Objectives: This review is aimed to propose a method that could be an alternative in taking intra-oral radiographs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Literature Review: The COVID-19 pandemic is the most concerning health problem in the world today. The transmission of COVID-19 is through direct or close contact with infected secretions or aerosol droplets. Individuals with COVID-19 may be asymptomatic or presymptomatic (20%-86% of all infections). Thus, patients with undiagnosed COVID-19 can come to dental clinics and Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology centers anytime. The Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology centers from dental clinics can be a source of transmission of COVID-19 to operator and dental patients. In extraoral radiography modification technique of Newman and Friedman, the sensor is placed on the cheek outside of the oral mucosa, so that the sensor does not contact the mucosal fluid from the patient. Conclusion: Newman and Friedman's extraoral radiography modification techniques can be use as an alternatives to periapical intraoral radiographs to minimize the transmission of COVID-19.
Objectives: This purpose of this case report is to explain the imaging characteristics of unilocular ameloblastoma in CBCT 3D radiograph. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient came to the dentist complaining his painful right lower jaw over the past few days. Clinical examination showed extensive swelling in the posterior region of the right mandible to cause asymmetry at the inferior border of the mandibular corpus. Panoramic radiography showed radiolucent area in periapical mesial root of 46 tooth, extending to the right angular mandibular with a clearly demarcated shape, and there was a root resorption of 47 tooth. CBCT 3D examination showed the presence of unilocular radiolucent lesion in a regular shape and a clear borderline, extending to the inferior border of the mandible and causing buccal-lingual cortical perforation accompanied with the resorption of adjacent 47 tooth. Conclusion: CBCT is a supporting radiography that may act as a more accurate diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of unique ameloblastoma lesions.
Objectives: This study aims to find out the distribution of CBCT-3D examination referrals at Dental Hospital Universitas Airlangga based on the origin of referral, specialist field, age and gender. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research is using the total sampling method. Secondary data from the medical records of any referral patients for CBCT-3D examination at Dental Hospital Universitas Airlangga from July 2015 to March 2020 were included in this study. Furthermore, data references were tabulated and presented in the form of a pie chart. Results: The distribution of CBCT-3D examination referrals at Dental Hospital Universitas Airlangga was as high as 323 (77.64%) coming from within the hospital and as much as 93 (22.36%) from outside of the hospital. Based on the dental specialties who made the referral, six of seven departments have referred their patients for CBCT examination with varying proportions and indications. The distribution of referrals was also divided into gender (male or female) and several age categories based on the Indonesian Ministry of Health, such as toddlers (ages 0-5 years), children (ages 5-11 years), adolescents (ages 12-25 years), adults (ages 26-45 years), elderly (ages 46-65 years) and seniors (over 65 years). Conclusion: Referrals for CBCT-3D radiography examinations at Dental Hospital Universitas Airlangga are mostly from within the hospital, from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Female patients and the elderly (46 years and older) were found to be the most frequently referred.
Objectives: The aim of this case report is to explain further about radiograph on impacted right maxillary third molar and canine using CBCT 3D. Case Report: A 18 year old female patient came with swelling on her upper right posterior gum. The condition was associated with pus contained in the gum. Physical examination revealed no exact abnormalities condition on her teeth. Panoramic radiograph examination showed radiopaque image surrounded by radiointermediate image in maxillary sinus. The result of 3D CBCT radiograph exhibited radioopaque image resembling tooth 18 surrounded by unilocular radiointermediate filling 2/3 maxillary sinus with well-defined border. Conclusion: CBCT is a supported examination which may help in establishing diagnosis more accurately.
Objectives: The aim of this case report is to provide further information on the radiological features of a solid type ameloblastoma suspected on a 3D CBCT radiograph. Case Report: A patient came referred by a dentist for CBCT 3D radiography with suspected clinical diagnosis of a maxillary anterior dentigerous cyst. The results of the CBCT 3D radiographic examination showed a radiointermediate with a clear border on the anterior maxilla and in the right maxillary sinus accompanied by the impact of two supernumerary teeth. Radiological features of ameloblastoma generally show a multilocular radiolucent picture and have a radiopaque septa bone internal structure such as a soap bubble appearance or honey combed appearance. This case showed a clearly demarcated radiointermediate image because a solid type ameloblastoma contains tissue that is histologically formed from cells hat are follicular or plexiform and derived from the results of a degenerative process at the center of the Langerhans islands. Conclusion: Radiographic examination with high modality such as CBCT 3D is very important in helping to establish a diagnosis, especially for cases that sometimes show differences in the radiographs.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to report a case of mandibular cementoblastoma with radiologic approach and describe its characteristics. Case Report: A 32-year-old female came to the Hospital and complained of swelling of the left side of the lower jaw. Clinical examination showed a strong swelling in the buccal region of teeth 44-45, with the same soft tissue color as the surrounding tissue. In the picture cone beam computed tomography appears as a rounded lesion, the internal structure of the radiointermediet with clear and firm boundaries, surrounded by a halo radiolucent. Cementoblastoma radiodiagnosis is established. The patient was referred for surgery. Conclusion: Cementoblastoma was a benign tumor with radiographic characteristics in the form of clearly demarcated radiopaque lesion with radiolucent halo. Some early-stage lesions can show lower density.
Objectives: This research is aimed to determine the detection of osteoporosis risk with a panoramic radiograph using mental index in 30-60 years old patients in Ulin Hospital Banjarmasin. Materials and Methods: This research is using descriptive study with a cross-sectional study design. This research sample using secondary data from 30-60 years old patients who took panoramic radiographs in Radiology Installation of Ulin Hospital Banjarmasin from January 2018 – December 2021. Results: The result showed that the age group at risk of osteoporosis was the age group 56-60 years old (right jaw 3.44 ± 0.70 and left jaw 3.33 ± 0.32), gender at risk of osteoporosis is men (right jaw 3.44 ± 0.52 and left jaw 3.37 ± 0.44) and the mean value of the mandibular cortex width in the group at risk for osteoporosis was 2.91 ± 0.21. Conclusion: The age group at risk of osteoporosis is the age of 56-60 years old and the gender at risk of osteoporosis is men. Mental index can be used as a tool for measuring the mandibular cortex width on panoramic radiographs to diagnose the risk of osteoporosis.
Objectives: Age estimation is an important factor in forensic science and needs to be known accurately because it can narrow the search when examining unidentified victims, determine the victim's age at death and is also useful in cases of adulteration of athletes, child guardianship, or to determine whether someone is of legal age. or not according to the law. This study aims to determine individual age estimates based on the London Atlas and Schour-Massler Atlas and compare the accuracy of the two methods. Materials and Methods: 70 panoramic radiographs consisting of 31 boys and 39 girls from Chinese ethnicity in Surabaya, aged 6-13 years (72-156 months). Samples were determined for dental age based on the London Atlas and the Schour-Massler Atlas. The data that has been obtained is then processed by statistical analysis with SPSS for Windows, with an inclusion level of p <0.05. Results: This study showed that the London Atlas was better and more accurate than the Schour-Massler Atlas with a lower mean error and there was no significant difference between the London Atlas dental age estimation and chronological age with p value = 0.426 in the left region and p = 0.429 in the right region (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results obtained from this study indicate that dental development based on the London Atlas and Schour-Massler Atlas can be used as a method to determine the estimated age of children from the range of 6 - 13 years in ethnic Chinese.
Objectives: This review article is aimed to determine the accuracy of extraoral periapical radiography as a determinant of the working length in endodontic treatment and the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. Review: Endodontic treatment is a dental treatment for damages reaching the pulp which aims to maintain the tooth. One way to succeed in endodontic treatment is to determine an accurate working length. The working length can be determined by intraoral periapical radiography examination but some people are sensitive to intraoral film placement. The placement of film on periapical radiography extraorally is needed. Conclusion: The study showed that the extraoral periapical radiography had more than 75% accuracy in determining the working length depending on angulation used. This review concludes that extraoral periapical radiography can be used in patients who can not tolerate to intraoral film placement with an accuracy that is not significantly different from that of the intraoral periapical radiography but is not meant to be replaced intraoral periapical radiography.
Objectives: COVID-19 has caused a negative impact and paralysis in the activities of the dentistry field because it has a high risk of contamination and transmission of the SARS-Cov-2. Even so, dental services cannot stop completely, especially for emergency cases, so that a new form of adaptation of normality is recommended for all dental services including the dentomaxillofacial radiology. This article aims to discuss the adaptation to the new normal era of in the dentomaxillofacial radiology examinations. Literature Review: The use of dentomaxillofacial radiographic examinations is indispensable for diagnosis and determination of treatment plans, but in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic and this new normal era, modifications are needed in stricter infection control in dentomaxillofacial R\radiology installations to prevent as much as possible the possibility of virus transmission SARS-Cov-2. The application of room controls, medical personnel, x-ray equipment, patients, and radiograph documents are very important in carrying out the adaptation to this new normal era. Conclusion: An adequate infection control and application of teleradiology are important things to be considered and implemented as a form of adaptation to new normal in dentomaxillofacial radiology installations in patient care as a way to prevent transmission and contamination of the SARS-Cov-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Objectives: To inform and discuss the benefits and harms of low dose radiation. Literature Review: Low dose radiation (LDR) was often used, including for services in the field of dentistry. Several studies have studied this for a long time but the results are still not conclusively agreed. Some researchers found a variety of side effects that are not beneficial to the body, but some found no association with the body damage caused by this, and even some found that LDR has beneficial effects on the body. Conclusion: low doses of radiation cause significant changes in the body, although this condition is met with an adaptive reaction which is considered a beneficial response by the body. Therefore, no matter how small the radiation is given, it will still have an impact on the body so it is better to be wise in its use.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine alveolar bone density in patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis through panoramic radiography . Material and Methods: The method used in this study was descriptive. This study was conducted on populations that met all criteria. The sampling method used was purposive sampling technique, so that 31 panoramic radiographs were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and 7 panoramic radiographs were diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis. Results: The study showed that bone density in chronic periodontitis had an average of bony trabeculae 28.6% and marrow spaces 71.4% while bone density in aggressive periodontitis had an average bony trabeculae 20.2% and marrow spaces 79.8% Conclusion: Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that bone density in patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis has a low bone density value. The average bone density in patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis has different values, where the bone density in chronic periodontitis is greater than aggressive periodontitis.
