Journal of counseling and development: JCD

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1556-6676
Print ISSN: 0748-9633
Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the context of the counseling relationship, particularly with clients considering abortion. In addition, the authors present strategies for counselor self-evaluation, offer recommendations, and provide questions to facilitate ethical decision making.
Interrelationships of ThemesNote. CBT-GSH = cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help.
Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups.
Ethical theory is applied to the limits of confidentiality in cases involving sexually active clients who have AIDS, and a model rule is developed defining counselors' obligations to these clients and their sexual partners.
Limits of confidentiality have not been defined for the life‐threatening dilemma of a client who has the AIDS virus and who continues to be sexually active without informing her or his partners. The authors review the medical background of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, legal limits, and ethical tenets of confidentiality. A position supporting breach of confidentiality is taken, and specific suggestions for counseling the client are offered.
Reviews various ethical dilemmas regarding sexual and intimacy boundaries between clients and therapists and makes recommendations for solving them. Literature is reviewed that deals with the extent of the problem in counseling, the abusing counselor, and the abused client. It is suggested that sexual and intimacy abuse of clients by counselors may best be viewed along a continuum consisting of psychological, covert, and overt abuse. Case material and examples are provided to illustrate these types of abuse. Disputed areas including the establishment of intimacy after counseling has ended and the use of sex surrogates are also discussed. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Increasing numbers of students with severe personality disorders are presenting for psychological services at college and university counseling centers. The influx of these students poses a number of ethical dilemmas for counseling centers. Clinical decisions about appropriate treatment modalities, philosophical decisions about agency mission, and available resources to carry defined missions converge and influence ethical decisions in this area. It is misguided kindness, as well as being ethically unwise and legally risky, to attempt to carry out a treatment mission with inadequate resources. It is not abandonment to have selection criteria grounded in the treatment literature and executed with fairness if the duty to refer is upheld.
Many counselors in non-school settings will work with children at some time during their practice; therefore, it is essential that they understand the legal and ethical issues relevant to working with minors. Major court cases and legislation are presented, and 4 critical ethical issues--counselor competence, the client's rights to confidentiality and informed consent, and duties related to child abuse--are addressed. Suggestions for working ethically with minors in order to limit legal liability are presented.
There are few clear definitive guidelines for counselors to implement regarding duty‐to‐warn cases. In addition, ethical codes do not specifically address duty‐to‐warn issues. A tentative model to use as a guide in making clinical judgments in such cases is provided as well as case examples to exemplify possible ethical dilemmas in the practice of counseling.
A comprehensive review of the literature on ethical decision-making models in counseling is presented, beginning in the fall of 1984 through the summer of 1998. (Materials "in press" were considered.) A general overview of the literature is provided. Theoretically or philosophically based, practice-based, and specialty-relevant approaches are surveyed. The literature is rich with publications describing decision-making models, although few models have been assessed empirically, and few models seem well grounded philosophically or theoretically.
Both the terminally ill and those responsible for their care may experience conflict and limited freedom of choice with respect to the right to die. Derek Humphry, founder of the Hemlock Society, shares his personal experience, as well as his efforts to educate the public and stimulate legal reform. He has dedicated more than a decade of prime professional years to this highly charged universal problem.
402 boys and 483 girls in Grades 9 and 11 completed the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) and the Work Values Inventory. 11th-graders reported valuing 3 of the 6 intrinsic work values to a greater extent than did 9th-graders; few grade differences emerged relative to extrinsic work values. Sex differences were reported for ½ of the work values and for 3 of the CMI subscales. Girls valued Achievement and Variety to a higher extent and Security to a lesser extent than did boys; boys more highly valued Management, Economic Returns, and Independence, whereas girls more highly valued Altruism and Way of Life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Colorado State University was the site of significant innovations in the counseling field. Interviews with key participants highlight the contributions and identify factors in the environment that resulted in the productivity of these individuals. A series of vital signs of a vibrant, healthy, and productive environment identified by L. Smith et al (1981) is applied to the university environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Opportunities exist for university counseling center (UCC) personnel to help institutions deal with emerging campus problems. Crisis management services, career development concerns, a changing student population, and issues related to retention are areas in which UCCs could make significant contributions. Recommendations are offered for how UCCs might prepare themselves for such involvement. Services discussed include consultation activities, career development, service delivery systems and personnel, demands for traditional services, and administrative advocacy and management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Faculty development efforts are vitally needed in higher education today. Changes in expectations about the quality and assessment of undergraduate education, societal needs, technology, the student populations, and paradigms about teaching and learning argue for viable, credible, and creative programs. The author explores the nature and need for faculty development, discusses some faculty development options, and provides a selected number of resources.
Discusses how model legislation seeks to facilitate uniformity of counselor licensure laws and promote accepted professional standards. The text of the model bill as endorsed by the 1994 American Counseling Association Governing Council is provided with commentary accompanying those sections in which significant changes have occurred. 15 specific suggestions based on experiences gained in the development and implementation of previous legislation for licensed professional counselors are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This report contains data about ethical complaints and inquiries processed by the American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Committee from 1995 to 1996. This report also includes a discussion of the findings of the committee, information about the approval of the new ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice, and educational efforts undertaken by the committee.
This report summarizes the activities of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Committee during the period of July 1, 2000, through June 30, 2001. Summary data of the complaints filed and inquiries received are presented.
This report summarizes the activities of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Committee during the period of July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005. Summary data of the complaints filed and the inquiries received are presented.
This report summarizes the activities of the American Counseling Association Ethics Committee during the period from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006. Ethics Committee membership, an overview of the mission of the Ethics Committee and goals for 2005–2006, summary data of the complaints filed and the inquiries received, and education activities of the Committee are presented.
This report summarizes the activities of the American Counseling Association Ethics Committee during the period from July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007. Ethics Committee membership, an overview of the mission of the Ethics Committee and goals for 2006–2007, summary data of the complaints filed and the inquiries received, and education activities of the Committee are presented.
Argues that offering a separate course in multicultural counseling (MC) does not meet minimum requirements to fulfill most standards related to gaining cultural competencies for teaching and practice. This separate course-only model should be abandoned and replaced by a more programmatic model. The proposed model assumes that all students and faculty would be committed to becoming culturally skilled counselors or educators. Suggestions for the programmatic model are provided, as well as discussions of barriers to effective MC instruction and the challenges for faculties in the 21st century. It is recommended that the Anglo-conformity type of instruction be abandoned. If MC is to have more impact than the melting pot myth of the last century, it must be placed at the core of counseling programs and specifically conceived, defined, and supported by a conceptual framework rooted in the universal culture. (Spanish abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the history, goals, membership, and forces shaping the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD). In the short-term (1–2 yrs), the AACD must develop strategies to promote a better public image of the counselor and professional opportunities for members to learn about advanced technology. In the long-term, the association will be working in government relations, human rights, credentialing, intellectual capital, and international relations. The AACD is a new name for its predecessor the American Personnel and Guidance Association. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Offers specific suggestions for counseling women who are experiencing depression and grief as a result of an abortion, based on a grief-resolution format for counseling. Grief resolution involves the client's processing of the loss of a fetus as an unresolved grief issue; special attention should be given to the client's feelings of ambivalence, guilt, and anger. In grief-resolution therapy, the asking for and granting of forgiveness, which allows the client a release from her own perceived guilt, is also a critical aspect of resolution. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Considers whether research has a role in helping counselors weigh sensitive moral, ethical, or philosophical issues, with specific reference to abortion. Studies reviewed by N. E. Adler et al (see record 1990-26381-001) reveal that women showed little evidence of psychopathology after abortion. Three factors related to the abortion experience that may contribute to negative responses were (1) the decision process employed by the women, (2) perceived social support, and (3) coping processes and expectancies. Women with greater support from male partners or parents tended to show more positive emotional reaction post-abortion. It is suggested that counselors working with women to resolve reproductive issues should clarify their personal values regarding abortion, evaluate available research for soundness and generalizability, and use the research to develop appropriate strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
To investigate the effects of father absence on interpersonal problem-solving skills, 25 nursery school children from each intact and father-absent families were administered a preschool interpersonal problem solving test. Results indicate that the father-absent group scored significantly lower than Ss from intact families, indicating a deficit in the type of thinking thought to be central to the child's adjustment to other people. Findings support other research studies citing the possible negative effects of father absence in the preschool years. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the incidence of childhood sexual and physical abuse in 52 adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Behaviors and dynamics associated with unresolved childhood abuse (chronic depression, revictimization, sexual compulsiveness, and alcohol and other drug abuse) are discussed in light of those behaviors and dynamics that increase a person's risk for exposure to HIV. 65% of Ss interviewed reported physical or sexual abuse in childhood. Data indicated that the frequency of adult survivor characteristics was greater in Ss who were either physically or sexually abused or both than in Ss who were not abused. Recommendations for counselors working with HIV-infected clients are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses characteristics (e.g., low ego strength, low self-esteem) of men arrested for spouse abuse and describes treatment methods that evaluative research suggests curtail domestic violence. The finding that over 80% of arrested abusive men witnessed or experienced abuse as children suggests that battering is a family pattern that is repeated by one generation to the next. A small-group educational format for court-referred treatment of abuse is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Any successful war on drugs by a nation, state, or community requires the cooperative efforts of helping professionals in many settings and at all levels of practice. An expanded perspective of professional roles and effective services is required among all counselors in schools, governmental agencies, law enforcement, health professions, and recreation. Counselors who work directly with chemically dependent clients and their families must work with professional helpers in other settings so that educational and prevention services can be coordinated with direct interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines 6 myths about the nature and prevalence of child sexual abuse and presents recommendations for interviewing suspected victims of child sexual abuse. It is asserted that (1) incest is not as rare as once thought and is not confined to one socioeconomic status (SES), (2) child molesters are exercising power (not sexual attraction) over their victims, (3) child molesters are likely to know their victims well enough to be trusted, (4) child sexual abuse is a centuries-old phenomenon, (5) sexual abuse involves ongoing incidents, and (6) children do not lie about being abused. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the role and function of child-abuse team members outside the counseling profession (i.e., district attorney, physician, law enforcer, social worker, mental health professional) and provides suggestions for using a multidisciplinary approach to manage sexual abuse cases. It is suggested that by working together, team members can become more comfortable in reporting suspected cases, more thorough in coordinating investigation and treatment activities, and more effective in educating the public about child sexual abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Because many counseling clients may have sexual abuse in their histories and may not volunteer this information, it is essential that mental health counselors be able to identify the symptoms presented by sexual abuse survivors and facilitate disclosure, recovery, and successful resolution of the abuse memories. This article reviews and organizes the information regarding the symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and specific issues (e.g, relationships) of this population to assist counselors with assessment and treatment of sexual abuse survivors. The author advocates a combination of group and individual counseling (e.g., guided imagery). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents concepts of developmental counseling and therapy (A. Ivey, 1986, 1990) as a systematic framework to integrate neo-Piagetian developmental theory into the interview. Four specific aspects of the developmental counseling and therapy model are outlined: (1) assessing cognitive developmental level; (2) expanding horizontal or vertical development through matching or mismatching counseling theories and methods; (3) using specific interview questions to facilitate talk at varying and predictable cognitive developmental levels; and (4) organizing a comprehensive developmental treatment plan. An example of treatment of an abused 8-yr-old boy illustrates the concepts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The development of a campus-based Substance Abuse Prevention Program (SAPP) is discussed. The program has been designed in accordance with recommendations made by prominent authorities in this field, keeping in mind the needs of the campus at which the program is located. Suggestions for developing such programs are provided.
Assessed the prevalence of children of alcoholics (COAs) among 860 undergraduates (aged 16–23 yrs), using student problem drinking and family alcoholism measures. Significantly greater problem drinking was indicated by Ss who reported having a parent or grandparent diagnosed with or treated for alcoholism. The highest rates of problem drinking were found among Ss who reported both an alcoholic parent and grandparent. Ss without a diagnosed alcoholic parent also experienced distress and family discord from parental alcohol abuse and indicated greater problem drinking. However, increased alcohol problems of Ss without a diagnosed alcoholic parent were different from other COAs. Thus, different types of COAs should be considered in research, treatment, and prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines the issues and needs of individuals who are physically disabled and have substance abuse (SA) problems. Reasons for the high rate of SA among individuals who are physically disabled include self-perception and stress factors, negative attitudes, myths, enabling attitudes of well-meaning professionals, lack of knowledge, and lack of adequate treatment facilities. Treatment considerations for such individuals are addressed and include individual, family, and educational counseling. Prevention issues are examined, and the importance of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) is assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews recent empirical, case study, and conceptual literature that examines or discusses treatment techniques for adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in individual therapy. These techniques are divided into 11 categories: relationship-building techniques; questioning; family of-origin techniques; writing techniques; gestalt work, role playing, and psychodrama; transactional analysis and inner-child work; hypnotherapy and guided imagery; cognitive techniques; behavioral techniques; life-skills training; and other techniques. It is concluded that there are a variety of techniques used to address the unique needs and issues of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse; however, little evidence exists to suggest which techniques are most effective for treating which issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Determined the extent to which maladjustive patterns existed within 35 families, each with 1 offspring (aged 13–25 yrs) hospitalized for substance abuse, using a self-report instrument. Abusers reported use of cocaine, alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, hallucinogens, and mixed use. Three concepts are used to describe the family patterns: closeness and distance among family members, the triangulation within the family, and the systematic influence held by family members. Results suggest that these families were often highly interdependent and that in about 50% of the cases they (1) desired some triangulation between parents and offspring and (2) were working toward a hierarchical reversal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the prevalence and nature of incest contacts among 42 male and 35 female clients (aged 19–64 yrs) of 8 substance abuse treatment facilities. The Substance Abuse and Incest Survey was used to gather data. Approximately 47% of Ss had reported histories of incest. Data are presented regarding age during incest contact; frequency of contacts; and involvement of force, alcohol, and drugs. Comparisons by gender are also presented. Implications of these data for substance abuse training and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the relationship between observed and received violence in childhood and expressed and received abuse in adult relationships. Questionnaires addressing family of origin and relationship violence were completed by 330 undergraduates. Results indicate that 75% of the Ss had expressed and received abuse in adult relationships and that 64% had experienced abuse in intimate relationships. Only 15% of these Ss, however, had experienced clinical contact as a result of their problems. In these clinical Ss, 30% had parents who abused each other and most had been abused as children. Multiple regression indicated that being abused as a child predicted receiving and expressing violence as an adult. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Predicted that trainees who expected to counsel a sexually abused client (SAC) would respond with an increase in anxiety and negative self-statements. 63 female trainees (aged 22–50 yrs) were assessed after viewing a videotape of a client reporting sexual abuse, physical abuse, or role conflict. Results indicate that, counter to predictions, the trainees who expected to counsel the SAC increased their positive self-statements. Application of R. Schwartz's (see record 1987-13630-001) states-of-mind model to the self-statement ratios showed that Ss fell into the positive monolog range. According to the model, trainees were unrealistically optimistic with respect to their counseling despite the fact that they lacked training and counseling experience with sexual abuse issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews play therapy (PT) literature related to abused and neglected children, and discusses 7 characteristic play behaviors of maltreated children along with 2 common play themes. The play behaviors include developmental immaturity, opposition and aggression, withdrawal and passivity, self-deprecation and self-destruction, hypervigilance, sexuality, and dissociation. The 2 play themes identified are (1) unimaginative and literal play and (2) repetition and compulsion. Upon reviewing 22 published PT articles, the authors identify problems in the definition of abuse and neglect, along with 4 additional research deficits, including inconsistent definitions of PT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article describes a program designed to improve academic performance of academically at-risk students at a small liberal arts college. Developed from research on successful adults with learning disabilities, the program emphasizes strategic goal planning and incorporates approaches often found in support services for college students with learning disabilities. Preliminary results indicate that a relation exists between the program and increased grade point average of at-risk students.
Prior to initial enrollment, undergraduates completed surveys assessing expectations about their college adjustment, and later completed a second survey assessing actual adjustment. Six years later inspection of academic transcripts revealed which students had dropped out and whether they had been in good academic standing or poor academic standing. Results indicated that two different sets of items best discriminated among good-standing students, the persisters (n=113) and the leavers (n=29), and among poor-standing students, persisters (n=36) and leavers (n=30). Generally, emotional and social adjustment items predicted attrition as well or better than academic adjustment items.
Conducted a meta-analysis of 67 studies on the impact of career education interventions on the academic achievement of 82,268 1st–12th graders. Results showed a positive effect, with an average effect magnitude of .16. There was an even greater increase in academic achievement when studies were grouped by subject matter taught (math and English), ability level (average), and grade level (elementary). In addition, results increased if the program was in its 2nd yr of operation with the same students and if the average hours of intervention over a 9-mo period ranged from 151 to 200. Findings support the value of career education as a means of enhancing academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In a replication and extension of C. Colangelo et al (see record 1988-09125-001), 90 junior high school students classified as highly gifted (HG), moderately gifted (MG), or average (AVG) in terms of academic achievement (ACA) were compared on measures of academic and social self-concept, including the ME Scale. The hypothesis that ACA would have a positive effect on academic self-concept measures was partially supported. HG Ss were higher in scholastic competence than MG and AVG Ss. MG Ss were higher than AVG Ss on this variable. Contrary to expectations, there was an interaction of gender and ACA for academic self-concept, and HG and MG boys did not have more positive social self-concepts than AVG boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
We hoped to identify the sources and types of social support that are most beneficial for helping graduate students cope with stress. A second purpose of our study was to identify sex differences in stress and the most beneficial types of support. Students living in graduate student housing were surveyed to assess (a) social support in their academic programs and in their family environments, (b) recent stressful life events, and (c) depression and anxiety as psychological symptoms of stress. Women reported significantly more stress, more symptoms of stress, and significantly less support from their academic departments and family environments than did men. Family support had only buffering effects, but no direct effects on stress symptoms for women. Graduate program and family support had direct effects, but no buffering effects on stress symptoms for men. These results may indicate greater role strain for women, perhaps resulting from less support for their multiple roles and greater concerns about balancing academic and family demands.
Top-cited authors
Brent Mallinckrodt
  • Western Washington University
Anneliese Singh
  • University of Georgia
Joe E Wheaton
  • The Ohio State University
Hilary Gerdes
  • University of Oregon
Kimberly Vannest
  • University of Vermont