Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (1972)

Proposition 187 was passed by California voters in 1994. Although ruled partially unconstitutional in the lower courts and currently enjoined, it prohibits people lacking legal residency status from obtaining any but emergency medical care at any health facility receiving public funds. Proposition 187 came in response to the surge in immigration to California during the 1980s and early 1990s and to the state's economic situation. We interviewed immigrant women to explore how they view Proposition 187, what they know about it, and how related fears may influence their use of health services. The women perceived Proposition 187 as discriminatory and directed primarily at Latinos, building on existing fears about their economically and socially marginalized position. Strategies the women used to maintain health services are discussed.
Each year, cigarette smoking causes more than 140,000 deaths among women in the United States. Here, we describe smoking trends among girls and women, including women of reproductive age and pregnant women. We also provide data regarding the prevalence of indicators of nicotine dependence among women in the United States. The data were derived from the National Health Interview Survey, High School Seniors Survey, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey. The prevalence of smoking among women overall is now declining at a rate comparable to that of men, and women are attempting cessation and maintaining abstinence at the same rate as men. However, smoking prevalence among women in certain demographic groups such as American Indians and Alaska Natives is high. Although the prevalence of smoking increased among young women (particularly women of lower educational attainment) in the early 1980s, more recent surveys show it is declining. Smoking prevalence among young black and Hispanic women is decreasing, but progress in decreasing smoking prevalence among young white women is slow. Young women appear to be as nicotine dependent as older women, and light smokers of all ages report indicators of nicotine dependence.
Retention is a critical problem in medical school education. We report here on research that examined gender differences in attrition rates between 1973 and 1992. Using secondary data compiled from the annual reports on undergraduate education published in JAMA, both descriptive and inferential analyses of medical school attrition rates were conducted. Data show that medical school attrition rates have steadily increased across the country since 1973 and that women drop out of medical school at consistently greater rates than men. These results highlight the importance of future analyses that attempt to delineate the causes as well as the consequences of dropping out of medical school for women and the institutions that support them.
To identify dietary trends among low socioeconomic status women of childbearing age from three ethnic groups from 1977 to 1996. The sample consisted of 19- to 44-year-old women at 185% of poverty with 12 years of education or less (n = 4682) from three US Department of Agriculture surveys. The Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R) and level of folate were the main outcomes measured. Changes in food consumption for several food groups were also examined. Diet quality significantly improved between 1977 and 1996 for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. All groups had significant decreases in saturated fat intake by 1996, but only Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women significantly decreased their total fat and cholesterol intakes. Fruit and vegetable intakes remained stable. Mean intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were below recommendations at every time point for all ethnic groups. All three groups decreased their intakes of butter, margarine, egg items, bacon, high-fat red meats, and low-fiber/high-fat breads and increased their intakes of high-fiber cereals, all of which are positive. These trends were balanced, however, by decreases in medium-fiber vegetables, soy, and legumes and increases in high-fat/high-fiber breads, high-fat desserts, high-fat salty snacks, and high-fat grain-based mixed dishes. This study highlights problem dietary habits that public health professionals need to address in order to reduce the prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases.
Several factors make 1980s Wisconsin a useful window on the social changes now shaping the response by psychiatry and other medical specialties to patients who accuse physicians of sexual misconduct. The state medical board disciplined 19 such physicians in the 1980s, in contrast to 1 each in the two prior decades, as the state weathered several highly publicized cases in which multiple complainants accused prominent psychiatrists. Wisconsin was one of the first states to enact criminalization (1984) and mandatory reporting (1988) laws. Also, the relatively high number of physicians (3% of the state's psychiatrists) disciplined in the 1980s allows a beginning look at the epidemiology of this problem. Several patterns emerged: 1) Lone complainants who are psychiatric patients face many pressures. Fewer than 25% of successful cases against psychiatrists involved a lone complainant, while all the nonpsychiatrists were disciplined on the basis of a single patient's complaint. 2) More than half of disciplined psychiatrists had regained licensure by decade's end. Neither multiple sexual complainants nor multiple types of complaints seemed to deter relicensure. However, no physician with a criminal conviction has been relicensed. 3) Surprisingly, several connections were noted among offenders, including mentorships, friendships, and therapy relationships. Three disciplined psychiatrists were past presidents of local psychiatric societies. Psychiatrists who had been disciplined were significantly more likely to have been trained under one of the eminent sexual abusers than were other male psychiatrists in the state.
A lengthy questionnaire asking about family background (parents, grandparents, and siblings), training and career, marriage, children, and gender discrimination was completed by 283 female physicians from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Demographic information gathered indicated that these physicians were similar to other female physicians in the United States. Information about values and attitudes of the physicians, their parents and husbands added depth to the demographic numbers. Differences between results for older (born before 1950) and younger physicians were rare. A high degree of gender discrimination pervaded the results. Results are discussed in terms of efforts to eliminate gender discrimination in the personal and professional lives of female physicians.
Top-cited authors
Bernard L Harlow
  • Boston University
Arline Geronimus
  • University of Michigan
L.ucile Adams-Campbell
  • Georgetown University
Erica Frank
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Kathryn E Moracco
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill