Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Published by American Veterinary Medical Association
Online ISSN: 0003-1488
Publications
Article
To evaluate effectiveness of a combination of topically applied tacrolimus, orally administered prednisone, and a novel-protein diet for treatment of perianal sinuses in dogs and to monitor clinical progress and owner management of the condition for 2 years. Noncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-19 dogs with perianal sinuses. Procedures-Perianal sinuses were diagnosed during physical examination, and dogs were placed on a 16-week treatment protocol consisting of topically applied 0.1% tacrolimus ointment, orally administered prednisone (tapering dose), and a novel-protein diet. Metronidazole was orally administered for the first 2 weeks. Anal sacculectomy was recommended whenever anal sacs were involved. Dogs were evaluated every month for the first 4 months and then every 6 to 12 weeks for 2 years. Perianal sinuses resolved completely in 15 of 19 dogs during the 16 weeks. In the remaining 4 dogs, the lesions markedly improved but failed to completely resolve. Three of these had anal sac involvement, and the owner of 1 dog had complied poorly with treatment instructions. During the 2 years following treatment, all dogs were maintained on intermittently applied tacrolimus ointment, 4 dogs also received prednisone every other day, and 11 dogs remained on the novel-protein diet. At the conclusion of the study, 13 of the 15 dogs that survived to that point were free of perianal disease. The described protocol was effective and economical for resolving perianal sinuses. Dogs maintained on intermittent medications were unlikely to redevelop lesions. When the anal sacs were involved, anal sacculectomy appeared to improve the outcome.
 
Article
Objective-To measure duration of corneal anesthesia and time and degree of maximal anesthetic effect of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride by use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer in horses. Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-Baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured in millimeters for 1 randomly selected eye of each horse by use of the aesthesiometer by applying the filament to the cornea at maximum length (60 mm) and decreasing in 5-mm increments until a consistent blink response was elicited. Following baseline CTT measurement, 0.2 mL of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride was instilled in the selected eye. The CTT was measured within 1 minute following proparacaine administration and every 5 minutes thereafter for 60 minutes. A mixed-model ANOVA with tested eye varying between subjects and measurement time varying within subject was used to test for main effects and any interaction between these factors. A contrast between means of baseline and each subsequent CTT identified the duration of corneal anesthesia as the time at which there was no difference from baseline. Maximal anesthetic effect occurred at the time with the lowest mean CTT. Results-Duration of corneal anesthesia achieved by use of proparacaine was 25 minutes, and maximal anesthetic effect occurred within 5 minutes, although CTT never went to 0 in any horse at any time. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Duration of corneal anesthesia in horses was shorter than in dogs, and degree of maximal effect was less than in cats and dogs, most likely because of increased sensitivity of the equine cornea, compared with those species. (Am J Vet Res 2008;69:1655-1658).
 
Article
The activity of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate postmilking teat germicide in reducing the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae on the skin of excised teats from cows was determined. The product yielded logarithmic reductions of 4.09 and 4.10 against S aureus and Str agalactiae, respectively, compared with 3.80 and 3.81 reductions, using a 1% iodophor dip. Germicide tolerance to an organic load containing Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas spp was also determined. Organisms were not recovered from the product 8 hours after introduction of a simulated organic load containing either species of bacteria. The germicide was further evaluated against S aureus and Str agalactiae, using experimental challenge-exposure procedures in a research dairy herd. Efficacy was 73.4% (P less than 0.001) against S aureus and 68.1% (P less than 0.005) against Str agalactiae.
 
Article
Epidural nerve block with 0.75% bupivacaine (1 ml/4 kg of body weight) was performed in 17 goats tranquilized by IM administration of acetylpromazine (0.07 mg/kg). For comparison, epidural nerve block with 2% lidocaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine (1 ml/5 kg) was performed in 7 goats. Transient signs of CNS stimulation were observed during injection of bupivacaine in 5 goats and of lidocaine in 2 goats. Analgesia of the flank was inadequate for laparotomy in 4 goats given bupivacaine (including 1 goat given a two-thirds dose) and in 2 goats given lidocaine. Analgesia for these goats was provided by local infiltration of the operative site with lidocaine. With bupivacaine, the onset of analgesia was up to 40 minutes, and the duration of analgesia was several hours; most goats were unable to stand for at least 11 hours. In comparison, epidural nerve block with lidocaine had a more rapid onset and much shorter duration. For both anesthetic drugs, despite adequate analgesia for laparotomy, response to manipulation of abdominal viscera was observed in 12 goats. Arterial blood pressure and blood gas tensions were measured in 8 goats given bupivacaine; 3 goats had mean arterial blood pressure less than 70 mm of Hg. Seven goats had normal PaCO2 but 2 goats had low PaO2; 1 goat sedated with xylazine had increased PaCO2 and hypoxemia.
 
Article
To describe the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate factors associated with positive IgM capture ELISA results in equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Retrospective case series. Laboratory submission forms from 1,104 equids tested for WNV in Colorado in 2003. Submission forms accompanying samples submitted for detection of WNV via IgM capture ELISA were obtained from the Colorado state veterinarian and diagnostic laboratories performing the tests. Data on signalment, clinical signs, history of vaccination against WNV, and assay results were collected from laboratory submission forms. Equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection in which IgM capture ELISA results were positive were considered as case equids. 1,104 equids were tested for WNV; 1,017 (92.1%) had clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, the odds of testing positive for WNV via IgM capture ELISA were lower in males and in vaccinated equids and higher in equids with moderate and severe illness, compared with females, unvaccinated equids, and equids with mild illness. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, vaccination against WNV, severity of clinical signs, duration of illness, and region in Colorado were associated with increased risk of having a positive IgM capture ELISA result.
 
Article
To determine epidemiologic features associated with reported cases of scrapie in sheep in the United States. Retrospective study. Records for scrapie-positive sheep flocks and sheep with clinical signs consistent with scrapie reported to the USDA from 1947 through 1992. Records from the USDA's scrapie control and eradication program were abstracted, entered into a computer database, and statistically analyzed. 1,117 sheep from 657 flocks located in 39 states were scrapie positive during the study period. Seasonal or spatial trends were not evident. Mean yearly proportion of scrapie-positive flocks increased slightly from 1965 through 1992. One hundred sixty-eight rams and 949 ewes were reported to be scrapie positive during the study period, which was slightly more rams than expected if the disease was equally likely to affect rams and ewes. Suffolks (972/1,117; 87%) and Hampshires (68/1,117; 6%) were most commonly affected. The prevalence of scrapie in sheep in the United States is unknown. Bias in this study may have resulted from inconsistencies in available information, misclassification of sheep with clinically suspicious signs of scrapie, and changes in the national scrapie control and eradication program that likely affected willingness of owners and veterinarians to report potentially infected sheep.
 
Article
To categorize histologic lesions affecting the tongue, determine the frequency with which they develop, and identify risk factors associated with their development in dogs. Retrospective case series. 1,196 dogs. Diagnostic reports of lingual biopsy specimens from dogs evaluated from January 1995 to October 2004 were reviewed. Neoplasia comprised 54% of lingual lesions. Malignant tumors accounted for 64% of lingual neoplasms and included melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Large-breed dogs, especially Chow Chows and Chinese Shar-Peis, were at increased risk for melanoma. Females of all breeds and Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, and Samoyeds were more likely to have squamous cell carcinomas. Hemangiosarcomas and fibrosarcomas were commonly diagnosed in Border Collies and Golden Retrievers, respectively. Benign neoplasms included squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, and granular cell tumor. Small-breed dogs, especially Cocker Spaniels, were at increased risk for plasma cell tumors. Glossitis accounted for 33% of diagnoses; in most cases, the inciting cause was not apparent. Whereas large-breed dogs were more likely to have lingual neoplasia, small-breed dogs were more likely to have glossitis. Calcinosis circumscripta accounted for 4% of lingual lesions and predominately affected young large-breed dogs. The remaining submissions consisted mostly of various degenerative or wound-associated lesions. The frequency of lingual lesions was not evenly distributed across breeds, sexes, or size classes of dogs. Veterinarians should be aware of the commonly reported lingual lesions in dogs so that prompt diagnosis and appropriate management can be initiated.
 
