Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Published by American Veterinary Medical Association

Print ISSN: 0003-1488


Study design
  • Article

December 1990


72 Reads

S Shott

What Is the Evidence?
  • Article
  • Full-text available

December 2010


504 Reads


Long-term prospective evaluation of topically applied 0.1% tacrolimus ointment for treatment of perianal sinuses in dogs

September 2009


1,148 Reads

To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of topically applied tacrolimus, orally administered prednisone, and a novel-protein diet for treatment of perianal sinuses in dogs and to monitor clinical progress and owner management of the condition for 2 years. Noncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-19 dogs with perianal sinuses. Procedures-Perianal sinuses were diagnosed during physical examination, and dogs were placed on a 16-week treatment protocol consisting of topically applied 0.1% tacrolimus ointment, orally administered prednisone (tapering dose), and a novel-protein diet. Metronidazole was orally administered for the first 2 weeks. Anal sacculectomy was recommended whenever anal sacs were involved. Dogs were evaluated every month for the first 4 months and then every 6 to 12 weeks for 2 years. Perianal sinuses resolved completely in 15 of 19 dogs during the 16 weeks. In the remaining 4 dogs, the lesions markedly improved but failed to completely resolve. Three of these had anal sac involvement, and the owner of 1 dog had complied poorly with treatment instructions. During the 2 years following treatment, all dogs were maintained on intermittently applied tacrolimus ointment, 4 dogs also received prednisone every other day, and 11 dogs remained on the novel-protein diet. At the conclusion of the study, 13 of the 15 dogs that survived to that point were free of perianal disease. The described protocol was effective and economical for resolving perianal sinuses. Dogs maintained on intermittent medications were unlikely to redevelop lesions. When the anal sacs were involved, anal sacculectomy appeared to improve the outcome.

Evaluation of duration of corneal anesthesia induced with ophthalmic 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride by use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer in clinically normal horses

January 2009


71 Reads

Objective-To measure duration of corneal anesthesia and time and degree of maximal anesthetic effect of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride by use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer in horses. Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-Baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured in millimeters for 1 randomly selected eye of each horse by use of the aesthesiometer by applying the filament to the cornea at maximum length (60 mm) and decreasing in 5-mm increments until a consistent blink response was elicited. Following baseline CTT measurement, 0.2 mL of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride was instilled in the selected eye. The CTT was measured within 1 minute following proparacaine administration and every 5 minutes thereafter for 60 minutes. A mixed-model ANOVA with tested eye varying between subjects and measurement time varying within subject was used to test for main effects and any interaction between these factors. A contrast between means of baseline and each subsequent CTT identified the duration of corneal anesthesia as the time at which there was no difference from baseline. Maximal anesthetic effect occurred at the time with the lowest mean CTT. Results-Duration of corneal anesthesia achieved by use of proparacaine was 25 minutes, and maximal anesthetic effect occurred within 5 minutes, although CTT never went to 0 in any horse at any time. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Duration of corneal anesthesia in horses was shorter than in dogs, and degree of maximal effect was less than in cats and dogs, most likely because of increased sensitivity of the equine cornea, compared with those species. (Am J Vet Res 2008;69:1655-1658).

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate teat dip

April 1990


30 Reads

The activity of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate postmilking teat germicide in reducing the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae on the skin of excised teats from cows was determined. The product yielded logarithmic reductions of 4.09 and 4.10 against S aureus and Str agalactiae, respectively, compared with 3.80 and 3.81 reductions, using a 1% iodophor dip. Germicide tolerance to an organic load containing Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas spp was also determined. Organisms were not recovered from the product 8 hours after introduction of a simulated organic load containing either species of bacteria. The germicide was further evaluated against S aureus and Str agalactiae, using experimental challenge-exposure procedures in a research dairy herd. Efficacy was 73.4% (P less than 0.001) against S aureus and 68.1% (P less than 0.005) against Str agalactiae.