Objectives: Maxillary and mandibular first premolars are amongst the teeth that has a risk to caries and needed to be treated. These teeth were varied in term of root and root canal amount. A successful root canal treatment in premolar teeth is highly dependent on the identification of the number and shape of root canals according to Vertucci. Radiographs are still the main choice in helping dentists establish an adequate diagnosis and treatment plan for root canal treatment. Conventional radiographs produce two-dimensional images which often cause difficulties in interpreting the resulting radiograph images. Modern imaging modalities such as CBCT can be used to produce a more accurate image. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the number of root canals of maxillary first premolar teeth displayed on periapical radiographs and CBCT and also to test the accuracy of periapical radiographs in detecting the number of root canals of maxillary first premolar teeth compared to CBCT radiographs. Materials and Methods: This research was experimented by performing periapical radiological examinations and CBCT on 50 maxillary premolar teeth samples, then evaluating the number of visible root canals. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the number of root canals seen on the periapical radiograph and CBCT. Conclusion: CBCT radiographs have the advantage of detecting the number of root canals of maxillary premolars more accurately than periapical radiographs.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out the description of chronological age and dental age suitability through estimation of root growth of maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive study with cross-sectional approach performed on the maxillary and mandibular first and second premolars. Data was taken from 50 panoramic radiographs contained in the 2015-2016 RSGM Unpad archives. Analyzes were performed based on age predictions from the Demirjian table compared to chronological ages in several age groups. The data is then presented in tabular form. Results: This study shows that there is a high degree of concordance between chronological age and dental age through premolars 1 and 2, both upper and lower jaws of the Demirjian table in the initial phase of tooth root formation at 8 years chronological age and at the final phase of root apex closure at 12-13 years chronological age through the assessment of panoramic radiograph. Conclusion: Chronological age and dental age depend on the precise assessment of root growth of premolar 1 and 2 teeth in the maxillary and mandibular regions having a high degree of suitability in the early and final phases of tooth root formation which are seen more radiographically.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the number of micronuclei between the gingival mucosa and the buccal mucosa due to exposure to digital panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: This study used 10 healthy individuals aged 18-25 years. Exfoliated epithelial cell samples from the gingival and buccal mucosa were taken from the patient on the 10th day after exposure to digital panoramic radiography. The coloring method used is Feulgen-Rossenbeck. Results: The micronucleus calculation was performed by the method of assessing 1000 cells per slide using a binuclear light microscope with a magnification of 400x. The results of the analysis by unpaired T test showed that the difference in the increase in the number of micronuclei was statistically significant (p <0.05). The average difference in the increase in the number of micronuclei was 3.5 ± 0.767. There is a significant difference in the increase in the number of micronuclei between the gingival mucosa and the buccal mucosa due to exposure to digital panoramic radiography with an increase in the number of micronucleus in the buccal mucosa higher than the gingival mucosa. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that digital panoramic radiography can cause genotoxic effects on the gingival and buccal mucosa. Digital panoramic radiography is used if needed.
Objectives: Panoramic radiography exposure causes DNA damage and micronucleus formation. The gingival mucosa and buccal mucosa were used to identify the number of micronucleus due to radiation exposure because they have a high prevalence of oral cancer in Southeast Asia. This research is aimed to determine the difference between micronucleus formation at the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa after exposed by conventional panoramic radiography in the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Installation of Prof. Soedomo dental hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Material and Methods: Samples were obtained by rolling the cervical brush against the buccal and gingival mucosa at 10 days after radiation exposure. Samples were stained using the Feulgen-Rossenbeck method and analyzed under binuclear light microscope with a 400x magnification. Results: Analysis of independent T tests showed that there was a significant difference (p<0,05) in the increasing of micronucleus formation between the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa. The average difference in the number of micronucleus were 5,5/1000 cells. Conclusion: There were differences in the increasing of micronucleus between the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa due to exposure of conventional panoramic radiography. The buccal mucosa had higher increase than the gingival mucosa.
Objectives: This article is aimed to widely share information and discuss further about the emerging transformation theories of the traditional radiation protection concept of ALARA into some more modern proposed concepts, particularly in dentomaxillofacial radiology. Literature Review: The concept of radiation protection in the use of X-ray modalities in the medical field has developed along with the development of science over past decades. The concept of ALARA which has been widely known for a long time and is used as a basic of theory or main reference in radiation protection policies in several countries or at the international level now becomes a traditional, conservative and invalid principle to apply. There are several emerging theories which are considered to be more valid and representative to replace the ALARA principle. Conclusion: Newer concepts of radiation protection that have developed, ALADAIP, are considered to be more precise and specific to be the main principle of radiation protection at this time, especially in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology.
Objectives: This research is aimed to find out the advantages of alternative tools as a guide for measuring the vertical dimensions of teeth on periapical radiographs and comparing the lengths of vertical dimensions of teeth on periapical radiographs with the actual lengths. Materials and Methods: This research is using analytical observational study with a cross-sectional study design. The research data were primary data from 30 periapical radiographs of two maxillary central incisors, which were photographed using a periapical projection with bisecting technique and a periapical film that had been attached with wire on the outer layer of the film wrap. The data were analyzed by a paired T-Test using SPSS software. Results: The p-value of ALT (Actual Length of the Tooth) for tooth 11 was 0.53 and for tooth 21 was 0.140. These results show a p-value > 0.05. Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference between the calculation of tooth length on periapical radiographs using alternative tools and the calculation of actual tooth length so that alternative tools can be used as a guide for measuring the vertical dimensions of teeth on periapical radiographs.
Objectives: The rate of mandibular anesthesia failures is higher than maxilla, where the highest percentage is the inferior alveolar nerve block. One alternative action in case of failure is a mental nerve block, located in the mental foramen. Thus, knowledge of the mental foramen anatomy is required to avoid failure in anesthesia. The study is to determine the vertical and horizontal position of the mental foramen, which refers to the crest of the alveolar bone, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The type of research that is used is descriptive with a purposive sampling method. The object of research is panoramic radiographs of patients who are in Dentistry Radiology Installation of Dental Hospital Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung with a total sample of 352 panoramic radiographs. This research measured the vertical and horizontal distances between the mental foramen to the alveolar bone crest between 1st premolar teeth and 2nd premolar teeth. Results: The average value of the vertical distance mental foramen to the alveolar bone crest is 13,43 mm. The average value of the horizontal distance from mental foramen to 1st premolar teeth is 6,97 mm and the horizontal distance from mental foramen to 2nd premolar teeth is 2,80 mm. Conclusion: Mental foramen is closer to the 2nd premolar teeth based on the horizontal position and located below the apex based on the vertical position.
Objectives: Ameloblastoma is classified as unicystic, multicystic and solid based on its characteristic. This article is aimed to report a case of ameloblastoma in posterior mandibula, analyze its radiographic appearance and emphasize on describing its other available variations. Case Report: A 39-years-old male patient came to Dadi Keluarga Hospital Purwokerto with complaint of swelling on the posterior lower jaw. The swelling was painless and has been felt since 4 years ago. Asymmetrical face was discovered. On panoramic radiograph, a well-defined radiolucent mass appears with radiopaque septation in the posterior region, the teeth were depressed, the lesion has expanded to the left coronoid process and mandibular notch. Conclusion: Based on panoramic radiographic examination the image of ameloblastoma in this case is seemed as multilocular in the posterior region, expanding to the left posterior and imaging of multilocular ameloblastoma on the left posterior region showing destruction of coronoid process and mandibular notch with soap-bubble pattern.
Objectives: was to evaluate the radiographic of CBCT fractures in the neck of condyle Case Report: 11 years old boy was referred from the emergency department of RSGM UNPAD for CBCT radiographic examination with a suspected clinical diagnosis of left condyle fracture. The patient had an accident falling while playing one day ago. The patient complained of pain in the left ear, pain when opening the mouth and experiencing facial asymmetry. The CBCT radiograph shows a fragment of the condyle head and has a medial displacement Conclusion: CBCT can see the fragments' location in the fracture and changes in size and position direction that occur, whereas conventional radiographs are very difficult to see the condition.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to obtain the value of mandibular cortical thickness in HIV-infected children and adolescents based on panoramic radiographs. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 43 panoramic radiographs of HIV-infected children and adolescents. The value of mandibular cortical thickness were measured by three indices regarded as mental index (MI), gonial index (GI), and antegonial index (AGI) using a digital calipers directly on the panoramic radiographs which had been taken previously. Results: Among 43 panoramic radiographs, 18 (41,86%) were boys and 25 (58,14%) were girls. Based on age range, there are 30 samples (69,77%) were categorized as children with age range 5-11 years and 13 samples (30,23%) were categorized as adolescents with age range 12-16 years. The lower value of mandibular cortical thickness based on MI, AGI, and AGI was seen in girls compared to boys. The adolescents have a higher value of mandibular cortical thickness compared with the children. Conclusion: There are different values of mandibular cortical thickness in HIV-infected children and adolescents based on sex and age.
Objectives: To view a case report of mandibular ossifying fibroma (OF) in pediatric male. Case Report: A 12 year old child came to RSHS with a panoramic radiograph with the chief complaint of swelling in the right mandible. Panoramic radiograph shows well-defined mixed lesions with radiolucent content and snowflake-like opaque. MDCT shows a superior-inferior and bucco-lingual extension of the lesion. The suspicion of this case leads to Ossifying Fibroma with differential diagnosis of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) and Calcifiying Ephitelial Odontogenic Tumor (CEOT). Conclusion: OF cases in children, especially mandibular, are very rare, where the characteristics of the lesion can be well defined through the help of panoramic radiographs and MDCT. OF is a lesion that has benign characteristics with well-defined borders, and the most important lies in the presence of wrapping capsules and mixed internal structures accompanied by snowflake-like calcification.
Objectives: Endodontic lesions and periodontal lesions that appear together in the same tooth are called endo-perio lesions. This study is aimed to explain further on radiography characteristics of endo-perio lesions. Case Report: Case 1, A 21-year-old male patient came to RSGM with a lower left lower back pain complaint. The tooth was once cursed 1 year ago. In the radiographic picture there is a large radiolucent lesion on the alveolar bone around the distal root. Case 2, A 25-year-old female patient came to the Installation of Dental Conservation Specialist RSGM FKG Padjadjaran University complained that the lower left molar was sore and swollen gums had been 3 days. The tooth has been treated by a dentist in another city, but the treatment is not completed. Patients have taken the drug of mefenamic acid and amoxicillin each one grain. Conclusion: Periapical radiography is one of diagnostic imaging tools to help establish a more accurate diagnosis of endo-perio lesions.
Objectives: The literature review will briefly review the development of micro-CT as a microscopic radiographic modality in the field of dental research for bone analysis Literature Review: Bone quality values represent the mechanical and biological characteristics of bone mass; structural properties including geometry, macrostructure, and microstructure; and tissue properties including modulus elasticity, mineral density, collagen quality, and character cells and bone marrow. Assessment of bone quality is carried out clinically, both locally and systemically, for various disease or therapeutic conditions. The use of micro-CT is growing prominently and effectively as a modality for analysis and evaluation of bone quality because various morphometric parameters to the microstructural level can be obtained. It applies to the analysis of osseointegration of dental implants and the healing conditions of pathological defects. Conclusion: In conclusion, micro-CT with very high resolution is accurate in the analysis of bone quality because the imaging results can provide microstructure morphometric values in osseointegration conditions after dental implant installation and post-fracture biomechanical characteristics, which can be an essential scientific basis for various experimental bone analysis research designs.
Objectives: This paper aims to determine the factors that influence the decision making of a general dentist to become a dentomaxillofacial radiologist, particularly in Indonesia. Material and Methods: This research used a descriptive design with survey techniques, and the research samples were residents of dentomaxillofacial radiology residency program and dentomaxillofacial radiologists in Indonesia. This research was conducted by the way respondents filled out questionnaires, based on the concept of marketing and purchasing on the expertise of dental radiology specialists. Results: There are variations in answers that are dominated by the value of product purchases as a dental radiology specialist is urgently needed. Conclusion: Dentomaxillofacial radiologist is a profession that is rarely found in Indonesia so it becomes a reliable job in the future as more experts are needed. The promotional activities of its residency program are still much of lack.
Objectives: To analyze the cortical thickness, angular size and density of the mandibular bone trabeculae of soldiers and non-soldiers in terms of panoramic radiographs Material and Methods: This study is a comparative analytical descriptive study. The sample used was 65 panoramic radiographic data from soldiers and non-soldiers carried out at LADOKGI TNI AL R E Martadinata Jakarta. Results: Significant differences (p-value <0.05) in the calculation of the MCW value (Mandibular Cortical Width) of male soldiers compared to non-male soldiers (p-value 0.047) and FD FM (Fractal Dimension region superior foramen mentale) values 40-58 years compared to non-soldiers aged 40-58 years (p-value 0.027). Conclusion: There are differences in the size of the cortical thickness of the foramen mentale region (MCW) of the male group and in the value of the superior region of the mandibular foramen mentale (FD) region of the 40-58 years age group between soldiers and non-soldiers in terms of panoramic radiographs.
Objectives: This research aims to evaluate radiological finding on bone of patients with T2DM (type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) by evaluating mandibular cortical quality using radiomorphometric assessment specifically MCI (Mandibular Cortical Index) and AI (Antegonial Index). Material and Methods: This research is a descriptive analytic cross-sectional study, populations and samples using secondary data radiographs of T2DM patients that have been proven by medical statement from a doctor and normal sample were selected according to specified criterias. Results: It showed between group consisting of patients with T2DM and another one with normal patients, both have dominant result of MCI assessment type C2. While the result of Antegonial Index assessment there were a difference of cortical thickness between two groups. The average AI value from normal patients were 4,179 with standard deviation of 0.420, while another group with T2DM were 3,641 with standard deviation of 0.477. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it was found that there has been a significance difference of cortical bone qualities between two groups of samples which can be seen from the result of Antegonial Index, a T2DM patients has average values lower than normal patients, while for the results of MCI assessment between two groups have similar types.
Objectives: This study is aimed to introduce an overview of the anatomy of the neck region as well as an overview of some pathological conditions that can be seen through Ultrasound. Literature Review: There was a characteristic in the anatomy of the neck by Ultrasound. Anatomy of the neck on Ultrasound, divided into several areas with its characteristics. Ultrasound can thoroughly assess pathological conditions related to anatomy. Conclusion: Ultrasound was a modality that can be used to see the condition of the anatomy, including the neck area. Pathological conditions were also able to be appropriately seen through Ultrasound.
Objectives: The study assesses periapical radiograph image with various android based analysis method to detect granuloma. Materials and Methods: The study uses survey descriptive cross sectional by using questionnaire. The questionnaire is distributed to 70 random respondents. The methods of the android application used are BLOB (Binary Large Object), DCT and LDA (Discrete Cosine Transform and Linier Discriminant Analysis), DWT and PCA (Discrete Wavelet Transform & Principal Component Analysis), and multiwavelet transformation. The questionnaire assessment included accuracy, effectiveness, attractiveness, innovativeness of the android application. Results: Android application with BLOB has effectivity and accuracy of 62,5%, attractiveness and innovativeness of 75%. Android application with DCT and LDA has effectivity and accuracy of 50 %, attractiveness of 70% and innovativeness of 80%. Android application with DWT and PCA has effectivity of 50%, accuracy of 60%, attractiveness of 66,66% and innovativeness of 80%. Android application with multiwavelet transformation has effectivity and accuracy of 50%, attractiveness of 55% and innovativeness of 73%. Conclusion: Based on assessment, the four methods used to detect granuloma are effective and applicative with android-based application. Android-based Application can detect granuloma with approximately more than 70% successful rate. These methods ease the practitioner to interpret the granuloma image.
Objectives: The identification process is very important to determine the identity of the corpse. Identification through teeth is a primary identification method that is often used because teeth have a high degree of individuality. Identification through teeth can be analyzed through dental anomalies. Dental anomalies can assist in the identification process because of their uniqueness, stability, and high incidence in different populations. This paper aims to provide information on the importance of dental anomalies as a relevant and scientific means for identification purposes. Review: Dental anomalies can be defined as morphological abnormalities of the teeth that occur at the stage of growth and development of teeth. Dental anomalies are also inherited disorders that can occur as part of a syndrome. The wide variety of dental abnormalities in the form of size, number, morphology, structure or position of teeth in the oral cavity that can be possessed by each individual can be a characteristic of that individual. Conclusion: The use of dental anomalies in identification has been scientifically recognized with proper diagnosis and writing of dental anomalies in the medical record can be used for identification purposes in the forensic field.
Objectives: Abnormalities in the number of teeth is a change of dental structure that arises from abnormalities during tooth formation, can be due to congenital or growth. For anomalies, the number of teeth consists of anadontia and supernumerary teeth. This research is aimed to obtain a general picture of the prevalence of abnormalities in the number of teeth in terms of panoramic radiographs at RSGM UNHAS. Material and Methods: This type of research is observational descriptive and the design of this study is Cross Sectional Study. The research subjects were all panoramic radiographic photo data in the Teaching and Mouth Hospital of Hasanuddin University in the last 1 year. Data is processed in tables and diagrams. Results: The results showed that the majority of anadontia prevalence by sex occurred in women, as a breakdown of hypodontia with a presentation of 68.04%, oligodontia with a presentation of 26.93%, and anadontia with a presentation of 5.21%. The prevalence of anadontia based on the majority age group occurs in the adult age group, as a breakdown of hypodontia with a presentation of 77.73%, oligodontia with a presentation of 21.40%, and anadontia with a presentation of 0.87%. The prevalence of anadontia by month occurred at most in August 2018 with 70 people, while the lowest number was in July 2018 with 1 person. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth based on the majority sex occurs in male patients with a total of 4 people, as detailed mesiodens with 25% presentation, laterodens with 75% presentation, and no distomolar. Conclusion: The prevalence of anomaly deficiency in the number of teeth by sex is most experienced by women, the prevalence of supernumerary teeth is more experienced by men. When viewed from the age group, abnormalities in the number of teeth are most experienced by the adult age group and supernumerary teeth are most experienced by the adolescent age group.
Objectives: The aim of this research is to know about the correlation between calcium levels and mandibular height and length in elderly patients from panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional observational study, using 15 panoramic radiographs of patients aged 60-80 years, where each subject is taken calcium levels. Radiographs were analyzed to measure the length of the mandibular body and the height of the mandibular ramus. ImageJ software is used as a measuring tool, and the results are then correlated with the Pearson correlation test analysis. Results: This study obtained the average result for mandibular length was ± 10 cm and for mandibular height was ± 7 cm, while the calcium value showed an average value of ± 8.7-10 mg/dl. Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between mandibular length and height and calcium levels in the elderly. Conclusion: The conclusion drawn was that there is no significant relationship between mandibular height and length on calcium levels in the elderly as assessed by panoramic radiographs.
Objectives: This study is aimed to look at the distribution of the quality of periapical radiographs produced by students using conventional films and instant films at the Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Brawijaya radiology installation. Material and Methods: The method used in this research is analytic descriptive with cross sectional sampling method. The research datas were primary data with a total of 20 periapical radiographs from each method. Data was analyzed by Spearman test in SPSS software. Results: Data were analysed using the Spearman rho correlation test which showed the results of ρ = 0,5. The results of periapical radiographs using conventional films as much as 65% were very good, 25% were good, and 10% were not acceptable. The results of periapical radiographs using instant film were 70% good, 15% very good, and 15% were not acceptable. Conclusion: There is no difference in the quality of the results of conventional periapical radiographs and instant films in the radiology installation of the Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Brawijaya Malang.
Objectives: This research is aimed to determine the wide frequency distribution of anteroposterior frontal sinus with lateral cephalometric radiographs based on age and sex in West Jakarta, which is centered on RSGM FKG Trisakti University. Material and Methods: This research is using descriptive observational research design and the anteroposterior width measurement of the frontal sinus uses the Erturk measurement method. This study used 125 lateral cephalometric radiographs (40 males and 85 females) as samples which taken from a server at the Dental Radiology Installation, RSGM FKG Trisakti University. Results: The result showed that the smallest mean width of the anteroposterior frontal sinuses in males is at 7 years (5.4 mm) and the largest size is at 19 years (9.76 mm). Whereas the smallest mean width of anteroposterior frontal sinuses in females is at the age of 7 years (5.4 mm) and the largest size is at the age of 20 years (9.25 mm). The average width of anteroposterior frontal sinuses is 6.6 mm in males and 5.58 mm in females. Conclusion: Males have an average width of anteroposterior frontal sinuses that is larger than females and there are some decrease in size in some age groups. Variations in size can occur due to genetic and environmental factors.
Objectives: The purpose of this research was to describe radiographic density of mandibular bone in calcium channel blocker anti-hypertensive drug users. Bone density in the mandible is assessed from the trabecular. Panoramic radiograph is a routine examination that is often done in dentistry that can be used to assess changes in quality in the form of changes in bone density in users of anti-hypertensive calcium channel blockers Material and Methods: This research is a descriptive study of 21 panoramic radiographs of calcium channel blocker anti-hypertensive drug users aged 40-75 years. Panoramic radiograph archive density checks in the distal region of the foramen mentale and the mandibular angular region using software image j, with the final result was the percentage between bone and marrow. Results: This research showed the average radiographic density in male using calcium channel blocker antihypertensive drugs was 18.81% and the average radiographic density in female was 20.92%. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study found that the average radiographic density of female patients taking antihypertensive drugs calcium channel blockers was higher than male.
Objectives: This review article is aimed to investigate changes in anatomical factors in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients through means of a cephalometric radiograph, which covers relation and size. Review: This literature review used online databases (PubMed and Scopus) discussing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults aged 18-80 years, using cephalometric analysis, and several keywords such as “obstructive sleep apnea and cephalometry” were employed to do the literature search. The search was limited to full-text articles written in English and published during the 2011-2021 period. Articles were selected by complying with literature review guidelines. Conclusion: Dentists can detect OSA early through lateral radiograph, which is originally an early screening tool, by paying attention to patients’ position during exposure, irradiation condition (kV, mA and Sec) and patient position in OSA diagnosis in regards to hard and soft tissue being evaluated. The specific craniofacial morphological variable could be a reliable parameter in determining the existence of OSA.
