Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1010-5182
Publications
Article
In recent years a new perforated PDS (poly-p-dioxanon) foil (0.15 mm) has become available and has not yet been proven to be successful in reconstruction of the orbital floor after blow-out-fractures in randomized studies. The main aim of this clinical trial is to compare this new PDS foil with titanium dynamic mesh (0.3 mm) (TD), which is well established in reconstruction of the orbital floor. In a prospective multicentre randomized trial, conducted between 1997 and 1998, out of 42 patients with fractures of the orbital floor, 28 patients needing material for reconstruction were randomized to receive either PDS foil or TD. In a comprehensive preoperative and postoperative protocol patients were monitored by the surgeon, radiologist and ophthalmologist with a postoperative follow-up of least 6 months. Maximum defects of the orbital floor were comparable in both groups (PDS group: 13.3 mm, TD group: 13.9 mm). In both groups the surgical procedure was well tolerated, and functional and cosmetic results were evaluated as satisfactory by all patients. Ophthalmological evaluation, performed up to 6 months postoperatively, revealed double vision or vertical strabismus in nine patients (five PDS group, four titanium group). This was not confirmed subjectively in each single patient. Also ex- or enophthalmos, registered in seven patients of the PDS and four of the TD group (mainly + /- 1 mm) were not considered as relevant by the patients. The new 0.15 mm perforated PDS foil was comparable to 0.3 mm titanium mesh concerning functional and cosmetic outcome. Obviously, persisting ophthalmometric disorders were compensated very well in both groups. PDS foil is felt to be the preferred material since it is bioresorbable and more convenient to handle.
 
Article
The so-called 2-mm systems are well established in the osteosynthesis of the mid-face. Due to the relatively thin soft tissue covering of most of the mid-face, however, the plates and screws of these systems often appear large, and disturb the patient because they are palpable and/or bulge through the skin. To avoid this disadvantage, more delicate systems have been designed. The question arises here, however, whether the more delicate systems could also be applied in thin mid-face regions that experience high functional loads. This study compares the functional loadability of 0.8-mm Luhr and 2.0-mm AO screws in an animal experimental model. Histological evaluation of the implant beds of the loaded screws showed significant differences in postoperative bone remodelling which could be correlated to the systems. Extrapolation of the results to the clinical situation suggests that care should be exercised when using Micro-Systems in highly loaded regions of the mid-face.
 
Article
Cranio-maxillofacial trauma management requires pertinent documentation. Using a large computerized database, injury surveillance and research data describe the whole spectrum of injuries. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the five main causes of accidents resulting in facial injury on the severity of cranio-maxillofacial trauma. During a period of 10 years (1991-2000) 9,543 patients were admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital of Innsbruck with cranio-maxillofacial trauma. Data of patients were prospectively recorded including cause of injury, age and gender, type of injury, injury mechanisms, location and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures and concomitant injuries. Statistical analyses performed included descriptive analysis, chi square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney's U test. This was followed by logistic regression analyses for the three injury types to determine the impact of the five main causes on the type of injury at different ages in facial trauma patients. Five major categories/mechanisms of injury existed: in 3,613 (38%) cases it was activity of daily life, in 2991 (31%) sports, 1170 (12%) violence, in 1,116 (12%) traffic accidents, in 504 (5%) work accidents and in 149 (2%) other causes. A total of 3,578 patients (37.5%) had 7,061 facial bone fractures, 4,763 patients (49.9%) suffered from 6,237 dentoalveolar, and 5,968 patients (62.5%) from 7,769 soft tissue injuries. Gender distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 2.1 to 1 and the mean age was 25.8+/-19.9 years; but both varied greatly depending on the injury mechanism (facial bone fractures: 35.4+/-19.5 years, higher risk for males; soft tissue injuries: 28.7+/-20.5, no gender preference; dentoalveolar trauma: 18+/-15.6, elevated risk for females). For patients sustaining facial trauma, logistic regression analyses revealed increased risks for facial bone fractures (225%), soft tissue lesions (58%) in patients involved in traffic accidents, and dental trauma (49%) during activities of daily life and play accidents. When compared with other causes, the probability of suffering soft tissue injuries and dental trauma, but not facial bone fractures, is higher in sports-related accidents, 12 and 16%, respectively. This study differentiated between injury mechanisms in cranio-maxillofacial trauma. The specially trained surgeons treating cranio-maxillofacial trauma are the primary source of information for the public and legislators on implementing preventive measures for high-risk activities. In facial trauma, older persons are prone to bone fractures (increase of 4.4%/year of age) and soft tissue injuries (increase of 2%/year of age) while younger persons are more susceptible to dentoalveolar trauma (decrease of 4.5%/year of age).
 
Article
Tumours of the head and neck in children are uncommon, representing only 2-3% of all head and neck tumours. During the twenty year period 1964-1983, 12,876 childhood tumours were submitted for pathological diagnosis. Of these 1,007 (7.8%) were in the head and neck region, and it is this group that has been analysed. 30.6% (308 cases) were malignant neoplasms, 27.8% (280 cases) were benign neoplasms, 24.2% (244 cases) presented as tumour-like conditions and 17.4 (175 cases) were dysplasias arising from embryonal remnants. The overall sex ratio was 1.5:1 in favour of males. Lymphomas accounted for 15.9% overall (52.3% of the malignant neoplasms). Of benign tumours, haemangiomas were the most frequent (38.5%) and of the tumour-like conditions, dermoid and epidermoid cysts accounted for 36.1%. Of the embryonal remnant dysplasias, thyroglossal duct cysts accounted for 71.4%.
 
