Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1862-1783
Print ISSN: 1673-1581
Publications
To compare the effects of epidural anesthesia with 1.5% lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine on propofol requirements, the time to loss of consciousness (LOC), effect-site propofol concentrations, and the hemodynamic variables during induction of general anesthesia guided by bispectral index (BIS) were studied. Forty-five patients were divided into three groups to receive epidurally administered saline (Group S), 1.5% (w/w) lidocaine (Group L), or 0.5% (w/w) ropivacaine (Group R). Propofol infusion was started to produce blood concentration of 4 mug/ml. Once the BIS value reached 40~50, endotracheal intubation was facilitated by 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium. Measurements included the time to LOC, effect-site propofol concentrations, total propofol dose, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and heart rate (HR) at different study time points. During induction of anesthesia, both Groups L and R were similar for the time to LOC, effect-site propofol concentrations, total propofol dose, MABP, HR, and BIS. The total doses of propofol administered until 1 min post-intubation were significantly less in patients of Groups R and L compared with Group S. MABP and HR were significantly lower following propofol induction compared with baseline values in the three groups, or MABP was significantly increased following intubation as compared with that prior to intubation in Group S but not in Groups R and L while HR was significantly increased following intubation in the three groups. Epidural anesthesia with 1.5% lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine has similar effects on the time to LOC, effect-site propofol concentrations, total propofol dose, and the hemodynamic variables during induction of general anesthesia.
 
Relative spectral response curve of CBERS-02B CCD data  
Mean exoatmospheric solar irradiance (E) for CBERS-02B CCD 
Data structures of tasseled cap transformation about different sensors 
A 400×400 extract from CBERS-02B CCD image of Suzhou area in November, 2008 (a) TC 1 ; (b) TC 2 ; (c) TC 3 ; (d) Panchromatic image  
The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in agriculture, forest, ecology, and landscape. In this paper, tasseled cap transformation coefficients appropriate for data from a new sensor (China & Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS-02B)) are presented. The first three components after transformation captured 98% of the four-band variance, and represent the physical characteristics of brightness (coefficients: 0.509, 0.431, 0.330, and 0.668), greenness (coefficients: -0.494, -0.318, -0.324, and 0.741), and blueness (coefficients: 0.581, -0.070, -0.811, and 0.003), respectively. We hope these results will enhance the application of CBERS-02B charge-coupled device (CCD) data in the areas of agriculture, forest, ecology, and landscape.
 
Biotransformation of phytosterol (PS) by a newly isolated mutant Mycobacterium neoaurum ZJUVN-08 to produce androstenedione has been investigated in this paper. The parameters of the biotransformation process were optimized using fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Androstenedione was the sole product in the fermentation broth catalyzed by the mutant M. neoaurum ZJUVN-08 strain. Results showed that molar ratio of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to PS and substrate concentrations were the two most significant factors affecting androstenedione production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, the optimal process conditions were observed at 0.1 g/L inducer, pH 7.0, molar ratio of HP-β-CD to PS 1.92:1, 8.98 g/L PS, and at 120 h of incubation time. Under these conditions, the maximum androstenedione yield was 5.96 g/L and nearly the same with the non-optimized (5.99 g/L), while the maximum PS conversion rate was 94.69% which increased by 10.66% compared with the non-optimized (84.03%). The predicted optimum conditions from the mathematical model were in agreement with the verification experimental results. It is considered that response surface methodology was a powerful and efficient method to optimize the parameters of PS biotransformation process.
 
Supposed structure of the metal complexes 
A series of 2-benzylideneaminonaphthothiazoles were designed and synthesized incorporating the lipophilic naphthalene ring to render them more capable of penetrating various biomembranes. Schiff bases were synthesized by the reaction of naphtha[1,2-d]thiazol-2-amine with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. 2-(2'-Hydroxy)benzylideneaminonaphthothiazole was converted to its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal complexes upon treatment with metal salts in ethanol. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities by paper disc diffusion method with Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of all the Schiff bases and metal complexes were determined by agar streak dilution method. All the compounds moderately inhibited the growth of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In the present study among all Schiff bases 2-(2'-hydroxy)benzylideneaminonaphthothiazole showed maximum inhibitory activity and among metal complexes Cu(II) metal complex was found to be most potent. The results obtained validate the hypothesis that Schiff bases having substitution with halogens, hydroxyl group and nitro group at phenyl ring are required for the antibacterial activity while methoxy group at different positions in the aromatic ring has minimal role in the inhibitory activity. The results also indicated that the metal complexes are better antibacterial agents as compared to the Schiff bases.
 
Synthesis of various 1,2,4-triazines
Anticonvulsant activity data of compounds 5a~5f 
In the present research, a series of 5,6-bis aryl 1,2,4-triazines 5a~5f were synthesized by condensation of various benzils 4a~4f with aminoguanidine bicarbonate and were screened in vivo, for their anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity studies. Compounds 5a, 5b and 5d were found to be potent molecules of this series, when compared with the reference drugs phenytoin sodium, diazepam and lamotrigine. The structures of these compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopic data.
 
The partition behaviors of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase, alpha-amylase and neutral proteases from clarified and whole fermentation broths of Bacillus subtilis ZJF-1A5 were investigated. An aqueous two-phase system (polyethylene glycol (PEG)/MgSO(4)) was examined with regard to the effects of PEG molecular weight (MW) and concentration, MgSO(4) concentration, pH and NaCl concentration on enzyme partition and extraction. The MW and concentration of PEG were found to have significant effects on enzyme partition and extraction with low MW PEG showing the greatest benefit in the partition and extraction of beta-glucanase with the PEG/MgSO(4) system. MgSO(4) concentration influenced the partition and extraction of beta-glucanase significantly. pH had little effect on beta-glucanase or proteases partition but affected alpha-amylase partition when pH was over 7.0. The addition of NaCl had little effect on the partition behavior of beta-glucanase but had very significant effects on the partitioning of alpha-amylase and on the neutral proteases. The partition behaviors of beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase and proteases in whole broth were also investigated and results were similar to those obtained with clarified fermentation broth. A two-step process for purifying beta-glucanase was developed, which achieved beta-glucanase recovery of 65.3% and specific activity of 14027 U/mg, 6.6 times improvement over the whole broth.
 
The aim of this work was to construct a novel food-grade industrial arming yeast displaying beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase and to evaluate the thermal stability of the glucanase for practical application. For this purpose, a bi-directional vector containing galactokinase (GAL1) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) promoters in different orientations was constructed. The beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis was fused to alpha-agglutinin and expressed under the control of the GAL1 promoter. alpha-galactosidase induced by the constitutive PGK1 promoter was used as a food-grade selection marker. The feasibility of the alpha-galactosidase marker was confirmed by the growth of transformants harboring the constructed vector on a medium containing melibiose as a sole carbon source, and by the clear halo around the transformants in Congo-red plates owing to the expression of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The analysis of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in cell pellets and in the supernatant of the recombinant yeast strain revealed that beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase was successfully displayed on the cell surface of the yeast. The displayed beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in the recombinant yeast cells increased immediately after the addition of galactose and reached 45.1 U/ml after 32-h induction. The thermal stability of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase displayed in the recombinant yeast cells was enhanced compared with the free enzyme. These results suggest that the constructed food-grade yeast has the potential to improve the brewing properties of beer.
 
Multiple sequence alignment of AgEGase and other members from family Glycohydrolase 45 Block represents highly conserved catalytic motif. Arrow indicates another conserved residue with observed catalytic role. GUN5_HUMIN: Humicola insolens; GUN5_TRIRE: Trichoderma reesi; GUNK_FUSOX: Fusarium oxysporum; Q81815_9CUCU: Apriona germari  
Mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari, has been reported to produce two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases or AgEGases (accession Nos. Q6SS52 and Q5XQD1). AgEGase sequence contains catalytic motif (amino acid residues 37-48), which is the characteristic of family Glycohydrolase 45 and is identified as the substrate binding site. The application of bioinformatics approaches includes sequence analysis, structural modeling and inhibitor docking to relate the structure and function of AgEGases. We have dissected the sequence and structure of AgEGase catalytic motif and compared it with crystal structure of Humicola insolens endoglucanases V. The results show an involvement of sulfur containing amino acid residues in the active site of the enzyme. Cys residues and position of disulfide bonds are highly conserved between the two structures of endoglucanases of A. germari. Surface calculation of AgEGase structure in the absence of Cys residues reveals greater accessibility of the catalytic site to the substrate involving Asp42, a highly conserved residue. For the inhibition study, tannin-based structure was docked into the catalytic site of AgEGase using ArgusLab 4.0 and it resulted in a stable complex formation. It is suggested that the inhibition could occur through formation of a stable transition state analog-enzyme complex with the tannin-based inhibitor, as observed with other insect cellulases in our laboratory.
 
The cis and trans isomers separation of 2-butene-1,4-diol and lafutidine were studied by HPLC on two kinds of chiral columns: (S,S)-Whelk-O 1 and ChiraSpher. The isomers of 2-butene-1,4-diol can be separated on both chiral columns while the isomers of lafutidine can only be resolved on ChiraSpher column. The influence of different type and amount of mobile phase modifier on the isomers separation was extensively studied. The resolution of cis and trans isomers of 2-butene-1,4-diol was 2.61 on (S,S)-Whelk-O 1 column with hexane-ethanol (97:3, v/v) as the mobile phase. The resolution of lafutidine was 1.89 on ChiraSpher column with hexane-ethanol-THF-diethylamine (92:3:5:0.1, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. LC-MS methods were developed to identify the isomer peaks.
 
Both 1,5-benzodiazepine and quinoxaline derivatives are important heterocycles in pharmaceuticals. We describe an efficient and clean method for the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines from o-phenylenediamine and ketones catalyzed by sodium tetrachloroaurate(III) dihydrate under mild conditions. The catalyst was shown to be equally effective for the synthesis of quinoxalines from o-phenylenediamine and alpha-bromo ketones under the similar reaction conditions. This method produced good yields.
 
To observe the effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) on serum levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), as well as the concentration of calcium in cardiomyocytes (Myo[Ca(2+)]) and activity of sarcoplosnic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SRCa(2+)-ATPase) in Adriamycin (ADR)-treated rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with ADR (2.5 mg/kg every other day for 6 times) and then with different dosages of FDP (every other day for twenty-one times). Bi-antibodies sandwich Enzyme linked immune absorption assay (ELISA) was performed to detect serum level of cTnI. CK-MB was detected by monoclonal antibody, Myo[Ca(2+)] was detected by fluorescent spectrophotometry and the activity of SRCa(2+)-ATPase was detected by inorganic phosphate method. FDP (300, 600, 1200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum levels of cTnI and CK-MB, while at the same time decreased calcium concentration and increased SRCa(2+)-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes of ADR-treated rats (P<0.01). FDP might alleviate the cardiotoxic effects induced by ADR through decreasing calcium level as well as increasing SRCa(2+)-ATPase activity in cardiomyocytes.
 
To identify the mutations of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene, to reveal its mutation features, and to establish a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal gene diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) assay, PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to detect mutation of IDS gene of the patient and his parents. The result showed that the patient was: DS(++), HS(++), KS(-), CS(-), and that both of his parents were negative. A frame-shift deletion mutation (1062 del 16) was identified in exon 7 of the patient's IDS gene. His parents' genotypes were normal. The patient's mutation was not inherited by his parents but a novel one. The mutation probably altered the primary structure and tertiary structure of IDS enzyme protein remarkably and lowered the activity of IDS enzyme greatly. Therefore it is supposed to be the direct cause of the disorder.
 
Forty-five bayberry accessions included in this study
Fruit size and color of three selections and three reference cultivars Each grid cell represents one square centimeter  
Main fruit characters of the identified three new accessions and three local cultivars
Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between 'Biqi' and 'Dongkui'. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions 'Y2010-70', 'Y2012-140', and 'Y2012-145', were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
 
Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.
 
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.
 
Effect of population density on excess atomic fraction of 13 C among various plant parts during pod- filling stage in Shakujo and Enrei 
This study addresses the hypothesis that stagnation of soybean yield on the farm can be improved by selection of a physiological trait favoring carbon assimilate partitioning to terminally placed pods versus genotypes having axillary pods at close plant spacing. (13)C was fed to source-sink units comprising a leaf, axillary/terminal pods, and petioles at upper and lower positions of the stem axis in two soybean cultivars, namely Shakujo and Enrei, at different densities of populations. The cultivars differ significantly in architecture, Shakujo bearing a few hundreds of pods in close succession to one another in a terminally placed raceme, in contrast to Enrei having axillary racemes. Pod yield per plant was higher in Enrei than in Shakujo at low density, but Shakujo out-yielded Enrei at close spacing. Population density decreased yield per plant and altered the pattern of assimilate partitioning significantly within the plants for both varieties. At high density more assimilates moved to the upper parts at the cost of the lower parts. The terminally placed pods of Shakujo were advantaged to receive assimilates under density stress. No benefit was accrued to pod filling of Enrei, however, under this condition.
 
To observe and evaluate a method that is effective and practical for treatment of cerebral palsied (CP) children in China. The patient's age and disease type and individual specific conditions were considered in choosing therapy methods accordingly: Chinese herbs, acupuncture, auricular seed pressure, point finger pressing, massage, orthopedic hand manipulation, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, language therapy, etc. Meanwhile we created a new CP treatment model that combines hospitalized treatment with family therapy. The majority of CP patients improved greatly in motor and social adaptation capacities after treatment. Wilcoxon paired rank sum test analysis showed that there were significant differences between the data before and after treatment (P<0.01). This combined therapy method, based on traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine plus family supplemental therapy, is an effective and practical treatment strategy for CP children in China.
 
Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis, which is also crucial for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies have revealed that interleukin (IL)-17, which was regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has a dual function in the progress of ACS. In this review, we sum up both experimental and clinical studies on the relevance of IL-17 to atherosclerosis and its complications, and summarize the research progress on the effect of IL-17 on the atherosclerotic plaque stability and ACS onset. Although the studies are controversial and the mechanism remains unclear, we highlight the knowledge of the role of IL-17 in ACS and elucidate its potential mechanism.
 
Main characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis 
Forest plots for the association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and response to platinum-based treatment in NSCLC Each study is represented by a point estimate of the OR and accompanying 95% CI. (a) GG vs. AA; (b) AG vs. AA; (c) GA+AA vs. GG; (d) GG+AG vs. AA 
Results of the meta-analysis for the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and response to platinum-based treatment in NSCLC 
Main results from Egger's test for publication bias for all genotype models 
Objective: XRCC1 polymorphism is a research hotpot in individual treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To obtain the association between XRCC1 polymorphism and clinical outcome of platinum-based treatment for NSCLC, a meta-analysis was conducted. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for publications that met the inclusion criteria. A fixed effect model was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and response or survival of platinum-based treatment for advanced NSCLC. A chi-squared-based Q-test was used to test the heterogeneity hypothesis. Egger's test was used to check publication bias. Results: Seventeen published case-control studies that focus on the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and response or survival of platinum-based treatment for advanced NSCLC in 2256 subjects were included in this meta-analysis, of whom 522 were AA genotypes (23.2% frequency), 916 AG genotypes (40.6% frequency), and 818 GG genotypes (36.2% frequency). The overall response rate (ORR) was 45.2% (110/243) for AA genotype patients, 29.9% for AG genotype (73/244), and 30.7% for GG genotype (124/403). The heterogeneity test did not show any heterogeneity and the Egger's test did not reveal an obvious publication bias among the included studies. The meta-analysis indicated that AA genotype patients presented higher response rates toward platinum drug treatment compared with G model (GG+GA) patients (GG vs. AA model: OR=0.489, 95% CI 0.266-0.900, P=0.021; AG vs. AA model: OR=0.608, 95% CI 0.392-0.941, P=0.026; GA+AA vs. GG model: OR=1.259, 95% CI 0.931-1.701, P=0.135; GG+GA vs. AA model: OR=0.455, 95% CI 0.313-0.663, P=0.0001). However, no evidence validates XRCC1 associates with the survival following platinum drug therapy. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggested that XRCC1 Arg399Gln is related with the sensitivity of NSCLC patients to platinum-based treatment. AA genotype patients present more desirable curative effectiveness compared with other patients.
 
Definitions of morphometric measurements and meristic counts of Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix used in this study
Box plot of 31 morphometric characters of Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix
Scatter plot of PC2 vs. PC3 scores and 95% confidence ellipses of the scores for PCA using morphometric characters −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 PC2  
Principal component loadings for the meristic characters
A simple yet useful criterion based on external markings and/or number of dorsal spines is currently used to differentiate two congeneric archer fish species Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix. Here we investigate other morphometric and meristic characters that can also be used to differentiate these two species. Principal component and/or discriminant functions revealed that meristic characters were highly correlated with pectoral fin ray count, number of lateral line scales, as well as number of anal fin rays. The results indicate that T. chatareus can be distinguished from T. jaculatrix by having a greater number of lateral line scales, a lower number of pectoral fin rays, and a higher number of anal fin rays. In contrast, morphometric discriminant analyses gave relatively low distinction: 76.1% of fish were ascribed to the correct species cluster. The observed morphometric differences came from the dorsal and anal spines lengths, with T. chatareus having shorter dorsal and longer anal spines than T. jaculatrix. Overall, meristic traits were more useful than morphometrics in differentiating the two species; nevertheless, meristics and morphometrics together provide information about the morphological differentiation between these two closely related archer fishes.
 
Total fecundity, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) and related statistics in archer fishes 
Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL b ) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422±0.009 and 3.420±0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.
 
This study was carried out to test the effects of methotrexate (MTX) and black seed oil (BSO) on pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in rats. Inbred dark agouti (DA) rats were induced by a single subcutaneous injection of pristane, and then treated with MTX or BSO. Arthritis severity was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration was determined by the Griess method and cytokine mRNA expression in the spleen was detected by the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The clinical arthritis severity was decreased after MTX treatment, while the BSO groups did not show significant changes compared with the disease group. The plasma NO level of the MTX group was significantly decreased compared with the disease group, but the BSO groups showed no difference from the disease group in plasma NO levels. The interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) mRNA expressions in the spleens were significantly decreased in the MTX group, but only showed a declining trend in the BSO groups compared with the disease group. Neither MTX nor BSO had an effect on the mRNA expressions of IL-4, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the spleen. MTX, but not BSO, can reduce the arthritis severity and decrease the mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-17A in pristane-induced arthritis of rats.
 
A rapid sample treatment procedure for the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in animal tissues has been developed. In our optimized procedures, enzymatic hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli was performed in an acetate buffer (pH 5.2, 0.2 mol/L). Next, the homogenate was mixed with methanol and heated at 60 °C for 15 min, then placed in an ice-bath at −18 °C for 2 h. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, the analytes were subjected to a normal-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) C18 cartridge for clean-up. The dried organic extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and then the products were injected into GC-MS. Using electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with positive chemical ionization (PCI), four diagnostic ions (m/z 666, 453, 318, and 306) were determined. A standard calibration curve over the concentration range of 1–20 ng/g was reached, with Y=467 084X-68 354 (R 2=0.999 7) for 19-NT, and the detection limit was 0.3 ng. When applied to spiked samples collected from bovine and ovine, the recoveries ranged from 63% to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2.7% and 8.9%. The procedure is a highly efficient, sensitive, and more economical method which offers considerable potential to resolve cases of suspected nandrolone doping in husbandry animals.
 
Measurement of the distance between two cut-off points of opposing palate shelves Arrowheads indicate eye tissue. N: nasal; P: palate; d: distance. Magnification: 40× 
Fetal mice development and incidence of cleft palate among different groups 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 on palatal development by co-administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dexamethasone (DEX). We examined the morphological and histological features of the palatal shelf and expression levels of key signaling molecules (transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) and TGF-β type I receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5, ALK5)) during palatogenesis among a control group (Group A), TCDD+DEX exposed group (Group B), and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed group (Group C). While we failed to find that vitamin B12 decreased the incidence of cleft palate induced by TCDD+DEX treatment, the expression levels of key signaling molecules (TGF-β3 and ALK5) during palatogenesis were significantly modulated. In TCDD+DEX exposed and TCDD+DEX+vitamin B12 exposed groups, palatal shelves could not contact in the midline due to their small sizes. Our results suggest that vitamin B12 may inhibit the expression of some cleft palate inducers such as TGF-β3 and ALK5 in DEX+TCDD exposed mice, which may be beneficial against palatogenesis to some degree, even though we were unable to observe a protective role of vitamin B12 in morphological and histological alterations of palatal shelves induced by DEX and TCDD.
 
To report clinical features and treatment of 16 cases of acute 2,4-dinitrophenol poisoning. A total of 16 patients suffering from acute poisoning due to non-oral exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol were sent to our hospital. Two died within 3 h after admission, while the other 14 responded to supportive treatment and hemoperfusion. Clinical features and treatment of the patients were retrospectively analyzed and presented. Fourteen patients recovered and were discharged after four to six weeks of treatment. No obvious poisoning sequelae were found in the three-month follow-up. Non-oral exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol is toxic. Hemoperfusion and glucocorticoid treatments may be efficient measures to prevent mortality, but this requires further study.
 
Protonating the pyridine rings of poly(pyridine-2,5-diyl) with dodecybenzenesulfonic acid and camphorsulphonic acid produces polymer materials which can be dissolved in chloroform (in contrast to the unprotonated polymer, which can only be dissolved in strong acids such as formic acid) and allows mixing the protonated polymers with other chloroform soluble conjugated polymers for use in electronic devices. The protonating behavior of poly(pyridine-2,5-diyl) with two kinds of surfactants is different in some levels. Dodecybenzenesulfonic acid has higher protonating ability than camphorsulphonic acid.
 
Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant k(obs) of 1.4 x 10(-5) s(-1) at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.
 
The objective of this study is to propose a more accurate and faster MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay (MCA) for quantitative measurement of polypeptide bacteriocins in solutions with nisin as an example. After an initial incubation of nisin and indicator bacterium Micrococcus luteus NCIB 8166 in tubes, MTT was added for another incubation period. After that, nisin was quantified by estimating the number of viable bacteria based on measuring the amount of purple formazan produced by cleavage of yellow tetrazolium salt MTT. Then MCA was compared to a standard agar diffusion assay (ADA). The results suggested a high correlation coefficient (r 2=0.975±0.004) between optical density (OD) and the inhibitory effect of nisin on a bacterial strain Micrococcus luteus NCIB 8166 at a range of 0.125∼32 IU/ml. The MCA described in this study was very quick. Quantification of nisin took only 7∼8 h and the detection limit was at the level of 0.125 IU/ml when compared to 12 IU/ml and 24∼28 h for ADA. The MCA provides an accurate and rapid method for quantification of nisin in solutions and is expected to be used for quantification of other antimicrobial substances.
 
We analysis the SCI citation of Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A, predict its 2008 Impact Factor in the range of 0.222~0.274, and list the most highly cited articles.
 
There is overwhelming evidence that hypertension is an important risk factor for both macrovascular and microvascular complications in patients with diabetes, but the problem remains to identify appropriate goals for preventive therapies. A number of guidelines (the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2007, the Joint National Committee (JNC)-VII 2003, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2011) have for example advocated a blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mmHg, but this suggestion has been challenged by findings in recent trials and meta-analyses (2011). The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) therefore recommends a systolic blood pressure goal of "well below" 140 mmHg. Based on evidence from both randomized controlled trials (hypertension optimal treatment (HOT), action in diabetes and vascular disease: preterax and diamicron MR controlled evaluation (ADVANCE), action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes (ACCORD)) and observational studies (ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global endpoint trial (ONTARGET), international verapamil-trandolapril study (INVEST), treat to new targets (TNT), and the National Diabetes Register (NDR)), it has been shown that the benefit for stroke reduction remains even at lower achieved blood pressure levels, but the risk of coronary events may be uninfluenced or even increased at lower systolic blood pressure levels. In a recent meta-analysis, it was therefore concluded that the new recommended goal should be 130-135 mmHg systolic blood pressure for most patients with type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors should also be controlled with a more ambitious strategy applied in the younger patients with shorter diabetes duration, but a more cautious approach in the elderly and frail patients with a number of vascular or non-vascular co-morbidities. In patients from East Asia, such as China, the stroke risk is relatively higher than the risk of coronary events. This must also be taken into consideration for individualized goal setting in relation to total risk, for example in patients from stroke-prone families. In conclusion, the current strategy is to have a more individualized approach to risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes, also relevant for blood pressure control.
 
We report that a 63-year-old Chinese female had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in which trisomy 21 (+21) was found as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase, and the immunophenotype was positive for cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19), CD33, CD34, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR. The chromosomal analysis of bone marrow showed 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[18]. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that three copies of AML1 were situated in separate chromosomes, and that t(8;21) was negative. The patient did not have any features of Down syndrome. A diagnosis of CD19-positive AML-M5 was established with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The patient did not respond well to chemotherapy and died three months after the diagnosis. This is the first reported case of CD19-positive AML with trisomy 21 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. The possible prognostic significance of the finding in AML with +21 as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality was discussed.
 
The association between the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) PvuII polymorphism (c.454-397T>C) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. Data were collected from 21 studies encompassing 9926 CAD patients and 16710 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the relationship between PvuII polymorphism and CAD. The polymorphism in control populations in all studies followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a significant association between ESR1 PvuII polymorphism and CAD risk in all subjects. When the data were stratified by region, a significant association between ESR1 PvuII polymorphism and CAD risk was observed in Asian populations but not in Western populations. The current study suggests that ESR1 PvuII polymorphism has an important role in CAD susceptibility.
 
We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.
 
The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.
 
A 24-membered ring macrolide compound, macrolactin A has potential applications in pharmaceuticals for its anti-infectious and antiviral activity. In this study, macrolactin A was produced by a marine bacterium, which was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses were used to characterize this compound. To improve the production, response surface methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed. Faeces bombycis, the main by-product in sericulture, was used as a nitrogen source in fermentation. The interactions between three significant factors, F. bombycis, soluble starch, and (NH4)2SO4 were investigated. A quadratic model was constructed to fit the production and the factors. Optimum medium composition was obtained by analysis of the model. When cultivated in the optimum medium, the production of macrolactin A was increased to 851 mg/L, 2.7 times as compared to the original. This study is also useful to find another way in utilizing F. bombycis.
 
Effect of Jeju seaweed extracts on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells The cells were stimulated with 1 µg/ml of LPS only or with a combination of LPS and various concentrations (3.125, 12.5, 25, or 50 µg/ml) of seaweed varieties JBR510 (a), JBR511 (b), JBR518 (c), JBR538 (d), and JBR375 (e) for 24 h. Nitric oxide production was determined by the Griess reagent method. Cell viability was determined using the 24-h culture of cells stimulated with LPS (1 µg/ml) in the presence of each sample. The data represent the mean±SD of triplicate experiments. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 vs. LPS alone 
Seaweed has been used in traditional cosmetics and as a herbal medicine in treatments for cough, boils, goiters, stomach ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches. Despite the fact that seaweeds are frequently used in the practice of human health, little is known about the role of seaweed in the context of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Jeju endemic seaweed on a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) under the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from 14 different kinds of Jeju seaweeds were screened for inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators. Our results revealed that extracts from five seaweeds, Laurencia okamurae, Grateloupia elliptica, Sargassum thunbergii, Gloiopeltis furcata, and Hizikia fusiformis, were potent inhibitors of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effects and low cell toxicity of these seaweed extracts suggest potential therapeutic applications in the regulation of the inflammatory response.
 
Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors can influence disease susceptibility, clinical presentation, and outcome. We investigated the clinical characteristics (age, sex, seasonal variation, lesion site, symptoms, complications, prognosis, and sequelae) and risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 266 cases treated at our hospital in Hangzhou City, China, from January 2011 to December 2011. Risk of ICH increased dramatically with age; only 4.3% of cases were <30 years old, while 44.4% were >60 years of age. Men outnumbered women by 2:1 (67.3% vs. 32.7%). Single hemorrhage was most often located in the cerebral lobes (37.2% of cases), basal ganglia (34.2%), thalamus (8.3%), cerebellum (6.8%), ventricle (1.5%), and brainstem (1.1%), while 10.9% of cases exhibited hemorrhages at multiple sites. Hypertension was also a major risk factor for ICH, as 47% of all patients were hypertensive and the percentage increased with age. In hypertensive patients, the most common hemorrhage site was the basal ganglia and ICH was often associated with thrombopenia. In patients with leukemia (all forms), most hemorrhages were lobar. Warfarin- and encephalic operation-associated ICHs were all lobar. Headache was the major symptom of occipital, temporal, and frontal lobe hemorrhage. Dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were the major symptoms of cerebellum hemorrhage. Limb dysfunction was the major symptom of thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage. Disturbed level of consciousness was the major symptom in multisite, ventricular, parietal lobe, and brainstem hemorrhage. Hyperspasmia occurred most often in lobar hemorrhage and blurred vision in occipital lobe hemorrhage. Hospital mortality was 24.4% (n=65) with a mean delay from presentation to death of (10.5±18.5) d. The majority of fatalities were cerebral hernia cases (58.5%) and these patients also had the shortest time to death [(2.9±3.5) d]. Mortality was 100% in brainstem ICH and hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarct. Thrombopenia-associated ICH also had a high mortality rate (81.0%), while patients with cerebrovascular malformations and cerebral aneurysms demonstrated a much better prognosis (46.2% recovery).
 
The protein encoded by CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This receptor was identified as a gene induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and is thought to be a mediator of EBV effects on B lymphocytes. This receptor is expressed in various lymphoid tissues and activates B and T lymphocytes. It has been shown to control the migration of memory T cells to inflamed tissues, as well as stimulate dendritic cell maturation. To map the CCR7 gene in chicken chromosome, a 6 000 rads chicken-hamster radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used. PCR of samples from ChickRH6 revealed that the location of CCR7 gene is linked to the maker SEQ0347 (6 cR away) with LOD score of 16.6 and that the marker SEQ0347 is located on chromosome 27 at 27 cR of RH (radiation hydrid) map. We compared the corresponding human mRNA sequence with the predicted coding sequence of chicken CCR7 gene, and found that the assembled contig shared a high percentage of similarity with that of the human gene.
 
To investigate the effects of ursolic acid on the proliferation and apoptosis of human HT-29 colon cancer cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the effects of ursolic acid on the growth and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. Western blot analysis was applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and the activity of B cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), B cell leukemia-xL (Bcl-xL), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Ursolic acid inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values for 24, 48, and 72 h treatment were 26, 20, and 18 micromol/L, respectively. The apoptotic rates of 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L ursolic acid treatments for 24 h were 5.74%, 14.49%, and 33.05%, and for 48 h were 9%, 21.39%, and 40.49%, respectively. Ursolic acid suppressed the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK, which is well correlated with its growth inhibitory effect. 10, 20, and 40 micromol/L ursolic acid significantly inhibited the proliferation of EGF-stimulated HT-29 cells (P<0.05). Cell proliferation was most significantly inhibited when treated with 10 and 20 micromol/L ursolic acid combined with 200 nmol/L AG 1478 or 10 micromol/L U0126 (P<0.01). Besides, it also down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9. Ursolic acid induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells by suppressing the EGFR/MAPK pathway, suggesting that it may be a potent agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
 
The synthetic primers used for RT-PCR 
Effect of curcumin on viability of HT-29 cells * 
Effect of curcumin treatment on protein expressions of Bax (a), Bcl-2 (a), Bad (b), Bcl-xL (b), caspase-3 (c), PARP (c), and survivin (d) HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin for 24 h. Bax, Bcl-2, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were assayed by Western blot. Equal amounts of total cellular protein (50 μg) were resolved on 10%~15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and β-actin was used as an internal control  
To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0 approximately 80 micromol/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10 approximately 80 micromol/L curcumin, while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway.
 
Due to their toxicity, the increased distribution of microcystins (MCs) has become an important worldwide problem. MCs have been recognized as inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through their binding to the PP2A catalytic subunit. However, the exact mechanism of MC toxicity has not been elucidated, especially concerning the cellular response and its autoregulation. To further dissect the role of PP2A in MC-induced toxicity, the present study was undertaken to determine the response of PP2A in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells treated with microcystin-LR (MCLR), one of the MC congeners. The results show that a low-dose treatment of MCLR in FL cells for 6 h induced an increase in PP2A activity, and a high-dose treatment of MCLR for 24 h decreased the activity of PP2A, as expected. The increased mRNA and protein levels of the PP2A C subunit may explain the increased activity of PP2A. Furthermore, MCLR altered microtubule post-translational modifications through PP2A. These results further clarify the underlying mechanism how MCLR affects PP2A and may be helpful for elucidating the complex toxicity of MCLR.
 
Our objective was to construct a recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (rBCG) that secretes human interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) and to study its immunogenicity and in vitro antitumor activity against human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. The signal sequence BCG Ag85B and the gene IFNα-2b were amplified from the genome of BCG and human peripheral blood, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The two genes were cloned in Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle-vector pMV261 to obtain a new recombinant plasmid pMV261-Ag85B-IFNα-2b. BCG was transformed with the recombinant plasmid by electroporation and designated rBCG-IFNα-2b. Mononuclear cells were isolated from human peripheral blood (PBMCs) and stimulated with rBCG-IFNα-2b or wild type BCG for 3 d, and then cultured with human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. Their cytotoxicities were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. BCG was successfully transformed with the recombinant plasmid pMV261-Ag85B-IFNα-2b by electroporation and the recombinant BCG (rBCG-IFNα-2b) was capable of synthesizing and secreting cytokine IFNα-2b. PBMC proliferation was enhanced significantly by rBCG-IFNα-2b, and the cytotoxicity of PBMCs stimulated by rBCG-IFNα-2b to T24 and T5627 was significantly stronger in comparison to wild type BCG. A recombinant BCG, secreting human IFNα-2b (rBCG-IFNα-2b), was constructed successfully and was superior to control wild type BCG in inducing immune responses and enhancing cytotoxicity to human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. This suggests that rBCG-IFNα-2b could be a promising agent for bladder cancer patients in terms of possible reductions in both clinical dosage and side effects of BCG immunotherapy.
 
13 C NMR spectra for ethylene/1-hexene copolymer obtained from initial [1-hexene]=0.08 mol/L (0 °C) 40 35 30 15 25 20 ×10 −6 
Ethylene/1-hexene was copolymerized by an unbridged zirconocene, (2-PhInd)(2)ZrCl(2)/MAO (methyl aluminoxane) at 0 degrees C and 50 degrees C respectively. High copolymerization activity and 1-hexene incorporation were observed at 0 degrees C, with the copolymer formed having random sequence distribution and narrow molecular weight distribution. Ethylene polymerization at 50 degrees C showed high activity, but copolymerization at 50 degrees C showed much lower activity, which decreased sharply with increasing 1-hexene concentration in the monomer feed. Copolymer formed at 50 degrees C showed blocky sequence distribution and broad molecular weight distribution. A mechanism model based on ligand rotation hindered by the propagation chain has been proposed to qualitatively explain the observed phenomena.
 
Microbial transformation pathway from phytosterol to AD and ADD 
Filter assay of mutant strain ZADF-4 Colonies were pre-stained with DCPIP and photographed about 15 min after incubation with AD dissolved in 2% methanol 
KSDD activity and AD and ADD contents of ZAD and the mutants Strains were cultured in fermentation medium and cultivated as described above. Enzyme activity was detected after 4 d. Data were expressed as mean±standard diviation (SD). All assays were performed with triplicate cultures 
Time course of AD and ADD accumulation by M. neoaurum ZAD and M. neoaurum ZADF-4 Data were expressed as mean±SD (n=3) 
Steroid medication is used extensively in clinical applications and comprises a large and vital part of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the difficulty of separating 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) from 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) restricts the application of the microbial transformation of phytosterols in the industry. A novel atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) treatment, which employs helium as the working gas, was used to generate Mycobacterium neoaurum mutants producing large amounts of AD. After treatment of cultures with ARTP, four mutants were selected using a novel screening method with a color assay. Among the mutants, M. neoaurum ZADF-4 was considered the best candidate for industrial application. When the fermentation medium contained 15 g/L phytosterols and was cultivated on a rotary shaker at 160 r/min at 30°C for 7 d, (6.28±0.11) g/L of AD and (0.82±0.05) g/L of ADD were produced by the ZADF-4 mutant, compared with (4.83±0.13) g/L of AD and (2.34±0.06) g/L of ADD by the original strain, M. neoaurum ZAD. Compared with ZAD, the molar yield of AD increased from 48.3% to 60.3% in the ZADF-4 mutant. This result indicates that ZADF-4 may have potential for industrial production of AD.
 
Demographic characteristics and version pref- erences of the 150 subjects 
Completion time for the two versions of the SF-36, mean±SD N Electronic version (s) Paper version (s) Mean-difference (s) t-test P value 95% CI (s) 
to verify the feasibility and reliability of the electronic version of Chinese SF-36 based on the Quality-of-Life-Recorder. A crossover randomized controlled trial, comparing a paper-based and an electronic version of the Chinese SF-36, was conducted. According to generated random numbers, interviewees were asked to fill out either the electronic version or the paper version first. The second version was filled in after a pause of at least 10 min. One group of 100 medical students at the School of Medicine of Zhejiang University and the other group of 50 outpatients at a clinic for general practice in Hangzhou City (China) were eventually recruited in this study. The acceptance of the electronic version was good (60% of medical students and 84% of outpatients preferred the electronic version). At the level of eight-scale scores, the mean-difference for each scale (except for general health) between the two versions was less than 5%. At the level of 36 questions, the percentage of "exact agreement" ranged within 64%-99%; the percentage of "global agreement" ranged within 72%-99%; 77% of the kappa coefficients demonstrated "good/excellent agreement" and 23% of the kappa coefficients demonstrated "medium agreement". This study, for the first time, can provide empirical basis for the confirmation of the feasibility and reliability of the electronic version of the Chinese SF-36 and may provide an impulse towards widespread deployment of the Quality-of-Life-Recorder in Chinese populations.
 
To observe the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric stump cancer (GSC) and evaluate the benefits of radical surgery of GSC. The clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative survival time of 37 GSC patients who underwent surgery were investigated retrospectively. The survival time was compared according to the type of surgical operation (radical resection vs palliative operation). Twenty-one cases that received radical resection were analyzed based on the pTMN stage. Survival curves were traced by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Most GSC (32/37) was detected in patients who had received Billroth II reconstruction after partial gastrectomy for benign gastric disease. The lesser curvature side and the suture line of anastomosis were the most frequent sites where GSC occurred (27/37). Differentiated adenocarcinoma was the dominant histopathological type (24/37). The postoperative 5-year survival rate of early stage GSC patients (n=9) was significantly higher than advanced stage GSC (n=12) (55.6% vs 16.5%, xL2=11.48, P<0.01). Five-year survival rate of 21 GSC patients with radical resection were 75% (3/4) for stage I, 60% (3/5) for stage II, 14.2% (1/7) for stage III, and 0% (0/5) for stage IV respectively. The median survival time of 21 GSC patients who underwent radical resection was longer than those undergoing palliative operation (43.0 m vs 13.0 m, x L2=36.31, P<0.01), the median survival time of stage IV patients with radical resection was 23.8 months. Without remote metastasis, radical resection for GSC is possible, and is an effective way to improve the prognosis of GSC. Even in stage IV GSC, radical resection can still prolong the survival time. It is necessary for the patients with benign gastric diseases who received partial gastrectomy to carry out the endoscopy follow-up, especially in patients with Billroth II reconstruction procedure at 15-20 years.
 
Tissue homeostasis requires a carefully-orchestrated balance between cell proliferation, cellular senescence and cell death. Cells proliferate through a cell cycle that is tightly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase activities. Cellular senescence is a safeguard program limiting the proliferative competence of cells in living organisms. Apoptosis eliminates unwanted cells by the coordinated activity of gene products that regulate and effect cell death. The intimate link between the cell cycle, cellular senescence, apoptosis regulation, cancer development and tumor responses to cancer treatment has become eminently apparent. Extensive research on tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory genes has revealed how the DNA damage-sensing and -signaling pathways, referred to as the DNA-damage response network, are tied to cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis. DNA-damage responses are complex, involving "sensor" proteins that sense the damage, and transmit signals to "transducer" proteins, which, in turn, convey the signals to numerous "effector" proteins implicated in specific cellular pathways, including DNA repair mechanisms, cell-cycle checkpoints, cellular senescence and apoptosis. The Bcl-2 family of proteins stands among the most crucial regulators of apoptosis and performs vital functions in deciding whether a cell will live or die after cancer chemotherapy and irradiation. In addition, several studies have now revealed that members of the Bcl-2 family also interface with the cell cycle, DNA repair/recombination and cellular senescence, effects that are generally distinct from their function in apoptosis. In this review, we report progress in understanding the molecular networks that regulate cell-cycle checkpoints, cellular senescence and apoptosis after DNA damage, and discuss the influence of some Bcl-2 family members on cell-cycle checkpoint regulation.
 
The 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) has been tested in many languages, but not in Chinese mainland. We aimed to assess the Chinese (mainland) version of the PDQ-39. Seventy-one subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) completed the PDQ-39 and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). All subjects were retested with the PDQ-39 a week later. The united Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the Hoehn and Yahr (H & Y) scale were also used to evaluate the subjects. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity was examined in terms of agreement with SF-36, UPDRS, and H & Y scales. The Chinese (mainland) version of the PDQ-39 demonstrated acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.84-0.88; ICC: 0.56-0.82). The item-total correlations (0.33-0.88) and scaling success rates (77.56%) indicated satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity of the PDQ-39 items. The correlations between related constructs of the PDQ-39 and UPDRS (r=0.44-0.68) and between those of the PDQ-39 and SF-36 (r=(-0.46)-(-0.69)) were all statistically significant (P<0.01). Except for stigma, cognitions, and bodily discomfort, all other dimensions of the PDQ-39 significantly discriminated patients at different H & Y stages indicated by the H & Y scale. Although our observations indicate that some problematic subscales of this version of the PDQ-39 could be improved upon, this study suggests acceptable reliability and validity of the Chinese (mainland) version of the PDQ-39.
 
Top-cited authors
Jian-An Wang
  • Zhejiang University
Qiao-Mei Wang
  • Zhejiang University
Wu-Yang Huang
  • Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chun-Yang Li
  • Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Gao-Feng Yuan
  • Zhejiang Ocean University