Mark-recapture studies of butterfly populations are often plagued by low recapture rates, which make population estimation problematic. One reason for low recaptures is that the handling process of capture, marking and release contributes to low and unequal catchability of marked individuals. Here we report the results of an experiment conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that cooling individuals prior to release minimizes handling effects. The post-capture difference in site fidelity of territorial male Hypolimnas bolina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) was compared among three groups: (1) males handled normally, (2) males chilled prior to release, and (3) uncaught controls. Unchilled males showed significantly reduced site fidelity compared to both control and chilled butterflies. Furthermore, chilled butterflies resumed activity after capture in a manner similar to uncaught controls. These results indicate that chilling has the potential to minimize the adverse effects of handling on subsequent butterfly catchability. Since 'equal catchability' of caught and uncaught individuals is a critical assumption of mark-release-recapture programs, this method has the potential to greatly increase the accuracy of subsequent population estimates. On this basis, in population studies on butterflies, the precise method of handling may prove a more meaningful consideration than the question of whether or not to handle.
We tested the abilities of neonate larvae of the Lauraceae-specialist, P. troilus, and the generalist Eastern tiger swallow-tail, Papilio glaucus (both from Levy County, Florida) to eat, survive, and grow on leaves of 22 plant species from 7 families of ancient angiosperms in Australia, Rutaceae, Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Monimiaceae, Sapotaceae, Winteraceae, and Annonaceae. Clearly, some common Papilio feeding stimulants exist in Australian plant species of certain, but not all, Lauraceae. Three Lauraceae species (two introduced Cinnamomum species and the native Litsea leefeana) were as suitable for the generalist F. glaucus as was observed for F. troilus. While no ability to feed and grow was detected for the Lauraceae-specialized P. troilus on any of the other six ancient Angiosperm families, the generalist R. glaucus did feed successfully on Magnoliaceae and Winteraceae as well as Lauraceae. In addition, some larvae of one R. glaucus family attempted feeding on Citrus (Rutaceae) and a small amount of feeding was observed on southern sassafras (Antherosperma moschatum; Monimiaceae), but all P. glaucus (from 4 families) died on Annonaceae and Sapotaceae. Surprisingly, the North American Lauraceae-specialist (P. troilus) died on all Lauraceae species by day #12, but some generalist P. glaucus larvae survived. Most of the generalist (P. glaucus) offspring survived and grew very well on all 3 species of Magnoliaceae assayed (Magnolia virginiana, Michelia champaca, & Michelia doltsopa) and on Tasmannia insipida (Winteraceae). The ability of these larvae to feed and grow on T. insipida but not T. lanceolata suggests significant phytochemical differences may exist within the Winteraceae. Two Monimiaceae "sassafras" plant species were unsuitable to both North American Papilio species despite their very close phylogenetic relationship with the Lauraceae.
Species limits within Empyreuma are addressed using a morphological study of male and female genitalia and sequence data from the mitochondrial gene COI. Currently, four species are recognized: E. pugione (L.), E. affinis Rothschild, E. heros Bates, E. anassa Forbes. Two entities can be readily distinguished, the Jamaican E. anassa and a widespread E. pugione-complex, based on adult morphology. Neither E. affinis nor E. heros can be distinguished by coloration or genitalic differences. Analysis of COI haplotypes suggests that E. affinis is not genetically distinct from E. pugione (<1% sequence divergence); however, the population from the Bahamas, E. heros, is differentiated from other haplotypes with an uncorrected sequence divergence of 5%. We place E. affinis Rothschild, 1912 as a new synonym of E. pugione Hübner 1818, and recognize three species: E. anassa, E. pugione, and E. heros. This paper includes a revised synonymic checklist of species and a redescription of the genus, with notes on biology, and with illustrations of male genitalia, female genitalia, wing venation, and abdominal sclerites.