Article
To analyze the mandibular fractures which presented over a 3-year period at an emergency hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The data collected included age, sex, aetiology, date of trauma, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture, and treatment. The analysis involved descriptive statistics and the Pearson's chi-square, Bonferroni, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiney tests, and analysis of variance. There were 1,454 mandibular fractures in 1,023 patients. Males of 20-29 years of age sustained the majority of fractures. Traffic accidents were the major causes of trauma, followed by violence and falls. A high incidence of fractures in women due to violence was observed. The condyle region was found to be the most common fracture site in the mandible. A surgical approach was performed in most cases. There were more accidents causing mandibular fractures on the weekends. The individuals with mandibular fractures due to "traffic accidents" were younger than those due to "violence" and "falls". There was a significant statistical association between age and aetiology as well as between sex and aetiology of mandibular fractures.
 
Article
The authors analyse the results of 1.393 cases of malar fractures treated in the maxillo-facial Departments of Montpellier and Perpignan. A clinical and therapeutic classification is given. Study of the sequelae demonstrated that the most frequent were infra-orbital nerve lesions, residual displacement of the malar bone, diplopia, and enophthalmos. A point is made about the use of Franchebois's inflatable balloon as a means of retention. Its indications as well as its contra-indications are clearly defined. The reduction in the number of bone sequelae, when compared to cases treated without the balloon, demonstrates the efficacy and simplicity of this method.
 
Synthetic hemimandible fixed in inverted-L position with 2.0 mm bicortical screws.  
Synthetic hemimandible fixed in inverted-L position with 1.5 mm bicortical screws.  
Analysis of data.
Article
Numerous "in vitro" investigations have been conducted to evaluate the role of screw size and pattern in determining optimal resistance to deformation, often these have been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of screw size and insertion technique on the stability of sagittal split osteotomies. This study used twenty polyurethane replicas of human hemimandibles with a prefabricated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). The hemimandibles were stabilized with 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm titanium screws inserted in an inverted L configuration. All specimens were tested to determine the strength and stability of the fixation. In all cases there was failure of the synthetic bone before there was any evidence of screw failure. There were no significant differences in the load necessary to make the construct fail between the 1.5 or 2.0 mm screw sizes. There was no statistically significant difference between the strengths achieved with screws of 1.5 and 2.0 mm diameters for fixation of SSRO performed in synthetic mandibles. There was no fracture of the 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm diameter screws in any of the tests. 1.5 mm diameter screws in an inverted L pattern have as much stability and mechanical resistance as a 2.0 mm screw, may be safely used for this procedure.
 
Article
As stated in the first part of this publication standardized clinical photographs are essential for planning, documentation and demonstration of surgical procedures in craniomaxillofacial surgery (Ettorre et al., 2006). This article expands the previously defined standards in facial digital photography. Additional picture sets for special topics are introduced and some common mistakes are discussed. Guidance for the prevention of pitfalls is provided and the photographic principles are reviewed. Finally the authors give recommendations for dealing with structured data storage and protection of medical photographs. The use of asset management systems such as Cumulus and Portfolio is introduced and recommended.
 
Article
To evaluate the possibility of providing every patient with dental rehabilitation after segmental resections and primary jaw reconstructions. Ninety-five consecutive patients, followed for more than 1 year, were retrospectively evaluated without any exclusions, using the patients' records. 1) Forty percent received dental substitutes after a mean of 32 months for implant bridges and 20 months for removable dentures. Thirty-one percent were implant bridges and 9% removable dentures. 2) Of patients with mandibles, reconstructed with bone, 48% were dentally rehabilitated. 3) Seventeen percent decided against dental rehabilitation, either because they could manage with their remaining teeth or--in edentulous cases--because they could not cope with the additional treatment thought-to-be necessary for dental rehabilitation. 4) Jaws, reconstructed without bone, did not receive any dental rehabilitation. 5) The overall survival rate of the dental reconstructions was 92% with a mean observation time of 36 months (0-129). For implant-supported bridges, the survival ratio was 90% with a mean observation time of 39 months (0-129). 6) The overall survival rate of dental implants was 90% with a mean observation time of 53 months (12-149). When all patients were accounted for, less than 50% had their dentitions restored. This took more than 2 years to accomplish. Edentulous jaws, reconstructed without bone, never became rehabilitated. Several patients could not cope with the additional treatment necessary to restore their dentitions. The overall survival rate of dental reconstructions and implants was at least 90%.
 
Article
Endocrine Orbitopathy (EO) is the most frequent and important extrathyroidal stigma of Graves' disease. In the active stage of the orbitopathy fibrosis and hypertrophy of the extra-ocular muscles can lead to visual impairment and diplopia. In the stable phase of the disease surgical treatment by orbital expansion and/or orbital decompression can improve the quality of life and it is indicated for morpho-aesthetic and functional reasons. From 1998 to 2009 a consecutive series of 131 patients (251 orbits) with endocrine orbitopathy underwent surgery by different techniques. The medical records of 102 patients (78%) and 196 orbits were available to be assessed retrospectively. Ninety-four patients had bilateral involvement of the orbits and eight unilateral. A total of 556 operations were performed. Mean pre-operative exophthalmos was 24.7 ± 2.5 mm (max-min 20-34), mean post-operative exophthalmos was 21 ± 1.8 mm (max-min 18-26), and mean differential exophthalmos was 3.9 ± 1.7 mm (max-min 1-9). The reduction in exophthalmos after surgery had a mean value of 3.8 mm (min 1, max 9). Kaplan Meier algorithm demonstrates that intra-operative cortisone injection had an adverse effect on post-operative diplopia. The surgical technique used should be adapted to the individual patients' needs. In severe cases intraorbital fat removal and bony decompression can be and carried out in one surgical procedure. An integrated global approach by a multidisciplinary team is strongly recommended. Strabismus surgery is a significant part of the overall treatment. The Authors suggest general surgical guidelines and an algorithm of treatment in EO.
 
