Modern scholarly attitudes to the phenomenon of restricted knowledge in ancient Egypt have been affected by political and ideological issues of the present more strongly than have some other domains of the subject. markedly affected by the and what its significance and position in society and ideology was. From the Old Kingdom onward clear cases can be found of elite display of access to restricted knowledge coupled with concealment of its content. Such knowledge includes inititation into and performance of priestly roles. The title Hry-sStA ‘keeper of secrets’ is a general designation for people with such privileges. A major relevant domain is the solar cult, in which the king is presented as having exclusive understanding, some of which is related to magic for a slightly broader elite group. In social terms, access to knowledge is displayed in terms of meritocracy and in relation to elite hierarchies. Decorum, focused on religion and royal–divine ideology, is closely integrated with the restriction of knowledge. Hierarchy and decorum are the organizing principles in Egypt of the nearly universal restriction of knowledge. Patterns of development in such knowledge that can be discerned for the Old to New kingdoms could perhaps be extended to the first millennium.
This first comprehensive study of the political economy of development in modern Egypt and Turkey compares these secular Islamic countries, both part of the Ottoman Empire around World War I. At that time both had similar levels of population, income, and development. After independence, both followed an etatist development strategy, choosing to base their industrialization on import substitution and to expand their public sectors. As a result of that strategy the growth of productivity has been constrained in both countries. The study also contrasts the roles of the military and of the two leading autocrats to show how the differences in these military regimes affected the political and economic evolution in two countries. By analyzing the similarities and the differences between the two countries, reveals how real wages, economic policy, agricultural pricing, and consumer subsidies can be explained by the deeper forces of political economy. His detailed analysis of the evolution of the two economies includes discussions of land distribution, labor and product markets, and social development. -from Publisher
This study concentrates on the original and modified inscriptions and scenes concerning the chapel housed now in the Egyptian Museum (CG 1380, 1696, 1699, 1700–01). The chapel originally belonged to Saqqâra tomb [C 15] of Ty, the w‘b-priest of Re in the Sun-temple of Sahura, dating to the mid- to late Fifth Dynasty. It was subsequently usurped with royal approval by a woman named Hem(t)re, maybe because of a misdemeanor on his part. It seems likely that he fell into disfavor due to palatial intrigues in the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, and his tomb was given to Hem(t)re. The artistic merit and technique of the original sculpture are better than those later inserted. Also, the study corrects some doorway blocks which have been wrongly numbered and used by Borchardt for quite other objects.
In this article, the word "U+0131fnw" from Siut V, line 48 is once again considered critically. It is concluded that the word could be an alternative form of the "ḥfn"–snake. The phenomenon is based on the phonetic change "U+0131"–"ḥ"/"ḥ"–"U+0131" which is known in other cases, too.
Egyptologists have found the royal title nb U+0131rt-ḫt difficult to interpret. While the title literally means "lord of doing things," most scholars prefer to interpret the title as referring to either the king as chief cultic officiant (lord of performing cultic rites) or the king as a powerful ruler (lord of action). From a lexical perspective, both interpretations of nb U+0131rt-ḫt are possible. Through a contextual analysis of over 400 occurrences of the title, this study concludes that the title cannot be limited to a reference to the king in his cultic role. Further, the results of the study indicate that nb U+0131rt-ḫt has more specific connotations than to simply signify the power of the king. The title has strong connections to the king's role in creating order (ma[unknown]at). This paper therefore concludes that nb U+0131rt-ḫt refers to the physical actions the king performs in order to create and maintain (ma[unknown]at) in the world.
The Ramesses III (KV 11) Publication and Conservation Project is currently developing a site management, conservation and publication strategy for the severely damaged tomb of pharaoh Ramesses III in order to prevent further deterioration and to preserve this cultural heritage site for future generations. Along with first urgent measures of conservation, a geo-archaeological survey of KV 11 and its surroundings, as well as a geomatic and photogrammetric survey of the tomb itself, were carried out. The detailed recording of the current state of the architecture and wall decoration allowed for further reconstruction of scenes and texts. Moreover, an archaeological sondage in the burial chamber revealed additional information about the ooding and sedimentation processes. A field school with students of Luxor University offered training in digital recording methods and epigraphy, geo-archaeological survey and mapping methodologies, and conservation treatment and assessment. The following article outlines preliminary results in the fields of geology, conservation, recording, reconstruction, and excavation.
This article is the publication of a stela from Abydos that will be exhibited in the Grand Egyptian Museum, Giza (CG 20394/JE 15108). The stela can be dated to early in the first part of the Thirteenth Dynasty, probably in the reign of King Ameny-Qemau, on the grounds of its stylistic, phraseological, iconographic, and epigraphic details. It is the only monument that records the names of Queen Nofret, who may have been the wife of Ameny-Qemau and their daughter Princess Hatshepsut. It documents the marriage between Hatshepsut and the stela’s owner, the 'tw n tt ha', Commander of the [Ruler’s] Crew, Nedjesankh/Iew. It also depicts their children, and the children of another woman called Nebuemwakh who may have been a secondary wife of Nedjesankh/Iew. The author describes the stela, deals with its individual idiosyncrasies, texts, and focuses on the genealogy of its individuals.