Epidural analgesia with 0.75% bupivacaine for laparotomy in goats

June 1989


63 Reads

Epidural nerve block with 0.75% bupivacaine (1 ml/4 kg of body weight) was performed in 17 goats tranquilized by IM administration of acetylpromazine (0.07 mg/kg). For comparison, epidural nerve block with 2% lidocaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine (1 ml/5 kg) was performed in 7 goats. Transient signs of CNS stimulation were observed during injection of bupivacaine in 5 goats and of lidocaine in 2 goats. Analgesia of the flank was inadequate for laparotomy in 4 goats given bupivacaine (including 1 goat given a two-thirds dose) and in 2 goats given lidocaine. Analgesia for these goats was provided by local infiltration of the operative site with lidocaine. With bupivacaine, the onset of analgesia was up to 40 minutes, and the duration of analgesia was several hours; most goats were unable to stand for at least 11 hours. In comparison, epidural nerve block with lidocaine had a more rapid onset and much shorter duration. For both anesthetic drugs, despite adequate analgesia for laparotomy, response to manipulation of abdominal viscera was observed in 12 goats. Arterial blood pressure and blood gas tensions were measured in 8 goats given bupivacaine; 3 goats had mean arterial blood pressure less than 70 mm of Hg. Seven goats had normal PaCO2 but 2 goats had low PaO2; 1 goat sedated with xylazine had increased PaCO2 and hypoxemia.

Evaluation of factors associated with positive IgM capture ELISA results in equids with clinical signs compatible with West Nile virus infection: 1,017 cases (2003)

March 2006


16 Reads

Jennifer M Tanner


Josie L Traub-Dargatz





To describe the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate factors associated with positive IgM capture ELISA results in equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Retrospective case series. Laboratory submission forms from 1,104 equids tested for WNV in Colorado in 2003. Submission forms accompanying samples submitted for detection of WNV via IgM capture ELISA were obtained from the Colorado state veterinarian and diagnostic laboratories performing the tests. Data on signalment, clinical signs, history of vaccination against WNV, and assay results were collected from laboratory submission forms. Equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection in which IgM capture ELISA results were positive were considered as case equids. 1,104 equids were tested for WNV; 1,017 (92.1%) had clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, the odds of testing positive for WNV via IgM capture ELISA were lower in males and in vaccinated equids and higher in equids with moderate and severe illness, compared with females, unvaccinated equids, and equids with mild illness. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, vaccination against WNV, severity of clinical signs, duration of illness, and region in Colorado were associated with increased risk of having a positive IgM capture ELISA result.

Epidemiologic analysis of reported scrapie in sheep in the United States: 1,117 cases (1947-1992)

April 1998


31 Reads

To determine epidemiologic features associated with reported cases of scrapie in sheep in the United States. Retrospective study. Records for scrapie-positive sheep flocks and sheep with clinical signs consistent with scrapie reported to the USDA from 1947 through 1992. Records from the USDA's scrapie control and eradication program were abstracted, entered into a computer database, and statistically analyzed. 1,117 sheep from 657 flocks located in 39 states were scrapie positive during the study period. Seasonal or spatial trends were not evident. Mean yearly proportion of scrapie-positive flocks increased slightly from 1965 through 1992. One hundred sixty-eight rams and 949 ewes were reported to be scrapie positive during the study period, which was slightly more rams than expected if the disease was equally likely to affect rams and ewes. Suffolks (972/1,117; 87%) and Hampshires (68/1,117; 6%) were most commonly affected. The prevalence of scrapie in sheep in the United States is unknown. Bias in this study may have resulted from inconsistencies in available information, misclassification of sheep with clinically suspicious signs of scrapie, and changes in the national scrapie control and eradication program that likely affected willingness of owners and veterinarians to report potentially infected sheep.

Frequency of and risk factors associated with lingual lesions in dogs: 1,196 Cases (1995-2004)

June 2006


99 Reads

To categorize histologic lesions affecting the tongue, determine the frequency with which they develop, and identify risk factors associated with their development in dogs. Retrospective case series. 1,196 dogs. Diagnostic reports of lingual biopsy specimens from dogs evaluated from January 1995 to October 2004 were reviewed. Neoplasia comprised 54% of lingual lesions. Malignant tumors accounted for 64% of lingual neoplasms and included melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Large-breed dogs, especially Chow Chows and Chinese Shar-Peis, were at increased risk for melanoma. Females of all breeds and Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, and Samoyeds were more likely to have squamous cell carcinomas. Hemangiosarcomas and fibrosarcomas were commonly diagnosed in Border Collies and Golden Retrievers, respectively. Benign neoplasms included squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, and granular cell tumor. Small-breed dogs, especially Cocker Spaniels, were at increased risk for plasma cell tumors. Glossitis accounted for 33% of diagnoses; in most cases, the inciting cause was not apparent. Whereas large-breed dogs were more likely to have lingual neoplasia, small-breed dogs were more likely to have glossitis. Calcinosis circumscripta accounted for 4% of lingual lesions and predominately affected young large-breed dogs. The remaining submissions consisted mostly of various degenerative or wound-associated lesions. The frequency of lingual lesions was not evenly distributed across breeds, sexes, or size classes of dogs. Veterinarians should be aware of the commonly reported lingual lesions in dogs so that prompt diagnosis and appropriate management can be initiated.

Estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test for bovine leukemia virus: 1,296 cases (1982-1989)

July 1992


24 Reads

A retrospective study of the results of 12,549 agar gel immunodiffusion tests for bovine leukemia virus, conducted on 1,296 dairy bulls over an 8-year period, was performed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the test. The number of tests performed on each bull ranged from 5 to 35, with a mean of 9.7 tests per bull. Bulls were categorized by their agar gel immunodiffusion test responses; 1,069 (82.5%) were noninfected and 227 (17.5%) were infected. Eighteen false-positive results were reported from the noninfected bulls. Test specificity was estimated to be 99.8%. Thirty-one false-negative results were reported from the infected bulls. Test sensitivity was estimated to be 98.5%. Fifty-six bulls had 1 or more positive responses when less than 6 months old. In 26 (46%), these results were thought to be attributable to colostral immunity.

Analysis of risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction in North American horses: 1,444 Cases (1990-1999)

January 2004


62 Reads

To identify risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) among horses examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America. Retrospective case-control study. 1,444 horses with RAO and 1,444 control horses examined for other reasons. The Veterinary Medical Database was searched for records of horses in which RAO was diagnosed. A control group was identified by randomly selecting a horse with a diagnosis other than RAO that matched the institution and year of admission for each of the horses with RAO. Information obtained included hospital, admission year and month, age, sex, breed, and discharge status. The association between risk factors and diagnosis of RAO was estimated with logistic regression models. The risk of RAO increased significantly with age, with horses > or = 7 years old being 6 to 7 times as likely to have RAO as were horses < or = 4 years old. Thoroughbreds were 3 times as likely to have RAO as were ponies. Horses were 1.6 and 1.5 times as likely to be examined because of RAO during winter and spring, respectively, than they were during summer. Results suggest that RAO was more likely to be diagnosed in females, horses > or = 4 years old, and Thoroughbreds and that RAO has a seasonal distribution.

Prevalence, type, and importance of splenic diseases in dogs: 1,480 cases (1985-1989)