Rehinea Razowski and Eliachna Razowski, two formerly monotypic genera known only from males, are redescribed based on large series of specimens (n = 320) including both sexes. As presently defined, Rehinea is monotypic, with a single variable species, R. erehina (Rutler, 1883), and its synonym, Arotrophora halsamodes Meyrick, 1931. It is possible that two (or more) species are concealed within the variation, but wc were unable to separate them using traditional morphological characters. Eliachna is represented by three species: E. chileana Razowski, 1999, E. digitana Brown and McPherson, new species, and£. hemicordata Brown and McPherson, new species. Both genera are restricted to south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, ranging from coastal lowlands (5 m) to middle elevations (1200-1700 m) at the southern end of the Andes. A phylogenetic analysis of the four species (plus two out-group species) provides support for the sister relationship of Rehinea and Eliachna based on the following synapomorphies: (1) elongate labial palpi (length 3-4 times horizontal diameter of the compound eye); (2) a pair of stout, digitate, submedial processes on the dorsum of the transtilla; (3) a deep, rounded excavation near the mid-venter of the valva; and (4) a pair of semicircular, lateral flanges from the posterior edge of the sterigma.
We tested the suitability of four Florida "bay" plant species for larval growth and adult opposition preferences for two swallowtail butterfly species, P. palaniedes and P. glaucus . Much confusion exists about the host plant records for these butterflies in the literature. We confirmed that of the four bay species tested, only red bay ( Persea borbonia ) of the Lauraceae was suitable to support larval survival and growth of P. palamedes . All P. palamedes larvae offered sweethay ( Magnolia virffniima of the Magnoliaceae), Loblolly bay ( Cordonia lasianthus of the Theaceae) or Southern Bayberry ( Mijrica cerifera of the Myricaceae) died as neonates. Conversely, only sweet bay ( Magnolia ) was suitable for supporting survival ofneonate P. glaucus larvae, with red bay, loblolly bay and bayberry unacceptable or toxic. Oviposition preferences (individually assessed in a revolving four-choice arena) were strongly in favor of the most suitable host for each species: sweet bay received 93.9 of the total P. glaucus eggs and red bay received 54.2 of the total P. palanwdes eggs. The generally low level of adaptation of the Lauraceae specialized spicehush swallowtail, Papilo troilus , to red bay was evident in that all nine Florida females refused to oviposit on any of the four "bays" (including red bay).
The life history of Jamides celeno has been well documented across its range. The larvae feed on plants from six families and are attended by ants from seven genera. This paper documents a new host plant record and additional attendant ant species from observations made in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. We discuss ecological and behavioral traits of the early stages of J. celeno and their associated ants, and suggest that the categorization of J. celeno as a facultativemyrmecophile may be incorrect. Yes Yes
Depending on the larval food plant species, or part of food plant ingested, individuals of the blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus (Lycaenidae) exhibit broad variation of wing patterns in the ultraviolet (UV) range of wavelengths which is invisible to humans. Such intraspecific variability in UV wing patterns has been underestimated thus far due to the rather demanding approach needed to study these patterns. We discuss methodological problems with the assessment of butterfly UV wing patterns by UV photography. Given proper standardization UV photography is a suitable method to qualitatively assess UV wing patterns for use in morphology or systematics. Spectrophotometry should preferably be used as quantitative method when considering (UV) wing patterns in a communication context. No higher value in systematic reasoning must be attached to UV wing patterns as compared to human visible wing patterns.
A survey of the literature and museum collections of Uresiphita indicates larval hosts are primarily quinolizidine-bearing plants in tribes of the Fabaceae. Three species, Uresiphita reversalis, U. ornithopteralis and U. polygonalis, were collected from seven genera in the Genisteae (Chamaecytisus, Genista, Lupinus, Spartium, Laburnum, Ulex and Cytisus) and from three genera in the Sophoreae (Sophora, Pericopsis and Bolusanthus). Two species, U. reversalis and U. polygonalis, were collected from three genera in the Thermopsidae (Baptisia, Anagyris and Piptanthus) and two, U. reversalis and U. ornithopteralis, were collected from two genera in the Bossiaceeae (Hovea and Templetonia). A few legume species that are not known to bear quinolizidine alkaloids were also reported. In particular, U. reversalis, U. polygonalis, and U. ornithopteralis were each collected from Acacia (Mimosaceae) in areas as widely distributed as Australia and the United States (California, Texas and Hawaii). This is a consistent anomaly in the over-all host-use pattern. Other nonleguminous species have been reported but are probably not indicative of hosts upon which development may be completed.
The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Arotrura landryorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, during the first year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.