Article
OBJECTIVE: To explore the indication and application of computer-assisted navigation in oral and maxillofacial surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients including 34 zygomatic-orbital-maxillary fractures, 27 unilateral TMJ ankylosis, 29 craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, 9 mandibular angle hypertrophia, 3 cartilage/bone tumours of jaw and 2 cases with facial foreign bodies were enrolled in this study. CT scans were performed and data was saved in DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) format. The osteotomy lines, amount and range of resection, the reduction position of bony segments and the reconstruction morphology was determined and displayed by preoperative simulation with mirroring and superimposing procedures. All operations were performed under the guidance of navigation system. The accuracy of navigation was evaluated by comparing the postoperative CT 3-D model with preoperative surgical planning. RESULTS: Through registration, an accurate match between the intraoperative anatomy and the CT images was achieved. The systematic error checked by computer was within 1 mm. All operations were performed successfully with the guidance of real-time navigation. The mean error between virtual simulation and surgical results was 1.46 ± 0.24 mm. All patients healed uneventfully and function and profile was improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: With the opportunity to perform preoperative planning, surgical simulation and postoperative prediction, computer-assisted navigation shows great value in improving the accuracy of maxillofacial surgery, reducing operation risk and postsurgical morbidity, and restoring facial symmetry. It is regarded as a valuable technique in these potentially complicated procedures.
 
Article
A clinico-statistical study was performed on 40 children aged less than 11 years of age, with maxillofacial fractures. Age, sex, type of fracture, incidence, aetiology, methods of treatment and complications were studied. The ratio of boys to girls was 2.6:1.0 and the highest incidence was at age 10 years. Mandibular fractures were the most common and the condylar region was particularly affected. Falls, road traffic accidents and sport injuries, including play accidents, were the major causes of these injuries. Conservative therapy, such as maxillo-mandibular fixation using eyelet wiring, was usually performed and was found to be successful. Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint was seen in one patient. Infection was observed in three cases. One child had retarded facial growth due to damage to the condylar growth centre. Malunion and non-union were not seen. No deaths were recorded.
 
Article
We present the case of a surgically treated 11-year old boy with a diagnosis of craniomaxillofacial fibrous dysplasia (CFD) in the maxillary sinus. When first seen in the outpatient clinic of our department he had minimal symptoms. After initial radiological diagnostics by computed tomography scans (CT-scans) the patient was treated operatively by radical excision of the tumor. The radiographs showed the typical intramedullary located and well-defined lesions, which eroded the cortical bone with the typical appearance of fibrous dysplasia. The histopathology showed the typical curved extending fibrous trabeculae in C, O and Y-shape which were embedded in a moderately cellular morphologically inconspicuous stroma, confirming the initial suspicion of fibrous dysplasia of the maxillary bone. Cone beam tomography was a valuable tool in determining the re-ossification of bone at the affected side. Local resection can be curative in limited disease.
 
Article
OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology, histological diagnosis and treatment outcome of oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions in Greek children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients with oro-facial lesions who presented at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at "A. & P. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Data was analyzed in relation to age, gender, location, histology, treatment choice and outcome. RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven oro-facial lesions were identified. Age ranged from 14 days to 15 years (mean 8 years); the male-to-female ratio was 1.09: 1; 90.05% of the lesions were benign and 9.95% malignant. Vascular anomalies were the most common benign lesion (22.1%) and rhabdomyosarcoma was the most prevalent malignancy (28.57%). One hundred and ten lesions (52.1%) involved soft tissue, most commonly the tongue and 96 cases (45.5%), involved hard tissue, most frequently the mandible; 5 lesions (2.4%) involved both hard and soft tissue. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia in 198 cases (93.84%). Some malignant lesions were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions are not uncommon in the Greek paediatric population; although most frequently benign, these may cause considerable morbidity. As such early diagnosis and treatment are imperative.
 
Article
A myxoma of the maxilla in an infant is presented. It was initially treated as an inflammatory lesion. Failure to respond led to biopsy, which showed that the lesion was neoplastic; initially an incorrect diagnosis was made and totally inappropriate treatment was given. Reassessment of the biopsy material established the correct diagnosis and appropriate management was initiated.
 
The typical nose of the people living in Black Sea Region. 
Shows anterior landmarks used in digital shape analysis. 
Shows inferior landmarks used in digital shape analysis. 
Article
Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe the average values of the nasal anthropometric measurements by using the landmark-based geometric morphometric technique in young male patients who applied for rhinoplasty in the Black Sea Region in Turkey. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 110 healthy male patients all were born in the Black Sea Region, Turkey. The landmark-based geometric morphometric technique was used to analyze the nasal shapes as described in the literature. The mean age was 29 years (ranging from 23 to 35). All patients underwent primary rhinoplasty in our clinic between 2006 and 2011 years. All data were obtained from standardized digital photographic images. Anterior and worm's eye view photos of the patients were analyzed by using standard anthropometric measurement methods. Results: The mean total length and nasal bridge length of the noses were 58.90 and 57.35 mm, respectively. The mean nasal bridge width and the morphologic nose width were 32.65 and 35.50mm, respectively. The average width of the anatomic nose was 26.25 mm. The mean length and width of the ala were 22.72 and 4.73 mm, respectively. The mean length and width of the columella were 11.35 and 5.20mm, respectively. The mean frontonasal angle was 137.88° and the mean nasolabial angle was 87.34°. Conclusion: Black Sea nose was characterized by being considerably longer than average in nasal length and columellar height. Also nasolabial angle was found to be more acute than average when compared to other noses.
 