April 1992


233 Reads

The prevalence data of splenic diseases from 3 sources were studied. Group 1 consisted of a general diagnostic survey of accessions submitted from private veterinary hospitals in California during a period of approximately 4 years and included 1,372 submissions of canine splenic tissue. Group 2 consisted of surgical splenectomy specimens from 92 dogs; the specimens were submitted to the laboratory for gross and histologic evaluation prior to fixation, and a questionnaire was subsequently sent to determine the outcome of the disease. Group 3 was made up of specimens of 105 splenic lesions derived from a large colony of Beagles with complete medical records and records of pathologic findings. In this study, splenic hematoma and hyperplastic nodule, not hemangiosarcoma, made up the bulk of splenic lesions. Hemangiosarcoma was the most frequent neoplasm of the canine spleen, but the combined prevalence of all other splenic neoplasms was similar to that of hemangiosarcoma alone. Splenic hematoma and hemangiosarcoma were grossly indistinguishable in most cases. Hyperplastic lymphoid nodules and hematomas of the spleen appeared to represent a continuum. If that finding was correlated with microscopic splenic blood flow, specific causal relationship could be suggested. Prognostically, the live/dead ratio and mean survival of dogs with various splenic lesions differed significantly.

Predictors of arterial oxygen tension in anesthetized horses: 1,610 cases (1992-1994)

November 1999


25 Reads

To identify factors associated with various arterial partial pressures of oxygen (Pao2) in anesthetized horses. Retrospective study. 1,450 horses anesthetized a total of 1,610 times with isoflurane or halothane. Anesthesia records, particularly results of blood gas analyses, were reviewed, and horses were grouped on the basis of lowest Pao2. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg, those with low pulse pressure, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that were males were more likely to have Pao2 < 80 mm Hg. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 250 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that had a shorter duration of anesthesia were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 400 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, that had a shorter duration of anesthesia, that were older, that were heavier, or that were being ventilated mechanically were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 250 mm Hg. Low pulse pressure, emergency case status, dorsal recumbency, and short duration of anesthesia were significantly related with lower Pao2 in anesthetized horses.

Figure 2-Distribution of ages (%, compared with overall population) among dogs evaluated for behavioral problems at the ABC and all dogs evaluated at CUHA (reference population). 
Table 6 -Associations between pairs of diagnoses in 1,644 dogs evaluated at the ABC from 1991 to 2001. 
Results of logistic regression analysis of the frequency of various behavior diagnoses in dogs from 1991 to 2001. 
Distribution of sexes for dogs with various behavior diagnoses from 1991 to 2001. 
Signalment factors, comorbidity, and trends in behavior diagnoses in dogs: 1,644 Cases (1991-2001)

December 2006


1,711 Reads

To determine trends in behavior diagnoses; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same dog (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 1,644 dogs. Medical records of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems were reviewed for breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. Numbers of dogs with aggression, anxiety, and unruly behavior increased over the course of the study, as did the total number of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems. In general and for aggression, Dalmatians, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were evaluated more often than expected, whereas Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers were evaluated less often than expected. Labrador Retrievers were also underrepresented for anxiety, whereas mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented. Males were overrepresented except for interdog aggression, anxieties, and phobias, whereas females were overrepresented for phobias. Dogs with phobias were evaluated at a median age of 6.5 years, compared with dogs with other problems (median age, 2.5 years). A mean of 1.6 diagnoses/dog was observed, with certain diagnoses clustered. Results suggested that in dogs, behavioral problems changed over the course of the study; age, sex, and breed distributions varied among diagnoses; and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.

Prevalence of oxacillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci in clinical samples from dogs: 1,772 Samples (2001-2005)

February 2007


57 Reads

To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005. Retrospective case series. 1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital. Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements. Oxacillin resistance increased among S. intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S. intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively. Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.

Production, Characterization, and Applications of a Murine Monoclonal Antibody to Dog Erythrocyte Antigen 1.1

December 1992


213 Reads

A murine IgM monoclonal antibody, which recognizes dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1, has been produced. The antibody correctly identified canine RBC possessing DEA 1.1 in a panel of RBC typed by an independent laboratory. Reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was compared with canine anti-DEA 1.1 antiserum with 163 RBC samples from 145 dogs. Results of agglutination tests with the 2 reagents were in agreement for all samples. A card agglutination test that uses the monoclonal antibody with blood is described. A monoclonal antibody-based test should facilitate blood typing for DEA 1.1 in clinical practice.

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