Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

Published by WB Saunders
Print ISSN: 0278-2391
Publications
The effect of perioperative chlorhexidine on the frequency of infectious complications through stage II was examined. Chlorhexidine was used perioperatively in 54.6% of patients (52.5% of implants) in a Dental Implant Clinical Research Group study with a database of 2,641 implants (595 patients). With chlorhexidine, there was a significant reduction in the number of infectious complications (4.1% vs 8.7%). Two percent of implants failed in the absence of an infectious complication, whereas 12% with infectious complications failed. This sixfold difference is highly significant. Chlorhexidine may reduce microbial complications when used in the immediate perioperative period.
 
To study the symptoms of patients during the 7 days after incisional biopsy of the oral mucosa and the application of polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate (Aloclair) gel or 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate gel. A total of 90 consecutive patients with lesions requiring histopathologic analysis were studied. These patients were divided randomly into 3 groups. Group I (control group) received no topical treatment. For group II, the site of surgical intervention was treated topically with polyvinylpyrrolidone sodium hyaluronate (Aloclair; Sinclair Pharma, Surrey, United Kingdom) gel 3 times daily for 1 week. Group III was treated the same as group II but with 0.2% chorhexidine digluconate gel. Using a visual analog scale, we determined the interval at which the postoperative pain was maximal, and which parts of the mouth experienced the most postoperative complications. The most intense peaks of maximal pain were recorded in the control group, with the maximal pain occurring 2 hours (median 2.2, range 0 to 8.5) after surgery, after which it tended to diminish gradually during the week of the study period. The maximal level of pain was significantly lower in groups II and III than in the control group (P = .048 and P = .054, respectively). The lip was the site most likely to experience maximal pain. Topical application of polyvinylpyrrolidone sodium hyaluronate and chlorhexidine digluconate decreases the symptoms of oral mucosa biopsy.
 
The treatment of zygomatic fractures varies among surgeons, and the cosmetic and functional results are frequently less than optimal. A treatment guideline based on a simple classification of zygomatic fractures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the indications for closed and open reduction, consistent methods of three-dimensional alignment and fixation, and the management of concomitant infraorbital rim and orbital floor fractures. Postoperative results with regard to infraorbital nerve and maxillary sinus dysfunction, malar asymmetry, and orbital complications in the treatment of 1,025 consecutive zygomatic fractures are presented.
 
Currently, nearly 1 in 5 Americans is at least 60 years of age. Bone atrophy, decreased capacity for tissue repair, and chronic disease are known to influence fracture patterns and operative algorithms in this age group. This study presents craniofacial trauma injury patterns and treatment in an elderly population at a major urban trauma center. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed from February 1998 through December 2010. Patients at least 60 years of age who met the inclusion criteria for craniofacial fractures identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code review and confirmed by author review of available computed tomograms were studied. Demographic information, fracture type, concomitant injuries, and management were recorded. Of 11,084 patients presenting with facial fracture, 1,047 were older than 60 years. The most common mechanism of injury was falls (50%), and most patients were men (59%). Commonly fractured areas included the nose (n = 452, 43%), maxilla (316, 30%), zygoma (312, 30%), orbital floor (280, 27%), and mandible (186, 18%), with 51 patients (5%) having a concomitant basilar skull fracture. Inpatient mortality and length of stay were significantly increased compared with the nongeriatric population (P < .01), although only 5% of all fractures were treated operatively. Fractures in the elderly tend to be minimally displaced midfacial fractures that do not warrant surgical intervention. Despite conservative management, the elderly are hospitalized longer than their younger counterparts, have increased critical care needs, and have higher mortality. These data support national medical preparedness in anticipating the craniofacial trauma needs of the aging US population and can be used to update treatment algorithms for these patients.
 
To evaluate current trends in facial trauma, records from 1,067 patients sustaining 1,515 mandibular fractures from 1979 to 1989 were reviewed. The greatest number of fractures occurred between the ages of 20 to 29 years. Sex distribution was approximately three males to one female. Altercations were found to have caused about half of the fractures, and motor vehicle accidents accounted for nearly one-third. Angle fractures were most common, constituting 26.7% of the total. The most common site of mandibular fracture resulting from altercation was the angle (39.1%); condylar, symphysis, and alveolar fractures less commonly resulted from altercations than from motorcycle and automobile accidents.
 
To determine the relative frequency of central odontogenic tumors in relation to all biopsy specimens and to one another in an oral pathology biopsy service and to compare the data with previous studies from different parts of the world. Files from the Pacific Oral Pathology Laboratory of the University of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA served as a source of material for this study. Files were systematically searched for all cases of central (intraosseous) odontogenic tumors during a 20-year period. Central odontogenic tumors were identified in 1,088 (1.2%) cases out of the 91,178 accessed. Individually, of all odontogenic tumors, 75.9% were odontomas. The prevalence of the remaining tumors appears to be a rare occurrence. The second most common was ameloblastoma (11.7%), followed by odontogenic myxoma (2.2%). Odontomas are considered hamartomas or developmental anomalies. When excluded from the list of individual odontogenic tumors, ameloblastoma is the most common (48.5%), followed by odontogenic myxoma (9.2%), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (7.3%), ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (7.3%), ameloblastic fibroma (6.5%), calcifying odontogenic cyst (6.5%), and odontogenic fibroma (6.1%). Each remaining tumor comprises less than 4%. Studies related to the relative frequency of individual odontogenic tumors from different parts of the world are difficult to compare because most studies are outdated, the list of tumors is limited, and new entities are not included. To determine the real relative frequency, further studies should be conducted, especially in Western societies, by experienced pathologists in the field of odontogenic tumors.
 
Outcome was measured from data collected on 1,180 consecutive ambulatory oral surgery patients, two thirds of whom were treated under general anesthesia and the remainder who were treated under local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation. Three patients (0.25%) required admission on the day of surgery; all had undergone general anesthesia. The surgery-related complication rate in the general anesthesia group (1:132) was similar to that for local anesthesia and sedation (1:128). However, anesthesia-related complications had an incidence of 1:99 in the general anesthesia group, but were absent in those receiving local anesthesia and sedation. Eight patients (0.7%) required hospital readmission after being discharged, mostly because of complications of surgery. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recovery room after local anesthesia and sedation (6%) was less than after general anesthesia (14%) (P < .01) Average recovery times to sitting out of bed and being ready for discharge were less after local anesthesia and sedation (38 +/- 15 minutes and 120 +/- 39 minutes, respectively) than after general anesthesia (61 +/- 50 minutes and 141 +/- 62 minutes). At the time of follow-up during the first few postoperative days, 7% of patients had gone to a family doctor and 4% to hospital accident and emergency departments, usually for minor problems. Paracetamol 500 mg plus codeine phosphate 30 mg was effective in 97% of cases when provided as a take-home analgesic. Ninety-nine percent of patients were satisfied with their management.
 
A series of 1,521 mandibular fractures are reviewed with respect to age and sex distribution, causes, anatomic distribution, and method of treatment. The complications encountered are also discussed.
 
The aims of the present study were to isolate and characterize cultured synovial cells from human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) specimens and to investigate the effect of interleukin (IL)-1beta on IL-8 production and gene expression in those cells. Synovial cells (HTS cells) were isolated from TMJ synovial tissues using an outgrowth method and then primary cultured. The cells were examined for cell-specific markers of fibroblast, macrophage, and dendritic cells using immunocytochemistry. HTS cells were then treated with IL-1beta, and amounts of IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-8 production and expression were also investigated using immunocytochemistry and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. HTS cells were positive for the fibroblast-specific markers, such as vimentin and propyl 4-hydroxylase. The macrophage or dendritic cell markers and HLA class II antigen were negative. Furthermore, IL-1beta enhanced IL-8 production in HTS cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and stimulated IL-8 gene expression. HTS cells may provide important advantages for studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms in the TMJ. In addition, we found that IL-1beta stimulated IL-8 production through an increase in IL-8 gene expression in HTS cells, which may be associated with the increase of infiltrating inflammatory cells seen in the synovial membrane of TMJ disorders.
 
To review the clinicopathologic features of oral mucoceles, with special consideration given to unusual variants and exclusion of salivary duct cysts. This was a retrospective consecutive case review of all oral mucoceles diagnosed by the Medical University of South Carolina, Oral Pathology Biopsy Laboratory, from 1997 to 2006. The following data were recorded: patient demographics, clinical features (anatomic location, color, size, and consistency), clinical impression, history of trauma, history of periodic rupture, and occurrence of unusual mucocele variants. During the study period, 1,824 oral mucoceles were diagnosed. Of these cases, 1,715 represented histopathologically confirmed cases that were not recurrences. There was no significant gender predilection, and the average age was 24.9 years. The most common locations were the lower labial mucosa (81.9%), floor of mouth (5.8%), ventral tongue (5.0%), and buccal mucosa (4.8%); infrequent sites included the palate (1.3%) and retromolar area (0.5%). The lesions most often were described as blue/purple/gray or normal in color. The mean maximum diameter was 0.8 cm (range, 0.1 to 4.0 cm). In 456 cases, a history of trauma was reported, and in 366 cases a history of periodic rupture was reported. Unusual variants included superficial mucoceles (n = 3), mucoceles with myxoglobulosis (n = 6), and mucoceles with papillary synovial metaplasialike change (n = 2). Our results confirm the findings of previous investigators regarding the major clinicopathologic features of oral mucoceles. Special variants of oral mucoceles occur infrequently, although it is important to recognize these variants to avoid misdiagnosis.
 
This study compared the use of 4% articaine in association with 1:100,000 (10 mug/mL; A100) or 1:200,000 (5 mug/mL; A200) epinephrine in lower third molar removal. Fifty healthy volunteers underwent removal of symmetrically positioned lower third molars, in 2 separate appointments, under local anesthesia with either A100 or A200, in a double-blind, randomized, and crossed manner. Latency, duration of postoperative analgesia, duration of anesthetic action on soft tissues, intraoperative bleeding, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. A100 and A200 presented very similar latency (1.64 +/- 0.08 and 1.58 +/- 0.08 minutes, respectively; P > .05). Identical volumes of both anesthetic solutions were used: 2.7 mL = 108 mg of articaine plus 27 mug (A100) or 13.5 mug (A200) of epinephrine. The 2 solutions provided similar duration of postoperative analgesia regardless of bone removal (around 200 minutes; P > .05). The 2 solutions also had a similar duration of anesthetic action on soft tissues (around 250 minutes; P > .05). The surgeon's rating of intraoperative bleeding was considered very close to minimal. Transient changes in hemodynamic parameters were observed, but these were neither clinically significant nor attributable to the type of anesthetic used (P > .05). An epinephrine concentration of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 in 4% articaine solution does not affect the clinical efficacy of this local anesthetic. It is possible to successfully use the 4% articaine formulation with a lower concentration of epinephrine (1:200,000 or 5 mug/mL) for lower third molar extraction with or without bone removal.
 
Primary cosmetic rhinoplasty is one of the most complex of cosmetic surgical procedures in the maxillofacial area that requires precise consideration to both form and function. The complex and variable anatomy, highly visible position of the nose, and distinct patient desires contribute to the complexity of this procedure. This study reports the combined results of 101 consecutive primary cosmetic rhinoplasties at 2 centers. A retrospective chart review was completed on all patients who had primary cosmetic rhinoplasty with or without septoplasty and who were operated on by the senior authors (S.C.B. and H.M.) from June 2006 through December 2008. A standard physical examination, including photo documentation, was completed on each patient preoperatively. All patients were followed periodically after surgery for at least 12 months. Outcome was measured by both subjective and objective measures of cosmetic and functional (breathing) outcome. The following data were collected and analyzed: age of patient, gender, chief cosmetic and functional complaint, details of surgical procedure (including septoplasty, grafts, and donor sites), complications, and report of subjective outcome at final evaluation. One hundred one patients (n = 101, average age 24.4 ± 6.8 years old) were enrolled in the study. Most patients presented for consultation regarding cosmetic rhinoplasty (80%) versus septorhinoplasty (20%). Although most of the patients (63%) were treated with septorhinoplasty, the open rhinoplasty (transcollumellar) incision was used in 61% of patients versus the closed rhinoplasty (39%) technique. The most commonly performed combination of techniques used was the combination of nasal tip modification, with dorsal reduction and nasal osetotomies (54%), followed by tip modification with dorsal reduction (19%), and dorsal reduction with osteotomies (18%) and no tip modification. In the 50 patients who required a graft, in 80% the donor site was the nasal septum. Spreader grafts were used in 14% of patients, and a combination of shield/tip graft was used in 52%. The following complications were observed: unhappy patient 16%, dehiscence at incision 5%, asymmetry requiring revision 6%, and infection 1%. In the 63 patients that had septoplasty, 6 (9.5%) reported that their breathing was not improved. In this series 11 patients (11%) received a revision rhinoplasty. Primary cosmetic rhinoplasty is 1 of the more complex facial cosmetic procedures. The vast majority of complications can be avoided with careful and extensive treatment planning. In this series we found a complication and revision rate similar to that reported in the literature.
 
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a devastating side effect of long-term bisphosphonate (BP) use. We present the largest case series from a single department. This case series included 101 ONJ patients. Data on demographics, medical background, type and duration of BP use, possible triggering events, mode of therapy, and outcome were recorded. ONJ was associated with intravenous BPs in 85 patients and with oral BPs in 16 patients. It was diagnosed after 48, 27, and 67 months of pamidronate, zoledronic acid, and alendronate use, respectively. Long-term antibiotics and minimal surgical procedures resulted in complete or partial healing in 18% and 52% of the patients, respectively; 30% had no response. There was no association between ONJ and diabetes, steroid and antiangiogenic treatment, or underlying periodontal disease. Diagnostic biopsies aggravated lesions without being informative about pathogenesis. A conservative regimen is our treatment of choice. Solutions for decreasing morbidity and poor outcome of ONJ remain elusive.
 
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most frequently detected primary malignancy of the salivary gland and is characterized by a marked variation in prognosis. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of p27Kip1, Ki-67, and CRTC1 (also called MECT1, TORC1, and WAMTP1)-MAML2 fusion in MEC. MEC cases (n = 101) were examined for p27Kip1 and Ki-67 expression using immunohistochemistry and for CRTC1-MAML2 fusion transcript using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. p27Kip1, Ki-67, and the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion transcript were expressed in 71, 31, and 34 of the 101 cases, respectively. p27Kip1 and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion were associated with favorable clinicopathologic tumor features and Ki-67 with aggressive clinicopathologic features. Multivariate survival analyses were performed that included the following 10 clinicopathologic factors: age, gender, tumor site, tumor size, nodal metastasis, clinical stage, histologic grade, p27 expression, Ki-67 expression, and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion. For disease-free survival, only p27Kip1 expression was significant as an independent prognostic factor. For overall survival, p27Kip1 expression, CRTC1-MAML2 fusion, and tumor size were significant. In each analysis, p27Kip1 and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion were independent of the clinical stage. Ki-67 expression was not selected in either multivariate analysis. p27Kip1 and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion were associated with favorable clinicopathologic tumor features, and both were useful in predicting the overall survival of patients with MEC. For disease-free survival, p27Kip1 might be the most useful prognostic factor. In contrast, Ki-67 might not be a very powerful prognostic indicator for either survival point.
 