Article
A retrospective study of the results of 12,549 agar gel immunodiffusion tests for bovine leukemia virus, conducted on 1,296 dairy bulls over an 8-year period, was performed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the test. The number of tests performed on each bull ranged from 5 to 35, with a mean of 9.7 tests per bull. Bulls were categorized by their agar gel immunodiffusion test responses; 1,069 (82.5%) were noninfected and 227 (17.5%) were infected. Eighteen false-positive results were reported from the noninfected bulls. Test specificity was estimated to be 99.8%. Thirty-one false-negative results were reported from the infected bulls. Test sensitivity was estimated to be 98.5%. Fifty-six bulls had 1 or more positive responses when less than 6 months old. In 26 (46%), these results were thought to be attributable to colostral immunity.
 
Article
To identify risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) among horses examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America. Retrospective case-control study. 1,444 horses with RAO and 1,444 control horses examined for other reasons. The Veterinary Medical Database was searched for records of horses in which RAO was diagnosed. A control group was identified by randomly selecting a horse with a diagnosis other than RAO that matched the institution and year of admission for each of the horses with RAO. Information obtained included hospital, admission year and month, age, sex, breed, and discharge status. The association between risk factors and diagnosis of RAO was estimated with logistic regression models. The risk of RAO increased significantly with age, with horses > or = 7 years old being 6 to 7 times as likely to have RAO as were horses < or = 4 years old. Thoroughbreds were 3 times as likely to have RAO as were ponies. Horses were 1.6 and 1.5 times as likely to be examined because of RAO during winter and spring, respectively, than they were during summer. Results suggest that RAO was more likely to be diagnosed in females, horses > or = 4 years old, and Thoroughbreds and that RAO has a seasonal distribution.
 
Article
The prevalence data of splenic diseases from 3 sources were studied. Group 1 consisted of a general diagnostic survey of accessions submitted from private veterinary hospitals in California during a period of approximately 4 years and included 1,372 submissions of canine splenic tissue. Group 2 consisted of surgical splenectomy specimens from 92 dogs; the specimens were submitted to the laboratory for gross and histologic evaluation prior to fixation, and a questionnaire was subsequently sent to determine the outcome of the disease. Group 3 was made up of specimens of 105 splenic lesions derived from a large colony of Beagles with complete medical records and records of pathologic findings. In this study, splenic hematoma and hyperplastic nodule, not hemangiosarcoma, made up the bulk of splenic lesions. Hemangiosarcoma was the most frequent neoplasm of the canine spleen, but the combined prevalence of all other splenic neoplasms was similar to that of hemangiosarcoma alone. Splenic hematoma and hemangiosarcoma were grossly indistinguishable in most cases. Hyperplastic lymphoid nodules and hematomas of the spleen appeared to represent a continuum. If that finding was correlated with microscopic splenic blood flow, specific causal relationship could be suggested. Prognostically, the live/dead ratio and mean survival of dogs with various splenic lesions differed significantly.
 
Article
To identify factors associated with various arterial partial pressures of oxygen (Pao2) in anesthetized horses. Retrospective study. 1,450 horses anesthetized a total of 1,610 times with isoflurane or halothane. Anesthesia records, particularly results of blood gas analyses, were reviewed, and horses were grouped on the basis of lowest Pao2. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg, those with low pulse pressure, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that were males were more likely to have Pao2 < 80 mm Hg. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 250 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that had a shorter duration of anesthesia were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg. For horses with lowest Pao2 < 400 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, that had a shorter duration of anesthesia, that were older, that were heavier, or that were being ventilated mechanically were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 250 mm Hg. Low pulse pressure, emergency case status, dorsal recumbency, and short duration of anesthesia were significantly related with lower Pao2 in anesthetized horses.
 