In 2006, the U.S. National Park Service invited the first author to conduct a 10-year study of the moths at White Sands National Monument, in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Eucosma gypsumana (Tortricidae, Olethreutinae, Eucosmini) Metzler and Porter, new species, discovered during the study is described. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. A graph illustrating an unexplained temporal population irregularity of E. gypsumana is presented. A list of species of Eucosma from the Monument is provided.
The basic biology, seasonal ecology, and hymenopteran parasitoid community of Plutella armoraciae Busck, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were investigated. The study area was a dry grasslands region of interior British Columbia, Canada, where P. armoraciae feeds on the introduced mustard Sisymbrium loeselii L., 1755 (Brassicaceae) in partial sympatry with its congener, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Sampling was conducted over five years, including one year of repeated, intensive sampling over a large region. The two Plutella species can be differentiated with morphology alone and we provide comparisons of features of the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of each species. Plutella armoraciae was found to overwinter as eggs or early-instar larvae in S. loeselii rosettes, with adults emerging in April and May, and the first full generation each year taking place in May and June. Larvae fed within webbed flowers and buds of S. loeselii plants, giving rise to a second autumn generation of adults that laid eggs of the overwintering generation. The early summer generation of P. armoraciae larvae peaked earlier than, but partially overlapped with, the peak occurrence of P. xylostella larvae. Both Plutella species were relatively common across all surveyed sites, but not highly abundant at any site. At least two species of larval parasitoids, Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Diolcogaster claritibia (Papp) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), were shared between the two Plutella species, and a community of eight other species of parasitoids and hyperparasitoids were reared from the pupae of one or both Plutella species. The observations of D. claritibia emerging from P. armoraciae are the first records of this parasitoid from a host species other than P. xylostella. It was also discovered that one of the most important parasitoids of P. xylostella worldwide, D. insulare, appears to use P. armoraciae as an overwintering host. We hypothesize that in areas where P. xylostella is a seasonal migrant, year-round resident Plutella species such as P. armoraciae could provide important overwintering hosts and reservoirs for shared parasitoids that help to reduce populations of P. xylostella.
It has long been suspected that Grammia oithona may be a form of G. phyllira, but concrete evidence has been lacking. The only obvious difference between G. oithona and G. phyllira is the presence of cream-colored scales outlining the veins of the forewing of G. oithona. A female G. oithona from Hampden County, Massachusetts, U.S.A., produced progeny consisting of 55 phyllira and 51 oithona. The following year a female G. phyllira from the same locality produced 33 phyllira and 40 oithona. Therefore the name oithona represents a wing pattern phenotype, not a species, at least in the population studied. Progeny of both wild females were bred in captivity, each cross consisting of a virgin female bred with a single male, with eight separate crosses producing offspring. The simplest, most parsimonious hypothesis consistent with the data from all eight crosses is that the wing pattern phenotype is inherited as a single autosomal gene with two alleles, a dominant phyllira allele and a recessive oithona allele; dominance may be incomplete in heterozygotes. Assuming G. phyllira and G. oithona to be conspecific across their composite range, the phyllira phenotype occurs with high frequency in most populations along the East Coast and in the Upper Midwest, and with low frequency in most populations to the west and south of this range. C. phyllira is of conservation concern in the northeastern U.S.A., where it has declined substantially during the past 50 to 100 years. The natural history of G. phyllira is typical of Grammia species, but its dependence on grassland and savanna habitat on dry, sandy soils is an important consideration in conservation and management efforts for this species.
The illustrations for The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia (Smith & Abbot 1797) were reproduced from drawings by artist-naturalist John Abbot, who also supplied life history data on each species. James Edward Smith edited Abbot's manuscript and provided additional information for the book. Abbot's original manuscript entries for the 24 butterfly plates are transcribed and compared with the corresponding published letterpress. The early stages and plants in Abbot's butterfly drawings are evaluated. Eighty copies of the book were located in six countries. Dated watermarks on the plates are tabulated and plate captions are compared. Two different versions of Plates 77 and 78 are figured and discussed. Abbot's notes for Plate 31 are reproduced for the first time. A memorandum about the book by J. E. Smith is transcribed. Authorship attribution and past owners of the book are reviewed. At least one early printseller sold sets of plates without letterpress. To promote nomenclatural stability, a lectotype is designated for Papilio bathyllus J. E. Smith.
A new species, Adelpha margarita Willmott & I hill, new species, is described from Andean cloud forest habitats from southern Ecuador to Bolivia. Adelpha margarita garleppi Willmott, new subspecies, is described for southern Peruvian and Bolivian individuals, which differ from the nominate subspecies in having complete orange postdiscal bands on the dorsal surface. The new species differs from related species in the Adelpha serpa group in wing pattern, DNA sequence data and habitat. A leetotype is designated for Adelpha seriphia therasia Fruhstorfer, because the type series of this name contains individuals of both A. seriphia and A. margarita. Neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses of 579 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) 'barcode' region, for 27 Adelpha specimens representing 9 species and 13 taxa, suggest that the closest relative to A. margarita is the Central American to west Andean taxon A. seriphia godmani Fruhstorfer. The DNA sequence data, coupled with a re-analysis of museum specimens, suggest that Adelpha godmani should be treated as a distinct species (revised status). Finally, a new subspecies, Adelpha justina pichincha Willmott & Hall, new subspecies, is described from Pichincha province in western Ecuador.
Long thought to be based on a holotype, evidence indicates that the concept of the nominal taxon Melitaea nycteis Doubleday was actually based on four female syntypes, which were collected in Ohio in 1843 by the English naturalist David Dyson. A lectotype is designated to stabilize usage and establish a sole name-bearing type of this nominal taxon. The type locality is suggested to be the vicinity of Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio. A previously unknown portrait of David Dyson, depicting him collecting Lepidoptera, was discovered in the possession of his great-grandnephew and is reproduced for the first time.
The external morphology of the last instar and pupa of Dismorphia melia (Godart, ) are described from specimens collected at São Bento do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided on the basis of observations through stereoscopic microscope attached to camera lucida; results are compared and discussed with immature stages of other species of Dismorphiinae, Coliadinae and some tribes of Pierinae with the “type I” pupae. Moreover, the taxonomy of the species is discussed, on the basis of informations and illustrations of the intraspecific variability of the imagoes, the morphology of the genitalia of both sexes, and the geographic distribution.
The spotted tussock moth, Lophocampa maculata Harris 1841, inhabits a wide band of North America on both sides of the United States/Canadian border from coast to coast and extends southward along the Pacific coast and in the major mountain ranges of the United States. Within this large range, the species exists as several geographic variants characterized by a number of phenotypic differences, most notably last instar larval coloration. Other distinctions include voltinism, with the California coastal variety being uniquely bivoltine, and larval food preference. While considered a generalist feeder on broadleaf trees, some geographic variants show strong preferences for a particular genus of food plant. Over most of its range, L. maculata exists in one of two larval color patterns. Last instars of the Eastern and California Coastal forms are a combination of black and yellow, while the Western Interior form is a combination of orange and black. However, in the Pacific Northwest there is a stable population exhibiting wide variation in larval coloration, with features of the color patterns of both the other two varieties. An additional, and perhaps unique, feature of larval coloration is the rare occurrence of individuals with partial depigmentation for one or two instars, followed by reversion to normal coloration in the last instar and the adult. These individuals are found in all of the geographic populations, although there are small distinctions in coloration that appear to be population-specific. Larval coloration results from three pigments. Exogenous xanthophyHs, obtained from the diet produce the yellow color, whereas the endogenous black pigment is eumelanin. The orange pigment is most likely pheomelanin, produced endogenously.
The different geographic populations of Lophocampa maculata Harris 1841 are characterized by a variety of phenotypic differences, of which larval color is the most obvious. Individuals of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) populations display significant variation in late instar coloration, arising from variation in setae pigmentation. Such variation is not found in other populations of Lophocampa maculata, including the western Interior population (WI) and California Coastal population (CAC). Analysis of the pattern of pigmentation of the PNW population suggests it represents a combination of features of the CAC and WI populations. A simple scheme that accounts for all of the color variations seen in the different geographic populations of L. maculata is presented. A laboratory mating experiment involving WI and CAC individuals resulted in viable offspring displaying the range of larval coloration seen in the wild PNW populations. The F1 hybrids were fertile and produced an F2 generation also exhibiting the PNW larval color patterns. Taken together, these results suggest that the PNW populations arose via hybridization between the adjacent WI and CAC populations. Evidence from laboratory-raised broods of wild-caught females suggests there can be significant individual variation in pigmentation even within a single brood. The present day PNW populations demonstrate features of a hybrid swarm resulting from relatively recent hybridization. A model for this process since the last glacial maximum is presented.
