While citizen participation has become a commonplace element in many planning efforts, both planners and citizens often assess the participatory elements as being unsatisfactory. The contention in this article is that not enough attention is being given to the design of participatory programs and that there is a particular failing in matching objectives to techniques. Five objectives of citizen participation are identified: information exchange, education, support building, supplemental decision making, and representational input. Then through the development of a typology of participatory mechanisms, techniques are matched with their most appropriate objectives. This relationship is further illustrated by examining four techniques in detail. The conclusions suggest that if the relationship between objectives and techniques is ignored in the design of a participatory program, the possibility of a successful program decreases.
As a result of the community-based human services movement in the 1960s and 1970s, massive numbers of dependent people moved out of large-scale institutions and returned to community life. Clients and their support services concentrated in inner cities, forming 'service-dependent population ghettos' there. Using a case study of Santa Clara County, California, this study describes the forces that contributed to development, and now to decline, of the service-dependent population ghetto there. The authors argue that planners and policymakers need to address the problems of service-dependent groups before those problems worsen.
This paper analyzes 1968 and 1987-88 metropolitan Washington, DC household travel surveys to understand the daily allocation of time among different activities of individuals classified by work status and gender. The increase in female labor force participation rates has produced an increase in overall time spent at work per person. The increase in work trips and the simultaneous increase in nonwork trips has resulted in less time spent at home. People are substituting money for time spent at home, buying household services outside the home. The group of individuals who work at home is analyzed separately to obtain an understanding of this growing segment. .
Since its initiation in the early 20th century, the federal surface transportation program has focused on highway construction and continues to do so to this day. However, over the past three decades, views of non-motorized modes and of federal interest in promoting them have changed dramatically. As is now widely recognized, a shift from motorized to non-motorized modes could produce abundant environmental benefits, including less air pollution, less water pollution, less noise, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Economic benefits could come from reduced household spending on transportation, given the low cost of non-motorized modes. Non-motorized modes could also improve equity of access to jobs, healthcare, services, and other activities, especially for low-income households, the young, the elderly, and the disabled, who have more limited access to cars. Pedestrian infrastructure is also an essential component of an effective public transportation network. The public health community has raised awareness that â€œactive travelâ€ helps individuals meet recommended levels of physical activity, with significant benefits for health, as well as reductions in health care costs. Pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure is increasingly recognized as a critical component of a safe and efficient transportation system. Such benefits have provided justification for a national interest in funding for bicycle and pedestrian (bike/ped) infrastructure, such as sidewalks, safe pedestrian crossings, bike lanes, shared-use trails and bridges, and bicycle parking facilities. Provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) led to a dramatic increase in federal funding available for pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), passed in 1998, continued this trend, with the result that spending went from less than $7 million per year before ISTEA to over $400 million annually by 2003; over the six
This paper evaluates household travel surveys for the Washington metropolitan region conducted in 1968 and 1988, and shows that commuting times remain stable or decline over the twenty year period despite an increase in average travel distance, after controlling for trip purpose and mode of travel. The average automobile work-to-home time of 32.5 minutes in both 1968 and 1988 is, moreover, very consistent with a 1957 survey showing an average time of 33.5 minutes in metropolitan Washington. Average trip speeds increased by more than 20 percent, countering the effect of increased travel distance. This change was observed during a period of rapid suburban growth in the region. With the changing distributional composition of trip origins and destinations, overall travel times have remained relatively constant. The hypothesis that jobs and housing mutually co-locate to optimize travel times is lent further support by these data. .
Metropolitan areas have come under intense pressure to respond to federal mandates to link planning of land use, transportation, and environmental quality; and from citizen concerns about managing the side effects of growth such as sprawl, congestion, housing affordability, and loss of open space. The planning models used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) were generally not designed to address these questions, creating a gap in the ability of planners to systematically assess these issues. UrbanSim is a new model system that has been developed to respond to these emerging requirements, and has now been applied in three metropolitan areas. This paper describes the model system and its application to Eugene-Springfield, Oregon.
Problem: At present, homelessness in the United States is primarily addressed by providing emergency and transitional shelter facilities. These programs do not directly address the causes of homelessness, and residents are exposed to victimization and trauma during stays. We need an alternative that is more humane, as well as more efficient and effective at achieving outcomes.
Purpose: This article uses research on homelessness to devise alternative forms of emergency assistance that could reduce the prevalence and/or duration of episodes of homelessness and much of the need for emergency shelter.