To report the incidence of peripheral trigeminal nerve posttraumatic impairments and to compare different recovery patterns as observed in consideration of different fracture-related variables within 12-month follow-up. Ninety-seven consecutive patients with 103 facial fractures were included involving emergence areas of supraorbital nerve, infraorbital nerve, or the region between the mandibular and mental foramina. Presurgical and postsurgical clinical neurosensory testing sessions were performed in each patient. Results of these assessments were compared within fracture characteristics and different sites of trauma. Statistical analysis (chi-square test) was performed on clinical observations. The incidence of trigeminal nerve impairments was 70.9% (54.4% in nondisplaced fractures, 88.2% in dislocated fractures, 100% in fractures with a direct nerve injury). Severe impairment was found in direct nerve injures and in many dislocated fractures. Mean recovery time was smaller in nondisplaced fractures than in dislocated fractures. Considering fracture site, the highest incidence of initial trigeminal nerve impairment was found in midfacial nondisplaced fractures. Midfacial fractures had better prognosis than mandibular fractures, and best prognosis was encountered in nondisplaced midfacial fractures. Residual hypoesthesia persisted in 11 sides with direct nerve injury after 12 months and involved tactile and discriminative sensibilities. Recovery patterns of posttraumatic trigeminal dysfunction are related to site and type of fracture; intraoperative assessment of involvement of nerve bundles within fracture rimes was associated with an incomplete recovery at the 12th month. Impairment of temperature and nociception are highly related to a direct nerve injury.
 
This study evaluated the ability of certain clinical and pathologic parameters to predict distant metastases (DMs) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A total of 103 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were studied. None had persistent or recurrent disease above the clavicle. Of these patients, 48 (47%) had metastatic lymph nodes. The relationships of tumor stage, primary site, clinical growth pattern, tumor differentiation, regional node status, and extranodal spread (ENS) with DMs were evaluated. Twenty-one (20%) of the 103 patients developed DMs as the initial treatment failure. The incidence of DMs was significantly higher in patients with neck metastases (40%) than in those without neck metastases (4%) (P < .001). The degree of histologic differentiation and the presence of ENS were also correlated with the subsequent occurrence of DMs. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of DMs based on sex, location, stage of the disease, and clinical growth pattern. On multivariate analysis, only pathologic nodal status and ENS proved to be independent cofactors of DMs. The most common site of DMs was the lungs (56%), followed by bone (16%) and skin (16%). The presence of pathologically positive nodes is the most critical factor to influence the eventual development of DMs.
 
Intraoral photograph on first postoperative day shows necrosis of labial mucosa over osteotomized segment. Gunaseelan et al. Retrospective Evaluation of AMO. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009. 
NUMBER OF PATIENTS WHO UNDERWENT AMO ALONE, OR IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER PROCEDURES, WITH DETAILS
Intraoral photograph on postoperative day 30 shows denudation of bone over central incisors and near canine, first premolar region. Gunaseelan et al. Retrospective Evaluation of AMO. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009. 
Intraoral photograph on postoperative day 50 shows granulation occurring over denuded bone spots and healing of osteotomy segment in premolar region. Gunaseelan et al. Retrospective Evaluation of AMO. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009. 
COMPLICATIONS ENCOUNTERED, WITH NUMBER OF PATIENTS IN EACH CATEGORY
To study the intraoperative and perioperative complications associated with anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO), and assess its safety and predictability in orthognathic surgery. We performed a retrospective evaluation of 103 patients undergoing AMO as a single procedure, or in combination with other osteotomies over a period of 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. Twenty-seven (26.2%) patients in our series of 103 had complications of varying severity: 43.3% of these were soft tissue-related, and 36.6% were attributable to dental causes. All other complications accounted for the remaining 20%. Although its indications are limited, AMO is a safe and reliable procedure in routine orthognathic surgery.
 
This study analyzed potential risk factors in patients who received radiation therapy and then developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN). A group of 104 patients who developed osteoradionecrosis of the jaws were reviewed treated between 1972 and 1992. The most common affected site was the mandible (99 cases, 95.2%), followed by the maxilla (5 cases, 4.8%). Among all cases, 93 (89.4%) were induced-trauma ORN, and 11 (10.6%) were spontaneous ORN. The following risk factors were considered as predisposing factors for the appearance of ORN: Anatomic location of the tumor, tumor surgery, total radiation dose, dose rate/day, mode of radiation delivery, time from radiation therapy until the onset of ORN, and dental status. ORN developed more frequently with oral cancer than other head and neck cancers. The size of the tumor seemed not to influence the incidence of ORN except when the tumor invade the adjacent bone. Type of radiation delivery total bone dose, and modes of radiation appeared to influence the risk of ORN occurrence. After conservative treatment, 44 (42.3%) cases had complete healing and resolution 34 (32.6%) cases had a stable, chronic ORN process, and 26 (25.1%) cases had acute and progressive ORN. An understanding of the risk factors is important in preventing ORN after radiation therapy.
 
