Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea

Published by Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Makassar
Online ISSN: 2302-299X
Roost trees variables and the methods of measurement
The Red and blue lory is an endemic parrot species from Talaud Islands, North Sulawesi. The use of existing resources is suspected that occurs of selection including the roosting trees. The research aims to identifying the characteristics of Red and Blue Lory roost tree and determining variables in its selection. We measured 14 variables to identify the characteristics and selection of roost tree. Mann-Whitney test, T-test, Chi-sqare test and Binary Logistic Regression were employed to analyze data. We detected 11 roost trees in study field, there are Gehe (Pometia coriacea Radkl) nine individual, Binsar (Ficus variegata) and Lawean (Sterculia sp) one individual. The Chi-square test identified five variables which related to roost tree selection, i.e; branch-free bole length, canopy diameter, canopy density and the number of trees around the roost tree on diameter 20 - 40 cm and > 41 cm. The Logistic regression analysis detected three variables that gave the most influence on roost tree selection, but branch-free bole length gave the most influence on roost tree selection.
Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation by absorbing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Additional revenue from carbon credits may change the optimal management of plantation forest. This research aims to analyze the optimal rotation of joint production of timber and carbon sequestration of sengon stand in Java. The method used in this research is the profit maximization of forest stand obtained from wood sales and carbon credits (i.e. Hartman rule as a modification of Faustmann rule). The results of this study showed that (1) the biological rotation of sengon forest in site quality (SQ) III and IV are 6 and 5 years respectively, (2) Financial rotations of sengon forest in SQ III and IV are 8 and 6 years respectively, and (3) Additonal income from carbon sales in afforestation project will not lengthen the optimal rotation of sengon plantation.
Anoa Natural Food Plants Abundance at Imandi Mountain-Maelang 
Sari Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park (TNBNW) is an important habitat for anoas, which represents genetic diversity of anoa species in the northern area of Sulawesi. Wild animals depend on their habitats for many things, including food. Food availability influences the growth and reproduction of any species. Food information is also important for area management as an input in habitat development activities, which are parts of in-situ conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, abundance and diversity of anoa food plants in TNBNW. The study was conducted in three locations, namely Imandi Mountain, Gambuta Mountain and Sinombayuga Mountain ranging between 0 and 1600 mdpl elevations. Data were collected using line plot sampling method and food type observation was performed with plots size of 0.04 ha. Total observation plots in three research locations were 202, of which 90 plots were in Imandi Mountain and Gambuta Mountain, and 22 plots were in Sinombayuga Mountain. Data were analyzed descriptively and presented in tables. Food abundance was determined by total food plants found in every location. Natural plants food diversity used several indices, which were Margalef Richness, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index and Evenness Index. The results showed that 35 species of food plants were identified. As many as 28 species of them including herbaceous plants, and seven species of woody plants. Some plant species have higher abundance, namely rofu (Elatostema sp.), rattan (Calamus sp.), and various types of fern.
The composition of soil-seed bank reflects the condition of vegetation in the past and could be used for predicting the composition of plants that will grow in the future. This study aims to determine the amount and composition of soil-seed bank in Bekol savanna, Baluran National Park. Soil samples were taken using a combination method of quadrat-transect on the invaded and not invaded areas by Acacia nilotica. Soil samples were extracted using wet-sieving method. After the extraction process, the seeds were identified and calculated using a stereo microscope. The result showed that soil-seed bank density was lower at the invaded location (7,566.88 seeds/m3) as compared to the uninvaded location (16,798.3 seeds/m3). The soil-seed bank was found in the invaded site comprising 12 species of broadleaved weeds and 5 species of grasses from 7 families, whereas those in the uninvaded area consisted of 10 species of broadleaved weeds and 7 species of grass from 8 families. This study showed that the invasion of A. nilotica significantly affected the amount and composition of soil-seed bank in various soil depths of Bekol savanna.
Gambar 1. Lokasi Penelitian di Taman Nasioanl Baluran (TNB), Jawa Timur. Figure 1. Research Location in Baluran National Park (BNP), East Java.
Gambar 2. Diagram Alur Analisis Kelimpahan Air Tahun 1999 dan 2010. Figure 2. Flowchart of Water Abundance Analysis of 1999 and 2010.
Gambar 3. Hasil analisis raster kerapatan tanaman (GI), kelembapan tanah (WI) dan kondisi tanah (SBI) tahun 1999 dan 2010. Figure 3. Results raster analysis of plant density (GI), soil moisture (WI) and the soil condition (SBI) of 1999 and 2010.
Gambar 4. Perubahan kelimpahan air tahun 1999 dan tahun 2010. Figure 4. Change of water abundance of the year 1999 and 2010.
Percentage class of level density plant, soil moisture and soil conditions
Indonesia is one of the mega-biodiversity countries that have a great responsibility in maintaining the balance of the global climate and forest ecosystems. Drought causes shifting of ecosystems causing disturbances on animal life leading to death of species. Alongside fires in the savanna, drought is a recurrent problem in the park, which occurs every year. This study aims to detect the abundance of water by using satellite imagery in Baluran National Park (BNP). The research analyzed using Landsat satellite imagery ETM7 + in 1999 and 2010 and three (3) main factors that have great potential abundance of water, are: (1) plant density (GI = Greenness Index), (2) soil moisture (WI = Wetness Index), and (3) soil conditions (SBI = Soil Brightness Index). Three factors are summed and divided by three to get 5 levels of water abundance: 1) Very abundant, 2) Abundant, 3) Medium, 4) Few, and 5) Very little. The results showed that the abundance of water decreased between 1999 and 2010 for moderate conditions from 85% to 38%, if the abundance of low water (slightly) increased from 15% to 60%. The level of accuracy of the abundance of water in the field of more than 80% is exactly 91%. The extreme drought conditions will be very dangerous for the survival of flora and fauna in Baluran National Park that are in desperate need of water and potentially in danger of a fire. Construction of water reservoirs and water supply continuously using a water tank in the dry season is very necessary in the Baluran National Park.
Information on genetic diversity from one generation to its next generation is an important factor for management and conservation in a seed orchard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of genetic diversity of parental as the first generation (F1) and offspring (F2) of Acacia mangium in the A. mangium seed orchard Group D (AM004) in South Sumatera. Analysis was conducted on 251 parental trees and ± 200 seeds from 10 mother trees. Analysis using 12 microsatellite markers showed that mean number of detected allele (A) for all the parents and offspring was 8.23 and 7.08, repectively. In general, the level of genetic diversity in parental and its offspring was not different (He=0.609 for parental and He=0.606 for offspring). The presence of new alleles that was detected from offspring indicated the possibility of pollen contamination from outside the seed orchard. Keywords: Genetic diversity, South Sumatera seedling seed orchard, parental, offspring, microsatellite markers
Information of seed source used in this research
Analysis of variances the effect of storage vigour for germination percentage and velocity of germination A. mangium
Average of germination percentage and velocity of germination based on storage vigour treatment A. mangium from both seed source group
Seeds with high vigour are seeds that can germinate normally in sub-optimum conditions and above normal in optimum condition. To predict the performance of seedlings after planting and the storability of seeds, it is necessary to test the seed vigour. This study aims to investigate the growth and storage vigour of Acacia mangium breeding and unbreeding seeds. The experiment design was arranged in completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated four times with 100 seeds. Results obtained showed that breeding seeds had better growth and storage vigour.
Acacia crassicarpa improved seed has a higher quality than unimproved seed. To maintain the viability, improved seeds are required as appropriate handling techniques. One of the important steps in seed handling is seed germination test. A. crassicarpa seed have dormancy and to break it needs spesific pretreatment. Germination test can be worked in the laboratory and greenhouse. The purpose of this research was to obtain pretreatment and germination method better to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed. Pretreatment in resources were without treatment, soaking in hot water (100oC ) and followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 1 minute in hot water (100oC) followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 6 minutes in hot water (100oC) followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 30 minutes in H2SO4, torn of seedcoat, and torn of seedcoat and then soaking for 24 hours in cold water. Laboratory Germination method were top of paper (TP), between paper (BP), and pleated paper (PP) test. Whereas growing media used in greenhouse were top soil, sand, a mixture of top soil and sand (1:1/v:v), and cocopeat. The results showed that to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed required the best pretreatment technique and germination methods were (1) in laboratory used combine between torn of seedcoat and top of paper. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 96 %, and (2) in greenhouse used combine between torn of seedcoat and cocopeat. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 88 %.
Log Rank, Breslow, and Tarone-Ware test results for shade areas and open areas
Log Rank, Breslow, and Tarone-Ware test results for shade of A. nilotica and open areas
Acacia nilotica which is a plants of the genus Acacia which is known as one of the invasive genera. A. nilotica is very invasive due to several advantages it has such as very large seed production, seed dispersal far enough by wildlife, young plants to grow very fast and are resistant to drought and fire. Some invasive acacia species can act as nurse plants for native plants, which increases the photosynthetic efficiency of native plants, and protects native species from extreme temperatures. Therefore, it is important to know the chance of recolonizing native plants in areas that are invaded by foreign species, by looking at the performance of plants seedlings under A. nilotica stands. This study aims to determine the potential of A. nilotica invasive plants as nurse plants for local plants in East Timor. The stages in this research are the preparation of tools and materials, seeding of target species, selection of A. nilotica stands as a nurse plants, selection of healthy target species seedlings to be planted, planting of target species seedlings under A. nilotica stands, observing survival ability and species growth target. An analysis of the survival ability of the seedlings was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. The results of this study are the angsana seedlings and kabesak in this study experienced many deaths, external factors such as high-temperature factors due to the long dry season suspected to be the cause. A. nilotica shade does not affect the survival of the angsana and kabesak seedlings, allelopathy produced by A. nilotica plants accompanied by a drought in a long period of time causes the plants is unable to act as nurse plants for kabesak and angsana plants.
Height, diameter, leaf number, total leaf area and root prolin content of cedrela
Sari Global warming causes extreme weather and temperature leading to drought. Identification of drought adaptive species is essential. This research is aimed to examine growth, proline content and root anatomy of Acacia auriculifomis, Tectona grandis, Alstonia spectabilis, and Cedrela odorata and to compare the most adaptive species under drought condition. Controlled dry treatments applied were 10, 20, 30, and 40 days unwatered, and compared with control plants, each with 3 replications. Characteristics measured were height, diameter, leaf number and area, root proline content and root tracheal diameter. Data and samples were collected every 10 days. Growth and physiological data were analyzed by using T-Test, while anatomical data were analyzed by using ANOVA and DUNCAN test. Results showed that drought on A. auriculiformis, T. grandis, A. spectabilis, and C. odorata has decreased plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves but increasing proline content, and diameter of tracheas belonging to the roots. This study indicates that the most likely tolerant and adaptive species to drought are those that have the most variation of mechanisms to respond in which these characters would likely to appear at higher level of stress condition.
The mean value of percentage of drilling defect and machining class
Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf) K. Schum.) and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd.) from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.
The application of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) is a solution to produce high quality seedlings. Seedlings inoculated by AMF has high survival rate, especially on extreme land condition such as post mining limestone. Alstonia scholaris, Acacia auriculiformis and Muntingia calabura are tolerant plants species to alkaline and poor soils such as post mining limestone. The research was conducted to determine the effect of inoculation of indigenous AMF from post mining limestone on the seedling growth A. scholaris, A. auriculiformis and M. calabura. A complete randomized design with five treatments of AMF types (Acaulospora sp., Gigaspora sp., mix of Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp., Glomus sp. and non AMF inoculation) was applied. The results showed that inoculated seedlings with indigenous AMF had higher growth response than non inoculated seedlings of A. scholaris, A. auriculiformis and M. calabura. Indigenous AMF inoculation improved height and stem diameter growth, biomass and quality index of seedlings as well as P uptake. The best increment growth is shown by A. auriculiformis seedling after inoculating with Acaulospora sp. and mix of Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp, while inoculation with Acaulospora sp. gave the best increment on seedling growth of A. scholaris and M. calabura.Keywords: Mycorrhiza, post mining limestone, A. scholaris, A. auriculiformis, M. calabura
No-till farming (NTF) is an agricultural activity without tillage process, so it can minimize damage to soil structure, reduce erosion, and reduce the decrease in soil organic matter content related to the presence of earthworms. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of no-till farming on earthworm diversity. Exploration of earthworms was carried out by hand sorting and monolith sampling methods in Umanapu (agroforestry) of Clove, Cocoa, Candlenut, Coffee and intensive tillage farms. The earthworms were identified by observing the morphology characteristics. In addition, the observation of biomass and population of earthworms, and environmental factors were also carried out. The results showed that there were four genera of endogeic and epigeic worms, namely Lumbricus, aMegascolex, Perithima and Pontoscolex. Diversity index (H'), maximum diversity (H'max) and species evenness (E) of earthworms in intensive tillage agriculture were low but in Umanapu of Clove, Cocoa, Candlenut and Coffee were moderate. The earthworm populations, earthworm biomass (g m2) and the ratio of biomass and population of earthworms (B/P) in Umanapu of Clove, Cocoa, Candlenut and Coffee were equal and significantly different from intensive tillage. The importance value index (IVI) in Umanapu of Clove, Cocoa, Candlenut, Coffee and intensive tillage agriculture were dominated by the Pontoscolex genus. In addition, the environmental conditions such as temperature and pH of soil at each location in Umanapu were not different, as well as the environmental temperature and humidity. NTF can maintain and sustain the existence of species, population and IVI of earthworms, so that soil biological properties are still maintained.
Gambar 2. Nepenthes reinwardtiana dengan; a) kantong warna hijau, b) kantong warna merah Figure 2. Nepenthes reinwardtiana with; a) green pitchers, b) red pitchers
Teluk Adang Nature Reserve (NR) is one of the Nepenthes habitats in East Kalimantan. One of the four Nepenthes species that can be found in this nature reserve is Nepenthes reinwardtiana or by local people known as anjat datu. The objectives of this study are to determine the population of N. reinwardtiana in Teluk Adang NR by calculating its density and frequency, and to know its distribution pattern using Morisita index and spatial analysis approach in the form of Nearest Neighbor Analysis and Multi-Distance Spatial Cluster Analysis (Ripley's K Function). To know its distribution pattern, a census method by creating 5m x 5m plot along the observation track was done. The results showed that there were 2,943 individuals of N. reinwardtiana in Teluk Adang NR. Standardized Morisita Dispersion Index was 0.51, 0.55, and 0.51 in Tajur Village, Pasir Mayang Village, and Janju Village, respectively. The spatial distribution of N. reinwardtiana was clustered. Research on the distribution of N. reinwardtiana and its habitat needs to be carried out continuously so that its population in the Teluk Adang NR can be monitored.
The Moronene ethnic living in the forests of Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park has strong interaction with nature and environment around the park. The interaction of indigenous people with their environment produced the wisdom to manage the natural resources for sustainable benefit. This study was aimed to comprehend various forms of plants utilizations by this local community. The method used is field survey, included interviews, plant identification and data analysis. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with respondents. Plant specimen collection was conducted together with key informants. The data was analyzed with descriptive qualitative method. The utilization of plants by indigenous peoples of Moronene tribe is divided into three major groups, including for food, medicine and traditional ceremony. As much as 124 species, including 68 species for food, 65 species for medicine and 10 species for traditional ceremony were identified.Keywords : Ethnobotany, Moronene ethnic, Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park
Fermentation is a natural process that happen in fresh-sweet sap of aren trees (Arenga pinnata Merr.), because many kinds of microorganism stay and life in this substance e.g. bakteria (Acetobacter acetic) and yeast (Saccharomyces tuac). Species of yeast from genus of Saccharomyses, e.g. Saccharomyses serivisae is wellknown as microorganism that can ferment sugar (glucose) into alchohol and CO2. This natural process as well happen in aren sap, so that this substance potencially using as a swollen agent of bread or cake dough. This research objective is to recognize the effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough. Fermentation duration of bread dough was one hour by using swollen agent of fresh, 10 hours old and 20 hours old of aren sap. Daily yield of sap tapped from aren trees in Maros district, South Sulawesi province was 7 litre (4-5 litre collected in the morning and 2-3 litre colected in the afternoon). Aren sap containt some of nutritions e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C and mineral. Sweet taste of aren sap caused by it’s charbohydrate content of 11.18%. The effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough is lower than instant (commercial) yeast. The older of aren sap the lower of it’s effectiveness as a swollen agent of dough and kuality of bread yield. Keywords : Sap, Arenga pinnata, swollen agent, bread dough
Sari Site quality is one of the main information needed in forest stand management. Site quality classes need to be evaluated every certain period because the quality of forest stands may change as a result of management applied. This study describes the use of very high-resolution imagery derived from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for estimating the site quality of teak (Tectona grandis). The UAV imagery used was taken from 400 m above datum (the average land surface elevation) with ground spatial resolution of 15 cm. Site quality estimation models was built using discriminant analysis. The study found that the best accuracy from discriminant function using multiple variables canopy density (C) and average of crown diameter (D_c ̅) is 60.9%.
Tree and stand attributes in Mount Ciremai National Park Tabel 2. Pohon dan atribut tegakan di Taman Nasional Gunung Ciremai 
Understanding the effect of altitude on trees and stand attributes of tropical forests is crucial for the development of effective management and conservation strategies. However, study on this issue in Mount Ciremai National Park is still lacking. A total of 136 plots were set on the eastern slope of Mount Ciremai in Mount Ciremai National Park and investigated in six different altitudes: 500 m a.s.l., 840 m a.s.l., 1,300 m a.s.l., 1,400 m a.s.l., 1,780 m a.s.l., and 2,530 m a.s.l. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of altitude to trees and stand attributes i.e. species and family richness, tree density, basal area, and tree biomass. The changes on trees and stand attributes to altitudinal gradient were analyzed using regression analysis. The result showed that tree species number, family number, tree basal area, and tree biomass significantly declined with increasing altitude, meanwhile tree density significantly increased with increasing altitude. These findings indicate a distinct effect of altitude on tree and stand attributes in Mount Ciremai National Park.
