nate system ffl L Fabric strain in the longitudinal (X) direction ffl T Fabric strain in the transverse (T) direction fl LT Fabric shear strain oe L Fabric stress in the longitudinal (X) direction oe T Fabric stress in the transverse (T) direction LT Fabric shear stress LT Fabric's Poisson's ratio for transverse strain in T direction when stress is applied to L direction Q ij ; (i; j = x; y; xy) Components of the fabric's stiffness matrix S ij ; (i; j = x; y; xy) Components of the fabric's compliance matrix t k Thickness of the k th layer T Fabric thickness N Total number of layers in the fabric V fk Volume of fibers in the
The capacitive evenness tester is commonly used in the textile industry to quantify the mass irregularity of yarns, rovings and slivers. The influence of the blend ratio of the blended strands on the capacitance of the capacitor sensor is analyzed and discussed. Two models are considered for the arrangement of component fibers of a blended yarn placed between the plates of the capacitive sensor in a capacitive evenness tester: (a) fibers in parallel connection to directly connect the two plates, and (b) fibers in series connection, spread as sheets in the slot gap. Since the yarn only occupies a small volume in the sensor, the parallel connection model more closely represents how fibers are actually placed in the capacitive sensor and provides predictions in good agreement with the experimental results. The change in capacitance of the capacitive sensor in response to the presence of blended yarns has an approximate linear relationship with the mass blend ratio. The overall irregularity measured by the capacitive evenness tester is larger than the actual value for blended yarns composed of fibers with different dielectric constants.
Spiral yarn composed with an elastomeric filament DOW XLA, from Dow Chemical, and wool fibres outwardly wound around the elastic core presents a complex behaviour when wound on bobbins to be dyed. This article presents a basic mathematical model with the aim of evaluating radial pressure and transversal stress on bobbins at different angles of winding, different yarn tensions and yarn cross-section areas. Considering the additional complexities of the real problem, an experimental comparison of bobbin alterations under different conditions was carried out with the realisation of two experimental sets. The first experimental test bench allows the variation of winding tension, angle of winding and stroke, then experimental tests were carried out on a winding machine SAVIO varying the yarn tension value and adding a mechanical constrain to the device with the aim of reducing yarn-sliding phenomena, in particular during the thermal cycle. The fundamental parameters have been determined as the angle of wind and the yarn tension during the winding operation. Higher values of wind angle help keeping the bobbin shape. Higher values of yarn tension during winding operation allow the preservation of bobbin shape after the dyeing cycle. On the other hand, the upper limit is represented by yarn tensile strength. Moreover, it is not useful to apply a varying wind tension during the winding process.
A general three-dimensional (3D) shape assumed by a perfectly elastic rod buckled by appropriate forces and twisted couples at its ends was presented. It is shown that the elastica rod dimensions are dependent on the ratio of its bending rigidity to the torsional rigidity. The torsional angle at the ends of elastica also influences the values of twisted elastica dimensions. Also, by comparing the 3D and 2D shapes of the loop, it was confirmed that the ratio of maximum height to maximum width (aspect ratio) of buckled-twisted elastic rod is less than that of buckled rod (2.08). The theoretical analysis was evaluated experimentally by measuring the geometrical properties of the rods made from the common textile material (polyester, nylon 6, polyethylene, and polypropylene) with different elastic properties. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical assessment and experimental measuring data.
This paper simulates the optics of oily coatings on textiles and proposes ways of minimising their visual perception. The simulation allows the design of formulations that incorporate oily benefit agents for fabrics with no perceptible stain marks. The prime optical factor in stain visibility is reduction in the reflection of light from the coated surface. We model the reflectivity of fabrics using the geometric model which Tsoutseos and Nobbs developed for colour appearance of textiles. We then modify this approach to deal with textiles of different thickness and coatings of different refractive indices, n. The use of Mie light scattering with an extended version of the geometric model enables us to simulate the effect of the coating microstructure on substrates. The model predicts that for thick substrates reflectivity is much less sensitive to the refractive index of the staining material compared to thinner substrates in which the loss in reflectivity is monotonous with the oil refractive index. However, beyond a threshold value of n the thicker fabrics also show a precipitous loss of reflection. The model shows that the reflectivity can be increased to make the stain invisible by modification of a fraction of the oil deposits into particulate form, by crystallisation for example. Fabric softener compositions for tumble dryer applications illustrate the model calculations.
Thermoplastic polyurethane was reinforced with discarded polyester fiber to develop excellent mechanical properties of fiberboard composites, by hot pressing and mixing method. The fiberboard was drilled and made as a perforated plate, which was then coupled with polyester fabric; so a multiple layer structural material with good sound absorption function was achieved. Sound absorption properties were studied by changing holes diameter, air cavity depth, and perforation ratio. Theoretical absorption coefficient was obtained through building analytical model and massive theoretical calculation. It was found that it has good agreement with the experimental results. Hence, the analytical model could be adopted to predict the sound absorption coefficient of multilayer structural composites.
This paper is intended to study the influence of different factors on the sound absorption properties of composite structure with activated carbon fiber felts. Activated carbon fiber felts made from viscose fiber mats were prepared and later combined with perforated panels to form four different composite sound absorption structures. Based on the transfer function method, the impedance tube was used to test the sound absorption coefficients of composite structure in an acoustic range of 80–6300 Hz frequencies. Analysis was made to discuss the influence of such factors on the sound absorption properties as the position of activated carbon fiber felts, thickness, and air space. The results demonstrated that the composite structure displayed different sound absorption properties at different frequencies. Perforated panels played the dominant role in sound absorption by the occurrence of resonance at 80–3500 Hz frequencies, while porous materials contributed the most at 3500–6300 Hz frequencies. At 80–3500 Hz frequencies, the best performance could be observed in the third type of composite structure with changes in the position of activated carbon fiber; the first resonance frequency of the first type of composite structure and perforated panel structure was basically the same, and that of the remaining three types significantly shifted towards the low frequencies with the same scale. In smaller thickness range, with the increase in the thickness of activated carbon fiber felts, sound absorption coefficients of the first and second types of composite structure increased, the first resonance frequency of the first type showing no apparent shift towards the low frequencies compared with what was shown in the second type; but when the thickness arrived at 15.6 mm, sound absorption properties of the composite structure had similar traits to that performed by porous materials in an acoustic range of 80–6300 Hz frequencies. With the increase in the distance of air space, sound absorption properties were improving at 80–650 Hz frequencies but decreasing at 650–3500 Hz frequencies, the first resonance frequency moving towards the low frequencies. At 3500–6300 Hz frequencies, as the position of activated carbon fiber felts and the distance of air space varied, sound absorption coefficients were basically unchanged; while as thickness increased, sound absorption coefficients improved.
The normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of single-layered porous materials predicted using some prediction models is well known. The published acoustic behaviors prediction models, such as Biot model, Zwikker and Kosten model, Delany and Bazley model, and Champoux and Allard model, can give acceptable prediction results by only taking specific flow resistivity and material thickness as independent variables to estimate the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient. However, the existing literature fails to provide proper knowledge regarding the acoustic characteristics of dual-layered porous nonwoven absorbers. So, the aim of this paper was to propose a theoretical acoustic model for dual-layered porous nonwoven absorber and to verify the proposed model experimentally. In theory aspect, the study focused on the extension algorithm of the Zwikker and Kosten model for dual-layered nonwoven absorber. The theoretical analysis of the impact of thickness and porosity of outer and inner layer on sound absorption coefficient was detailed using numerical simulation method. In experiment aspect, we particularly designed 20 dual-layered nonwoven absorbers with four types of meltblown polypropylene nonwoven materials and five types of hydroentangled E-glass fiber nonwoven materials firstly. Secondly, the calculated sound absorption coefficients using the proposed model were compared with the measured ones of the 20 dual-layered nonwoven absorbers at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. Experimental results indicate that the measured and the calculated data have very similar trend with the change of thickness, porosity, and the sound frequency, apart from the obvious difference between them at low frequency.
In this study, corona plasma discharge was applied to desize polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and starch on cotton fabrics. Plasma treated and non-treated samples were processed in various steps in a textile firm. The samples were tested to evaluate their weight loss, size dissolution, capillarity, dyeability, pilling resistance and strength values. The surface morphology and the chemical structures were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The experimental results showed that the plasma has positive effects on size removal, hydrophility and the pilling values of the PVA and also starch sized fabrics.
Needle-punched nonwoven fabrics with three different areal weights have been developed using micro-denier (0.8 Denier) and fine-denier (3 and 6 Denier) staple polyester fibers, separately. Process parameters such as punching density and depth of penetration have been changed according to the fabric areal weight. Effect of fiber fineness and areal weight on air permeability, tensile strength, bursting strength and compressibility of the fabric has been analyzed. It has been observed that air permeability decreases with the increase in areal weight of the nonwoven. The micro-denier fiber nonwoven gives 40% lower air permeability as compared with fine-denier fabrics. 6 Denier nonwoven provides 44% higher tensile strength as compared to 0.8 Denier nonwoven fabric and 23% higher tensile strength than 3 Denier fabrics. Compressibility and compression recovery of 6 Denier fabrics are also better as compared with other fabrics. However, micro-denier fabric shows 24% improvement in bursting strength and very good air dust filtration efficiency.
The air jet flow has an important influence in wide slot positive pressure spunbonding process that not only includes the filament fiber diameter, crystallinity, and birefringence, but also the fiber web evenness. In this work, the air drawing model and the air jet flow field model of bottom outlet in spunbonding process are established and studied. The characteristics and regularities of the plane air jet flow in wide slot positive pressure spunbonding process are also demonstrated. It is simulated by means of the finite difference method. The numerical simulation computation results of distribution of the air velocity match quite well with the experimental data. The air drawing model of polymer is solved with the help of the distribution of the air velocity. The predicted filament fiber diameter, crystallinity, and birefringence agree well with the experimental data. It was found that higher initial velocity and initial temperature of air can yield finer fibers, and its effect was very significant. The results also reveal the great potential for this research in the computer-assisted design of spunbonding technology and equipment.
Effect of linear density per filament, overfeed, air pressure and texturing speed on experimental values of physical bulk, instability and loss in tenacity of air-jet textured yarn has been discussed. Potential contribution of each of the variables to explain the properties of air-jet textured yarn is evaluated on the basis of normalized regression coefficients and analysis of variance obtained with the help of multiple regression model formed to predict the air-textured yarn properties. Analysis has shown that most dominating factor to explain the variability in air-jet textured yarn properties is overfeed percentage. Second most influencing variable to explain the variability in air-jet textured yarn properties is linear density per filament in the case of physical bulk and yarn instability and air-pressure in case of loss in tenacity.
In order to modify the performance of terylene/cotton blend fabric and improve the water-proof, oil-resistant, and thermal-insulative properties of the fabric, P(AMPS/NIPA), as an intelligent binary hydrogel, was grafted on the blend fabric by initiation of microwave low-temperature plasma. The grafting technique was analyzed and optimized; the temperature sensitivity and pH sensitivity of the grafted fabric were investigated. The infrared spectra proved that P(AMPS/NIPA) hydrogel could be grafted on fabric and the micrographs demonstrated great changes in the surface morphology of the grafted fabric. Besides, the performance parameters, such as hydrostatic pressure, air permeability, and break strength of the treated fabric, were measured and ideal for special protective textile.
A geometrical modeling (GM) based on slice array model (SAM) for plain weave fabric is employed to predict the elastic property (i.e. initial Young’s modulus) in this study. A unit cell in SAM is divided into slices across the loading direction and is applied to predict the elastic properties of the woven fabric (WF). The morphologies and the behaviors of damages during extension for the WF are examined and analyzed by using finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the GM approach based on SAM is promising in predicting the elastic properties of the WF. Furthermore, thanks to the applicability of the geometric modeling, the textile material genome initiative can thus be approved and fulfilled in the future.
The twist angle is an important parameter of the yarn which determines the degree and shape of the filament’s deformation produced along their length. So, in this paper, a 3D numerical modelling of filaments assemblies has been developed. The twist behaviour of the multifilament was simulated using ABAQUS finite element package by modelling the yarns as 3D continuum elements. The distribution of filament helix angle according to the radial position of the yarn is evaluated. Results show that the helix angle draws near zero in the yarn axis but does not fall to zero in presence of migration, and becomes bigger as the filaments are positioned on the surface. Moreover, the twist angle is calculated for different twist level which proves that twist angle is highly affected by torsion level. The target of the research was to establish a relationship between twist angle, twist value and yarn linear density for a series of models varying in the filament radius, twist value and filament number.
Felting is a unique attribute of animal fibres used for the production of a range of industrial and apparel textiles. Felting can be an adverse attribute as a consequence of dimensional shrinkage during laundering. As there is little objective information regarding the feltability of rare animal fibres or the factors which may affect felting three investigations were undertaken. A survey (n = 114) of the feltability of cashmere from different origins of production, cashgora, quivet, camel hair, llama, guanaco, bison wool, cow fibre and yak wool quantified the large variation between and within these fibre types. Cashmere from some origins and cashgora produced higher feltball density than the other fibres. Different nutritional management of cashmere goats (n = 35) showed that cashmere grown by poorly fed goats had a lower propensity to felt compared with cashmere grown by better fed goats. A consequence of the progressive blending of cashmere (n = 27) with a low propensity to felt superfine wool (high fibre curvature) increased the propensity of the blend to felt, but when the same cashmere was blended with low curvature superfine wool, there was little or no effect on feltability. The mechanisms which lead to variance in feltability of these fibres were quantified with multiple regression modelling. The mechanisms were similar to those reported for wools, namely variations in the resistance to compression, fibre curvature and mean fibre diameter, with likely effects of fibre crimp form. It is possible to source cashmere and other animal fibres which have different propensities to felt and therefore to produce textiles which are likely to have different textile properties.
The paper mainly discusses the antibacterial performance of bamboo pulp and cotton fabrics which were treated with NaOH solution and copper ammonia solution. SEM, ICP-OES, and agar diffusion plate method were used to investigate the existence of copper ions and analyze the influence of treatment parameters on the copper ion content and antibacterial performance. The results show that there is significant difference for all the properties between bamboo pulp and cotton fabrics. The alkali treatment, concentration, and time period all have significant influence on the copper ion contents and antibacterial performance, and they have different influences on the bamboo pulp fabrics and cotton fabrics. The antibacterial performance not only depends on the copper ion content on the fabrics but also relate to the release action. The release ability of copper ions in bamboo fabrics is better than that in cotton fabrics. Alkali treatment makes the complex of copper ion more stable and the release rate slower.
The aim of this study is to check the effect of different morphologies of silver nanoparticles such as spherical, polygonal, disk, prism, and hierarchical on antimicrobial characteristics of cotton fabrics. Nanosilver particles have been synthesized in different morphologies. Then, the colloid nanosilver particles were applied to the cotton fabric pieces for 25 ppm by ultrasonic method in ambient temperature. Silver nanoparticles solutions were characterized by UV–visible and infrared absorption spectroscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as antimicrobial tests which ultimately showed that non-spherical morphologies such as polygonal, prism, and hierarchical like shapes in comparison with spherical and disc morphologies exhibited stronger growth inhibitory effect against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus after five replicate standard washing processes. In addition, among various tested morphologies, the hierarchical like morphology showed a very well antimicrobial activity over 91% after five washing cycle.
To explore the crucial driving forces and dynamics of the Chinese apparel industry cluster, the authors analysed current situations, characteristics and the dilemma in the Chinese apparel industry based on surveys conducted in the Yangtze River Delta. This study classified the factors impacting apparel industry cluster development into necessary conditions and evolutionary factors according to logistic differential equation, and proposed a dynamics model framework of apparel industry cluster with positive and negative feedback mechanism. The authors believe that the Chinese apparel industry cluster is an ecology system involving outsourcing, specialisation agglomerating, competition, resource complementary, etc. and has a quick response ability of adapting to environment.
Recently, core-spun yarns showed many improved characteristics. The tensile properties of such yarns are accepted as one of the most important parameters for assessment of yarn quality. The tensile properties decide the performance of post-spinning operations; warping, weaving, and knitting, and the properties of the final textile product; hence, its accurate prediction carries much importance in industrial applications. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple regression methods for modeling the tensile properties of cotton/spandex core-spun yarns are investigated. Yarn breaking strength, breaking elongation, and work of rupture of the core-spun yarns are studied. The two models were assessed by verifying root mean square error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination (R 2-value). The results of this study revealed that ANN has better performance in predicting comparing with multiple linear regression.
Wicking is an important characteristic which determines the moisture management of the textile products, and thereby has a large impact on comfort. Different techniques have been used to examine the longitudinal or in-plane flow behaviour of the liquid in the porous network of the fibrous assemblies. This paper describes one between several methods to study longitudinal wicking of liquid in textiles. The manuscript presents a detailed explanation of the design and development of an instrumental set-up for wicking measurement. This is based on electrical capacitance principle according to which the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor varies as dielectric material between the plates changes. It has been aimed to analyse in-plane wicking which includes both horizontal and vertical wicking behaviour in textiles. Several parallel plate capacitors are used to obtain flow property of the liquid on the plane of the fabric in different directions. Many wicking parameters, such as the nature of fluid transport in different directions and the amount or extent of wicking, the rate of wicking, are obtained with changing capacitance values during fluid transport. Some fabrics samples were tested and analysed for the horizontal and vertical wicking characteristics. The above instrument could be used to do the in-depth study of the longitudinal wicking behaviour of complex textile structures with increased precision of measurement.
Previous studies of the mechanics of fiber assemblies have neglected fiber movements that are due to perturbations of the assembly. Axial movements, which are treated in the paper, are important in pilling, bagging, felting, and incremental drafting of yarns in weaving, but lateral movements may also occur. A dynamical model is analogous to molecular statistical mechanics. Both a diffusion model and a driven model are presented. The resistance to movement is due to gripping forces, which may be externally imposed or caused by structural features, such as twist; both are easy to take into account. The geometric forms of entanglements and the way in which they add to frictional resistance are discussed in more detail.
Monodispersed polystyrene (PS) microspheres with perfect sphericity and the spherical diameter ranging from 200 to 400 nm were prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization. The spherical size of PS microspheres can be regulated by controlling the styrene concentration, potassium persulfate concentration, and polymerization time. The monodispersed PS microspheres were self-assembled by gravity into photonic crystals on polyester fabrics to generate bright structural colors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and crystallographic analysis confirmed a face-centered cubic structure (FCC structure) of the photonic crystals. The structural color of the photonic crystals is governed by the photonic band gap dependent upon the viewing angle and the size of PS microspheres. The resultant polyester fabrics with the photonic crystals showed bright structural colors changing with the viewing angle, displaying a biomimetic variable color effect on the textiles.