Methods: We review analyses of shelter utilization patterns to identify subgroups of homeless single adults and families with minor children, and propose alternative program models aimed at the particular situations of each of these subgroups.
Results and conclusions: We argue that it would be both more efficient and more humane to reallocate resources currently devoted to shelters. We propose the development of community-based programs that instead would focus on helping those with housing emergencies to remain housed or to quickly return to housing, and be served by mainstream social welfare programs. We advocate providing shelter on a limited basis and reserving transitional housing for individuals recently discharged from institutions. Chronic homelessness should be addressed by permanent supportive housing.
The application of computer models of land use and transportation that began over 30 years ago still provides the best example of how a science of planning might be developed. The tension between theory and practice that has always been an integral part of the movement provides a mirror in which we can explore many of the limits to our science and art. Here we provide a chronology of developments, identifying how formal theories and new technologies have enriched our abilities to learn about the nature of planning, but also demonstrating an urgent need for new urban theories and models with which to explore current problems.
The paper views the current state of the art of operational "integrated' urban models. It starts by presenting the map of active centers of urban modelling research in the world. Next it defines a framework for the classification and evaluation of urban models, using as criteria comprehensiveness, overall structure, theoretical foundations, modeling techniques, dynamics, data requirements, calibration and validation, operationality, and actual and potential applications. The paper closes by speculating about the most promising avenues to further improvement and diffusion of this kind of model. -from Author
Newcomers to older neighborhoods are usually perceived as destructive, tearing down everything that made the place special and attractive. But as A Neighborhood That Never Changes demonstrates, many gentrifiers seek to preserve the authentic local flavor of their new homes, rather than ruthlessly remake them. Drawing on ethnographic research in four distinct communitiesâthe Chicago neighborhoods of Andersonville and Argyle and the New England towns of Provincetown and DresdenâJaponica Brown-Saracino paints a colorful portrait of how residents new and old, from wealthy gay homeowners to Portuguese fishermen, think about gentrification. The new breed of gentrifiers, Brown-Saracino finds, exhibits an acute self-consciousness about their role in the process and works to minimize gentrificationâs risks for certain longtime residents. In an era of rapid change, they cherish the unique and fragile, whether a dilapidated house, a two-hundred-year-old landscape, or the presence of people deeply rooted in the place they live. Contesting many long-standing assumptions about gentrification, Brown-Saracinoâs absorbing study reveals the unexpected ways beliefs about authenticity, place, and change play out in the social, political, and economic lives of very different neighborhoods.
Book description: Post-suburbia is a term that encapsulates a variety of contemporary urban forms, in particular the 'edge city' - a term used to describe the rapid growth of new urban centres at the edges of established major cities. Widely discussed in the US, very little has been written about European edge cities and this book seeks to redress this imbalance, offering a comparative analysis that is located within the context of current East Asian and North American research, providing one of the first major works on the subject.
Examining the urban development and politics of five self-styled European edge cities - Kifissia near Athens, Getafe near Madrid, Noisy-le-Grand near Paris, Espoo near Helsinki, and Croydon near London, this study critically interrogates the key ideas that inform edge cities and presents valuable new insights into the planning and governance of some of Europe's most important city-regions and the future of their urban fabric.
"The seminal thinkers of the profession are now largely historical figures, few 'heroes' have emerged to replace them," Michael P. Brooks recently wrote (Brooks, 1988). Brooks is unduly alarmist. Significant figures like Daniel Burnham and Rexford Tugwell have their counterparts today. But these contemporary planners are different. They do not espouse exaggerated visions nor call brashly for revolutionary changes. American life also is different. Big cities are no longer novel nor is the economy emerging from a major depression. The country now is dealing with seemingly intransigent issues like the underclass and runaway metropolitan growth and adjusting to major industrial restructuring.
Collaborative planning is increasingly being advocated as a new paradigm because it generates commitment to commonly accepted objectives and fosters commitment to implementation. However, the long-term effects of implementation are seldom evaluated. In South East Queensland, Australia, a collaborative planning approach was used to manage regional growth. Based on six local government case studies, this research evaluates the consensus process and assesses the long-term implementation effects. I also evaluate the outputs of the collaborative planning process to reflect on its role in implementation. By adapting a policy implementation framework for the collaborative planning setting, I expound on the commonly cited criteria of a high-quality agreement and a structured approach to implementation.
Lee's ''Requiem for Large Scale Models'' had extensive ad verse effects, partly on modeling but largely on planning. This commentary examines Lee's analysis, and finds that with respect to modeling it was shortsighted and ultimately mistaken. More important, under cover of a critique of models, Lee is found to have introduced a radical and perhaps destructive view of planning, one which is especially important and especially damaging at a time when the foundations of planning require careful examination and collaborative redefinition. Unfortunately, the planning profession may have taken this argument seriously on the basis of some ignorance of and distaste for computer methods, and thus used Lee's advice to shoot itself in the foot. It is time to put this behind us and find ways to strengthen both planning and modeling through collaboration in investigating the real issues.
Many American cities are experiencing a rise in the number of residents in their downtowns. This phenomenon has deep roots but is extremely fragile. Six approaches to developing downtown housing dominate the arrangements. The public and private sectors have cooperated in many ways to attract this type of investment. Downtown housing, however, is only part of the larger puzzle of urban revitalization and metropolitan growth. Many questions regarding the nature of downtown land uses, including the relationship between housing and employment, remain. This article presents statistical evidence regarding downtown housing for 45 cities and outlines the approaches many have employed to capture these housing units. It also demonstrates the difficulty of defining a city's downtown.
Most case studies of successful high-technology, industry regions highlight the role of research universities in fostering regional economic development. The Portland, Oregon, region managed to root a thriving high-tech industry in the absence of this critical factor. In this article, I present a case study of the evolution of Portland's high-tech industry and propose that high-tech firms can act as surrogate universities that attract and develop labor, create knowledge, and function as incubators for startups. I conclude that planners working to develop high-tech industries in regions without major research universities should attract R&D-intensive firms, maintain information on key busineses and entrepreneurial ventures, support an innovation milieu, and set realistic goals.
This review essay considers four dimensions of the voluminous and esoteric literature on large-scale urban models. The literature on the first two dimensions, underlying theory and model specification, indicates that the current generation of models rests on much firmer foundations than did the models of twenty years ago. The third dimension, educational texts, now includes several excellent texts at the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels. Considerable success has also been made in the final, most difficult and ultimately most important area, that of practical experience, where a number of operational urban models are now available. Nevertheless, these models-and much of the underlying literature-continue to be inaccessible to most planners.
Reflecting on 50 years as a planning educator, Teitz describes planning education in one institution, the University of California, Berkeley, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, carrying through to the reorganization of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP) in the 1980s. How theory and practice engaged him during that time and later is discussed through the lens of his involvement in research, teaching, and planning consultancy and the formative phases of two research institutes.
Problem, research strategy, and findings: Computing and digital technologies have changed how data are created, analyzed, and communicated. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) Code of Ethics has no guidelines for planners working with emerging urban informatics. Here we make a theoretical argument based on the premise of epistemic justice: The idea that how planners collect, manage, disseminate, and use data all bear on justice in democratic decision making about cities.
Takeaway for practice: Substantial barriers exist to open data ethics in an information economy where exclusive access to data can drive profits. Emerging data systems can consolidate power in the hands of experts and large private firms to the exclusion of citizens and small, independent firms. Open data and code vitiates those problems to a limited degree, and AICP could benefit practitioners by adopting an open data ethic.
Problem, research strategy, and findings: Cities are increasingly experiencing the effects of climate change and taking steps to adapt to current and future natural hazard risks. Research on these efforts has identified numerous barriers to climate adaptation planning, but has not yet systematically evaluated the relative importance of different constraints for a large number of diverse cities. We draw on responses from 156 U.S. cities that participated in a 2011 global survey on local adaptation planning, 60% of which are planning for climate change. We use logistic regression analysis to assess the significance of 13 indicators measuring political leadership, fiscal and administrative resources, ability to obtain and communicate climate information, and state policies in predicting the status of adaptation planning. In keeping with the literature, we find that greater local elected officials commitment, higher municipal expenditures per capita, and an awareness that the climate is already changing are associated with cities engaging in adaptation planning. The presence of state policies on climate adaptation is surprisingly not a statistically significant predictor, suggesting that current policies are not yet strong enough to increase local adaptation planning. However, the model's sampling bias toward larger and more environmentally progressive cities may mask the predictive power of state policies and other indicators.Takeaway for practice: State governments have an opportunity to increase local political commitment by integrating requirements for climate-risk evaluations into existing funding streams and investment plans. Regional planning entities also can help overcome the lack of local fiscal capacity and political support by facilitating the exchange of information, pooling and channeling resources, and providing technical assistance to local planners.