Objectives: This report is aimed to present a case of an uncovered fusion of two seemingly separated periapical rarefying osteitis lesions on two adjacent teeth through Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging and to describe the significance of a comprehensive multiplanar appraisal in interpreting CBCT radiographs. Case Report: An 18-year-old female patient came to Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital for a CBCT examination of her right central maxillary incisor (tooth 11) as referred by her dentist. Based on the clinical report provided, the patient had a slight palpable swelling of the labial gingival anterior maxilla with sign of crepitus. Caries lesions were found on teeth 11 and 12 in which the vitality tests showed negative responses. Thus, it was provisionally suspected as a periapical inflammatory lesion. CBCT was done and the 3D-reconstructed images of the bone showed there were two neighboring radiolucent ovoid lesions attached on one-third apical of teeth 11 and 12, separated by a firm-apparent cortex. It was later discovered that the two lesions were actually fused as one elongated and extensive lesion through the multiplanar appraisal of three orthogonal views provided in CBCT application. Conclusion: CBCT 3D-reconstructed and panoramic reformatted images should be used with caution, either for linear measurement or diagnostic purposes, as they should only be used to illustrate the diagnosis and/or provide a better understanding of the problem to the patients and their treatment plans. A comprehensive multiplanar appraisal is required to provide a diagnostically complete interpretation.
Objectives: This case report is aimed to report the finding of canalis sinuosus on an impacted maxillary canine using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination. Case Report: A 21-year-old male was referred from orthodontic department to radiology department UNPAD Dental Hospital for CBCT to determine the treatment of malalignment asymptomatic maxillary canine. The case revealed the presence of canalis that was identified as a canalis sinuosus, a branch of the anterior superior alveolar nerve that rarely known by a practitioner, at the apex of impacted right maxillary canine. Conclusion: The information of this anatomical variation is important for professionals due to damage that may be caused during treatment. The use of advanced imaging examination is recommended to acknowledge the individual anatomical variation before determining the proper treatment planning.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to obtain measurements of dentate and edentulous corpus mandibulae height on RSGM Unpad patients through digital panoramic radiograph. Material and Methods: This research is using descriptive method. Population in this research is digital panoramic radiograph from RSGM Unpad patient’s database. The technique used is purposive sampling, and obtained 50 panoramic digital panoramic radiograph samples. Results: The results shows the highest dentate corpus mandibulae height is in men 38,1 mm age 65-85 on left side of corpus and the highest edentulous corpus mandibulae height is in men 26,3 mm age 55-64 on right side of corpus. Conclusion: To summarize, the highest dentate corpus mandibulae height on the right side is in men age 45-54, on the left side is in men age 65-85, the highest edentulous corpus mandibulae on the right and left side is in men age 55-64, and overall corpus mandibulae height on the right and left side on women is lower than men in all ages.
Objectives: This review aimed to understand the radiographic features of carotid artery atheroma on panoramic radiographs as an early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Literature Review: Carotid artery calcification is caused by a plaque known as an atheroma. Atheroma is a plaque composed of lipids and rich in calcium. If atheroma formation in the carotid arteries increases, it would cause stenosis of the blood vessels and increase the risk of stroke. On panoramic radiographs, carotid artery atheroma appears as a heterogeneous radiopaque image with an irregular shape and well-defined borders. Radiopaque image located inferior to the angle of the mandible, close to the cervical spine (C3-C5) and above the hyoid bone. Conclusion: Incidental findings on panoramic radiograph could be an initial reference for further examination and evaluation of atherosclerosis.
Objectives: This narrative review is written to describe the accuracy of caries detection and find out the clinical implications and future prospects of using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to determine radio-diagnosis of dental caries in bitewing and periapical radiographs. Review: The databases used for literature searching in this narrative review were PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria were original article, case report, and textbook written in English and Bahasa Indonesia, published within 2011-2021. The exclusion criteria were articles that the full text could not be accessed, research article that did not provide the methods used, and duplication articles. In this narrative review, a total of 33 literatures consisting of 30 articles and three textbooks reviewed, including four original articles on CNN for caries detection. Conclusion: Results of the review reveal that GoogLeNet produces the best detection compared to Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) and U-Net for caries detection in bitewing and periapical radiographs. Nonetheless, the positive predictive value (PPV), recall, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity, F1-score, and accuracy values in these architectures indicate good performance. The differences of each CNN’s performances to detect caries are determined by the number of trained datasets, the architecture’s layers, and the complexity of the CNN architectures. The conclusion of this review is CNN can be used as an alternative to detect caries, increasing the diagnostic accuracy and time efficiency as well as preventing errors due to dentist fatigue. Yet the CNN is not able to substitute the expertise of a radiologist. Therefore, it is need to be revalidated by the radiologist to avoid diagnostic errors.
Objectives: Dense Bone Island (DBI) is one of the lesions that are usually visualized on a panoramic radiographs in the form of total radiopaque in the periapical area of the mandibular premolar or molar but most of them are not directly related to the dentition. This case report is aimed to give summaries about the description of 3 DBI cases. Case Report: Three panoramic radiographs of patients with asymptomatic well-defined radiopaque lesions which was found incidentally in the periapical area of the left mandibular first premolar with two of them showing the lesions located exactly in the 1/3 apical of the root and one of them seen as root resorption like. From clinical information, all three cases reported no clinical symptoms and affected teeth are still vital. Conclusion: Incidental findings of well-defined radiopaque lesion in the periapical area of the premolar and molar of mandible that mostly do not damage the surrounding teeth lead to the diagnosis of dense bone island.
Objectives: This scientific paper discusses aspects of biological bone and radiograph examination in helping diagnose systemic diseases with a decrease in bone quality more accurately. Literature Review: Osteoporosis often occurs in postmenopausal women because of reduced estrogen. Sign analysis is related to four important factors to assess bone quality, namely bone density, bone turnover, bone size and bone architecture. Mineral Bone Examination Density is a gold standard examination by the World Health Organization for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and bone biomarkers can provide an overview of the renovation process being carried out. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographs are expected to be a potential checkpoint for early detection of systemic diseases that manifest in the maxillofacial region with bone conversations characterized by bone enlargement, changes in bone microstructure and trabeculae that indicate changes in bone quality.
Objectives: To assess the difficulty level of dental impaction treatment. This article discusses the problem of odontomy treatment based on the classification of maxillary canine impaction through panoramic radiograph examination and CBCT. Literature Review: Impacted tooth is pathological where the tooth fails to reach its normal functional position. Impaired maxillary canine second order placement after impact of third molars. The location of impacted jaw canine teeth most often occurs in the palatal region with a horizontal position according to the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity so that complications are required during odontomy. Conclusion: Based on this literature study, classification on impacted maxillary canine teeth has been developed based on panoramic (2D) and CBCT (3D) radiography, so thus resulting in a complete classification of impacted maxillary canine teeth and can be used as a predictor of the difficulty level of maxillary canine tooth impaction treatment.
Objectives: This review aims to understand the effectiveness of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the management of dentigerous cysts by looking at the advantages and disadvantages based on the quality of the resulting radiographic images. Review: Based on the literature review that has been carried out on 10 journals were eliminated from 22 journals that had the criteria according to the topic but there was a duplication in the identification results of the initial 50 journals from Pubmed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and EuropePMC, with a range of 2012-2022 using the Boolean Operator Strategy with inclusion criteria developed from PICOS framework, it was found that the CBCT radiographic method is the most widely used method in the management of dentigerous cysts because of the predominance of advantages over disadvantages. This radiographic method is able to produce three-dimensional radiographic images without overlapping structures, distortions, and amplifications at a low cost, although it has weaknesses. Conclusion: CBCT 3D may assess dentigerous cyst lesions effectively by taking into account several considerations and the accuracy of the SOP in its use. This radiography method can provide clear radiographic images without structural overlap, distortion, and amplification at a low cost to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment plan despite the drawbacks as a new result of development technologies in dental radiography.
Objectives: This report is aimed to present a case about the resembling appearance of supernumerary teeth and odontoma in CBCT radiograph. Case Report: A female patient came to the radiology installation for CBCT examination of the maxillary anterior region. The patient brought a referral from the IKGA section with a diagnosis of tooth impaction 11 accompanied by odontoma. From the results of the CBCT examination, it was clear that radiopaque clearly demarcated with an irregular shape that had an enamel, dentinal structure with incomplete root formation. Conclusion: Odontoma has very similar appearance with supernumerary teeth in CBCT radiograph, understanding the specific characteristics is a need to help in diagnosis.
Objectives: To analyze idiopathic osteosclerosis radiographs associated with impacted third molars (M3) on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Case Report: A 36-year-old woman came to the Dentology Clinic complaining that the right mandibular third molar area often felt sore. The patient was referred for CBCT examination and incidentally, a radiopaque image with clear boundaries, irregular shape was found on the periapical impacted third molar without caries in the tooth crown. The treatment plan that will be carried out on the tooth is extraction. Conclusion: Idiopathic osteosclerosis lesions are lesions that occur in vital teeth that have the characteristics of a well-defined radiopaque appearance and are asymptomatic. Characteristics of idiopathic osteosclerosis lesions can be visualized by CBCT well. CBCT has the advantage of being able to display a detailed picture of the lesion in three dimensions (3D) with a fairly good image resolution.
Objectives: This case report is aimed to describe the features of CBCT in assessing tooth fracture. Case Report: A 50-year-old man came with complaints of discomfort in the right lower jaw area, especially when used for chewing. The results of the percussion test were positive. CBCT examination showed that there was a radiolucent image of the enamel in the middle of the crown root to the 1/3 apical of the mesial and distal roots of tooth 47 which resembled a fracture line. The fracture line also appears to have reached the pulp. In addition, there is a well-defined radiolucent appearance with an irregular shape along the root from the buccal to lingual alveolar crest and accompanied by a decrease in the alveolar crest. The fracture that occurred in this case was from the enamel to the apical and involved the pulp, thus the radiodiagnosis on tooth 47 was a complicated crown root fracture with lateral periodontal cyst. Conclusion: CBCT can be used to help identify tooth fractures by obtaining a more accurate and useful value in differentiating conditions associated with fractures. CBCT provides data on the size and length of the fracture line and the size of the lesion.
Objectives: This case report is aimed to present a finding of a benign tumor at the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) area involving the condylar head of the mandible that radiographically showed the typical features of osteochondroma using and emphasizing on the application of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Case Report: A 24-year-old female patient came to the Radiology Department of Unpad Dental Hospital as referred from her previous dental surgeon to get CBCT examination of her entire right side of mandible with a provisional diagnosis of mandibular hyperplasia. Conclusion: Osteochondroma and condylar hyperplasia are often clinically difficult to differentiate, CBCT imaging can easily distinguish the enlargement of condylar head in condylar hyperplasia with irregular condylar mass and altered trabecular pattern in osteochondroma. CBCT may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of condylar tumors originating from bone.