Distribution of ages (%, compared with overall population) among dogs evaluated for behavioral problems at the ABC and all dogs evaluated at CUHA (reference population). 
-Associations between pairs of diagnoses in 1,644 dogs evaluated at the ABC from 1991 to 2001. 
Results of logistic regression analysis of the frequency of various behavior diagnoses in dogs from 1991 to 2001. 
Distribution of sexes for dogs with various behavior diagnoses from 1991 to 2001. 
Article
To determine trends in behavior diagnoses; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same dog (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 1,644 dogs. Medical records of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems were reviewed for breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. Numbers of dogs with aggression, anxiety, and unruly behavior increased over the course of the study, as did the total number of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems. In general and for aggression, Dalmatians, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were evaluated more often than expected, whereas Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers were evaluated less often than expected. Labrador Retrievers were also underrepresented for anxiety, whereas mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented. Males were overrepresented except for interdog aggression, anxieties, and phobias, whereas females were overrepresented for phobias. Dogs with phobias were evaluated at a median age of 6.5 years, compared with dogs with other problems (median age, 2.5 years). A mean of 1.6 diagnoses/dog was observed, with certain diagnoses clustered. Results suggested that in dogs, behavioral problems changed over the course of the study; age, sex, and breed distributions varied among diagnoses; and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.
 
Article
To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005. Retrospective case series. 1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital. Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements. Oxacillin resistance increased among S. intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S. intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively. Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.
 
Article
A murine IgM monoclonal antibody, which recognizes dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1, has been produced. The antibody correctly identified canine RBC possessing DEA 1.1 in a panel of RBC typed by an independent laboratory. Reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was compared with canine anti-DEA 1.1 antiserum with 163 RBC samples from 145 dogs. Results of agglutination tests with the 2 reagents were in agreement for all samples. A card agglutination test that uses the monoclonal antibody with blood is described. A monoclonal antibody-based test should facilitate blood typing for DEA 1.1 in clinical practice.
 
Article
An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction resulting from dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 incompatibility developed in a dog previously sensitized to DEA 1.1 by a transfusion 3 years earlier. The dog developed fever, pigmenturia, and lethargy, and its PCV did not rise as expected. The donor blood was type DEA 1.1 positive, whereas the recipient's blood was type DEA 1.1, DEA 1.2, and DEA 7 negative. A major crossmatch was later found to be strongly incompatible. Studies of the recipient's plasma revealed a specific anti-DEA 1.1 alloantibody of the IgG class with high hemolysin and agglutinin activity. Such acute hemolytic transfusion reactions can be avoided by crossmatching previously transfused dogs and by using dogs that are type DEA 1.1 negative (and preferably also type DEA 1.2 and DEA 7 negative) as blood donors.
 
Article
To test the hypothesis that the mutation associated with porcine stress syndrome (PSS; malignant hyperthermia) was present in a large proportion of North American and English swine, a simple and rapid laboratory protocol was used for cost-effective, large-scale diagnosis of susceptibility to PSS. This PSS test was applied to 10,245 breeding swine of various breeds from 129 farms in the United States, Canada, and England. Approximately 1 of 5 swine was a heterozygous carrier of the PSS mutation, with approximately 1% being homozygotes. Prevalence of the PSS mutation was 97% for 58 Pietrain, 35% for 1,962 Landrace, 15% for 718 Duroc, 19% for 720 Large White, 14% for 496 Hampshire, 19% for 1,727 Yorkshire, and 16% for 3,446 crossbred swine. The PPS gene frequencies for these breeds were 0.72, 0.19, 0.08, 0.10, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.09, respectively. In addition to these breeds, we have identified the PSS mutation in Poland China and Berkshire breeds. These gene frequencies were 30 to 75% lower in Canadian swine than in US swine, with the exception of Yorkshires, for which the gene frequency was threefold higher in Canadian swine. English swine were similarly, or more so, affected than were US swine. Accuracy was estimated at > 99%. Cost to perform the test was < $20/animal. Depending on the perceived net balance of deleterious and beneficial effects of the mutation, the PSS test could be used to eradicate the PSS mutation from herds, or for controlled expression of the mutation.
 