This prospective study analyzed 105 cases treated using the Gillies temporal approach for fractures of the zygoma. In 97 cases (92%) this was sufficient. Only eight cases required open reduction. It is suggested that the Gillies method be used more frequently, because it is associated with minimal morbidity and a short duration of general anesthesia.
 
Eighty-three patients with cleft lip and cleft palate were treated by secondary bone grafts to the 106 alveolar clefts. In 98% of the alveolar clefts, the graft was successful and the oronasal fistula was closed. There were only occasional other complications, all but one of which were minor and did not affect the final result. Morbidity was low. Compared with older patients, the pre-teen group of patients not only had no complications of consequence but experienced less morbidity. The 100% success rate and the lower morbidity in the pre-teen group of patients thus favor operating on patients at the younger age.
 
The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma may require mandibular resection to secure adequate margin. This bone resection often is segmental or marginal mandibulectomy. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the local control and survival after surgical treatment of oral cancer, according to these 2 different mandibular resection procedures. We conducted a retrospective study of a 20-year cohort of 106 patients who underwent marginal or segmental mandibulectomy for oral cancer. All patients had a biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma involving either the floor of the mouth, mandibular gingiva, retromolar trigone, tongue, buccal mucosa, or oropharynx. The type of mandibular resection and treatment outcome were compared, using an univariate analysis by the Pearson chi(2) test, logistic regression model for multivariate analysis, and Kaplan-Meier method to determine survival. The 5-year observed survival rate was 60.35%. The presence of histologic mandibular invasion increased the local recurrence rate. Early tumor stages (P =.02) were found to be associated with decreased local recurrence rates. Our findings indicate that tumor stage and size of mandibulectomy are more important than the type of mandibulectomy in predicting histologic bone involvement. The cases treated with a greater than 4 cm bone resection showed a lower survival rate than those treated with less than 4 cm mandibulectomy (P =.01). Patients in advanced stages (P =.006) and those with surgical margin (P =.0001) or the bone (P =.003) affected by the tumor showed a statistically significant lower survival rate. However, no statistically significant differences were found between patients treated by marginal or segmental mandibulectomy. Among the prognostic factors studied, the status of the surgical resection margin, the bony involvement and the size of mandibulectomy affected the prognosis for oral carcinoma. Mandibular conservation surgery is oncologically safe for patients with squamous carcinoma in early stages. The marginal technique was not associated with worse prognosis.
 
To report our experience with 106 cases of lip cancer. We treated 106 patients with stages T1, T2, or T3 lip cancer (76, 22, and 8 cases, respectively). For the 34 T1 lesions up to 1 cm in diameter, we used a V or W excision. In the 42 T1 lesions greater than 1 cm and the 20 T2 lesions, we used the staircase technique. In 2 T2 cases, the carcinoma was located on the labial commissure and was treated with the Fries technique. For the 8 T3 cases, we used the Bernard-Freeman-Fries technique. In 28 patients, a lip shave was performed and tumor was removed. The 7 patients who were N+ at diagnosis underwent modified radical neck dissection and radiotherapy. Ten patients died during the follow-up period of 11 to 65 months: 8 of unrelated causes and 2 of new upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma. None of the patients died of their lip cancer. Lip cancer is a frequent disease of the oral cavity. Although general agreement has been reached concerning stage T and N+ surgical treatment, unresolved questions remain with regard to N0 treatment. We present our experience and suggestions.
 
The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the clinicopathologic features and treatment of oral pyogenic granuloma in Jordanian patients. Information regarding 108 cases of pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity that underwent biopsy were retrieved from the records of patients seen at the maxillofacial and periodontology units of the Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, during an 11-year period from 1991 to 2001. Data were reviewed and analyzed for age, gender, site, treatment, and clinical and histopathologic features. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 85 years (mean, 30 years), with the greatest degree of occurrence (26.8%) in the second decade. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.7. The mean age for females age was higher than that for males. The most frequently involved site was the gingiva (44.4%); other sites were the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Gingival pyogenic granulomas were more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, with the anterior region of both jaws being more commonly affected. The labiobuccal gingiva of both jaws was more commonly affected. The main complaint was bleeding (59.3%), and almost half of the lesions had a pedunculated base, with surface ulceration in 9.2% of cases. The mean greatest granuloma diameter was 10 mm. All lesions were surgically excised, with 5.8% of cases known to have recurred. The clinicopathologic features of oral pyogenic granuloma in Jordanians are similar to those of other whites. In this series, we found that with surgical excision of pyogenic granuloma, there was a low recurrence rate.
 
