Journal of the American Medical Association

Published by American Medical Association (AMA)

Print ISSN: 0002-9955


[Not Available].

August 1949


3 Reads


Blood Volume in Health and Disease

April 1951


35 Reads

Blood volume is a complex problem not fully understood. The volume of blood in circulation is not a static quantity, rather, it is the net effect of counteracting forces in dynamic equilibrium. There are constant additions to the circulation and losses from the circulation, which in healthy persons tend to balance each other. Water, salts and nonprotein nitrogenous products pass back and forth through the capillary endothelium, into and out of the blood stream, with considerable freedom. Plasma proteins, which escape slowly, are matched by fresh accretions from lymph and from protein stores. Blood cell losses are replaced by newly formed cells. The result of this ceaseless activity is, within limits of physiological variation, a fairly constant blood volume. But, under abnormal conditions of hemorrhage, trauma and many diseases, that balance is upset and the volume of blood is altered. If the imbalance is severe, the efficiency of the entire

Antispasmodic compound 08958 in treatment of paralysis agitans

November 1953


7 Reads

The many new drugs introduced in recent years to relieve the tremor, rigidity, and poverty of movement of paralysis agitans (Parkinson's disease) give testimony to the fact that no universally effective treatment for this disorder has been discovered. The introduction of trihexyphenidyl (Artane)1 was an important advance in therapy, but its effectiveness is limited, and it has not entirely replaced the older solanaceous alkaloids, namely, atropine, scopolamine (Hyoscine), stramonium, and hyoscyamus. Initial successes with synthetic compounds, such as Rabellon,2 which contains belladonna alkaloids, caramiphen hydrochloride (Panparnit),3 diethazine (Diparcol),4 and the antihistaminics, principally diphenhydramine (Benadryl) hydrochloride,5 were encouraging, but these agents now seem to be inadequate for the majority of patients with paralysis agitans and have, for the most part, been reduced to the status of adjunct drugs. Similarly, agents tending to reduce spasticity, the curare derivatives and mephenesin (Tolserol),6 seem to have very limited

Spinal anesthesia in cesarean section: Critical analysis of about 1,200 cases with no maternal mortality

March 1954


1 Read

Although employed in cesarean section throughout the country since 1941, spinal anesthesia was not given extensively for this procedure at Children's Hospital in San Francisco until 1947. Since then, however, it has practically replaced all other forms of anesthesia for cesarean section at this institution. As shown in table 1, there were 13,508 deliveries at Children's Hospital during the six year period from 1947 through 1952. These included 1,427 cesarean sections, of which 1,236 were performed under spinal anesthesia, for an incidence of 86.61%. The shift to spinal anesthesia can be attributed only to some very definite advantages, which the majority of the obstetric surgeons of this staff recognized. The more important of these are, first, the complete absence of all irritating drugs and the untoward complications associated with inhalation anesthesia.1 In the 18 months prior to January, 1947, one patient died from inhalation of vomitus, following inhalation anesthesia,

Surgical experiences from 1,222 operations for undescended testis

March 1956


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• True cryptorchism must be distinguished from high retracted testis, which is normal in some boys up to the age of puberty. In true cryptorchism the testis cannot be palpated or, if palpable, cannot be displaced into the scrotum. An undescended testis can produce enough androgenic hormone to fulfill its endocrine function, but it is liable to mechanical injury and is unable to produce spermatozoa. The psychological need for correction is an important consideration. The evidence that such correction reduces the danger of subsequent malignancy is unconvincing. Orchiopexy generally involves both the treatment of an indirect inquinal hernia and the repositioning of the testis. In this series of operations there has never been recurrence of the hernia. Operations of the Torek type for repositioning, whereby the testis is temporarily bound to the thigh, are likely to damage the blood supply and give very poor results. The operation here described involves freeing the ductus deferens down to the base of the bladder and the spermatic vessels well up to the inferior pole of the kidney so as to minimize all tension. It is done on one side at a time. The operation is best done between the ages of 9 and 11. In a group of patients studied 10 years or more after bilateral orchiopexy, 79% have been shown to be fertile.

Study of effect of Miltown (2-methyl-2-n-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate) on psychiatric states

May 1955


5 Reads

The search for a medicament with sedative and relaxant properties has been a never-ending one in the progress of medicine. The earlier agents used included paraldehyde, chloral hydrate, and bromides. In 1903,1 the use of barbituric acid and its derivatives was a significant advance in this field, until the accompanying hazards of addiction, overdosage, and toxicity became apparent. While barbiturates are still the most widely used medicaments, the search progressed with the use of anticonvulsants (especially hydantoin derivatives). Even antihistaminic agents play a lesser role as sedatives. Meparfynol has also been introduced as a sedative-hypnotic, but here one must be alert to the possibility of liver damage. In recent years, mephenesin2 has entered the field. Partial success has been obtained with its use in certain anxiety states,3 in certain neurological and muscular disorders,4 and as an adjunct in alcoholism. The relative success of this preparation suggested

Antibiotics in acute bacillary dysentery: Observations in 1,408 cases with positive cultures

May 1952


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Bacillary dysentery historically is a disease of major importance to confined population groups. Epidemics occur repeatedly aboard ship, in institutions for the mentally defective and mentally ill, and in orphanages, jails, and prison camps. Experience with dysentery in the United Nations prisoner-of-war camp in Korea followed this historical pattern, despite the preventive measures instituted by the authorities. An important contributing factor to this lack of effectiveness was the high endemic level of infection at the time of capture. Bacteriological examination of 1,000 prisoners at the time they were brought to the camp showed 8% to be infected with pathogenic Shigella. During the past decade sulfonamide therapy has been established as highly effective in shigellosis.¹ The treatment of the sick persons in Korea was complicated by the fact that almost all the cases of bacillary dysentery were due to sulfonamide-resistant shigellae. This finding, based first on clinical observations, was supported later

Prognosis of angina pectoris and coronary occlusion; follow-up of 1,700 cases

August 1951


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There are comparatively few reports in the literature of large series of cases bearing on the prognosis of angina pectoris and coronary occlusion, and the available reports show considerable differences in their findings. Some of the reports refer only to cases that were followed till death and do not include those of patients still living, thus conveying a wrong impression of the actual prognosis. As examples of the differences in the longevity figures of angina pectoris as reported in the literature are the following: Herrick and Nuzum1 in a study of 200 patients, 50 of whom died, found the average longevity for the dead group to be three years. Mackenzie2 reported on 380 patients, 214 of whom died, with an average longevity for the dead group of 5.4 years. White3 reported on 200 patients, 66 of whom died with an average longevity of 3.4 years for the

Long-term follow-up of patients who received 10,098 spinal anesthetics: Failure to discover major neurological sequelae

January 1955


21 Reads

In anesthesiology there is a continuing healthy criticism of the agents and techniques used to achieve practical and safe conditions for surgical operations. This criticism arises both from within the ranks of the specialty and from outside. Hardly a drug or method is free of major disadvantages. Recent reports have described what seems to be an increasing incidence of cardiac arrest under anesthesia.¹ General anesthesia and particularly the employment of multiple agents have been blamed in part for this increased mortality. We hear that ether is not the safe agent it once was thought to be² and that curare may possess an inherent toxicity.³ Spinal anesthesia, an anesthetic technique with great advantages for the patient, surgeon, and anesthetist, is relatively free from the criticism of toxicity and the mortality associated with general anesthesia; on the other hand, the great hazard of spinal anesthesia in the minds of

Long-term follow-up of patients who received 10,098 spinal anesthetics. IV. Neurological disease incident to traumatic lumbar puncture during spinal anesthesia

May 1960


32 Reads

A critical evaluation of spinal anesthesia was made by studying the records of 8,460 patients who received 10,098 injections of spinal anesthetics; this group was compared with a group of 1,000 persons who received general anesthetics for the same types of operations and with 100 persons who received spinal anesthetics after induction with general anesthetics. No instance of adhesive arachnitis, transverse myelitis, or cauda equina syndrome was found, but neurological complications occasionally resulted from lumbar puncture per se. Two cases are described in which various persistent symptoms and disabilities followed unsuccessful attempts at administration of spinal anesthetics; in 17 other cases of difficult lumbar puncture paresthesias and other complaints occurred after the successful injection of the anesthetic. In spinal anesthesia proper selection of patients is essential, and lumbar puncture, whether for purposes of diagnosis or anesthesia, must be performed with meticulous attention to certain well-known details of technique.

Long-term follow-up of patients who received 10,098 spinal anesthetics: Syndrome of decreased intracranial pressure (headache and ocular and auditory difficulties)

July 1956


62 Reads

The headache that frequently follows spinal anesthesia is sometimes associated with visual and auditory difficulties and dizziness. This syndrome was studied in connection with 9,277 anesthetizations by the spinal technique, and the data were compared with those from 1,000 other patients who were given general anesthesia over the same period of time. The over-all incidence of the headache, which occurred in 9,277 anesthetizations, was 1,011, or 11%. The oldest patients were least susceptible to it, and men were less susceptible than women. Its incidence when needles of small diameter were used was much less than that with needles of large diameter; the 22-gauge needle was found best for routine use. Headache could be virtually eliminated by the employment of a 24-gauge needle. The data on duration and time of onset of the headache, on the effects of postural changes, and on the visual and auditory phenomena indicate that this syndrome results from a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure and that the decrease is caused by leakage of the fluid.

Hyperthermia (114F rectal) with recovery

August 1952


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The maximal temperature rise in man from which there can be complete recovery is a question of both practical and theoretical interest, which perhaps, in the future, can be definitely answered on the basis of numerous well-documented reports. At present, a categorical statement concerning this is not possible. Undoubtedly, the duration of the hyperthermia is of great importance in survival. In the older literature, there are a number of fantastic reports of extreme hyperthermia, ranging from 120 to 170 F; it is obvious these are fradulent. According to McNeal,¹ 114.8 F is the upper limit of hyperthermia that may be accepted as authentic without strong substantiating evidence. In his monograph on animal heat, Richet² listed 109 instances of hyperthermia, ranging from 107.6 to 112.2 F, with only 13 instances of survival, a survival incidence of about 11% for the group. Castellani and Chalmers,³ under the classification "hyperpyrexial

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