Article
Objective: To determine treatment outcome on the basis of pathological changes identified on MRI and lameness duration in horses with navicular syndrome that underwent injection of corticosteroid and hyaluronan into the navicular bursa. Design: Retrospective case series. Animals: 101 horses with navicular syndrome. Procedures: Medical records of horses with signs of navicular syndrome evaluated between January 2000 and December 2008 were reviewed. Data on signalment, use of the horse, history, affected limbs, duration of lameness, findings on lameness examination, radiographic findings, MRI findings, treatment, and outcome were collected from the medical records. Follow-up information was obtained a minimum of 10 months after navicular bursa injection. Results: Following navicular bursa injection, 76 of 101 (75%) horses returned to their intended use for a mean of 9.66 months, and 35 (35%) were sound at follow-up. Horses that had been lame for < 6 months before treatment were significantly more likely to return to their intended use, have a longer positive response to treatment, and be sound at follow-up, compared with horses that had a longer lameness history. Horses with primary deep digital flexor (DDF) tendonitis responded best to navicular bursa injection with rest and rehabilitation, followed by horses with navicular bursitis and horses with DDF tendonitis and adhesions to the collateral sesamoidean ligament of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone. Horses with scar tissue in the proximal portion of the navicular bursa, adhesions from the navicular bone to the DDF tendon, or multiple abnormalities did not respond as well to treatment. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Response to navicular bursa injection with corticosteroid and hyaluronan in horses with navicular syndrome was dependent on the disease process detected on MRI and duration of lameness.
 
Article
To determine clinical history, structures involved, treatment, and outcome of lacerations of the heel bulb and proximal phalangeal region (pastern) in horses. Retrospective study. 101 horses. Medical records of horses with lacerations of the heel bulb and pastern were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. 75 horses were Quarter Horses. Most horses were not treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to referral. Mean +/- SD time from injury to referral was 24 +/- 45 hours (range, 1 to 168 hours). Lacerations were most frequently caused by contact with wire or metal objects. In 17 horses, lacerations involved synovial structures; the distal interphalangeal joint was most commonly affected. One horse was euthanatized after initial examination. Wound treatment consisted of cleansing, lavage, debridement, lavage of affected synovial structures, suturing of fresh wounds, and application of a foot bandage or cast. Fifty-six horses were treated with systemically administered antimicrobial drugs. Follow-up information was collected for 61 horses. Fifty-one horses returned to their intended use and had no further complications; 10 horses had complications associated with the wound, and of those horses, 5 were euthanatized and 1 horse died from an unrelated cause. Horses with lacerations that involved synovial structures had worse outcomes than horses with lacerations that did not involve synovial structures. Horses that sustain heel bulb lacerations can successfully return to their intended use. Involvement of the distal interphalangeal joint is associated with poor prognosis.
 
Article
One hundred and seven cystine-containing urinary calculi from 1 female and 101 male dogs were analyzed. Cystine-containing calculi accounted for 2% (107 of 5,375) of all canine urinary calculi submitted to the urinary stone analysis laboratory from July 1981 through December 1989. Male dogs that formed cystine calculi were compared with 3 other canine populations to determine whether certain breeds were apparently at increased or decreased risk for cystine calculus formation. In one or more of 3 population comparisons, significantly increased risk of cystine calculus formation was found in Mastiffs, Australian Cattle Dogs, English Bulldogs, Chihuahuas, Bullmastiffs, Newfoundlands, Dachshunds, Basenjis, Australian Shepherd Dogs, Scottish Deerhounds, Staffordshire Terriers, Miniature Pinschers, pitbull terriers, Welsh Corgis, Silky Terriers, and Bichon Frises. Significantly low risk of cystine calculus formation was found in German Shepherd Dogs, Poodles, Schnauzers, and mixed-breed dogs.
 
Article
To determine the prevalence of pedunculated lipomas and identify risk factors affecting postoperative complications and survival in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital undergoing surgery for colic caused by pedunculated lipomas. Retrospective study. 102 horses with a diagnosis of pedunculated lipoma. Age, breed, weight, and sex of horses with pedunculated lipomas were compared with the total equine hospital population and the population of horses admitted for abdominal surgery during the same period. Follow-up information was obtained by reevaluation or contact with owners via telephone or written request. Prevalence of pedunculated lipomas as a reason for abdominal surgery in horses, compared with the population of horses with and without lipomas admitted for abdominal surgery, was 10%. Castrated male Saddlebred and Arabian horses > 14 years old were identified as being at risk for developing pedunculated lipomas. Postoperative complications were detected in 72% of horses with pedunculated lipomas. Variables associated with low survival rates included surgery before 1992, heart rate > 80 beats/min, abnormal color of abdominal fluid, pale mucous membranes, surgery requiring intestinal resection, and inability to attain a mean arterial pressure > or = 100 mm Hg. Horses undergoing surgery from 1992 to 1996, weighing < 409 kg (900 lb), or requiring jejunojejunal anastomosis had a high survival rate. Although many of the variables reflected the health of the horse at the time of surgery, results may help veterinarians recognize risk factors associated with development of pedunculated lipomas and better predict the outcome of horses undergoing surgery for colic caused by pedunculated lipomas.
 
Article
To assess the value of CBC as a preoperative test in healthy horses undergoing cryptorchidectomy. Retrospective study. 117 horses. Medical records were reviewed to identify horses that had had cryptorchidectomy. Of the 117 horses identified, 102 were found that did not have a known medical condition believed to adversely affect surgery. Preoperative CBC was assessed in terms of abnormalities detected and effects of these abnormalities on development of complications during and after surgery and patient management. Of 102 CBC performed, 55 contained abnormalities. Mild neutrophilia was detected in 40 horses. Of the remaining 15 horses with abnormal CBC, 8 had abnormalities that were considered potentially important. Changes in patient management and development of surgical complications were not associated with these 8 horses. Surgical complications were defined as intraoperative changes in blood pressure, excessive blood loss, development of postanesthetic myopathies, and postoperative wound or respiratory tract infections. Surgical complications developed in 17 horses. Of these, 6 horses had an abnormal CBC that was indicative of mild neutrophilia. Positive and negative predictive values of preoperative CBC on development of perioperative complications were 0.11 and 0.77, respectively. On the basis of findings in our study, determination of preoperative CBC does not predict development of complications during or after surgery and does not alter patient management.
 
Article
Using M-mode echocardiography, cardiac abnormalities were studied in 103 cats with untreated hyperthyroidism. In addition, follow-up echocardiography was performed on 24 of these cats to assess the long-term (4 to 21 months) effect of treatment (thyroidectomy or radioiodine) on thyrotoxic cardiac disease. The most common echocardiographic abnormality in the 103 untreated hyperthyroid cats was hypertrophy of the left ventricular caudal wall (71.9%). Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum also was documented in 39.8% of the 103 cats. Other abnormalities included high values for left atrial diameter (70.0%), aortic root diameter (18.5%), and left ventricular diameter at end diastole (45.6%). In some of these cats, indices of contractility were enhanced; in 21.4% and 14.6% of the cats, values for shortening fraction and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening, respectively, were greater than those values measured in clinically normal cats. After treatment of the hyperthyroidism, left ventricular hypertrophy resolved or improved in many of the cats, as indicated by decreases in left ventricular caudal wall and interventricular septum thicknesses. Hyperdynamic wall motion resolved in all cats after treatment, as evidenced by consistent decreases in shortening fraction and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening. Despite these improvements, some cats had one or more persistently abnormal echocardiographic values after treatment. These results suggested that in cats, hyperthyroidism commonly is associated with largely reversible cardiomyopathy. In those cats in which cardiomyopathy persists or worsens after treatment, underlying primary cardiomyopathy or thyroid hormone-induced cardiac structural damage may exist.
 
Article
To determine whether the ventrodorsal myelographic view can be used to accurately predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) and to describe paradoxical contrast obstruction (PCO). Retrospective case series. 104 dogs with Hansen type I IVDE. Procedures-Ventrodorsal myelographic views were reviewed, and contrast patterns were categorized according to 8 predetermined patterns. Agreement among observers was compared, and the predicted location of extruded disk material was compared with surgical findings. Agreement regarding myelographic pattern and location of extruded disk material was moderate (kappa = 0.74 and 0.80, respectively) among the 4 observers. Ninety-three (89%) dogs had myelographic evidence of lateralized extrusion, and in 83 of the 93 (89%), predicted location of extruded disk material matched the surgically confirmed location. In 33 of the 40 (83%) dogs with bilateral contrast column gaps of unequal length, disk material was found to be located on the side with the shorter, rather than the longer, contrast gap, a phenomenon described as PCO. Results suggested that the ventrodorsal myelographic view could be used to predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDE more often than previously reported. The PCO phenomenon may be useful in determining the side of lateralization when contrast material does not outline the extruded disk material.
 