Article
INTRODUCTION: Analyzing chromosomal amplifications delivers valuable information for identification of oncogenes. For carcinomas of the oral cavity only few genes have been identified in amplified regions. The aim of this study was to search genes in amplified regions as possible biomarkers and targets for novel therapies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA from 10 carcinomas of the floor of the oral cavity was examined using a 500K Array GeneChip (Affymetrix 6.0) to detect chromosomal losses, gains or amplifications. Suspicious alterations were validated on tissue microarrays using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with respective probes. RESULTS: FISH-validation on tissue arrays confirmed PPFIA1 amplifications as one of the most frequent events (32.6%). High (10-20 signals) and low (<10 signals) amplification of PPFIA1 was found in 10.9% (5/46) and 21.7% (10/46) tumours, respectively. Fine mapping with overlapping FISH probes showed co-amplification of PPFIA1 and the Cyclin D1 gene which are approximately 600 kb apart from each other, likely in the same amplicon. DISCUSSION: PPFIA1 was frequently co-amplified with the Cyclin D1 gene in oral carcinomas and could present a biomarker as well as a novel target for specific gene therapy. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of PPFIA1 in development and pathogenesis of oral carcinomas.
 
Article
The treatment of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of the jaws remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for OKC. We collected data of all OKC patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital from 1995 to 2004. Basal cell naevus syndrome (Gorlin's syndrome) patients were excluded. Recurrence data was analysed in relation to radiographic features, type of microscopic diagnosis, presence of cortical perforation, and site of involvement. One hundred and twenty cysts in 109 patients were examined. OKCs were more frequent in the third and the fourth decades of life (range: 11-79 years, mean: 40 years) and in men (n=71). Most of the lesions were unilocular radiolucencies in the tooth-bearing area and in the posterior part of the mandible. Histologically, 80 lesions showed parakeratosis. Most of the patients underwent uneventful enucleation. Postoperatively, infection occurred in 4 patients, and there was no jaw fracture. Recurrence was found in 28 cysts (26%), of which 7 cysts (6%) had multiple recurrences. There was no significant association between recurrences and radiographic features, histological type, cortical perforation, or site of involvement (P>0.05). Recurrences were common in the first 5 years after the operation. The average follow-up was 86 months since the last operation (range: 18-151 months). Despite the retrospective nature, no control group and a relatively high recurrence rate, our study suggests that enucleation with the aid of computed tomography and adequate postoperative surveillance is a conservative treatment which yields clinically acceptable results. However, the patients must strictly adhere to close follow-ups because recurrences may have serious consequences. Our algorithm for managing OKCs and cyst-like lesions of the jaws is also presented.
 
Article
120 cases of orofacial cancer underwent ablative surgery to cure their disease. The resultant defects were reconstructed using free radial fascio-cutaneous forearm flaps with microvascular anastomosis. The cases were consecutive and both ablation and reconstruction were performed by the same operator.
 
Article
The adequate treatment of the neck in early, clinically node-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains controversial. To assess whether elective supraomohyoid neck dissection is reasonable and efficient in early, locally circumscribed OSCC, the outcomes of treatment of 122 patients with an OSCC of clinical UICC stage I or II were retrospectively analysed in this study. Occult lymph node metastases were detected in 13.9% (17/122) of cases. They were more frequently found in T2 compared to T1 tumours (19.7% (14/71) vs. 5.9% (3/51), p=0.03), age, gender and grading had no influence on the prevalence of occult lymph node metastases (all p-values>0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. Subsequent multivariate survival analysis found that the presence of occult metastases was an independent predictor of reduced disease-free survival after 5 years (82.2% vs. 62.5%, p=0.004, and 61.9% vs. 17.8%, p<0.001, respectively). Elective supraomohyoid neck dissection detects occult metastases in early, node-negative OSCC, and patients with early OSCC exhibiting occult metastases should be considered as high risk patients, warranting additional therapeutic regimes.
 
Article
The authors report their experience in the treatment of cleft palate patients, with or without cleft lip, carried out without lateral release incisions. The surgical approach was as follows: the cleft palate only was closed in one step at the age of 10 to 12 months, while the cleft of lip and palate was closed in two steps: at 6 months of age the soft palate together with lip and nose repair and at 18 to 24 months the hard palate with gingivo-alveoloplasty. Out of the 147 patients treated from 1984 until 1992, 124 (73 cleft palate, 51 cleft lip and palate) were treated without lateral release incisions, allowing first intention healing in 122 cases. The failures observed involved 2 cases: in the first (a bilateral case with a wide cleft) an almost total dehiscence of the suture at the level of the hard palate occurred, while in the second (a cleft palate case) a small oronasal fistula developed (healed spontaneously in 2 weeks). Our results confirm that by performing the described surgical technique without lateral release incisions, a 98% success rate for closure of a cleft palate could be obtained. Of course, in very large clefts the lateral release incision should be considered however.
 
Article
The prognosis of oral cavity carcinoma is limited by recurrent disease or lymph node metastasis. Secondary to surgery and radiotherapy, anatomical structures are often severely changed and make early diagnosis of renewed tumour growth by clinical and radiological examination difficult. We studied the course of serum SCC-Ag, CEA, CA 19.9 and CA 125 in 121 patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) before and after therapy and evaluated their relevance for diagnosis and follow-up in oral cancer. CA 19.9 and CA 125 seemed to be useless for this tumour entity. CEA resembled more the alcohol consumption and smoking habits of the patients examined than their state of disease. Only SCC-Ag correlated with the tumour burden and represented the disease course. In the event of relapse, half the patients had an exponential increase in SCC-Ag, 1-2 months prior to diagnosis.
 
Article
In a prospective study, the characteristics and benefit of an invasive measurement of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with the aid of a polarographic sensor were investigated in 125 microsurgical reconstructions of the head and neck area over a period of 45 months. Measurements were performed over 96 h in eight different types of microsurgically revascularized flaps for extra- and intraoral reconstructions and were evaluated separately for each flap type. Of 125 reconstructions the system indicated malperfusion in 18 cases. Salvage surgery was performed in 17 cases due to venous thrombosis (6 cases), arterial thrombosis (3 cases), a combination of arterial and venous thrombosis (2 cases), rheological problems (3 cases), venous insufficiency by hematoma (2 cases) and kinking of vessels (1 case). In 10 cases salvage surgery was successful, 7 flaps were lost despite salvage surgery. In all these cases, the polarographic probe indicated the necessity of salvage surgery correctly. After 96 h no malperfusion was seen. Postoperatively, a common and characteristic development of the oxygen partial pressure in different types of flaps was seen. Initially, a clear increase of pO(2) could be measured. During 96 h, a slow decrease of pO(2) was observed. In conclusion polarographic measurement of pO(2) can be an excellent apparative supplement for the postoperative clinical control of microsurgically revascularized transplants. In buried flaps, this technique represents the only reliable method for transplant monitoring.
 
Article
Ameloblastoma presenting in the adolescent age group is rare with few studies documenting their occurrence. The aim of this study was to carry out an analysis of the pattern and occurrence of ameloblastoma in those less than 20 years of age. Patients from the University of Nairobi Dental teaching Hospital treated for ameloblastoma were included in the study over a 13-year period. The study highlights the demographic, clinic-radiographic and histologic features of benign locally aggressive lesions. A total of 127 patients were recorded of which, 27 (21.3%) were below the age of 20 years; no case was reported below the age of 10 years. 18.5% were below the age of 14 years and 81.5% were 15-19 years old. The gender predilection was ∼1:1. All of the tumours occurred in the mandible, with radiographic features of a multilocular radiolucencies (85.2%); and a fewer unilocular lesions (14.8%). The management is in a staged-wise approach: resection and/or disarticulation with temporary reconstruction using mandibular stainless steel or titanium plates and delayed bone grafting. The occurrence of ameloblastoma can mimic an odontogenic cyst, clinicians therefore need to be vigilant when examining adolescents so that conservative treatment is started early in order to reduce the subsequent morbidity.
 
Article
The scapular/parascapular free flap was described by Saijo in 1978 and has since then been widely used in reconstructive procedures. This is a retrospective study, describing our experience with the use of free scapula/parascapular flap in 130 reconstructions over a period of 5 years in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Hospital of Erlangen. Demographical data, data regarding the underlying pathology, flap raising details, microvascular anastomoses, early and late postoperative complications will be presented. The flap was raised without problems and the donor site was primarily closed in all cases. Sixteen flaps required revision. Five transplants were lost (failure rate of 3.85%). Loss of part of the flap was observed in 3 cases (2.3%). The free scapula/parascapular flap is a versatile and reliable flap that can find many applications in the reconstruction of complex head and neck defects.
 
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postoperative complications of bicoronal flaps used to treat facial fractures. One hundred and thirty two patients that received bicoronal flaps for the treatment of upper and middle third facial fractures were called for clinical and radiographic examination. Minimum follow-up was 1 year and all patients had charts with adequate information about their perioperative care pertinent to the study. Results showed as complications hypoesthesia (17%), partial unilateral frontal motor deficit (11%), infection (3%), hypertrophic scars (3%), varying degrees of alopecia (18%), seroma or hematoma in the immediate postoperative period (5%). The flap provided wide surgical access to the upper and middle facial thirds with very few serious complications, most frequently allowing good aesthetic results.
 
Article
Velopharyngoplasty is a well-established means of speech rehabilitation in patients with primary or secondary velopharyngeal incompetence. Principally, the result of velopharyngoplasty may be influenced by tonsillectomy or adenotomy or tonsillectomy and adenotomy because of the anatomical and physiological relations. The data of speech characteristics from 143 patients were evaluated retrospectively to determine the influence of tonsillectomy, adenotomy and both operations--performed simultaneously or at different times--on the result of velopharyngoplasty. Special regard was also given to the age at operation. The best speech rehabilitation by velopharyngoplasty was found in patients operated on before school-age, a noticeable negative influence of tonsillectomy, adenotomy or both could not be demonstrated. Therefore these operations should be considered and performed before school-age in order to achieve the best social and psychological rehabilitation.
 
Article
157 paediatric patients with a total of 220 mandibular fractures were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had been examined with the aid of orthopantomography. 72% of the children had fractures in the condylar region. The patients were divided into four age groups according to the development of the dentition (group A: 0-5 years, B: 6-9 years, C: 10-12 years, and D: 13-15 years). Bicycle accidents and falls were the two main causes of the fractures in all age groups. However, there were significant differences in the causes and location of the fractures between groups A+B and C+D. The proportion of condylar fractures decreased and the proportion of body and angle fractures increased with increasing age; fractures in the horizontal part of the mandible were mainly observed in groups C and D. Both aetiological factors and fracture patterns in the patients older than 10 years of age resembled those of adults. The differences observed should be taken into consideration in studies concerning mandibular fractures in paediatric patients. In this respect the age limit between the adult and child should probably be lowered significantly.
 
Article
A retrospective analysis is presented of 158 patients who sustained frontal sinus fractures and were subsequently treated in the Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Turin, from 1987 to 1998. The fractures were subdivided according to involvement of anterior and posterior walls, and of the nasofrontal duct. While treatment involving only the anterior wall is well standardized and without complications, management of anterior plus posterior wall fractures or involving the nasofrontal duct is still controversial. In dislocated posterior wall fractures, cranialization and obliteration of the remaining dead space and of the nasofrontal ducts using bone grafts, combined with the use of a pericranium flap, allow separation of the nasal cavity from the anterior cranial fossa, preventing ascending infections and thus reducing the rate of complications. When the fracture involves the nasofrontal duct with the posterior wall substantially intact, it is better to re-establish patency of the nasofrontal duct with a drainage tube and preserve the function of the sinus. A protocol used in the management of each group of fractures, clinical and radiological results, timing of operation, surgical procedures, outcomes, and long-term complications are all discussed.
 
(a) 3D images of craniofacial skeleton. (b) 3D images of the patient with superimposed 3D images of dental models. (c) 3D images of soft tissue. 
(a) 3D surgical simulation showing osteotomy lines and mobilisation of the osteotomised bones. (b) Three-dimensional simulation of the predicted results on facial soft tissues after repositioning the mobilised bone structures. 
(a) Final CAD/CAM surgical splint. (b) Intermediate CAD/CAM surgical splint. 
Level of concordances results.
Article
The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs, and further studies of objective data are necessary to increase precision in computerised 3D planning.
 
Article
Several procedures have been described to reposition and secure the disc during arthroscopic surgery of the temporomandibular joint. The usefulness of these procedures remains controversial since simple lysis and lavage shows a high percentage of clinical success and it is difficult to obtain radiological imaging of the surgically acquired new disc position. This report describes a new arthroscopic discopexy method, and the clinical as well as radiological results obtained with this new technique. Sixteen patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) dysfunction (TMD) were treated using our discopexy method. Each patient was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, radiological and functional parameters. The evaluation also included a clinical examination. Each patient was recorded at baseline before surgery and at a one-year follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the differences in VAS, maximum opening and lateral movements before and after treatment and were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Patient evaluation showed an improvement in the clinical parameters. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of pain according to the VAS (p < 0.01). Maximal interincisal opening (MIO) and contralateral translation movement (CTM) (p < 0.05) were substantially improved one-year after operation. In the post-surgical MRI study at the one-year follow-up, a significant improvement in the disc position was observed in 13 out of the 16 joints operated on. This method of arthroscopic disc repositioning is an effective surgical method for treating symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. Because of the minimally invasive character of the procedure, it should be considered in the surgical treatment of TMJ dysfunction.
 
Article
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is rarely found in the jaw. We present 16 cases and the purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical signs and symptoms. The treatment and the progression evolution are also mentioned. The diagnosis was usually difficult and was often misleading and so delays before the first bone biopsy were frequent. The therapy of this rare, diffuse, large cell lymphoma was very variable from one case to another but the majority of the patients were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
 
Article
To analyse the characteristics and outcome of patients with carcinoma associated with inverted papilloma, and find predictors of associated malignancy. The medical records of 228 patients who were diagnosed with IP between January 1990 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Out of 228 patients, 16 were also diagnosed with carcinoma. We evaluated their clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival outcomes. The incidence of carcinoma associated with IP was 7.0%. Fourteen were synchronous carcinomas and two were metachronous. Tumours arising inside the frontal sinus or the frontoethmoidal recess were more likely to be associated with carcinoma. Patients who had a stage of T2 or less had a much better outcome than those who had a stage of T3 or greater (disease-free period, 84.8 months vs. 5.7 months, p<0.001). Tumours originating in the frontal sinus or frontoethmoidal recess have a tendency to be associated with carcinoma. As most (87.5%) of the carcinomas were diagnosed at the same time as the inverted papilloma, complete histological examination of the whole excised tumour is warranted because early diagnosis and treatment is essential as T2 and lower stage carcinomas had a strikingly better prognosis than T3 and higher stage carcinomas.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the surgical technique of sinus floor elevation with autogenous parietal bone grafting in conjunction with immediate dental implants for the reconstruction of the maxilla in deficient maxillary alveolar ridges. Seventeen patients who underwent sinus floor elevation with bone graft from the parietal bone between 2005 and 2007 were included in the study. Cases of extremely deficient bone level in the alveolar ridge<4mm were included in the study. Seventy-seven implants (49 Staumann®, 24 Replace® and 4 Ankylos®) with different length and diameter were placed immediately after the graft was placed. Strict oral hygiene was required for the patients. Presurgical and postsurgical panoramic radiographs were taken. A high-quality reconstruction with an increase in lifted sinus bone height was achieved with parietal bone particulates. Seventy-three implants were clinically osseointegrated and four implants were lost giving a success rate 94.8%. No correlation was found between failure and the surgery. The encouraging results of this study suggest that the technique of reconstruction of the sinus floor and the resorbed alveolar ridge using an autogenous parietal bone graft is reliable, giving the surgeon the opportunity to successfully perform immediate implant placement in more difficult and deficient maxillary alveolar bone height.
 
Article
BACKGROUND: In Japan we currently use absorption properties for facial fractures. OSTEOTRANS MX® (Takiron co., ltd, Japan) is an absorption device, which is called Super FIXSORB MX® in Japan. This absorbable osteosynthetic device constitutes unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly l-lactide (u-HA/PLLA) composites. This study focuses on reporting clinical cases of using OSTEOTRANS MX®. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (16 men and 1 woman) aged 10-80 years (mean: 39.9 years, SD: ±20.7) with 86 fracture sites were treated. In all cases we used 1.0 mm plates and 5 mm or 7 mm screws. The postoperative observation period was 6-60 months (mean: 21.8 months, SD: ±14.5). RESULTS: The fracture site recovered in all cases. Complications included one bone excess on the forehead and one foreign-body reaction on the frontozygomatic suture, but the fracture sites were recovered and had no problems. In the case with the longest observation time 60 months, the plate was almost fully absorbed. However, in other cases the plate was not fully absorbed because of a shorter observation time. CONCLUSION: OSTEOTRANS MX® is a useful device because of its suitable intensity, thinness, radiopaque, and few complications. A longer observation time is required for a plate to be absorbed completely.
 