Although most cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) are odontogenic in origin, reports of this disease in the dental literature are sparse. The purpose of this study was to review the cases treated on our service, and to analyze the features of this disease and the responses to management, to supplement the understanding of this relatively rare and life-threatening disease. All cases of infection admitted to the OMS service in a period of 10.5 years were studied retrospectively. The diagnosis of CNF was established by the findings on surgical exploration and histologic examination. The patients' age, sex, medical status, causes of the infection, bacteriology, computed tomography scan findings, surgical interventions, complications, survival, and other clinical parameters were reviewed. A total of 422 cases of infection were admitted, and 11 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis were found. The incidence of CNF was 2.6% among the infections hospitalized on the OMS service. There were 7 male and 4 female patients. Eight patients were older than 60 years of age. Seven patients had immunocompromising conditions, including diabetes mellitus in 4, concurrent administration of steroid in 2, uremia in 1, and a thymus carcinoma in 1. All patients showed parapharyngeal space involvement; four also showed retropharyngeal space involvement. Gas was found in the computed tomography scan in 6 patients, extending to cranial base in 3 of them. Anaerobes were isolated in 73% of the infections, whereas Streptococcus species were uniformly present. All patients received 1 or more debridements. Major complications occurred in 4 patients, including mediastinitis in 4, septic shock in 2, lung empyema in 1, pleural effusion in 2, and pericardial effusion in 1. All major complications developed in the immunocompromised patients, leading to 2 deaths. The mortality rate in this study was 18%. Early surgical debridement, intensive medical care, and a multidisciplinary approach are advocated in the management of CNF.
 
Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaw is a rare, nonsuppurative, chronic inflammation of an unknown cause. The disease is not age specific. So far, only case reports of this disease with an onset in childhood or adolescence have been described. Review of the patient data of our department from the past 30 years revealed 11 patients with an early onset of PCO in childhood and during puberty. Demographic data, clinical course, radiologic and histologic examinations, and treatment modalities are described and compared with the literature with special emphasis on the somewhat confusing terminology used for this pathology. We present a group of 11 patients with an early onset of PCO of the mandible, which, to our knowledge, is the largest described series to date. The series shows the complexity of this disease in a young patient population, demanding a careful evaluation of each case before initiation of therapy.
 
To investigate the prevalence, anatomic sites, and management of sports-related maxillofacial fractures in New Zealand. A retrospective analysis of 561 patients presenting with sports-related maxillofacial fractures between 1996 and 2006 was conducted. Variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, cause of injury, site of fracture, and method of treatment. The mean patient age was 26.2 years, with a male:female ratio of 9:1. Sports-related facial fractures accounted for 21.7% of all fractures, with most of these secondary to rugby (52.0%), cycling (15.3%), cricket (7.1%), and soccer (4.8%). Mandibular fractures were the most frequent presentation (41.4), followed by zygomatic (29.4%) and orbital floor fractures (16.9%). Almost 50% of the patients from each sport required active treatment, with the majority requiring open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture (60.3%). The prevalence of sports-related facial fractures increased between the first 6 years (17.6%) and the next 5 years (25.8%) of the 11-year study period. The March-to-August period had a considerably higher number of fractures compared with the rest of the year. Nearly 20% of all maxillofacial fractures were sports-related, with most occurring in males. The prevalence of sports-related facial fractures increased over the study period. Most of the fractures involved the mandible and zygoma. Active intervention was required for almost 50% of the injuries.
 
Vascular pain of the face constitutes a variant of pain of the head, and includes migraine, cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and a facial variant of the so-called lower-half migraine. Lower-half facial migraine is a condition difficult to classify; according to the international classifications it could not be found as an individual entity. The objective of the present study is to determine the difficulties we encountered in diagnosis, the ineffective treatments provided, and the pharmacologic treatment effect. A study is made of 11 cases of lower-half facial migraine, corresponding to 10 women and 1 man (mean age, 35 years), commenting on the clinical characteristics of the disorder and its treatment options. The location of the pain often mimics dental pain, and can lead to a mistaken diagnosis and to the application of inappropriate therapeutic measures. Forty-five percent of the patients had a history of endodontic treatment before the development of pain in the initially affected quadrant. Once the pain had developed, extractions were carried out in 36% of cases in an unsuccessful attempt to secure symptom relief. Our pharmacologic treatment consisted of ergotamine in 9 cases and the remaining 2 patients received indomethacin. Nine patients (82%) improved as a result of treatment, with an important reduction in the frequency of the pain episodes and intensity of pain. One patient failed to respond to ergotamine, while another patient failed to improve with indomethacin. Both were prescribed only minor analgesics. The treatment of migraine occurring in the face is no different than that provided for pain occurring in the head.
 
Eleven cases of aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible treated during a 7-year period were studied. The clinicopathologic features, age distribution, treatment, and surgical results were evaluated and compared with the international literature.
 
Literature on marginal mandibulectomy deals mainly with floor of mouth cancers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oncologic outcome of marginal mandibulectomy in buccal sulcus cancer as compared with floor of mouth cancer. Chart review of 179 patients who underwent marginal mandibulectomy during 1993 to 2003 at Tata Memorial Hospital yielded 161 marginal mandibulectomies done for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Oncologic outcomes in terms of disease control and cause-specific survival for the gingival buccal and tongue/floor of mouth cancers were compared. Independent impact of various prognostic factors on the local control and cause-specific survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 137 marginal mandibulectomies were done for SCC in gingival buccal complex and 24 for floor of mouth SCC. Bone was microscopically involved in 13 (8.1%) cases and mucosal margin of excision showed tumor in 12 (7.5%) cases. However, they had no influence on locoregional failure or cause-specific survival. Cause-specific survival at 2 and 5 years was 85.6% and 72.2%, respectively. Cause-specific survival at 5 years was significantly better for buccal cancer than floor of mouth cancer (P = .041). On multivariate analysis patients with floor of mouth cancer were at a 3 times higher risk of dying of disease than those with buccal cancer. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy in buccal sulcus cancer achieves at least as good local control and survival as compared with the floor of mouth cancer.
 