In this study, a new liquid spread tester, designed and developed in an earlier work by the authors, has been used for the study and analysis of the transverse wicking characteristics of single jersey-knitted fabric produced from bamboo/cotton-blended yarn. The most significant liquid spreading characteristic, namely the liquid spreading rate, has been measured and analysed for two sets of the knitted fabric composed of bamboo/cotton yarn, one of linear density Ne 20s and the other of Ne 40s yarn. The yarn blend composition was varied in a similar manner for both sets of fabric. It was observed that liquid spreading rate decreased with increase in bamboo content for all the blend proportions investigated. It was also found that this property is higher in the wale-way direction than the course-way direction.
Apart from the antibacterial performance, wearability and durability are also important factors for the textile product quality. The paper mainly discusses the wearability and durability of bamboo pulp and cotton-knitted fabrics which were treated with alkali and copper ammonia solution. Washing fastness, release properties of copper ions when washing, bursting properties, abrasion resistance, permeability, moisture penetrability, and warmth retention properties of fabrics were tested to investigate the change after copper ammonia solution treatment. The results showed that although the release quantity of bamboo pulp fabrics was higher, the washing fastness of bamboo pulp fabrics was better than that of cotton fabrics. After 90 times’ washing, the copper ion complex fabrics still had good antibacterial performance. For both cotton and bamboo pulp fabrics, properties of the bursting strength, moisture penetrability and warmth retention had been improved, whereas properties of abrasion resistance and air permeability had receded.
The properties of bamboo fibres extracted from raw bamboo plants in an environmentally benign manner were investigated. To reduce environmental impacts of the manufacturing process, microwave, ultra-sonication and enzyme were used to extract the bamboo fibres, avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. The new method enabled the extraction of single fibres while retaining a certain quantity of lignin in fibre. The retained lignin allowed the fibre to possess UV absorption and antibacterial properties, which will be advantageous for many textile applications.
The transmission property of a fabric is a key factor that affects clothing’s comfort and decides the functional potential of clothing. The dependence of filament cross-section with varying shape factor (SF) on air, moisture and thermal transmission behaviour of fabric is determined in case of polyester multifilament woven fabrics. The linear density of each filament is kept identical for all 12 cross-section shape filaments. The SF of filament cross-section is an important factor which remained the prime factor to influence the transmission behaviour of fabric samples directly in many cases. Other indirect factors that influence the transmission behaviour of fabrics when the SF is identical are yarn structure, inter-fibre and inter-yarn space. Twelve different novel cross-sectional shapes are considered to make the multifilament woven polyester fabrics. The fabrics made from multifilament yarns having different SFs show that relative moisture vapour permeability and air permeability decrease with the rise in SF. Wickability increases with the rise in the SF of a filament cross-section. Multilobal, hexalobal and plus shapes were made a part of novel cross-sectional shapes in order to develop fabrics of higher comfort index.
The main objective of this study was to improve the enzymatic effect by mechanical treatment on cotton fabric in combined desizing and bio-polishing. The purpose is to create a commercially and environmentally friendly process for water and energy saving. The effect of mechanical treatment and different enzyme concentration was studied. Both mechanical and enzymatic treatment effect were evaluated through measuring weight loss and light measurement of fabric surface. Fabric surface evaluation also was done via photo micrographing. Fabric hairiness was illustrated on captured photos of treated and untreated fabric. Finally, optimized data of treatment were obtained.
In this study, the effects of selected intermingling process parameters on yarn breaking strength and elongation were predicted using artificial neural network. For this aim, partially oriented polyester yarn with 283 dtex linear density and three different numbers of filaments (34, 68, and 100) were used for producing interlaced yarn under different process parameters (speed and pressure). Yarns’ elongation and strength values measured with Uster Tensorapid test device and the number of filaments are input variables of the artificial neural networks. Feed forward neural network (FFNN) is used as the network structure. All FFNN computations were performed by MATLAB software package. The comparison results show that the FFNN has a better prediction performance than linear regression.
The pulps of agricultural products used industrially in Isparta (Turkey) which contain natural dye pigments were used to obtain low-cost natural dyes. Natural dyes were obtained with the extraction method from the pulps of lavender and Spartium junceum flowers after oil extraction and the pulp of Dimrit grape red wine. The dyeing of wool yarns with these compounds as a natural dye has been studied and ecological wool dyeing achieved by using nontoxic and ecological mordants. Natural dyes optimum extraction times were analyzed. Dyed wool yarns washing, rubbing, and light fastness tests and spectrophotometric measurements were performed. In addition, wastewater analysis were achieved and cost estimates of natural and synthetic dyeing methods were evaluated and compared.
Experimental methods have been employed to acquire shear properties, examine buckling, and postbuckling response, and to characterize out-of-plane deformations of thin orthotropic polyurethane-coated nylon fabric designated for use in the finite element analysis of an inflatable structure. A custom-designed bi-axial pre-tension frame, a picture-fame rig, and a photogrammetry system were used to apply pre-tension, collect the angular and linear displacements, and to capture the buckling and wrinkle-forming mechanisms in the coupons during the shear test. The series of monotonic picture-frame tests provided with an average critical shear stress of 0.16 MPa that was required to buckle the coupons for a small range of the pre-tension force. While an average pre-buckling shear modulus (28.5 MPa) was obtained, only 2.25% of a relative difference between the average post-buckling apparent shear modulus (13.07 MPa) and the average shear modulus obtained from the 45° bias-extension test for the same material (13.36 MPa) was registered. The influence of the pre-tension not only on the initial buckling resistance and the transition point to the fully developed diagonal tension folds but also on a reduced resistance to the material damage during cyclic testing was investigated. A series of cyclic picture-frame tests gave the continuous load/unload response with appreciable hysteresis characteristics of the in-plane stress–strain with an average 10% of material degradation. When compared with the envelope of material resistance in the monotonic tests, during cycling loading, the coupons lost on average 13.9% more of its initial stress-carrying capability. The photogrammetry results allowed for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the coupon’s surface and the development of the deformation relationships between the effective force exerted on the coupons, the shear angle, and the geometric deformation variables for the wrinkles formed in the diagonal tension fold. The geometric deformation parameters, such as frequency of wrinkle formation, widths of the base and the tip, depths, the deformation angle, and the distances between the centerlines of the wrinkles occurring in the test coupon, were acquired with photogrametry and analyzed numerically with custom-written Matlab® code.
In this study, the coupled heat and moisture transfer of polyacrylonitril nanofiber mats were investigated by theoretical and experimental methods. A mathematical model was used to describe and predict the coupled heat and moisture transfer of nanofiber mats. Based on the results obtained by scale analysis method, order of magnitude of heat transfer by radiation is negligible for nanofiber mats but heat transfer by convection is important. In this investigation, the coupled heat and moisture transfer including convection heat transfer was solved numerically by finite difference method. Comparison between numerical results and experimental data shows good agreement, which indicates the high accuracy of the numerical results.
This study examines the clothing pressure distribution on the calf using pressure bandages with different levels of tightness. A dynamic clothing pressure test device was fabricated to obtain numerical values for the clothing pressure on key points of the calf, which were used to construct and verify a finite element model of the clothing pressure distribution. A 3D multilayer calf model was established with a simple and rapid method. After point cloud data of the calf outline were obtained by a 3D body scanner; a multilayer calf model comprising skin, muscle, and bone was fitted by reverse engineering software. The results of this model were consistent with the test values of the clothing pressure at key points. These results cannot only be a practical guide for the scientific and rational design and manufacture of tight-fitting clothing but also provide a quantitative basis for the development of clothing pressure standards.
Carpet as a home textile is usually subjected to static loading. Therefore, compression behavior or thickness loss after a long-term loading is important from point of view of carpet appearance as well as its lifetime. In this study, four types of cut-pile carpet were woven based on face-to-face weaving system. Pile yarns were air-jet textured polyester filament yarns that were modified by different heat processes. Then, the carpets’ compression behavior was investigated by static loading test. Results show that by increasing the temperature in setting of pile yarns twist at the autoclave process, the carpet static recovery increases. However, the friezing and heat-setting processes of pile yarns have no significant effect on the carpet static recovery.
The Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE) set a goal to divert 40% of used carpet from landfills in the United States by 2012, but only achieved a 10% diversion rate. To achieve the 40% diversion rate, approximately 1.4 billion lbs would need to have been diverted. Diverting this significant quantity may require the design of a larger, more effective reverse logistics network to process the used materials. A new facility location heuristic originally developed for the forward distribution of products is applied to the reverse logistics system for carpet recycling. The objective is to locate an unknown number of carpet recycling facilities to minimize the total cost. The model includes transportation costs, as well as fixed facility and processing costs at the recycling plant, the latter exhibiting economies of scale (EOS) as the facility size increases. We evaluate the model using data from the CARE collection network in the continental United States and compare these findings to models that assume a significant increase in collection locations and rates to meet specific carpet diversion targets. We show the impact of EOS of the recycling facilities on the solution structure, as well as the impact that collection volumes have on the solution.
Literature indicates that Smart Clothing applications, the next generation of clothing and electronic products, have been struggling to enter the mass market because the consumers’ latent needs have not been recognised. Moreover, the design direction of Smart Clothes remains unclear and unfocused. Nevertheless, a clear design direction is necessary for all product development. Therefore, this research aims to identify the design directions of the emerging Smart Clothes industry by conducting a questionnaire survey and focus groups with its major design contributors. The results reveal that the current strategy of embedding a wide range of electronic functions in a garment is not suitable. This is primarily because it does not match the users’ requirements, purchasing criteria and lifestyle. The results highlight the respondents’ preference for personal healthcare and sportswear applications that suit their lifestyle, are aesthetically attractive, and provide a practical function.
The increasing demand of water in mankind necessitates the need to consider supplementary sources of water. Fortunately, under favorable topographical and atmospheric conditions, water can be collected from fog. Small water droplets appear on the surface of solid objects when fog precipitates on them. So, to some extent, fog can be utilized for relieving water shortage by employing water-collecting systems known as fog collectors that collect water from fog and the moisture present in air. Most of the fog collectors that have been used around the world are made up of polymers and textile materials. The main purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate some physical fiber parameters influencing the efficiency of textile fog collectors. Consequently, several kinds of fibrous materials in the forms of yarn and/or fabric were investigated. Thus, it was statistically found that water collection efficiency is affected by parameters like fiber–water absorption, specific heat capacity of the material, and the existence of sites for holding moisture on the surface of the materials. In this respect, the effect of contact angle between threads within a fabric structure was investigated on the performance of textile fog collectors. This concept was performed using Eriksson’s model, which is a mathematical model.
Section-color yarn is a kind of fancy yarn, which has discontinuous color changing on yarn axial direction and meets the needs of the market. Therefore, it is of high added value. In the section-color yarn spinning, one white roving is feeding into the back roller continuously, and one color roving is feeding into the middle roller discontinuously, and corresponding discontinuous color change on yarn axial direction can be produced. Compared to the common ring spun yarn, the evenness of section-color yarn is worsening seriously due to its spinning mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, the evenness of section-color yarn is analyzed. It is shown that the feeding deviation of color roving is the main possible reason for the worsening evenness of section-color yarn. Then, the corresponding measure for improving section-color yarn evenness is taken by modifying the feeding time of the back roller, and the corresponding modified spun yarn evenness is measured. It is shown that the section-color yarn evenness can be improved effectively, and the maximal improvement rate is 13.19%, which proves the effectiveness of the given method in this paper.
Flock detaching motion is an important factor of the combing quality of a cotton comber. A model for flock detaching time and detaching roller motion was developed by analyzing the motion of the nipper during the flock detaching process. Then, a diagram for the relationship between flock detached time parameters and a graph for detaching roller speed were drawn. This study provides a theoretical basis for analyzing combing quality and designing detaching roller motion.
The issue of sustainability is crucial in fashion business and has received considerable attentions from the consumers. In this paper, we investigate the change in people’s concerns on sustainable fashion by using secondary data collected from two major online fashion forums from 2004 to 2012. Our analysis is taken by a cross-time approach and the results reflect that forum discussions over sustainable fashion have changed over time. While topics on sustainable production and remanufacturing, green information sharing, and green attitude and education once received heated discussions in the mid-2000s, green marketing has become the main focus lately. Our results imply that provision of green information by fashion retailers is a way to educate consumers and improve their awareness in the importance of sustainability. It is also beneficial to stimulate consumers’ purchase decision of sustainable fashion. The findings provide industry insights for practitioners to better develop and promote sustainable fashion.
Several techniques have been suggested in the past to estimate the dye concentration in multiple-component solutions. This work explains new techniques based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference technique for measuring dye concentration in three-component wastewater solution. The performance of new method is compared with the normal Beer’s law. The mean ternary relative error in Beer’s law and neuro-fuzzy and PCA–neuro-fuzzy methods are 15.71, 6.044, and 5.814, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the performance of neuro-fuzzy technique is better than normal spectrophotometry method.
The objective of this research work was to understand the warp and weft directional tensile properties of the two-dimensional multistitched multilayer E-glass/polyester woven composites. The warp and weft directional specific tensile strength and modulus of unstitched structure were higher than those of multistitched structures as stitching caused minor warp and weft yarn filament breakages. Contrarily, the specific tensile strains of unstitched structure were slightly lower than those of all multistitched structures. The stitching yarn type, the number of stitching directions, and the stitching density generally influenced the warp and weft directional tensile properties of multistitched E-glass/polyester woven composites. The failure of warp and weft directional multistitched woven E-glass/polyester composite structures was matrix breakages, and partial and complete yarn breakages in their surfaces. They had a local delamination in their cross-sections and the delamination did not propagate to the large areas due to multidirectional stitching. Also, the failure was confined at a narrow area and resulted in the catastrophic fiber breakages. The warp and weft directional specific damaged areas of multistitched structures, in particular four-directional stitching, were significantly lower than those of the unstitched structures. This indicated that the multistitching made the structures better damage-tolerance materials.
A one-dimensional computational model of pilling of a fibre assembly has been created. The model follows a set of individual fibres, as free ends and loops appear as fuzz and arc progressively withdrawn from the body of the assembly, and entangle to form pills, which eventually break off or are pulled out. The time dependence of the computation is given by ticks, which correspond to cycles of a wear and laundering process. The movement of the fibres is treated as a reptation process. A set of standard values is used as inputs to the computation. Predictions arc given of the change with a number Of cycles of mass of fuzz, mass of pills, and mass removed from the assembly. Changes in the standard values allow sensitivity studies to be carried out.
The fashion industry defines an industry sector that is unique and global in character. It defines a context that can be characterised as increasingly entrepreneurial, reflecting high levels of complexity and dynamism. The dramatic shift in the scale and power of major retail buyers in the market, the advent of own brands, and the nature of sourcing and supply-chain decisions which are increasingly global in nature, are some of the issues that define this entrepreneurial context. The interactions between those managing the buyer-supplier relationships have, particularly within the past five years, changed substantially as a consequence. At the core of this is the challenge to actors in the buyer-supplier dyad to identify innovative responses to managing these interactions. The aim of this research is to explore the nature of these relationships, focusing upon UK high-street multiple-fashion retailers and their contracted suppliers, many of whom are entrepreneurial, located in different parts of the globe. The research examines implications for supply-chain strategies applied to fashion products. There are a number of important implications for 'fashion-marketing' that emerge from this research project. These are discussed under four core themes that emerged from the study, namely: power, process, partnership, and people. The research approach was qualitative, and conducted over a period of twelve months. It involved in-depth discussions with key managers in organizations on both sides of the buyer-supplier relationship. The paper ends with an agenda for future research.
Personal cooling garments have been developed to reduce the risk of heat stress and heat-related injuries in hot environments. The human body can suffer from a kind of heat stress resulting in reduced working endurance and performance and an increased risk of heat illness when exposed to hot climates. This gets worse when combined with physical work, such as firefighting, military drills, special work situations, and sports. The use of protective clothing which limits the sweat evaporation of the body can also make the situation worse. This review includes a brief look at the human thermoregulation and its relation with the cooling garments, classification of the personal cooling garments, testing procedures, and parameters affecting the efficiency of the cooling garments.
Thermal zone was created at the spinning triangle of ring frame to produce 33/67 polyester-/cotton-blended yarns. The tenacity of modified yarn properties was compared with the yarn produced without thermal zone. Furthermore, to study the influence of gauge length in tenacity of these yarns, tests were conducted at various gauge lengths and Weibull plots were also obtained. Fibre failure at various gauge lengths was studied. The reliability analysis showed that the modified treble rove yarns are superior to the normal treble roves feed yarns.
Surface morphology of woven cotton fabrics was modified by treatment with mild plasma created in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) at the pressure of 60 Pa. Samples of dimensions 20 cm × 20 cm were mounted into a 27-cm-wide cylindrical plasma reactor powered with a radio frequency generator of frequency 27.12 MHz and output power of about 500 W. The volume of the reactor was 17 l and the corresponding power density was solely 30 W/l. The plasma density was estimated with a double electrical probe and was about 2 × 109 cm−3. The type of radicals created in plasma was determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). No CFx and a negligible amount of F radicals were observed by OES, and surprisingly the predominant spectral features were CO bands. The evolution of surface morphology vs. plasma treatment time was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Originally smooth fibers became extremely rough after prolonged treatment. The results were explained by etching of fibers with gases released from the samples upon plasma treatment.
The inspection of the fabric defects is an important problem, which highly affects both the quality and the cost in the textile industry. Because of consistency and accuracy problems, the inspection of the fabric defect by human experts is neither feasible nor efficient. This requires development and use of automated inspection techniques. Thus, in this study, a texture analysis method, which uses sum and difference histograms (SDH) conjointly with co-occurrence matrices, is proposed to introduce an objective criterion for defect detection. To accomplish the detection task with high accuracy, several features were extracted from SDH and then, a defect search technique, which was developed in the context of this study, was applied. Moreover, several experiments and parameter analysis were performed to carry out detection at feasible computation time and memory storage. The developed method was applied to 28 kinds of raw woven fabric defects and 27 of them (i.e. 93.1%) were successfully recognized by the proposed detection system. The quantitative results and qualitative discussions show the effectiveness of the developed strategy.
Defects in woven textile structures have been analyzed, and a novel scheme for their classification based on their visual attributes is proposed. The proposed scheme can serve as the underlying framework for a vision-based inspection system. The classification framework has been incorporated in software. The resulting knowledge-based system (FDAS - Fabric Defects Analysis System) identifies defects, assigns probable causes for the defects, and suggests plausible remedies to avoid them. The system has been tested with actual fabric defects and has performed well. In addition to being used on the shopfloor, FDAS can be used for training new operators in fabric inspection in weaving and apparel-manufacturing plants.