Article
This article re-evaluates the various clinicopathological presentations and array of radiographic features displayed by aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) of the jaws. In this retrospective clinical study, 17 cases of ABCs of the jaws surgically treated during an 11-year period from 1986–1997 are evaluated. The age and sex distribution, diagnostic characteristics, mode of treatment and long-term surgical results are presented and compared with the international literature. Investigation included serial clinical examinations, appropriate radiographic evaluation, CT scans and angiograms when indicated. All the patients had mandibular lesions and were managed by complete surgical curettage of the lesions. Ten were in males (58.8%) and seven (41.2%) in females. The mean age of occurrence was 21.05 years, ranging from 7 to 58 years. Clinical presentation in these patients ranged from an asymptomatic incidental radiographic finding to an expanding, rapidly progressive and destructive lesion resulting in a pathological fracture. Radiographic findings varied from unicystic radiolucencies or moth-eaten radiolucencies to extensive multilocular lesions causing bilateral expansion and destruction of the mandibular cortices. Twelve of the patients (70.5%) could recall a history of trauma. Needle aspiration with a 16 or 18 guage needle was positive, producing syringes full of blood in all but two of the cases (88.2%). Six cases (35.2%) were extremely vascular and had increased rapidly in size, and three required angiographic studies for preoperative diagnosis and differentiation from other vascular entities. Nine of the cases (52.9%) were found in the mandibular angle-ramus area. Four cases (23.5%) required extraoral surgical access for curettage while the remainder were treated intraorally.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reasons for implant failure in two Oral and Maxillofacial Units in Helsinki. Seventeen patients, who lost 30 implants were included in this study. The patients and implants were studied clinically, radiologically and microbiologically. Most patients did not have any symptom indicating failure; hence, the failures were noticed mainly by the clinicians when instability of the fixture or of the prosthetic reconstruction became obvious. Radiolucency around the fixture was the most frequent radiological finding. Twenty per cent of the fixtures were located in insufficient bone. Ninety seven per cent of the bacterial cultures were positive, Streptococcus milleri being the most commonly identified aerobic and Fusobacterium nucleatum the most commonly anaerobic bacteria. The most critical time for success is immediately after prosthetic loading. Hence, implants should be placed in the optimal position to facilitate prosthetic reconstruction and loading.
 
Article
The present retrospective study investigated various types, aetiology, complications and methods of treatment of maxillofacial fractures managed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. A total of 1706 patients were studied with 2534 fractures treated between 1994 and 2003. The analysis included data on age and gender of patients, causes and types of fractures (mean number of fractures per patient - 1.48) as well as the treatments used and the associated complications. Most maxillofacial fractures were sustained by 574 men (age range 21-30 years). The ratio of males to females was 4.6:1. Most fractures were caused by violent assault - 1040 (61%), followed by motor vehicle accidents - 264 (15.5%), fall - 213 (12.5%) and bites from animals - 72 (4%). Fractures of the mandible were sustained by 1261 patients (74%), fractures of the maxilla by 97 (6%), fractures of the zygomatic bone by 277 (16%), nasal fractures by 63 (4%) and multiple fractures by 8 (0.5%). In 1330 (77%) patients the fractures were treated by closed reduction; in 264 patients (16%) by open reduction and fixation, and for the remaining 112 patients (7%) were managed with combined closed and open reduction. The mortality rate was 0.2%, the lethal cases being a result of a combination of severe fractures in the maxillofacial region and trauma to other organs/systems. The most common cause of traumatic injury in the maxillofacial region in this study sample was assault, predominantly affecting men. The fractures were treated using various methods but mostly by closed reduction plus fixation.
 
Article
Most craniofacial abnormalities are non-syndromic craniosynostoses due to premature fusion of one or more craniofacial sutures. Functional impairment is caused either by a pathological growth pattern or increased intracranial pressure. The indications for surgery are to increase intracranial volume and to correct aesthetics. We retrospectively reviewed 172 patients who had been operated on for premature craniosynostosis, including fronto-orbital advancement, from 1992 to 2002. Demographic data, clinical follow-up findings, and regular photo documentation were analyzed. After a mean follow-up of 6 years the overall outcome for those operated on within the first 6 months of life was satisfactory in 97%. The remaining 3% were reoperated at between 4 and 6 years of age. All cephalometric indices normalized postoperatively. Eight patients underwent SPECT studies which showed preoperative perfusion asymmetry corresponding to the fused sutures that were normalized following surgical decompression. No severe perioperative complications were seen. Cephalometric parameters represent an excellent method to compare the postoperative outcome. Standard skull base procedures need to be adapted carefully to the individual form of craniosynostosis to avoid an unfavourable result. Single Photon Emissin Computed Tomography (SPECT) studies give evidence that correction of single cranial suture synostosis allows for normalization of cerebral blood flow and should be performed within first 6-8 months of life.
 
Article
Facial nerve palsy following a sagittal split osteotomy is a rare but serious complication. The incidence of facial nerve injury in a group of 1747 patients who had undergone a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (3494 sagittal splits) was determined and proved to be 0.26% (9 cases). The case histories of 2 patients are presented, and the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this complication are discussed.
 
Article
Although there have been recent advances in maxillofacial surgery and anaesthetic techniques, blood replacement is still common in orthognathic surgery. 179 patients underwent elective orthognathic surgery and donated autologous blood preoperatively. Standardized questionnaires about the preoperative blood donation were distributed to the patients. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cells and platelets were measured before blood donation, presurgically and postsurgically, as well as one year after surgery. Nearly all patients (98%) would recommend preoperative autologous blood donation. 97% of the patients saw the benefits of autologous blood donation in avoiding transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis. No serious side-effects have been observed after blood donation. In patients with bimaxillary osteotomies (65% of the predeposited autologous blood units) 41% were in cases having upper jaw osteotomies and only 22% of the preoperatively donated units were retransfused in patients having lower jaw osteotomies. After a postsurgical decrease, the mean haemoglobin and mean haematocrit levels regained the levels determined prior to the donation. Preoperative autologous blood donation of 2 to 3 units (900-1350 ml +/- 10%) of blood is recommended in bimaxillary osteotomies and 1 to 2 units (450-900 ml +/- 10%) of blood for upper jaw osteotomies. In lower jaw surgery, the acute isovolaemic haemodilution should be considered.
 
Article
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the standard imaging techniques to evaluate patients with carcinoma in the sinus/nasal area and orbit. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in such patients is as yet less well established. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical impact of PET co-registered with CT (PET/CT). Evaluation of 21 consecutive patients. A retrospective analysis of the whole body PET/CT studies was done. Images were assessed visually without knowing the results of the other imaging technique. Histology and clinical follow-up served to verify lesions. The clinical impact on therapy was assessed together with the physician in charge. All patients underwent PET/CT and CT or MRI for staging (n=9 scans) and restaging (n=17 scans) without treatment between the examinations. PET/CT changed the treatment protocol in 2 patients at staging and in 7 at re-staging. Distant metastases were found in 5 and a secondary tumour in 1 patient. Whole body PET/CT adds clinically important information to CT or MRI, thus, influencing treatment.
 
Article
Temporomandibular joint disorders affect a big portion of the population. There are a variety of treatment methods currently in use. Conservative treatment modalities are followed by more invasive approaches like arthrocentesis or arthroscopy. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of intra-articular tenoxicam injection and arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation on patients in which a previous arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation has failed to relieve pain and restore function. The study group consists of 18 TMJs in 16 patients (15 female and 1 male) and the patients were randomly divided into two groups as the arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation group (n: 8) and tenoxicam injection (n: 10). 20 mg of tenoxicam was injected to the upper compartments of 10 joints without arthrocentesis. The other 8 joints were treated with a second arthrocentesis and sodium hyaluronate injection. VAS scores and maximum mouth opening with and without assistance were recorded in the post operative first week, first month and third month. The results show that there is little benefit in using relatively conservative methods once an arthrocentesis together with viscosupplementation has failed to relieve the patients pain. It is concluded that more invasive procedures should be considered for the patients who do not benefit from arthrocentesis.
 
Article
Over a period of 3 years, 18 patients with mandibular osteomyelitis were prospectively investigated by conventional radiograph, computed tomography (CT) and in 6 cases by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnosis was based on histology in 17 patients operated upon.
 
Article
Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is an uncommon benign bony lesion that occurs in the mandible and maxilla. The clinical behaviour of CGCG ranges from a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling to an aggressive lesion that presents pain, local bone destruction, root resorption and tooth displacement. Therapeutic options have varied greatly over the years. Non-surgical treatments with alpha interferon (alpha-IFN), calcitonin and corticosteroids have been described and their benefits may be worthy of consideration. Surgery is considered the traditional treatment and it is still the most accepted one, however in the literature not all authors agree on the type of surgery which should be performed. Although en bloc resection provides the lowest recurrence rate, only a few single case reports describe the use of this technique followed by reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts. The authors report their experience with en bloc resection of 18 wide CGCGs which had not been previously treated medically. Immediate reconstruction was carried out for all cases and in one, a fibula free flap was used to reconstruct the mandible. No recurrence was observed. After complete healing of the graft, prosthetic rehabilitation via implants was performed. This allowed the best functional and aesthetic results.
 
Article
Microvascular free tissue transfer has become a significant factor in the reconstruction of head and neck cancer patients. Various donor sites are available to enable anatomical and functional repair of a defect. All free vascularized tissue transfers performed during the period from March 1982 to September 2000 were retrieved from this hospital's database and analysed with regard to the surgical defect, chosen donor site and complications. During the 18-year period a total of 1,164 patients with head and neck cancer were treated in this institution. A total of 500 free-flap reconstructions were performed for 479 patients. In the majority of patients (n = 451) reconstruction was indicated following ablative tumour surgery. With regard to donor site selection, the first choice of free jejunum was used in 181 patients, followed by the radial forearm flap in 140 patients. Among the 500 free-flap reconstructions, a total flap loss rate of 6% was observed. Patient age (p = 0.004) and tobacco use (p = 0.043) were significant risk factors for complications overall, whereas patient age (p = 0.021) and operating time (p = 0.043) were significantly correlated with local complications. Immediate repair of head and neck defects using free tissue transfer is a successful and reliable method and is becoming the gold standard at many institutions. The complication rate is low once experience with these techniques has been acquired.
 
Article
The authors report on their 16-year experience of reconstruction with the temporalis myofascial flap in 182 cases. All aspects of reconstructive cranio-maxillofacial surgery are covered: trauma, deformities, tumours, TMJ ankylosis, facial paralysis. The temporalis myofascial flap was used both as a single and as a composite flap with cranial bone, coronoid process or skin island. Major complications were not observed. On the basis of their experience, the authors confirm the reliability, versatility and reproducibility of the use of this flap. This is due both to its rich blood supply and to its proximity to the reconstruction site. It is suggested that the use of the temporalis muscle flap should be taken into consideration before deciding on more extensive reconstructive procedures.
 
Top-cited authors
Maurice Y Mommaerts
  • University Hospital Brussels
Hans-Peter Howaldt
  • Uniklinikum Giessen und Marburg
Hermann F. Sailer
Jörg Wiltfang
  • Universitätsklinikum Schleswig - Holstein
Jürgen Hoffmann
  • Universität Heidelberg