technologies that are not commercialised. A case study of a university in Scotland was used in this study. Ten patents which are not being exploited by the University were selected. The inventors of these technologies were interviewed in depth, using semistructured questionnaires. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and the data was analysed based on a case and cross case aided by Nvivo software. The findings show that the most significant reason why patents are not exploited is associated with the technologies themselves. The technologies were found to be at very early stage of development, thus established companies were wary of taking them to market. Lack of motivation among the inventors to see their inventions being exploited, lack of industry networking and marketing of the TTO and inventor are another important reason that led to the inventions unexploited. Studying why some university patents were not exploited will enhance the understanding of the process of commercialisation of university patents, which would help refine the decision making process of patenting. Understanding the characteristics of the university inventions that have high economic potential thus should seek patent protections would reduce the number of unexploited patents.
Accurate process fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) at an early stage of a chemical process is very important to modern chemical plant in overcoming challenges such as strict requirements on product quality, low consumption of utility, environmentally friendly and safe operation. The use of the Contribution Plots (CP) for fault diagnosis in previous methods in Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) is not suitable since it is ambiguous due to no confidence limit in the CP. This research is to formulate a FDD algorithm based on MSPC via correlation coefficients. A fractionation column from a palm oil fractionation plant is chosen as the case study and the model of the case study is simulated in Matlab. Data collected with a process sampling time, TMSPC, of 4.6 hours and following the normal distribution are used as Nominal Operation Condition (NOC) data. Normal Correlation (NC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Correlation Analysis (PCorrA) are used to develop the correlation coefficients between the selected key process variables with the quality variables of interest in the process from the NOC data. Faults considered in the research are sensor faults, valve faults and controller faults generated in the fault data (OC). Shewhart Control Chart and Range Control Chart together with the developed correlation coefficients are used for fault detection and diagnosis. Results show that the method based on PCorrA (overall FDD efficiency = 100%) is more superior than the method based on NC (overall FDD efficiency = 67.82%) and the two analysis methods based on PCA (overall FDD efficiency = 67.82%).
Malay timber houses of Peninsular Malaysia are embellished with carved components that served both functional and aesthetic purpose, thus acting as one of the determining factors in defining the character of the regional architecture. The physical form of woodcarving is governed by four factors, namely, principal forms and arrangement, types of incisions and perforations, types of motifs and design principles regulating its composition. The Malay craftsmen of Kelantan, Terengganu, Perak and Negeri Sembilan applied these factors in their carvings which resulted in similarities and differences of visual compositions. The major similarities included the application of four principal forms of carving patterns and seven shapes of carving arrangements. On the other hand, the differences occurred in types of motifs and types of incisions.
A computer-based safety training (CBT) for semiconductor industry using web as the platform was developed. The CBT system is called Sistem Latihan Keselamatan Berasaskan Komputer (SLK). The CBT system has two main sections which are safety theory modules and accident prevention scenarios. The survey conducted in semiconductor industry concluded that 86.7% of the respondents have successfully increased their safety awareness and understanding towards safety at workplace after studying the SLK system. The highest increment is about 46 % and the lowest is about 8%. SLK system was found to be a practical tool in the selected semiconductor industry and has successfully increased the awareness of safety procedures as well as the understanding of good working practices.
This work presents the development of a systematic technique to target freshwater consumption and wastewater generation to achieve the maximum water recovery for systems involving single contaminant. A generic linear programming (LP) model has been developed based on water network superstructure to simultaneously generate the maximum water recovery targets and design minimum water network, for both mass transfer-based and non-mass transfer-based problems (i.e., global water-using operations). The approach is illustrated by using an urban case study involving a mosque and an industrial case study involving an acrylonitrile process. The results show the potential maximum freshwater and wastewater reduction are 43.4% and 49.3% respectively for Sultan Ismail Mosque, and 70.6% and 37.7% for acrylonitrile process, which agree with the previous study performed using water cascade analysis technique
The paper discusses the numerical simulation of a micro-channel heat sink in microelectronics cooling. A three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was built using the commercial package, FLUENT, to investigate the conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in a silicon-based rectangular microchannel heatsink. The model was validated with past experimental and numerical work for Reynolds numbers less than 400 based on a hydraulic diameter of 86 mm. The investigation was conducted with consideration of temperaturedependent viscosity and developing flow, both hydrodynamically and thermally. The model provided detailed temperature and heat flux distributions in the microchannel heatsink. The results indicate a large temperature gradient in the solid region near the heat source. The highest heat flux
is found at the side walls of the microchannel, followed by top wall and bottom wall due to the wall
interaction effects. Silicon is proven to be a better microchannel heatsink material compared to
copper and aluminum, indicated by a higher average heat transfer. A higher aspect ratio in a
rectangular microchannel gives higher cooling capability due to high velocity gradient around the
channel when channel width decreases. Optimum aspect ratio obtained is in the range of 3.7 - 4.1.
The Faculty of Art and Design (FSSR), UiTM Shah Alam was formed based on a holistic education mission. However, the main problem occurred especially in inculcating spiritual values among arts and design students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to offer an alternative approach to conventional practice in teaching and learning of art and design by developing, integrating and evaluating spiritual-development interactive multimedia courseware and study its’ impact on students self-enlightening level. In order to measure the effectiveness of this interactive multimedia courseware an instrument has been developed and the alpha value is 0.93. The quantitative research method of true experimental pretest-posttest design has been applied. The under-graduate arts and design students in semester three have been chosen as the population of study because the actual design process only begins during this semester of their study program at FSSR. 101 students have been involved in the study. A comparison between the experimental group and the control group shows that there was a significant difference in the self-enlightening level. The mean values for experimental group (interactive multimedia approach group) (4.18) are higher compared to the control group (3.94). This finding also indicates that current practice in arts and design education at the faculty was unable to improve self-enlightening level among art and design students. However, using the interactive multimedia technology can help develop self-enlightening level among them.
A study of vented explosions in length/diameter (L/D) of 2 of cylindrical vessel with a duct pipe (L/D = 6) is reported. The influence of vent burst pressure and ignition locations on maximum overpressure generated inside the vessel, flame speeds and unburnt gas velocities ahead of the flame were systematically investigated. Propane and methane-air mixtures with equivalence ratio, ? of 0.8 to 1.6 have been used. Results show that rear ignition exhibits higher maximum overpressures and flame speeds in comparison to central ignition. It is confirmed that prior to the flame entry to the duct, the flow is chocked due to the sonic flow created at the duct entrance.
Hibah merupakan salah satu prinsip dalam muamalah Islam yang diamalkan di institusi institusi kewangan Islam di Malaysia. Tujuan artikel ini adalah untuk membincangkan pemakaian prinsip hibah dalam Sistem Kewangan Islam di Malaysia, iaitu institusi perbankan Islam dan takaful. Bagi memperolehi data primer mengenai aplikasi prinsip hibah di dua institusi kewangan Islam tersebut, penulis telah menjalankan temu bual dengan individu yang berautoriti di Bahagian Syariah Bank Negara Malaysia, Jabatan Pematuhan Syariah di Etiqa Takaful Bhd dan Takaful Ikhlas Sdn. Bhd. Penulis mendapati bahawa prinsip hibah, walaupun tidak dianggap sebagai prinsip utama, namun ia diaplikasikan sebagai prinsip sokongan dalam aktiviti-aktiviti muamalah Islam di Institusi Kewangan Islam di Malaysia.