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical and radiologic results, over an 11-year period, of resorbable hydroxyapatite used as a bone substitute in maxillary sinus elevation. Between 1996 and 2007, we treated 26 patients with maxillary sinus elevation (27 sinuses) using resorbable hydroxyapatite and simultaneous insertion of 47 titanium implants. Patients were recruited, screened, and accepted or rejected sequentially based on specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Ten months later, 2-stage surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation were performed. During the 11-year follow-up period (mean, 6 years), all the implants appeared clinically and radiologically integrated. The cumulative survival rate was 100%. During the observation period, the resorption of the graft apically to the implant was 1.8 mm on average. The posterior area of the maxilla often represents a challenging clinical situation because of either the lack of alveolar bone or the structural characteristics of the trabeculae in that specific area. The high survival rate of the implants and the stability of the mineralization of the graft confirmed that resorbable hydroxyapatite was a suitable material for sinus grafting.
 
This article describes construction of the average face and its application in the clinical environment. A total of 72 children, mean age 11.8 years, were selected for the study. Laser-scanned images of the subjects were obtained under a reproducible and controlled environment with 2 Minolta Vivid 900 (Minolta, Osaka, Japan) optical laser-scanning devices assembled as a stereo pair. A set of left and right scanned images was taken for each subject and each scan took an average of 2.5 seconds. These scanned images were processed and merged to form a composite 3-dimensional soft tissue reproduction of the subjects using commercially-available reverse modeling software. The differences in facial morphology were measured using shell deviation color maps. The average face was used to compare differences between male and female groups and 3 subjects with craniofacial anomalies. The difference between the average male and female face was 0.460 +/- 0.353 mm. The areas of greatest deviation were at the zygomatic area and lower jaw line, with the males being more prominent. The results of the surface deviation between the subjects with craniofacial anomalies were significant. The construction of the average face provides an interesting perspective into measuring changes in groups of patients and also acts as a useful template for the comparison of craniofacial anomalies.
 
Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA) is a rare odontogenic tumor. Previously, only 39 cases of PA had been reported in the English literature. In this article 11 additional cases of PA are presented. Concordance with previous cases was evident with regard to race, clinical appearance, and site of predilection. However, differences were observed with regard to age, sex distribution, and predominant histologic pattern. The average age in the current cases is younger, there is no male bias, and the most common histologic pattern is plexiform rather than follicular or acanthomatous. Recurrence following simple excision is rare, but has been reported. Long-term postoperative follow-up is recommended.
 
Centrally occurring salivary gland neoplasms of the jaws are rare. The clinical and histologic features of 11 cases including mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma were reviewed. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 67 years, with a mean age of 45 years. Males and females were almost equally affected. Ten cases were intramandibular and 1 case was of maxillary origin. Eight of 11 tumors either were histologically associated with an odontogenic cyst, or there was some recent history of exodontia in the tumor area. A review of the pertinent literature yielded 127 previously reported centrally occurring primary salivary gland tumors arising within the maxilla and mandible. An analysis of these cases, their clinical and histologic characteristics, as well as a discussion regarding their probable histogenesis and new suggestions for clinical staging, has been included.
 
One hundred benign and ten malignant pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland were analyzed. Follow up ranged from two to 20 years. Of 54 cases of benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, recurrence was noted in five cases (9.2%). The five-year recurrence rate was 17.2%. Of the six malignant pleomorphic adenoma, recurrence within the first ten years took place in four patients (66.6%).
 
Forty-six patients with maxillofacial squamous cell cancer of variable keratinization underwent radioisotope diagnosis using Indium 111-A-bleomycin. This new technique was applied to expand the battery of diagnostic tools available for detecting maxillofacial neoplasms. Its high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (96%) make it well suited for detection of both local and distant recurrences as well as tumor regrowth. Preliminary whole body retention measurements also indicate that this technique looks promising for potential therapeutic use.
 
This is a retrospective review of 113 hospitalized children with maxillofacial infections. The upper face (orbits, paranasal sinuses, maxillary teeth, and cheeks) was affected most frequently in younger children (mean age = 4.03 years), and the source of infection was often unknown. The patients were treated empirically with a second-generation cephalosporin. Lower-face infections (mandibular teeth, submental, sublingual, and submandibular structures) occurred more frequently in older children (mean age = 5.56 years) and were likely to be of odontogenic origin. Empiric therapy in lower face infections usually consisted of penicillin.
 
This retrospective study reviewed cases of fractures of the mandibular angle to identify personal data, social traits, fracture characteristics, treatment modalities, and postoperative complications. From April 1999 until July 2004, 114 patients were treated for 115 fractures of the mandibular angle by the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Piracicaba Dental School-Unicamp, in Brazil. More angle fractures were observed in Caucasian (55%) men (89%) with some kind of drug addiction (62%). Patient mean age was 27 years. The majority of fractures in this study were sustained in altercations, including gunshot wounds (43%), followed by vehicle accidents, including bicycles and being struck by a car (39%). Open fractures were the most frequent (90%), with prevalence of the left side (57%). Only 1 patient sustained bilateral angle fractures. Ninety-seven patients (85%) underwent open reduction. Complications occurred in 19 patients (17%); 10 (9%) were infections. Of the total number of complications, 3 underwent another surgical intervention for refixation. The factors that contributed to the development of postoperative complications were social risks that included alcohol abuse, smoking, and intravenous and nonintravenous drug abuse. Angle fracture management outcomes are affected by many factors beyond method of fixation.
 