Gambar 1. Massa telur diletakkan di bawah permukaan daun muda. Figure 1. The egg mass laid on the under surface of young leaf. 
Gambar 3. Persentase jumlah pohon gaharu dengan berbagai tingkat defoliasi pada ke tiga plot penelitian berdasarkan pengamatan bulanan. Figure 3. The mean percentages of agarwood trees with various levels of defoliation in each research plots based on monthly observation. 
Gambar 2. Intensitas kerusakan tanaman gaharu di HP Carita. Figure 2. The defoliation intensity of agar plantation at Carita Forest Research Station. 
The gregarious caterpillars of Heortia vitessoides Moore is a major defoliator of agar trees. The pest seriously threatens the existing agar tree plantation that has been widely cultivated in the community. Pest attacks began to occur in Indonesia since 2005, resulting in the damage and death of agar tree plants in various regions.To determine the impact of pest attack, a study was conducted through periodic monitoring at agar plantation in Carita Forest Research Station (CFRS), Banten Province, from April 2012 to March 2015. Monitoring was conducted in three plots of agar plantations. Each plot consists of six permanent subplots and in each subplot 15 samples of agar tree were randomly choosen. Data were collected and analyzed on monthly basis according to the intensity of defoliation and the mortality of agar trees. Defoliation intensity was determined by the percentage number of trees suffering defoliation in four damage categories, i.e.: light (10-25%), moderate (25-50%), heavy (50-75%), and severe (75-100%). Tree mortality was calculated as the annual percentage of dead trees. The study showed that the defoliation occurred throughout the year in varying degrees of damage. The monthly percentage of defoliated trees is about 30-70% annualy. The high percentage of tree defoliation mainly occurs during dry and early rainy season (June-December). Higher percentage of heavy and severe defoliations were found mostly at seedling. Repeated heavy defoliation causes stunted growth and tree mortality. Early monitoring and control of pests are very important to be done regularly to prevent the damage wider and heavier.
Chemical components of agathis wood 
Physical properties of agathis wood 
Wood proper uses of tree species can be determined by it’s basic properties. This research was carried out to examine the basic properties (anatomical structure, chemical, physical and mechanical) of agathis (Agathis hamii M. Dr.) wood from natural forest in Sulawesi. Proper uses of wood was determined by considering their basic properties and uses which the local community have currently employed. Results revealed that agathis heartwood is whitenish to yellow brownish colour; fine texture; straigh grain; glossy; rather soft; moderate in specific gravity; moderate in dimensional shrinkage; strenght class III; high in cellulose and pentose content; low in lignin, extractive and ash content; remarkably long fiber and thin wall thickness; fiber grade is very good for pulp/paper manufacture. Appropirate uses of agathis are for light construction material in house building and certain ship components, furniture, handicraft and wood industry.
The maturity of the R&D institutions through Public Service Agency (BLU) is an effort to increase the relevance in responding stakeholder needs. BLU is present as a solution for R&D institutions in providing goods and/or services that are sold based on the principles of efficiency and productivity. However, the strategic plan for the BLU formation is prepared by submitting a substantive, a technical and an administrative requirement. Therefore, this research facilitates the submission of these requirements through the Pentahelix Collaboration Model, which is the optimization of 5 (five) roles: business, government/management, community, researchers and media by implementing the roadmap at the Forest Tree Seed Technology Research and Development Center. The case study steps to improve all the roles conditions was by adapting Kurt Lewin's action research into 4 (four) stages: planning, action, observation, and reflection. The role of the business unit is emphasized on market differentiation and business strategy by considering an opportunity to increase revenue realization/financial forecasting ratio. The role of management is emphasized on budget flexibility and remuneration by considering cost accounting and its unit cost calculations. The role of the community is emphasized on the conducive policies by accommodating stakeholders’ need. The role of the researcher is emphasized on the innovation of forest seed’s products/services by improving service quality and managing it with corporate style principles. The role of the media is emphasized on the professionalism of human resources by considering the community satisfaction index.
Several barks from certain species, such as mahogany, have a relatively high tannin compound content. These tannin compounds have several hydroxyl groups that can be oxidized to produce radical groups. These radical groups can bind to wood chemical components through bonding mechanisms, such as esterification and phenoxy radicals coupling. The use of oxidized bark as a bonding agent has shown good characteristics of plywood. However, this method will have a problem, in terms of storage life, when being applied at industrial scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible application of oxidized mahagony bark powder as a bonding agent for producing plywood and evaluate the relationship between storage life and the quality of bonding agent stock in the form of oxidized bark powder. The bark powder was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide and a catalyst. The oxidized powder was stored for 0 days, 1 day, 1 week (7 days), and 1 month (30 days) in a tightly closed container before being applied for the plywood manufacture. The tests carried out were physical and mechanical properties of plywood. The results showed that the physical properties of plywood using oxidized mahagony bark powder as a bonding agent with various storage periods have met SNI 5008.2:2016. However, the mechanical properties of the produced plywood were still below the standard. The results indicated that technology for producing plywood using oxidized bark powder is potential for further development
The area of each land use class in Cimuntur Watershed 
Criteria and indicators for hydrological Kriteria (Criteria) Indikator (Indicator) Deskripsi (Description) Verifikasi (Verification) Metode perhitungan (Calculation method) Keterangan (Remarks) Skor 
Gambar 4. Proporsi kelas penggunaan lahan pada DAS Cimuntur yang menyimpang peruntukannya. Figure 4. Proportion of land use class in Cimuntur Waterhed that is unsuitable with its allocation. 
Land use in a watershed should consider land capability and watershed carrying capacity so that the land can optimally. Agroforestry is a land use system that not only aims to generate income for the people but also to maintain hydrological conditions of a watershed. This research aims to evaluate the hydrological responses due to the application of agroforestry system on several land use pattern that has been changed. There are three steps in the analysis: (1) Assessment on land use planning (RTRW), (2) Land use suitability classification for agroforestry system, and (3) Development of scenarios for suitable land use of agroforestry system for hydrological function. The results of this study show that the application of agroforestry system of woody plant (i.e. sengon), fruit plant (i.e. Nephelium lappaceum), annual crops (i.e. clove, coconut, Parkia speciosa and banana), perennial crops (i.e. cardamom, and banana), and seasonal crops (i.e. cassava) on unsuitable land use gives the lowers on Coefficient of River Regime (KRS), specific discharge, Run off Coefficient (C) and Total Dissolve Sediment (TDS). This agroforestry system can be applied on several land use pattern that has been changed, because this system not only aims to generate income for the people but also to the maintain hydrological condition of a watershed.
Value of relative density, relative frequency, relative domination and important value index on tree and pole level in early agroforestry
Undergrowth species in further agroforestry in Giripurwo village, Kulonprogo district
Land management in agroforestry systems requires species selection and proper silviculture. Selection of species and silvicultural treatments aimed at maintaining competition in obtaining a light, water and nutrients. Farmers choose the species based on the economical factor. This study aims to determine the composition of plant species in dry land agroforestry in Menoreh Hill, Kulon Progo District. Research done by survey method. Plot observation was divided into three level of light intensity: : a) early agroforestry (light intensity >50%), b) middle agroforestry, (light intensity 30-50%), c) further agroforestry (light intensity <30%). Four planting plots were made as repetition, so that there were 12 plots observation. Observations and measurements of vegetation are done with census (100%). The Result show five important value index in early Agroforestry,: sengon (77.84), coconut (50.04), and cacao (25.47), tree density was 482 trees/hectare and basal area 5.48 m2/ha, in middle agroforestry were: sengon (88.15), mahogany (49.51), and clove (45.03), with tree density was 595 trees/ha, and basal area was 6.70 m2/ha, further agroforestry were: clove (72.37%), sengon (50.61), and coconut (37.02), tree density was 650 trees/ha, basal area was 6.78 m2/ha.Keywords: Composition of plant species, dry land agroforestry, Menoreh Hill
Land use changes of each scenario at Way Besai Watershed in 2011.
Details of result monthly in each scenario at Way Besai in 2011.
Results of Scenario from Aspects of Hydrology at the Way Besai Watersheed in 2011
The problems on water resource are the decreasing of water supply due to the impact of land use changes. The population growth and the rising economy activity lead to the increasing of water demands. Way Besai area of 44,720 hectares has an important role in the provision of water resources. The aims of this research are: to assess the water supply and demand, to assess the water balance and, to formulate the best recommendation of land management planning. This research was conducted in 2011. The SCS (Soil Conservation Service) model was applied to determine land use planning scenarios and run-off prediction. The result shows that the water demand in Way Besai Watershed is 441,450,909m3/year, while water supply is 460,452,600 m3/year. Application of community forestry by applying agroforestry system, implementation of forest rehabilitation on area outside HKm permit, and conducting the change for coffee monoculture to mixed coffee crop in the area outside the forest is considered the best scenario of land management for Way Besai watershed. This scenario could produce 1,055.79 mm/years run-off, coefficient total runoff is 38.52%, water supply is 472,147,141 m3/years, storage is 7,911,616 m3/years and, can meet the of water demand in the dry months at 58.48%.
Gambar (Figure) 2. Profil tegakan hutan sekunder Desa Woda (Secondary forest stands profile in Woda village)
Gambar (Figure) 5. Profil tegakan kebun campuran Desa Woda (Mixed garden stands profile at woda village)
Aketajawe Lolobata National Parks is forest conservation designated as protection of flora and fauna endemic to North Maluku. This conservation area sustainability depends greatly on the management and utilization of buffer zone area. This study was conducted to identify types of land use in national parks buffer zone with a focus on Aketajawe region. Sample determination carried out purposive random sampling with a three villages sample, representatives of local communities, migrants and combination of both as the basis for selection of villages. Results showed that land use in this area consists of secondary forest, community forest, mixed garden, monoculture garden, cropping garden, horticulture and paddy field. In the garden area dominated by coconut, cacao, nutmeg and bananas. While other plants are cultivated on the horticulture land such as peppers, tomatoes, watermelon and melon. Farming systems implemented villagers Binagara are more advanced compared to other villages because it was equipped with irrigation facilities and contribute to farmers income continuously.Key words: Land use, buffer zone, national park, Maluku
Analysis of variance on height growth of G. arborea seedling 
Duncan test on height growth of G. arborea seedling 
Analysis of variance on stem diameter growth of G. arborea seedling Sumber keragaman (Source of variance) Derajat bebas (Degree of freedom) Jumlah kwadrat (Sum square) Kuadrat tengah (Mean square) Nilai F (F Value) Pr > F 
Analysis of variance on biomass dryweight of G. arborea seedling Sumber keragaman (Source of variance) Derajat bebas (Degree of freedom) Jumlah kwadrat (Sum square) Kuadrat tengah (Mean square) Nilai F (F Value) Pr > F 
Gambar 3. Pertumbuhan tinggi semai melina umur 70 hari : media kontrol (P0), media arang 10% (P2) dan media arang aktif 10% (P5) Figure 3. Height growth of 70 days old G. arborea seedlings : control medium (P0), 10% charcoal medium (P2) and 10% activated charcoal medium (P5) 
Application of activated charcoal in agriculture will give advantage for plant growth because will enrich nutrients, mantain soil properties, enhance root development and increase microorganism propagation and activities that would support the plant growth. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of Candlenut shell activated charcoal addition into culture medium on seedling growth of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Candlenut shell (Aleurites moluccana Willd) was carbonised in drum kiln to produce charcoal, then the charcoal was activated in electrical retort which generates steam with heating duration of 120 minutes at temperature of 7500 C. The activated charcoal was applied into culture medium of G. arborea seedling with concentration of 5, 10 and 15% by weigth of culture medium. The results showed that addition of the activated charcoal into culture medium significantly increased heigth, stem diameter and biomass dryweigth of G. arborea seedling. The addition of 15% activated charcoal into the culture medium has given the best results with the increased heigth, stem diameter and biomass dryweigth respectively 8.2, 45.95 and 58.82%.Keywords : Activated charcoal, candlenut shell (Aleurites moluccana), culture medium, seedling, Gmelina arborea
Anoa is a wildlife species highly sensitive and selective to the habitat preferences. The study aims to identify the anoa habitat condition in the Nature Reserve of Pangi Binangga, environmental factors which determine the habitat of anoa, including other types of key vegetation of anoa habitats. The research method used is purposive sampling. Sample is determined by observation the track. Habitat of anoa is found such as footprints, skeleton and faeces that located on the highland, flat-sloping, near to the river, mild temperature on moist and acid soils. The density of trees, poles, sapling, seedlings and herbs respectively 302, 430, 1280, and 53250 inviduals/ha. Stratification of vegetation canopy consists of stratum B, C, D and E. The average of stand bassal area is 43.10 m2/ha. Habitat of anoa in Pangi Binangga Nature Reserve are dominated by tree species of Planchonella firms, Castanopsis acuminatissima, Platea sp., Magnolia liliifera, Palaquium quercifolium. The key indicator plants of anoa habitat are Alpinia sp, Diplazium esculentum (Rezt.) Sw. and Pinanga caesia.
Gambar 1. Peta lokasi eksplorasi di blok kawasan TN Alas Purwo. Jalur Pengamatan Burung [1], Mangleng [2], dan Patirtan [3] (Sumber: SPTN Wilayah II -Balai Taman Nasional Alas Purwo, Kab. Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur) Figure 1. Exploration site maps at areal blocks of Alas Purwo National Park. Birdwatching Track [1], Mangleng [2], and Patirtan [3] (Source: SPTN Region II -Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java)
Gambar 2. Koleksi tumbuhan dari blok kawasan Mangleng, TN Alas Purwo. Piper baccatum Blume [A], Piper sarmentosum Roxb. [B], Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees) Kuntze [C], Areca catechu L. [D], Piper umbellatum L. [E], Knema cinerea Warb. [F], Planchonia valida (Blume) Blume [G], Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh. [H], Chydenanthus exelcus (Blume) Miers [I,J], Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [K] Figure 2. Plant collections from Mangleng areal block, Alas Purwo National Park. Piper baccatum Blume [A], Piper sarmentosum Roxb. [B], Dinochloa scandens (Blume ex Nees) Kuntze [C], Areca catechu L. [D], Piper umbellatum L. [E], Knema cinerea Warb. [F], Planchonia valida (Blume) Blume [G], Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh. [H], Chydenanthus exelcus (Blume) Miers [I,J], Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. [K]
The profile of plant collections from Alas Purwo National Park
Purwodadi Botanic Garden (KR Purwodadi) is an ex situ conservation institution for dry climate lowland plants aiming at saving and protecting biodiversity from extinction. In supporting ex situ conservation efforts, plant exploration activities in their natural habitat need to be carried out. Alas Purwo National Park has a lowland forest area with abundant plant diversity. In addition to functioning as a conservation forest, this area is also a natural and religious tourist attraction, so it is likely to undergo ecosystem damage. Therefore, this plant diversity study with the activity of plants exploration and collection was carried out for the purpose of ex situ conservation in KR Purwodadi. This study was conducted in August to September 2019 using an explorative method. A total of 24 species were obtained, of which 8 species were not yet cultivated by KR Purwodadi. Besides, there were 5 species included in the IUCN red list, namely Aglaonema simplex, Brucea javanica, Cycas rumphii, Melanolepis multiglandulosa, and Musa acuminata. This study has increased the number of plant collections in KR Purwodadi and contribute positively to the comprehensiveness of plant species data in Alas Purwo National Park.
Trees Crown structure on Santalum site in TTU Regency
Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) is endemic species of NTT Province which not only have economic value, but also as a symbol that unify people or community and culture wisdom in NTT Province. The management of cendana had been passing many time and period, which it has having good and bad experience depending on several factors. Some of these are regional regulation which did not support the efforts for developing cendana plantation. This research was aimed to know cendana crown stratum and competition index especially in private land. Achieving information and data on cendana habitat for supporting the implementation of Cendana Master Plan in NTT Province become the targets of the research. Metodology of the research is descriptive quantitative which based on directly field survey. Data collection was conducted by three ways, which were interviewed with the stakeholders, direct survey and desk studied of secondary data. The result shows that Santalum album trees tend to grow at stratum 1 and 2 of the overall plantation in one area. And the average of competition index of Santalum plantation in TTS regency is 0,18; in TTU regency is 0,07; and Belu regency is 0,1.Keywords: Stratum, competition, cendana, NTT
Gambar (Figure) 1. Rata-rata persen hidup bibit cendana umur 6 bulan (Mean of survival sandalwood seedling at 6 monts old ) 
Mortality of sandalwood plantings in the semiarid region is high (less than 50 %), due to poor quality. One of seedling of the alternatives to reduce this mortality is using optimal container size. The method is hoped to increase the growth and survival rate of sandalwood seedlings in the field. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various sizes of seedling container on growth and to recommend the best polybag size for sandalwood nursery. The study was conducted in Complete Randomized Design method using container size of polybag (wide x length as main treatment) i.e.: 7 x 20 cm2, 8 x 20 cm2, 9 x 20 cm, 10 x 21 cm2, 11 x 22 cm2, 12 x 23 cm2, 13 x 23 cm2, 14 x 24 cm2, and 15 x 252 cm. Experiment consisted of 30 replications. The polybag was filled with the potting medium consisting soil, sand, and compost in volume ratio of 4:1:1 and sown with Alternanthera sp. as a primary host plant in all treatment. The results of the experiment proved that application of polybag size (7 cm x20 cm to 15 cm x 25 cm) had significant effects on height, diameter, dry weight total, top root ratio, quality index and survival of sandalwood seedling at six months old. The application of polybag size 15 x 25 cm2 (1080 mL) produced the best growth i.e. height (24.53 cm ), diameter (4.27 mm), dry weight total (1.86 g), top root ratio (0.54), quality index (0.28) and survival (92 %).Keywords: seedling growth, polybag size, Sandalwood
Variance analysis of stem height and diameter on cendana at 6 months after planting 
Fifteen family with the highest height and diameter 
Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) is a species that has a high economic value because of the essential oil content in the heartwood. The high economic value in the heartwood had pushed exploitation action to these species. Exploitation being offset by regeneration efforts has resulting in a decrease of its populations and genetic variation. The remaining genetic variation can be conserved through establishing Ex-Situ conservation stands which simultaneously fucntioned as basic populations for tree improvement purposes in the future. In 2013, Forestry Research Institute of Kupang has established an Ex-Situ conservation plot of cendana originally from Sumba island population. The research design was laid out in Incomplete Block Design (IBD) consisting of 57 families, single treeplot and 5 replication with a spacing of 4 x 4 m. This study was aimed to investigate the characteristics and the influence of genetic factors on the characteristics of cendana of Sumba Island population until the age of 6 months. The result of study showed that the average growth of height and diameter are 37.36 cm and 3.88 mm, respectively. The estimate family heritability (h2f) for height and diameter are 0,80 and 0.55, respectively.
Alstonia scholaris (L) R.Rr. is one of the fast growing species has a wide distribution in Indonesia and good prospect to be developed for forest plantation. This species could be propagated both generative and vegetative method. This study was conducted to identify the effect of shoot position and the cut type of cuttings. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Design in two factors. The fisrt factor was shoot position (P1= < 50 cm, P2=50-100 cm, P3=100-150 cm and P4=150-180 cm above ground) and second was the cut type of cuttings (horizontal, diagonal 45o and “V” types). The result showed that shoot position significantly influenced rooting ability and the growth of cuttings. The best result of shoot cuttings was taken from P3 treatment (100-150 cm above ground) with survival percentage 87.50%, rooting percentage 85.42%, growth of height 4.02 cm, with 10 number of root, length of root 19.08 cm and 4 number of leaf . The cut type of cuttings and interaction between shoot position and type of cuttings were not significantly differences to the growth of shoot cuttings.
Sari This experiment aimed to identify the provenance and family responses to drought stress of Alstonia angustiloba Miq. progeny trial. This experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design. The research used 2 factors, i.e. provenance (Banten, Muara Enim, Musi Rawas and West Sumatera) and family (43 families). In this experiment, family factor was nested in the provenance. The results showed that the addition of the lowest mortality occurred in Banten provenance (9.22%) and highest in Muara Enim provenance (19.44%). A total of 36 families had additional mortality in the range of 4.17 to 33.33%. Height and stem diameter increment of all provenances decreased due to drought stress, which ranged respectively from 0.02 to 0.27 m/year and 0.02 to 0.05 cm/year. Ranking of height increment did not change before and after the occurrence of drought stress, i.e. with the following order provenance of Muara Enim, Banten, Musi Rawas and Solok. In the family level, ranking of height and stem diameter increment before and after drought stress were vary slightly.
This experiment aims to identify the effects of population sources and parent trees on the growth of Alstonia angustiloba of one year old. This experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design. The research used two factors, i.e. population sources (Carita-Banten, Pendopo-Muara Enim, Lubuk Linggau-Musi Rawas and Solok-West Sumatera), and parent trees (43 parent trees). In this experiment, parent trees factor was nested in the population sources. The result showed that population sources and parent trees significantly affected the parameters measured, i.e. height and stem diameter. Pendopo and Carita were the best two populations in terms of height (1,612 m and 1,597 m, respectively) and stem diameter (2,567 cm and 2,686 cm, respectively). The best ten parent trees for height were parent trees number 13 (1.884 m), 16 (1.808 m), 17 (1.773 m), 8 (1.688 m), 6 (1.684 m), 15 (1.682 m), 20 (1.677 m), 36 (1.652 m), 18 (1.652 m) and 14 (1.630 m). The best ten of parent trees for stem diameter were parent trees number 16 (3.171 cm), 7 (3.116 cm), 13 (3.105 cm), 8 (3.027 cm), 36 (3.022 cm), 27 (2.974 cm), 15 (2.925 cm), 30 (2.787 cm), 6 (2.766 cm) and 18 (2.757 cm).
Ectomycorrhizal fungi play an important role in a forest ecosystem. The genus of Amanita is one of the common ectomycorrhizal fungi in the forest. The information on the diversity of Amanita in Indonesia is not properly organized. This is due to most of the prior publications were not equipped with basidiomata descriptions. The current research aimed to inventory the diversity of Amanita and provide a description of the basidiomata from the Haurbentes Research Forest, West Java. Macrofungi exploration was carried out by the opportunistic sampling method and identification of fungi based on morphological characters. A total of seven species of Amanita were successfully described and identified in this study : Amanita sp.1, Amanita sp.2 sect. Vaginatae, Amanita sp.3 sect. Vaginatae, Amanita cf. alboflavescens, Amanita cf. virginea, Amanita cf. fulva and Amanita cf. sychnopyramis.This report is the first information of Amanita in research site and adds to the record of mushroom diversity in Indonesia.
The effect of AMF inoculation on the height of teak seedlings (Tectona grandis Linn.f.) at 3 months after planting.
Gambar 1. Kolonisasi infeksi FMA pada akar tanaman jati, (A) akar yang tidak bermikoriza, perbesaran 20x; (B) akar yang terinfeksi spora, perbesaran 40x; (C) akar yang terinfeksi hifa, perbesaran 20x; (D) akar yang terinfeksi vesikula, perbesaran 40x. Picture 1. The colonization of mycorrhizal infections on teak's root, (A) root without mychorrizal, magnification of 20x; (B) root infected by spore, magnification of 40x; (C) root infected by hyphae, magnification of 20x; (D) root infected by vesicle, magnification of 40x.
Sari The characteristics of limestone post-mining soil are low physical, chemical and biological soil fertility, which have adverse effect on plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and compost application is expected to enhance plant growth. AMF association expand nutrients absorption area. Compost application provides nutrients and increases soil porosity, which significantly supports plant growth and AMF development. Therefore, the effectiveness of AMF or compost could be improved if both are applied simultaneously. The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the AMF and compost to teak seedling growth on limestone post-mining soil. A completely randomized design was applied with factorial pattern. There are 2 factors of treatment i.e AMF inoculation (K=without AMF, A=Acaulospora sp., G=Gigaspora sp., and M=Mix of Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp.) and Compost percentage (K0=without compost, K5=5% compost, K10=10% compost, and K15=15% compost). The results showed AMF and compost application improved growth compared to the quality of teak seedling. Inoculation of Gigaspora sp. with 5% compost gave the best responses for stem diameter and seedling quality index. The best leaves accretion was denoted by the seedlings that were inoculated by Mix AMF with 5% compost. Inoculation of Acaulospora sp. with 15% compost had better growth response for biomass. Root-top ratio and AMF colonization were shown in seedling that was inoculated by Gigaspora sp. with 15% of compost. Gigaspora sp. with 5% compost, therefore, is the best combination for increasing seedling quality.
AMF index infection and Spore Density at Tuber crops Rhizosphere under Community Forest Stand of bitti, suren teak and candlenut
Implementation of agroforestry system in community forest that incorporate local species Vitex cofassus (bitti), Toona sinensis (suren), Tectona grandis (teak) and Aleurites moluccana (candlenut) with seasonal crops such as tuber crops would create opportunities for local people to improve the economic and food security. Tuber crops as the understory could be expected to reduce the rate of soil erosion and expand habitat of beneficia soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The research aims to determine the diversity of tuber crops and AMF in the rhizosphere of tuber crops grown under community forest stands of bitti, suren, teak and candlelnut in South Sulawesi. Results showed that (1) there are 12 kinds of tuber crops that grow under community forest stands in which the 7 types are as alternative food sources, (2) Amorphophallus campanulatus (iles-iles/suweg) and Xanthosoma violaceum (kimpul) are species of tuber crops that is found growing under all of the commnunity forest stands, (3) all kinds of tuber crops that grow under the community forest stand associated with AMF, in which there are 3 AMF genus i.e Glomus sp. Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp.with low spore density.
This study was aim to know the social, economic and cultural communities on the island of Gag, a nickel mining sites in the Marine Wildlife of the Raja Ampat Islands. In last years the region enter into a conflict between the central government (Ministry of Forestry) and the local government supported by the community. The conflict occurred because of a lack of public understanding of conservation of natural resources and the presence of nickel mining was expected to improve the welfare of local communities. Lack of public understanding of conservation is influenced by socio-economic conditions and local culture is partly because of geographical isolation, low levels of education and the difficulty of economic development. These factors led to the economic motivation of nickel mining in the region hope was forwarded to the exclusion of ecological impacts would arise from the nickel mining project.Keywords: Social, economic, cultural, community, conservation area, Raja Ampat
Gambar 4. Kurva hubungan TMA dengan debit DAS Mikro Batanguru Figure 4. Correlation curve of water level and discharge of Datara Micro Watershed
Trough understanding of hydrology characteristic of watershed, water resource can be managed for wider goals such as economic, social, and sustainainable utilization. In fact, current watershed managements have more been focused on erosion, sedimentation, drought, and flood control and less attention paid on fulfilling the need of upper watershed inhabitat on water yield. The research of Micro Watershed was conducted in three Micro Watersheds as representation of priority watersheds in South Sulawesi namely Mamasa, Saddang, and Jeneberang. The aim was to find out stream discharge pattern of those three Micro Watershed related to precipitation, landuse and its utilization potential for local community. The results showed that the more extensive forest cover, the better water yield and the higher its utilization potential . Concerning to precipitation and water yield, the three micro watersheds have the potentially to be source of water for irigation and household consumption.
Forest for special purpose of Mengkendek (KHDTK Mengekendek) which directly adjacent to settlement is vulnerable to encroachment, illegal logging, illegal grazing, and forest fires. Requiring the involvement of stakeholders in helping to overcome the existing problems so that the objectives of KHDTK Mengkendek can be realized. This study aims to identify, mapping and formulate the role of stakeholders in the management KHDTK Mengkendek. The data was collected through interviews and focus group discussions then analyzed in descriptive qualitative. The results showed that there are six stakheholders in the management KHDTK Mengkendek. Forestry Research Institute of Makassar, Forestry Office of Tana Toraja, government village/lembang, and traditional institutions (tongkonan) are key players in the management KHDTK Mengkendek. Communication and coordination with the stakeholders must be done well so that the objectives of KHDTK Mengkendek management can be realized.Keywords : KHDTK Mengkendek, stakeholders analysis, mapping stakeholders
The drought that occurs in the dry season is one of the hydrometeorological disasters. A total of 82 villages of 12 districts in Grobogan, Central Java, experience a clean water crisis due to drought because the well, as their main source of water, is likely to go dry. Therefore, a solution is needed to anticipate the water shortage. The aims of this paper is to analyze financially the water harvesting building which can be used as a reference for the community. The research was conducted in Pamor Hamlet, Banjardowo Village, Kradenan District, Grobogan Regency. The method used was to build the rainwater harvesting engineering models, namely (a) recycling tools for washing and bathing, (b) dirt filter wells, (c) three meters depth infiltration wells (1 well and 2 wells), and (d) five meters deep infiltration wells (1 well and 2 wells). Data collection was done by conducting a survey of the community. The data collected were the costs required for the construction of the rainwater harvesting equipment, maintenance, electricity, supporting materials, etc. The income was approached with replacement costs if the community buys water during the dry season. The financial analyses of NPV, IRR, BCR, and PP were employed. The results showed several feasible models to be applied, namely recycling equipment for washing and bathing, dirt filtering equipment, three meters deep infiltration wells (1 piece) and a depth of 5 meters (1 piece). This model is very good to be adopted by the community because it is easy and has minimal costs.
Top-cited authors
Heru Setiawan
  • Forestry Research Institute of Makassar Forestry Research and Development Agency
Retno Prayudyaningsih
  • Environment and Forestry Research and Development Institute of Makassar, Indonesia
Maryatul Qiptiyah
  • centre for biotechnology and tree improvement
Abd Kadir Wakka
  • Forestry and Environmental Research and Development of Makassar
M. Hidayatullah