A moth and trace fossil have both been named as Phycodes. The senior homonym is a well-known trace fossil, PhycodesRichter, 1850. The relatively obscure junior homonym, PhycodesGuenée, 1852, is given the replacement name Phykodesn. gen.
Huge numbers of autumn-migrating monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus were noted in the US Midwest eastwards to the Atlantic coast from the mid-19th century on, a reflection of the ploughing up of the prairies and the clearing of the eastern forests, promoting growth of the host plant (milkweed Asclepias syriaca). Overwintering sites were discovered in California in 1991, but the destination of southward migrating populations remained unknown. In 1975 tagging studies established that millions of monarchs overwintered in the volcanic mountains of C Mexico. This paper describes developments in the understanding of monarch behaviour and distributions, and examining remaining questions of detail concerning migration flights, whether there are other overwintering sites, and whether there is interchange between the western and eastern North American populations. -P.J.Jarvis
Collecting and observation of the diurnal geometrid, Heterusia atalantata (Guenée, ), in Natura Park, Veracruz by the first coauthor led to an interest in the distribution and behavior of this species in Mexico. Records from the literature and several Mexican collections as well as the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity in Florida have resulted in these notes on the distribution, altitudinal occurrences and behavior of this species.
The early stages of M. helenor marinita and M. menelaus amathonte are described for the first time in detail. A M. h. marinita female was caught from El Rodeo of San Jose, in order to obtain its offspring. From egg laying to emergence, an individual of this species took 175 days on Lonchocarpus oliganthus (Fabaceae). It presented a fifth instar diapause of more than two months and its coloration is slightly different from other M. helenor subspecies early stage descriptions. AM. m. amathonte female was caught from Rincon de la Vieja volcano, also in order to obtain its offspring. From egg laying to emergence, on Pterocarus officionalis (Fabaceae) an individual of this species took 134 days. Color pictures of each instar of the larvae for both species were taken, as well as the egg and pupa. Biogeography and taxonomy trends are discussed for each species in order to enhance the early stages characters significance.
A new subspecies of Lon taxiles (W. H. Edwards, 1861) is described from the Pine Ridge of Nebraska and Black Hills of South Dakota. It is distinguished by the presence of distinct white spots on the VHW of females and darker males than specimens from other parts of its range. The Taxiles skipper, Lon [formerly Poanes; see Cong et al. (2019)] taxiles (W. H. Edwards, 1861), is a woodland species found in mountainous areas in extreme southeastern Idaho, through Colorado and Utah, south through New Mexico and Arizona, into Mexico. There is also a somewhat disjunct eastern population, ranging from the Pine Ridge of Nebraska, eastern Wyoming, into the Black Hills of South Dakota, north to the Badlands of North Dakota. Most western populations are fairly consistent in phenotype, and the sexes are dimorphic. Males are orange and black dorsally and yellow with brown spotting ventrally, while females are brownish dorsally with a purplish-brown ventral hindwing. Both sexes resemble Lon zabulon (Boisduval & Le Conte, ), at least ventrally, and are considered the western counterpart of that species. While collecting in the Pine Ridge and Black Hills in the early 1980s, I noticed that the phenotype there was distinct from the more western populations. Instead of having the spotting on the ventral hind wing of females obscured as in other areas, these specimens had distinct white spotting. I was intrigued, so decided to examine specimens from nearby eastern Wyoming, as well as more specimens from Nebraska and South Dakota, and compare these with typical populations from the Rocky Mountains and other western mountain ranges. This led me to describe a new taxon:
A new subspecies of Eueides lampeto Bates, 1862 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), E. I. brownsbergensis, is described from Suriname; its sexual dimorphism and involvement in mimicry complexes in Suriname is discussed.
Adults of Filatima ornatifimbriella (Clemens 1864) can be confused with three other species, two of which, Filatima occidua and Filatima adamsi are new. Filatima ornatifimbriella (Clemens) and F. xanthuris (Meyrick) are redescribed, and complete synonymy for each species is given. A lectotype is designated for Gelechia amorphaeella Chambers 1877. Photographs of wing patterns and scanning electron micrographs of diagnostic wing features are included. A key to the species is provided in conjunction with illustrations of male and female genitalia.