Distribution of owner-reported long-term (≥ 6 months) outcome for 54 Doberman Pinschers (23 treated surgically and 31 treated medically) and 50 dogs of other breeds (14 treated surgically and 36 treated medically) with CSM. 
Article
To compare outcomes and survival times for dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM; wobbler syndrome) treated medically or surgically. Retrospective case series. 104 dogs. Medical records of dogs were included if the diagnosis of CSM had been made on the basis of results of diagnostic imaging and follow-up information (minimum, 6 months) was available. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compare outcomes and the product-limit method was used to compare survival times between dogs treated surgically and dogs treated medically. 37 dogs were treated surgically, and 67 were treated medically. Owners reported that 30 (81%) dogs treated surgically were improved, 1 (3%) was unchanged, and 6 (16%) were worse and that 36 (54%) dogs treated medically were improved, 18 (27%) were unchanged, and 13 (19%) were worse. Outcome was not significantly different between groups. Information on survival time was available for 33 dogs treated surgically and 43 dogs treated medically. Forty of the 76 (53%) dogs were euthanized because of CSM. Median and mean survival times were 36 and 48 months, respectively, for dogs treated medically and 36 and 46.5 months, respectively, for dogs treated surgically. Survival times did not differ significantly between groups. In the present study, neither outcome nor survival time was significantly different between dogs with CSM treated medically and dogs treated surgically, suggesting that medical treatment is a viable and valuable option for management of dogs with CSM.
 
Article
Hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 104 dogs. The mean age was 10 years. Twenty-two breeds were represented. The most common were the German Shepherd Dog and Poodle. Most tumors were in the spleen (65/104). Other primary sites included the soft tissues of the trunk and extremities (18), liver (6), heart (3), and lung (2). Sixty of the dogs were examined because of rupture of the primary tumor or metastatic disease. Of the 104 dogs, 4 are alive and 100 are dead: 35 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis, and the remaining 65 had a mean survival time of 123 days. The mean survival time of the 4 living dogs was 360 days. Forty-seven of the 65 dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma were treated with surgery alone, surgery and immunotherapy, or surgery, immunotherapy, and combination chemotherapy. The same 47 dogs were clinically staged. There was no difference in survival time according to therapy or stage of disease.
 
Article
Case histories of 105 dogs that were treated for cervical intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) were studied retrospectively. To compare with previous data, dogs were grouped by age, gender, and breed. Dogs were also grouped by clinical signs of disease, and by presence and location of radiologic change. The age range of cases of cervical IVDD was 1 to 13 years (mean, 6.3 years). Fifty-nine percent of dogs treated for cervical IVDD were females, but the proportion of diseased females was similar to females in total hospital admissions. Twenty-eight breeds of dogs were treated for cervical IVDD. Dachshunds and Beagles were significantly over represented (P less than or equal to 0.001). However, gender-breed interaction was not observed. Prevalence of radiologic evidence of disk disease was detected at the following levels of the vertebral column: C2-3, 29%; C3-4, 24%; C4-5, 21%; C5-6, 15%; C6-7, 9%; and C7-T1, 2%. Significant difference was not observed in prevalence of cervical IVDD affecting the first 4 disk spaces. However, prevalence of cervical IVDD at C7-T1 was significantly less than that involving the first 4 disk spaces (P less than 0.02), and the space at C6-7 was significantly less affected than were the first 3 spaces (P less than 0.08). Significant association was not evident between clinical signs (pain and neurologic deficits) and radiologic signs of IVDD, although neurologic deficits were more likely to be observed in association with radiologic signs than with signs of pain.
 
Article
The records of 105 pregnant mares and 105 nonpregnant horses with colic admitted to an equine hospital were reviewed. The 2 groups had similar types of colic and short-term survivability. Of the 105 pregnant mares, 31 were treated medically and 74 required surgical intervention. Thirty-three of the 105 mares died or were euthanatized. Thirteen (18%) of the 72 remaining mares aborted. Of 4 mares with severe medical cases, 2 died, 1 aborted, and 1 aborted and died. Of 27 horses with medical cases that required less intensive treatment, none died and 2 aborted. Of the 74 horses that required surgery, 45 survived to termination of pregnancy (foaling or abortion); 36 of these mares (80%) had a live foal. The type of surgical lesion had no effect on pregnancy outcome. Stage of gestation at initial examination, duration of anesthesia, or intraoperative hypoxia or hypotension had no effect on pregnancy outcome. However, when hypoxia occurred during colic surgery in the last 60 days of pregnancy, the mares either aborted or delivered severely compromised foals that did not survive.
 
Article
To characterize serum biochemical abnormalities in goats with uroliths. Retrospective case-control series. 107 male goats with uroliths and 94 male goats with various nonrenal diseases (controls). For male goats, results of serum biochemical analyses collected from 1992 through 2003 were retrieved from computerized records, as were signalment, clinical diagnoses, and discharge status. Results of analyses for BUN, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, Na, K, Cl, total CO2, anion gap, and glucose were compared between goats with uroliths and control goats. Goats with uroliths had higher mean BUN, creatinine, total CO2, K, and glucose concentrations and lower mean phosphorus, Na, and Cl concentrations than control goats, with no difference in mean calcium concentration and anion gap. Goats with uroliths had higher frequency of azotemia, hypophosphatemia, hypochloridemia, and increased total CO2 and lower frequency of decreased total CO2 than control goats. Urolithiasis occurred more frequently in castrated males than in sexually intact males and in dwarf African breeds than in other breeds. Goats with uroliths often had hypophosphatemia at admission. Hypochloridemic metabolic alkalosis was the most common acid-base disorder. Rupture in the urinary tract system was associated with increased prevalence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Clinicians should be aware of these abnormalities when determining fluid therapy.
 
Article
Hypothyroidism, defined as a serum concentration of less than 70 ng of triiodothyronine (T3)/dl or less than 1.5 microgram of thyroxine (T4)/dl, or both, was diagnosed in 108 dogs by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. Both T3 and T4 values were determined in 96 dogs. Both values were low in approximately 50% (47/96) of the hypothyroid dogs; 25% (24/96) were T3 hypothyroid (low T3, normal T4), and 26% (25/96) were T4 hypothyroid (normal T3, low T4). The T3 values varied markedly between animals. Common clinical signs were alopecia, changes in coat (dryness, dullness, dandruff, scales, coarseness, and slow regrowth of hair), hyperpigmentation, and pyoderma. Doberman Pinschers, Great Danes, Poodles, Schnauzers, Irish Setters, and Boxers accounted for 50% (54/108) of the hypothyroid dogs. Therapy consisted of T4, T3, or combination T3 and T4 replacement. A good clinical response was observed with T4 replacement in 40.4% (19/47) within 2 months and in 21.3% (10/47) within 5 months. A poor clinical response was observed in 25.5% (12/47) after 6 months of therapy. Posttherapeutic evaluation was based on peak serum concentrations of T3 and T4, pretreatment (basal) thyroid hormone values, type of replacement therapy, dosage and time of sampling after treatment, concurrent clinical problems, and, most important, clinical response to thyroid replacement therapy.
 
Article
To evaluate clinical signs of ocular blastomycosis in dogs, to determine response of blastomycosis-infected eyes to treatment with systemically administered amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and to identify prognostic indicators of successful antifungal treatment. Retrospective study. 73 dogs. Medical records were reviewed for all dogs with confirmed blastomycosis and ocular disease seen at our hospital between 1985 and 1993. 6 eyes had anterior segment disease, 24 had posterior segment disease, and 78 had endophthalmitis. 40 eyes were treated with a combination of amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and 16 of the 40 responded favorably. However, 16 of the 24 eyes that were not severely affected responded favorably, but none of the 16 eyes that were severely affected did. Dogs with blastomycosis had posterior segment disease, without complete retinal separation, had a good prognosis for retaining vision. Results of histologic examination suggested that secondary glaucoma was a manifestation of endophthalmitis and was indicative of a grave prognosis for response to antifungal and antiglaucoma treatment.
 
Top-cited authors
Edward Feldman
  • University of California, Davis
Philip H Kass
  • University of California, Davis
Noah D Cohen
  • College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University
Larry Glickman
  • Purdue University
Mark E. Peterson
  • Animal Endocrine Clinic