In recent years, numerous cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported involving both intravenous and oral therapy regimens. The majority of these cases have involved intravenous bisphosphonates. Subsequently, drug manufacturers and the US Food and Drug Administration issued warnings about possible bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw. The American Dental Association and the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons assembled expert panels to formulate treatment guidelines. Both panels differentiated between patients receiving bisphosphonates intravenously and those receiving the drugs orally. However, the recommendations were based on limited data, especially with regard to patients taking oral bisphosphonates. We wanted to ascertain the extent to which bisphosphonate-associated necrosis of the jaw has occurred in our dental implant patients. We also wanted to determine whether there was any indication that the bisphosphonate therapy affected the overall success of the implants as defined by Albrektsson and Zarb. We identified 1,319 female patients over the age of 40 who had received dental implants at Montefiore Medical Center between January 1998 and December 2006. A survey about bisphosphonate therapy was mailed to all 1,319 patients. Responses were received from 458 patients of whom 115 reported that they had taken oral bisphosphonates. None had received intravenous bisphosphonates. All 115 patients were contacted and informed about the risk of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw. Seventy-two patients returned to the clinic for follow-up clinical and radiological evaluation. A total of 468 implants were placed in the 115 patients who reported that they had received oral bisphosphonate therapy. There is no evidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw in any of the patients evaluated in the clinic and those contacted by phone or e-mail reported no symptoms. Of the 468 implants, all but 2 integrated fully and meet criteria for establishing implant success. Implant success rates were comparable for patients receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy and those not receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy. Guidelines for treatment of dental patients receiving intravenous bisphosphonate treatments should be different than for patients taking the oral formulations of these medications. In this study, oral bisphosphonate therapy did not appear to significantly affect implant success. Implant surgery on patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy did not result in bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw. Nevertheless, sufficient evidence exists to suggest that all patients undergoing implant placement should be questioned about bisphosphonate therapy including the drug taken, the dosage, and length of treatment prior to surgery. For patients having a history of oral bisphosphonate treatment exceeding 3 years and those having concomitant treatment with prednisone, additional testing and alternate treatment options should be considered.
 
This study evaluated the outcome of a high condylar shave with meniscal repositioning (Walker repair) in patients with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Changes in incisal opening, pain level, chewing ability, and preoperative TMJ symptoms (tinnitus, vertigo, and crepitus) were evaluated. A retrospective evaluation of 202 patients undergoing the Walker repair was completed using a questionnaire. A total of 117 patients responded to the questionnaire. Preoperative and postoperative examination findings, subjective questionnaire results, and panorex radiographs were analyzed. The Walker repair resulted in a statistically significant (P < .001) decrease in pain by an average of 5.6 points on a scale of 0 to 10. The procedure also improved incisal opening by an average of 5.8 mm (P < .001). Improvements of 69% in tinnitus, 72% in vertigo, and 66% in crepitus were documented. Patients evaluated their motion, diet, comfort, and overall improvement; each area was rated as good or excellent by more than 90% of patients. The overall success rate for the Walker repair was 86%. The Walker repair is an effective surgical treatment for internal derangement that significantly decreases pain level and increases incisal opening. No statistically significant difference in the success rate between unilateral and bilateral procedures was noted.
 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of complications associated with the retromandibular approach. The design of this research was a retrospective case-series study. Included were patients who 1) underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the condylar or subcondylar area through a retromandibular approach and 2) had a complete and available medical chart. Excluded were 1) patients treated endoscopically or by other approaches and 2) patients with preoperative facial paralysis. The data collected were age, gender, medical comorbidities, tobacco use, mechanism of injury, anatomic location, concomitant facial fractures, follow-up time, antibiotic protocol, and complications. One hundred eight patients (81 male; 118 condyles; age, 13 to 82 yr; mean, 35.6 ± 15.8 yr) met the inclusion criteria. Six patients never returned for postoperative visits and the mean follow-up time for all other patients was 6.5 months (8 days to 5.5 years). Twenty-six cases (22%) of temporary paralysis and 1 case of permanent facial paralysis were noted. Eight patients (6.8%) had persistent partial facial paralysis at their last visit, but all had short postoperative follow-ups. Fourteen cases (11.9%) of infection, 4 salivary fistulas, 2 sialoceles, 1 case of Frey syndrome, and 2 seromas were observed. The retromandibular approach is a safe method for the treatment of condylar process fractures and major complications are rare.
 
Top-cited authors
Thomas Dodson
  • University of Washington Seattle
Salvatore L Ruggiero
  • Stony Brook University
Larry M Wolford
  • Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Baylor College of Dentistry. Baylor University Medical Center
Joseph E. Van Sickels
  • University of Kentucky
Ceib Phillips
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill