Journal of Youth and Adolescence

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Online ISSN: 1573-6601
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
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Recent publications
Simple Slopes of the Conditions (Self-reflection vs. Prosocial behavior) Predicting Positive Prosocial Self-concept at Varying Levels of Private Self-consciousness (PRSC)
Simple Slopes of the Condition (Control vs. Self-reflection) Predicting Positive Prosocial Self-concept at Varying Levels of Private Self-consciousness
Simple Slopes of the Condition (Control vs. Self-Reflection) Predicting Negative Prosocial Self-Concept at Varying Levels of Private Self-Consciousness
Reflection on prosocial experiences may be helpful for adolescents highly attentive to their internal states (i.e., high private self-consciousness) to gain prosocial self-knowledge, yet adolescents with low private self-consciousness may not benefit from it. The current study proposed and examined that engaging in helping behavior would be beneficial for those with low private self-consciousness in self-understanding. Two experimental studies using immersive virtual environment technology were conducted to simulate helping situations. A total of 140 middle school students (n = 59, 47.5% female, Mage = 13.98, SD = 0.89, in Study 1; n = 81, 44.4% female, Mage = 15.31, SD = 1.18, in Study 2) completed the experiments. In both studies, adolescents engaging in helping behaviors identified themselves as more prosocial than those who did not engage in helping behaviors. In Study 2, adolescents’ positive prosocial self-concept would increase more through engaging in prosocial behavior than by reflecting on past prosocial experiences. Furthermore, adolescents with high private self-consciousness can gain self-understanding both from self-reflection and engaging in prosocial behavior, whereas adolescents with low private self-consciousness benefit only from engaging in prosocial behavior. The findings suggest the need to consider individual differences and adopt appropriate ways of self-understanding when assisting adolescents’ prosocial self-formation.
Significant standardized results of the cross-lagged model.
Standardized results of the cross-lagged panel model
Empathic competences might help adolescents navigate current multicultural societies by supporting harmonious intergroup relations. Yet it is unclear how each component of empathy (empathic concern and perspective-taking) is associated with different dimensions (affective, cognitive, behavioral) of ethnic prejudice. The current study aims to fill this gap. A total of 259 Italian adolescents (Mage = 15.60, 87.6% female) completed online questionnaires at three time points (i.e., April, May, and October 2021). The results of cross-lagged models indicated that empathic concern was directly and indirectly associated with reduced affective, cognitive, and behavioral ethnic prejudice, while perspective-taking was linked to increases in cognitive and one facet of behavioral (i.e., lower contact willingness) prejudice. Furthermore, the prevalence of affect over cognition was found, with the affective component of both empathic competences (i.e., empathic concern) and ethnic prejudice exerting the strongest influence on the cognitive ones.
The Association Between Within-person Changes in Co-rumination and Rumination as a Function of Gender. Note. Girls’ relation between within-person changes in co-rumination and concurrent reports of rumination is depicted with a [red] dashed line and boys’ relation between within-person changes in co-rumination and concurrent reports of rumination is shown with a [blue] solid line
The Association Between Within-Person Changes in Co-rumination and Rumination as a Function of Time. Note. The relation between within-person changes in co-rumination and concurrent reports of rumination at the first timepoint is depicted with a [blue] solid line, the association at the middle timepoint (timepoint 4) is shown with a [green] dotted line, and the relation at the last timepoint (timepoint 7) is visualized with a [red] dashed line. As can be seen by the differing slopes, the relation between within-person changes in co-rumination and concurrent reports of rumination gets stronger over time
Heterogeneity in the Association Between Within-Person Changes in Co-rumination and Rumination. Note. The dashed line represents the fixed effect from Table 2 for the association between within-person changes in co-rumination and concurrent reports of rumination. The distribution of effects for adolescents in the sample is shown by the [blue] bars and the solid [red] lines represent the 95% credibility interval for the distribution of effects in the population
Although previous work has consistently identified positive associations between co-rumination and rumination during adolescence, little to no research has examined how this relationship operates on the person-specific level. The current study aimed to extend current developmental theories of co-rumination and rumination by examining within-person associations between these constructs. Survey data was collected from 1502 adolescents (Mage = 13.20; 52% girls; 52% non-Hispanic White) every six-months across the span of 3.5 years. The results showed that at time-points when adolescents reported co-ruminating more than their usual level, they reported concurrent increases in rumination. This association was stronger for boys and strengthened over time. Despite substantial between-person heterogeneity, 97% of adolescents showed positive associations between co-rumination and rumination. This research has important implications for mental health professionals, school systems, and parents who may look to teach adolescents about effective emotion-regulation.
Awareness that high-status adolescents can be targets of aggression has grown in recent years. However, questions remain about the associations of the confluence of victimization and popularity with adjustment. The current study fills this gap by examining the joint and unique effects of victimization and popularity on aggression and alcohol use. Participants were 804 Dutch adolescents (50.2% boys, Mage = 13.65) who were followed for one year. High-status victims were more aggressive and drank more alcohol than lower-status victims. High-status victims were also more proactively and indirectly aggressive and self-reported more bullying than high-status non-victims. Thus, the findings demonstrated a conjoined risk of victimization and popularity for some types of aggression.
Overall autoregressive and cross-lagged param
Prior research has found evidence for a positive effect of student-teacher bonds on children’s behavior. However, little research has investigated these relations following a transactional model of child development. This study investigated the bidirectional associations between student-teacher relationships and oppositional behaviors towards teachers using the ‘Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood’ (n = 1527; median ages 11, 13 and 15; 49% female). Results of a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model suggested that, among boys, positive student-teacher bonds at age 13 were associated with fewer teacher-reported oppositional behaviors two years later. The results indicated that negative interactions with teachers may be part of vicious cycles of poor relationships and increased levels of oppositional behavior, particularly for boys in late adolescence.
Flow chart of participants
Congruence and incongruence lines regarding the effects of educational aspiration discrepancy on depressive symptoms at Time 1. a, e Father–son dyads, b, f father–daughter dyads, c, g mother–son dyads, and d, h mother–daughter dyads
Congruence and incongruence lines regarding effects of educational aspirations discrepancy on change in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. a, e Father–son dyads, b, f father–daughter dyads, c, g mother–son dyads, and d, h mother–daughter dyads
Adolescents may have educational aspirations that are different from their parents’ educational aspirations for them, and such discrepancy may affect adolescents’ psychological adjustment. This longitudinal study examined how parent-child discrepancy in educational aspirations relate to depressive symptoms in early adolescents, both concurrently and prospectively, when controlling for parents’ depressive symptoms. Moreover, parent and child gender differences in the effects were explored. Data were collected from 3799 students (52.0% boys; Mage = 10.78) and their fathers and mothers when the students were in fifth and seventh grade over 2 years. Polynomial regression with response surface analysis was used to analyze the effects of parent-child aspiration discrepancy on depressive symptoms separately in four parent-child gender dyads. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that for all parent-child gender dyads, congruently higher aspirations were related to lower depressive symptoms, and greater incongruence in aspirations was related to higher depressive symptoms. Moreover, for parent-son dyads, adolescents whose aspirations were lower than those of their parents reported higher depressive symptoms than adolescents whose aspirations were higher than those of their parents. However, longitudinal results further showed that, for father-son dyads only, congruently higher aspirations were related to increased depressive symptoms over time, while for parent-daughter dyads only, greater incongruence in aspirations was related to increased depressive symptoms over time. The findings support the importance of considering parent-child discrepancy when exploring the role of educational aspirations in adolescents’ psychological adjustment and call for a more detailed and rigorous analysis and interpretation of this relationship.
Factor loadings and regression coefficients for the total sample. Note. Standardized coefficients are presented in the model. Solid lines convey significant relations, whereas dashed lines indicate nonsignificant relations. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01
Despite abundant research documenting negative associations between parental psychological control and youth adjustment, little is known about precursors of parental psychological control. The current study evaluated maternal, youth, and neighborhood predictors of changes in maternal psychological control across the transition to adolescence. Mother-youth dyads (N = 211, 50.2% female children; 46.4% Latinx, 17.5% Black, 11.4% white, and 24.7% multiracial) reported on maternal psychological control at youth ages 10 and 12. Controlling for youth ethnicity and race, family income-to-needs, and prior levels of maternal psychological control at age 10, structural equation models showed that maternal problems (i.e., anxiety, alcohol dependence, caregiving helplessness) predicted increases and youth externalizing problems (e.g., attention problems, rule-breaking) predicted decreases in maternal reports of psychological control. Neighborhood risks (i.e., poverty, crime, single-parent households) predicted increases in youth reports of maternal psychological control. Exploratory analyses by gender indicated that neighborhood risks predicted decreases in maternal reports of psychological control for girls, but increases in maternal reports of psychological control for boys. This study identified specific antecedents of maternal psychological control that can be targeted in future intervention efforts to reduce negative parenting to promote positive youth development.
Drug Use Homophily Predicting Subsequent Substance Use. Note. Greater drug use homophily was associated with greater subsequent substance use variety. The bands represent the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals
Drug Use Homophily and Subsequent Substance Use Variety Among Prior Users and Non-Users. Note. Among participants who endorsed having used substances prior to the start of the study, greater drug use homophily at time n was associated with greater subsequent substance use variety. Among participants who did not endorse having used substances prior to the start of the study, this association was not significant. The bands represent the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals
Adolescents who befriend drug using peers may be at risk for initiated and continued substance use. The present secondary data analysis examined how drug use homophily (i.e., similarity) in justice-involved boys’ friendship groups relates to their subsequent substance use variety across a period of five years. Participants were 1216 first-time adolescent offenders (Mage Baseline = 15.29; 100% male). Multilevel model analyses revealed that, among participants who entered the study with a history of substance use, drug use homophily was associated with greater subsequent substance use variety. Among participants who entered the study without a history of substance use, this association was no longer significant. The findings have implications for guiding justice system programming aimed at decreasing adolescent offenders’ substance use.
Experiences with parents and romantic partners during adolescence are theorized to have long-term effects on youth development. However, little research has empirically examined the relative contributions of experiences in each type of relationship at different points during adolescence to positive development in young adulthood. The goal of the present study was to predict relative changes in youth positive personality characteristics, relational competence, and functional independence during young adulthood from specific behaviors experienced from parents and romantic partners during early and late adolescence. A diverse community sample of 147 individuals (59 males, 88 females) from the southeastern United States was repeatedly assessed across a 14-year period from age 13 to age 27. As hypothesized, parental acceptance and successful parental positive influence behavior toward adolescents at age 13 predicted relative increases in positive personality traits (e.g., agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability) between ages 23 and 27. These same parental behaviors measured at age 18 were less robust predictors of key outcomes relative to similar qualities of romantic relationships. Instead, romantic behaviors of toleration and appreciation at age 18 predicted relative increases in functional independence and relational competence between ages 23 and 27 (e.g., attachment closeness, reliable alliance, nurturance, and functional independence). Results suggest that parents’ successful efforts to positively influence and accept their children during early adolescence may lay a foundation for future positive personality growth, and that similar positive behaviors experienced in late adolescent romantic relationships may help prepare youth to develop broader supportive social relationships and independence skills in young adulthood.
a−c Correlation Matrices for all Items for G2 Early Childhood, G2 Middle Childhood, and G2 Adolescence. Note. Correlation coefficients are presented for significant correlations only
Associations Between G1 Peer Aggression, Harsh Parenting, SES, and G2 Peer Aggression in Early Childhood. Note. G2 early childhood = age 3–5; P values are presented for significant associations, model fit was satisfactory to good with RMSEA < 0.06, CFI > 0.95 and srmr < 0.04
Associations Between G1 Peer Aggression, Harsh Parenting, SES, and G2 Peer Aaggression in middle childhood. Note. G2 middle childhood = age 6–9; P values are presented for significant associations, model fit was satisfactory to good with RMSEA < 0.06, CFI > 0.95 and srmr < 0.04; Note that a model in which G1 peer aggression was assessed at age 5 was also estimated, but this model did not converge
Associations Between G1 Peer Aggression, Harsh Parenting, SES, and G2 Peer Aggression in Adolescence. Note. G2 adolescence = age 10–16; P values are presented for significant associations, model fit was satisfactory to good with RMSEA < 0.06, CFI > 0.95 and srmr < 0.04
It is plausible that peer aggression—like general forms of aggression—is transmitted from one generation to the next. As such, parental behavior in childhood and adolescence may be associated with offspring aggressive behavior against peers. This study used 1970 British Cohort Study data to test intergenerational transmission of peer aggression. The baseline sample consisted of 13,135 participants. At the first assessment that was used in this study, participants were on average 4.95 years old ( SD = 0.79; 48.20% female). At the last assessment, participants were on average 33.88 years old ( SD = 0.36; 52.1% female). Models were computed for early and middle childhood, and adolescence. Significant associations between parents’ and offspring peer aggression were found in most models – especially when correlating aggression in similar developmental periods for parents and children. Other transmission mechanisms such as genetic transmission may be relevant and should be taken into account in future studies.
Direct associations between civic education teaching quality facets and willingness to participate. Note: Values on the left are estimates without control variables, values on the right when control variables are included. Significant paths are solid; nonsignificant paths are dashed. CFI: 0.953/0.955; TLI: 0.939/0.923; RMSEA: 0.062/0.054; SRMR: 0.052/0.043. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
Associations between civic education teaching quality facets and willingness to participate mediated by political interest and political knowledge. Note: Only significant paths are displayed. CFI: 0.934; TLI: 0.910; RMSEA: 0.059; SRMR: 0.064. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
Associations in 7th and 10th grade between civic education teaching quality facets and willingness to participate mediated by political interest and political knowledge. Note: Only significant paths are displayed. K7: CFI: 0.925; TLI: 0.901; RMSEA: 0.060; SRMR: 0.076.; K10: CFI: 0.959; TLI: 0.943; RMSEA: 0.050; SRMR: 0.074. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
Civic education is generally assumed to play a key role in youth’s political sophistication. It aims to equip young people with the necessary competencies and skills to effectively participate in political and civic life. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of different facets of teaching quality within civic education as well as mediating factors for fostering active citizens. The present study seeks to fill this gap by investigating how different facets of teaching quality are associated with adolescents’ willingness to participate in political and civic life and how this relationship is mediated by political knowledge and interest. The study uses original data from N = 250 students (n = 152 7th graders: Mage = 12.54, SD = 0.91, range = 11–14, 45% female; n = 98 10th graders: Mage = 16.12, SD = 0.97, range = 15–18, 35% female). The findings show that not all teaching quality facets are equally important. While perceived cognitive activation and open classroom climate were positively associated with students’ willingness to participate, a statistically significant association with discussions of current political events in the classroom was not found. In addition, the relationship between perceived cognitive activation and willingness to participate is fully mediated by students’ political knowledge and interest. This study illustrates the relative importance of different teaching quality facets in civic education and calls for continued efforts to better understand teaching quality in civic education.
Multilevel Theoretical Model
Classroom sex ratio and LHS interaction in females
Prior research finds that sex ratio, defined as the proportion of males and females in a given context, is related to engagement in risk-taking behaviors. However, most research operationalizes sex ratio at a local context (e.g., regional or county), which fails to reflect with precision the sex ratios contexts of individuals at a closer level. Furthermore, the relationship between sex ratio and risk-taking behaviors may be affected by individuals’ life history strategy, with previous studies showing fast life history strategies linked to risk-taking behaviors, compared to slow life history strategies. The present study analyzes the relationship between classroom sex ratio and risk-taking behaviors and the interaction between classroom sex ratio and life history strategy in adolescents. The sample comprised 1214 participants nested in 57 classrooms, 49.75% females, 91.5% Spanish and a mean age of 16.15 years (SD = 1.23, range 14–21). Results from multilevel modeling showed a negative relation between classroom sex ratio and risk-taking behaviors in female adolescents with faster life history strategy. By contrast, classroom sex ratio in male adolescents related positively to risk-taking behaviors but did not interact with life history strategy. These findings underscore the importance of studying proximate sex ratio on risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and underline its potential influence in the development and expression of life history strategies.
Attribution endorsement by country. Note. Error bars: 95% CI
Path analysis of the latent attribution constructs’ relation to internalizing symptoms. Note. Standardized coefficients are reported with those for the U.S. sample presented first and those for Korean presented second. Bolded paths indicate that they were constrained. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
Although there is cultural variability in how individuals make attributions for their own and others’ behaviors, cultural variation in youth’s attributions about peer victimization and their relation with internalizing problems has gone unexamined. To address this issue, adolescents from the U.S. (n = 292, 60% female, 79.5% White, Mage = 13.6, SD = 0.65) and Korea (n = 462, 50.2% female, Mage = 13.7, SD = 0.58) reported on their peer victimization, depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-worth, and rated their attributions to vignettes about peer victimization. Multigroup confirmatory analyses found that Korean and American youth conceptualized characterological self-blame, behavioral self-blame, and externalization of blame similarly. However, Korean youth differentially endorsed each of the three types of attributions, while U.S. adolescents endorsed characterological self-blame and behavioral self-blame at similar levels. Attributions had unique relations with internalizing problems (depression, social anxiety, global self-worth) in each culture. In multigroup SEM analyses, characterological self-blame predicted all internalizing problems for U.S. adolescents, while behavioral self-blame was not uniquely related to internalizing problems. For Korean adolescents, behavioral self-blame significantly predicted all internalizing problems, whereas characterological self-blame predicted global self-worth only. The results suggest that attributions about victimization have different adjustment implications in Korea than in the U.S.
Self-harm, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression mean for latent profile model at two assessment times
Self-harm and aggression increase markedly during early adolescence. However, few studies considered these harmful behaviors simultaneously. This study employed a person-centered approach to identify profiles of adolescents who differed in their patterns of self-harm, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression, examined the stability of these patterns, and explored the effect of bullying victimization on latent profile membership and transition. A total of 2463 early adolescents (48.8% girls, Mage = 13.93 ± 0.59) participated in two waves of the study over six months. The results indicated that low symptoms profile (80.4%), moderate aggression profile (14.2%), high aggression profile (3.0%), and high self-harm profile (2.4%) were identified at time 1, and low symptoms profile (82.1%), dual-harm profile (7.6%), high aggression profile (7.7%), and high self-harm profile (2.6%) were identified at time 2. Adolescents assigned to at-risk profiles showed moderate to high transition, suggesting the developmental heterogeneity of self-harm and aggression. Moreover, adolescents high in bullying victimization were more likely to belong or transition to at-risk profiles. The findings revealed the co-occurring and transitional nature of self-harm and aggression and the transdiagnostic role of bullying victimization, which can be used to guide prevention and intervention strategies.
Flowchart for biological sample collection. mtDNAcn mitochondrial DNA copy number, TL telomere length
Changes in cellular aging markers after a one-year follow-up in children with different parent–child separation experiences. A The y-axis represents the mtDNAcn elevation rate, which was calculated as a percentage change [(T2_mtDNAcn-T1_mtDNAcn) × 100]/T1_mtDNAcn; the x-axis is different parent–child separation experiences: no separation, early childhood only, prolonged separation. B The y-axis represents telomere attrition after the one-year follow-up, which was calculated as a percentage change [(T1_TL − T2_TL) × 100]/T1_TL; the x-axis shows different parent–child separation experiences: no separation, early childhood only, and prolonged separation. Abbreviations: mtDNAcn mitochondrial DNA copy number, TL telomere length
  • Shihong WangShihong Wang
  • Xudong ZhaoXudong Zhao
  • Yue YuYue Yu
  • [...]
  • Ying SunYing Sun
Early life adversity is a major risk factor for the onset of psychopathology, and cellular aging may be a mechanism underlying these associations. It is unknown whether and how the pattern (timing and duration) of parent-child separation is associated with accelerated cellular aging, particularly with respect to functional aging and replicative senescence, indexed by mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) elevation and telomere length (TL) attrition. This cohort study included 252 rural adolescents (mean age 11.62 years, SD: 1.56). Nearly one in five participants were persistently separated from both parents since birth. Compared with participants who never separated from their parents, adolescents with prolonged parent-child separation had higher acceleration both in functional aging and replicative senescence of cells. However, that was not the case in adolescents who experienced parent-child separation in early childhood but regained stable parental care during adolescence. These findings indicate that pubertal development reopens a window of opportunity for buffering the adverse biological effect based on significant improvements in the supportiveness of the caregiving environment relative to that in childhood. Translating such knowledge to inform intervention and prevention strategies for youths exposed to adversity is a critical goal for the field.
Associations between Incrementalism and Disengagement in Consistent and Inconsistent Moral Value Narratives. The plotted scores are based on model-predicted values. High and low moral incrementalism values correspond to 1 SD above and below the mean. Simple effects tests indicated a negative association between incrementalism and disengagement for the inconsistent narrative at the trend level, b = −0.36, SE = 0.20, t(123) = −1.85, p = 0.07, and a nonsignificant association for the consistent narrative, b = −0.04, SE = 0.20, t(123) = −0.21, p = 0.83
Past work on moral mindsets has largely overlooked the adolescent developmental period, a time when adolescents are navigating the complexities of moral life and experiencing tensions between important moral principles and their own actions. This study investigated how moral incrementalism and essentialism are linked to how adolescents construct meanings about their moral experiences. The sample included 96 Canadian adolescents (12–15-years of age; M = 13.5 years). Adolescents generated written narratives of times when they acted inconsistently and consistently with a moral value, and completed a vignette-based measure of moral mindsets. Moral incrementalism was associated with references to the psychological and emotional facets of experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes in narratives. Adolescents who endorsed incrementalism disengaged less only when narrating a self-discrepant experience, indicating some context-specificity across moral event types. Overall, results contribute to scholarship on moral mindset and narrative identity construction. Findings illuminate how individual differences in youth’s views of moral traits and behavior may be associated with important aspects of moral identity development such as delving into the psychological and emotional aspects of their experiences and engaging in meaning-making processes.
Cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) of peer-reported acceptance and prosocial behavior, controlled by gender, SES, and group condition (intervention vs. control group) at all time points. Only pathways with significant standardized estimates are shown in the figure. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) of peer-reported rejection and prosocial behavior, controlled by gender, SES, and group condition (intervention vs. control group) at all time points. Only pathways with significant standardized estimates are shown in the figure. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
As most studies on the link between peer status and prosocial behavior are cross-sectional, conducted with children, and operationalize status as the difference between acceptance and rejection, it remains unclear whether peer acceptance and rejection are consequences or prerequisites of prosocial behavior in adolescence. To fill this gap, this study examines the bidirectional associations of prosocial behavior with peer acceptance and peer rejection with data collected at 3 time points, 6 months apart, in a sample of 660 early Chilean adolescents (M = 12.94, SD = 0.62; 55.1% boys). Cross-lagged panel analyses showed that prosocial behavior positively predicted future peer acceptance, whereas peer acceptance had no significant effect on future prosocial behavior. The association between rejection and prosocial behavior was negative and bidirectional between Time 1 and Time 2. When a new academic year began, between Time 2 and Time 3, prosocial behavior negatively predicted rejection, whereas rejection in the previous grade level was positively associated with prosocial behavior at the beginning of the next grade. Multi-group panel analyses did not detect significant differences between boys and girls in the cross-lagged associations of prosociality with peer acceptance and peer rejection. The results suggest that acting prosocially can make adolescents better liked by their peers and highlight the possible importance of the transition to a new academic year for the prosocial behavior of previously rejected students. Implications for future research on peer relations are discussed.
Previous research has identified harsh parenting practices, such as corporal punishment, as a predictor of adolescent behaviour problems such as increased aggression. However, not all children who experience childhood corporal punishment develop increased aggression, making the illumination of factors moderating this link an important question for informing prevention. In the current study, an autoregressive cross-lagged panel model was used to examine teacher-child relationships as both a direct and interactive protective factor (via weakening the effects of corporal punishment exposure) in adolescent aggression. Data was used from the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso). Self-reported data was collected at three time points: age 11 ( n = 1144, 49% female) age 13 ( n = 1366, 49% female) and age 15 ( n = 1447, 48% female). Results suggested having a positive teacher-child relationship was a direct protective factor against concurrent aggression. However, there was not consistent evidence for a moderating effect of teacher-child relationships. Implications of these findings are discussed.
The proposed multilevel moderated model. T1 = Time 1, T2 = Time 2
The moderating roles of clique status hierarchy and relational aggression norms in the prediction of individual relational aggression two years later (T2) from peer victimization at baseline (T1)
The healthy context paradox indicates that in “healthy” contexts, with lower bullying or victimization norms, victimization experiences would unexpectedly exacerbate adolescents’ adjustment difficulties, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, particularly from the clique perspective. The current 2-year longitudinal multilevel study attempts to examine the conditional effects of both clique structure (i.e., status hierarchy) and clique norms (i.e., aggression norms) on the relationship between individual victimization and aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 691 Chinese junior high school students (Mage = 12.74, SD = 0.43; 55.6% boys), who were identified to belong to 153 cliques with sizes varying from 3 to 12 students (Msize = 5.08, SD = 1.89), according to the social cognitive map. Participants completed peer-nominated measures at two time points, two years apart. The multilevel models revealed that it was in less hierarchical cliques with lower aggression that victimized adolescents would exhibit more relational forms of aggression (rather than overt forms) two years later. More intriguingly, contrary results were found in all-girls cliques and all-boys cliques. Specifically, victimized girls’ overt and relational aggression was higher in cliques with less hierarchy and lower aggression, whereas, in cliques with more hierarchy and higher aggression, victimized boys’ relational aggression was higher, which conforms to the healthy context paradox and the peer contagion hypothesis, respectively. These findings highlight that egalitarian cliques with low aggression would promote aggressive behavior of victimized adolescents, especially for girls rather than for boys, which in turn has crucial implications for anti-bullying interventions.
Multi-level framework of teacher interventions influencing bullying-related role adoption while controlling for individual background and class composition
School bullying is a serious problem worldwide, but little is known about how teacher interventions influence the adoption of bullying-related student roles. This study surveyed 750 early adolescents (50.5% female; average age: 12.9 years, SD = 0.4) from 39 classrooms in two waves, six months apart. Peer ratings of classmates were used to categorize students to five different bullying-related roles (criterion: >1 SD): bully, victim, bully-victim, defender, and non-participant. Student ratings of teachers were used to obtain class-level measures of teacher interventions: non-intervention, disciplinary sanctions, group discussion, and mediation/victim support. Controlling for student- and class-level background variables, two multilevel multinomial logistic regression analyses were computed to predict students’ bullying-related roles at wave 2. In the static model, predictors were teacher interventions at wave 1, and in the dynamic model, predictors were teacher intervention changes across time. The static model showed that disciplinary sanctions reduced the likelihood of being a bully or victim, and group discussion raised the likelihood of being a defender. Mediation/victim support raised the likelihood of being a bully. The dynamic model complemented these results by indicating that increases in group discussion across time raised the likelihood of being a defender, whereas increases in non-intervention across time raised the likelihood of being a victim and reduced the likelihood of being a defender. These results show that teacher interventions have distinct effects on students’ adoption of bullying-related roles and could help to better target intervention strategies. The findings carry practical implications for the professional training of prospective and current teachers.
The World Health Organization (2021) estimates that 4.6% of teens (15–19-year olds) have an anxiety disorder. These disorders place the teen at higher risk for social exclusion (Barzeva et al., 2021), compromised physical health (McWood et al., 2021), and risky health behaviors (Núñez-Regueiro & Núñez-Regueiro, 2021), as well as bullying (Holfeld & Mishna, 2021) and academic difficulties (Olivier et al., 2020). Author David A. Clark provides a buffer for this threat in The Anxious Thoughts Workbook for Teens. Grounded on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Theory and Positive Psychology, this self-help program helps the adolescent reader understand, challenge, and accept their anxious thoughts, and through doing so, calm their anxious mind.
Life satisfaction before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK --- A multi-survey comparison. Mean life satisfaction estimates from the full YEAH sample, published statistics from the ONS Opinions and Lifestyle Survey (COVID-19 module) for 16-29-year-olds, and the UK-HLS COVID-19 and mainstage surveys. UK-HLS are projected on the right vertical axis
Assessing subgroup differences in the association of stressors with life satisfaction. (i) Gender (ii) Age-Group (iii) In Education (iv) Living with parents
While there is ample evidence of the decline in mental health among youth during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, less is known about the determinants of recovery, which is the focus of this study. Drawing on a stress process framework, this study examines the associations of changes in direct, pandemic-related, and indirect, lockdown-related stressors with life satisfaction. A novel representative, longitudinal sample of British 16–25-year-olds is used, drawing on 6 data collections between February 2021 to May 2022 (N = 6000, 51% female, 24% ethnic minority, 46% in work, 35% with higher education). Using linear fixed-effects regression models, the findings suggest a substantial improvement in life satisfaction among youth. An increasing frequency of social contacts, receding worries about career prospects and job skills learning contributed significantly to increases in life satisfaction, whereas direct, health-related COVID-19 stressors did not affect life satisfaction. Sub-group analysis suggests that women’s, adolescents’, and students’ life satisfaction responded more strongly to the stressors considered in this study. The findings highlight the positive effects of less stringent lockdown restrictions, economic recovery, and opportunities for job skills learning on youth’s happiness.
A Reciprocal relations between boy-reported maternal parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. B Reciprocal relations between girl-reported maternal parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
A Reciprocal relations between boy-reported paternal parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. B Reciprocal relations between girl-reported paternal parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Reciprocal relations between mother-reported parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Reciprocal relations between father-reported parenting and social anxiety. Note. Standardized coefficients are displayed. Significant paths are represented in solid lines. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Although psychologically controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting are important indicators of social anxiety during early adolescence, less research has explored distinct roles of father and mother parenting, especially in interdependent-oriented culture. This 3-year longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations between such parenting and early adolescent social anxiety from multi-informants in the Chinese context. A sample of 1,140 Chinese early adolescents (51.1% boys; Mage = 10.50 years) and their parents participated at Wave 1. The results did not reveal reciprocal relations between fathers’ reported parenting and social anxiety, but indicated paternal parenting effects from boys’ perceptions of autonomy support to social anxiety, and child effects from social anxiety to girls’ perceived psychological control. Maternal parenting effects were present for boys’ perceptions of autonomy support and girls’ perceptions of psychological control. The findings highlight the distinct roles of father and mother parenting across child gender and suggest differentiated relations of parenting to social anxiety during early adolescence in the Chinese context.
Adolescents keep secrets from parents to assert independence or avoid punishment; however, there is little research on nondisclosure in other close relationships during adolescence. This article examines strategies and reasons for nondisclosure between adolescents (N = 244, 47.5% female, Mage = 12.71, SDage = 1.66) and multiple close relationships (parents, siblings, and best friends). The results show that adolescents tended to use nondisclosure strategies more for personal information (e.g., thoughts/feelings). Adolescents had more reasons to keep information from family as they got older, and girls reported keeping information from mothers more than boys because they would feel bad, embarrassed, or ashamed. These findings provide a greater understanding of patterns of nondisclosure during adolescence, which may in turn have implications for adolescent adjustment and relationship quality.
Predicted count of externalizing symptoms as a function of distrust and deviant peer affiliation. Note: Error bands indicate 95% confidence intervals. Low distrust represents 1 SD below the mean, average distrust represents the mean, and high distrust represents 1 SD above the mean.
Predicted count of externalizing behavior as a function of distrust and deviant peer affiliation for White, Black, and Hispanic adolescents. Note: Error bands indicate 95% confidence intervals. Low distrust represents 1 SD below the mean, average distrust represents the mean, and high distrust represents 1 SD above the mean.
Deviant peer affiliation predicts externalizing behavior in adolescence, but no research explores how having negative or suspicious expectations of others (i.e., distrust) may evoke or buffer against the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and externalizing behavior. The current study used data across two timepoints to investigate the impact of deviant peer affiliation and distrust on externalizing behavior 3 years later and whether race/ethnicity moderated this relationship. The sample consisted of 611 adolescents from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Study (48% male; Mage = 15.5 years, SD = 1.6; 17% White; 34% Black; 49% Hispanic). Higher levels of distrust buffered against the influence of deviant peer affiliation on externalizing behaviors. Further, this buffering was evident in Black compared to White adolescents. Understanding externalizing behavior warrants considering the intersection between the person and their environment.
The process of exploring and committing to one's identity for the sake of a future-oriented goal is important for young adults' psychosocial functioning. Whereas the relationship between identity process and psychosocial functioning has been examined in long-term longitudinal studies, the short-term relationship between the two at the daily level has not been clarified. This study developed a measure of daily-level identity process and examined their relationship with daily positive and negative emotions, using a five-day daily-diary method. The participants included 721 Japanese young adults aged 18-30 years (54.4% female, M age = 26.05 years). Results indicated the measure's three-factor structure, including commitment, active exploration, and ruminative exploration. Commitment related positively to life satisfaction and happiness, and negatively related to depression. Active exploration and ruminative exploration indicated negative associations with life satisfaction and happiness, and positive association depression. Latent profile analysis extracted five theoretically meaningful identity profiles at the daily level: foreclosure, moratorium, troubled diffusion, searching moratorium, and carefree diffusion. Logistic regression analyses indicated that troubled diffusion and moratorium, and foreclosure profiles showed lower and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness, respectively. These results provided evidence of a strong link between young adult's identity processes, profiles, and positive and negative emotions at the everyday level. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Latent Change Score Model of the Moderation of Religiousness between Social Relationships and Alcohol Use. Note. SR = social relationship; AL = alcohol use; T1 = Time 1 (age 14); T2 = Time 2 (age 15); T3 = Time 3 (age 16); T4 = Time 4 (age 17); T5 = Time 5 (age 18). Demographic variables sex, race, income, and parent-adolescent relationship quality are included but not depicted in conceptual model for clarity of presentation
As adolescence is a time characterized by rapid changes in social relationships as well as an increase in risk-taking behaviors, this prospective longitudinal study examined whether social involvement and social alienation are associated with changes in alcohol use from adolescence into young adulthood moderated by organizational and personal religiousness. Participants were 167 adolescents (53% male) assessed five times between ages 14 and 18 years old. Latent change score modeling analyses indicated that social alienation was positively associated with greater increases in alcohol use among those with low organizational religiousness and those with low personal religiousness in early adolescence and during the transition into young adulthood. The findings demonstrate the detrimental effects of social relationship risk factors that promote alcohol use during adolescence into young adulthood. The results further highlight the protective roles of organizational and personal religiousness acting as additional sources of social engagement experiences to modulate the effects of social alienation predicting alcohol use progression and provide evidence for the positive impact religiousness has on healthy adolescent development.
Average Cohesion by Race/Ethnicity and Gender (weighted). Note: a = significantly different than White males; b = significantly different than White females; c = significantly different than Black males; d = significantly different than Black females; e = significantly different than Hispanic males; f = significantly different than Hispanic females; g = significantly different than Asian males; h = significantly different than Asian females
Average marginal effects of cohesion predicting depressive symptoms across Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Depressive Symptoms by Cohesion for White Males, White Females, and Black Females. Note: Black circle denotes average cohesion for each group
Adolescence is a developmental period when peer network structure is associated with mental health. However, how networks relate to distress for youth at different intersecting racial/ethnic and gender identities is unclear. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health survey data, cross-sectional models examine peer network cohesion predicting adolescent depressive levels for racial/ethnic and gender groups. The analytic sample is N = 13,055, average age 15.3 years, 50.2% female, 68.8 % White, 17.2% Black, 9.7% Hispanic, and 4.2% Asian. The results indicate that average cohesion, depressive levels, and cohesion associated with depressive levels differ by race/ethnicity and gender, with the greatest benefits for White and Black girls. This work clarifies patterns of adolescent networks and mental health by race/ethnicity and gender.
To understand the development of cyber aggression during adolescence, it is important to consider the temporal variability of its potential predictors. This study uses a four-wave survey to investigate how changes in peer norms, parental norms, and parental communication are associated with two-year trajectories of online peer aggression. The sample includes 1521 Swiss middle school students (M age T1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40; 48% female). The results showed that over time a better parental communication quality and anti-aggression norms predicted lower rates and slower development of cyber aggression. Moreover, parental variables emerged as a quite stable deterrent of aggressive conduct. Although entrance into adolescence is characterized by the rise of peer influence, results from this study suggest that parents maintain an important protective role.
Probabilities of NSSI item endorsements based on the two-class model
Growing incidence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a lack of intensive examination of NSSI variability among adolescents justify identification of latent classes based on the endorsement of different NSSI behaviors. Latent class analysis was used to detect the heterogeneity of past month NSSI among 322 high school students (73.2% female). Two interpretable latent classes emerged. The Severe/Multimethod NSSI class (39%) engaged in almost all forms of NSSI with high intensity and motivated mainly for intrapersonal reasons. The results imply that compared to Mild/Moderate NSSI group (61%), the Severe class is at greater risk for poor mental health, which can exacerbate further NSSI acts. In school settings, identifying adolescents who are vulnerable for more severe NSSI can help to interrupt NSSI trajectories to emerging adulthood.
Within-person relations between bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and substance use. SI Suicidal ideation, Bv Bullying victimization, De Depressive symptoms, Al_b Alcohol (beer/alcopops) use, Al_s Alcohol (spirits) use, Ca Cannabis use, Tb Tobacco use. Statistically significant paths are depicted only
Within-person relations between bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, anxiety symptoms, and substance use. SI Suicidal ideation, Bv Bullying victimization, An Anxiety symptoms, Al_b Alcohol (beer/alcopops) use, Al_s Alcohol (spirits) use, Ca Cannabis use, Tb Tobacco use. Statistically significant paths are depicted only
Previous research has suggested that bullying victimization is associated with higher suicidal risk among young people; however, the mechanisms underlying this relation have not been well examined. The current study aimed to illuminate the developmental links between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation by examining the mediating roles of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and substance use. The study sample consisted of n = 1465 participants (51.7% male) from the normative z-proso study. Using random intercept cross-lagged panel models and three waves of longitudinal data (ages 15, 17, and 20), the hypothesized mediation effects at the within-person level were tested while partialling out between-person confounds. The results suggested that, at the within-person level, bullying victimization did not predict subsequent suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or substance use. However, age 15 bullying victimization predicted within-person increases in age 17 depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. In addition, depressive symptoms at age 15 and tobacco and cannabis use at age 17 were associated with within-person increases in bullying victimization at ages 17 and 20, respectively. The results also indicated that cannabis use and suicidal ideation were positively and reciprocally related over time. Future studies collecting data at multiple timescales are needed to understand proximal and longer-term mechanisms underlying the relation between bullying victimization and suicidality.
Cross-lagged model testing reciprocal relations between anger rumination and depressive symptoms. Note. Standardized values for cross-sectional relations and longitudinal relations. Gender as covariate is not depicted for graphic simplicity. ***p < 0.001
Unconstrained gender moderation CLPM. Note. Standardized effects for boys are presented first and in italics; standardized effects for girls are presented second and in standard font. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001
Anger rumination is a maladaptive cognitive-emotional process associated with aversive adjustment outcomes. Despite of evidence showing a close relationship between anger rumination and depressive symptoms across adolescence, their longitudinal relationship is still unknown. The goal of the present study was to examine the bidirectional association between self-reported anger rumination and depressive symptoms at two waves, spaced 1-year. Participants were 304 early adolescents (44.7% boys; Mage = 10.80 years, SD = 0.16). Cross-lagged analyses showed that depressive symptoms predicted increases in anger rumination but not vice versa. These relationships were consistent across boys and girls. Overall, the findings suggest that depressive symptoms may be a potential risk factor for anger rumination in early adolescence. Implications for preventions and treatments are also discussed.
Illustration of the BART environment. Participants were instructed to gain as much money as possible by inflating balloons. Each balloon was treated as a trial and the number of balloons left was visible in the middle of the upper part of the screen. At any time, participants had to decide to either pump a balloon by pressing the button in the middle of the screen (space key) or to save the amount gained with previous pumps (down arrow key) and begin with a new balloon. The virtual account and amount of money earned with the previous balloon were visible on the upper right of the screen. Each pump increased the outcome of a balloon by 5 cents. However, participants were informed that the balloon could burst at a random inflation point and that all temporary gains would be lost if not saved to the virtual account. No further information, i.e., about burst probabilities, was given
Illustration of the Chat environment as seen by a female participant. Participants were informed about a peer who would observe them via webcam during the conduction of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). Before the peer observation condition block, they were introduced to the peer via a chat environment. Participants provided information about their name, age, grade, and hobbies in an otherwise preformulated chat message. Unbeknownst to the participants, the peers' answer that appeared after a short period was a randomly generated text message that matched the participants' information about gender and grade, as well as age by plus/minus one year
Predicted results of general linear mixed effects regression (glmer) on the number of pumps for the peer observation conditions across age and trials
A Age trends (age range = 9–19 years, mean age = 14 years) in the predicted number of pumps as a function of Trial Number (range 2–30; normalized for each condition) for the two peer observation conditions (absent/present; −1/1). B Age trends (range = 9–19 years, M = 14 years) in the predicted number of pumps as a function of the peer observation conditions (absent/present; −1/1) for early and late trials (Trial Number; range 2–30; normalized for each condition). The predicted values and error bands (standard errors) are from the final model with continuous age in its original scale. The effects plots are averaged across Previous Outcome, RPI, and Gender
Predicted results of linear mixed effects regression (lmer) on exploration tendencies for the peer observation conditions and genders across age
A Moderation of gender (female/male; −1/1) on age trends (age range = 9–19 years, mean age = 14 years) in the effect of peer observation conditions (absent/present; −1/1) on exploration tendencies during the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). B Moderation of peer observation condition (absent/present; −1/1) on differences in age trends (age range = 9–19 years, mean age = 14 years) between the genders (female/male; −1/1) in exploration tendencies during the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). The predicted values and error bands (standard errors) are from the final model with continuous age in its original scale. Predicted values are averaged across RPI scores and the y-axis was inverted to reflect exploration tendencies
The effect of peer observation condition (absent/present; −1/1) in the predicted number of pumps of the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) as a function of resistance to peer influence (RPI) scores (standardized). The predicted values and error bands (standard errors) are averaged across Age, Trial Number, Previous Outcome, and Gender
It has been assumed that adolescents increase risk-taking tendencies when peers are present but findings on experimental decision-making have been inconclusive. Most studies focus on risk-taking tendencies, ignoring the effects peer presence can exert over other cognitive processes involved in decision-making, as well as any other underlying developmental and individual differences. In the present study, the trial-by-trial choice behavior was analyzed in a task in which adolescents adjust to dynamically changing risk probabilities. Using Bayesian modeling, the study aimed to infer about peer presence effects on risk-taking tendencies but also on reactions to, exploration of, and learning from positive and negative outcomes of risk-taking. 184 pre-to late adolescents (M = 14.09 years, min = 8.59, max = 18.97, SD = 2.95, 47% female) conducted the Balloon Analog Risk Task under two conditions: Once alone and once in the presence of a (non-existent) peer observing them virtually. Findings revealed that (a) peer observation reduced risk-taking but increased exploration tendencies and (b) that individual differences modulated this effect. Especially female pre-adolescents increased their openness to explore different choice outcomes when a peer observed their behavior. These results support the assumption that the occurrence and direction of peer influences on risk-taking depend on a person-environment interaction, emphasizing the dynamic role peers play in adolescent risk-taking.
Neighborhood disadvantage is a developmental context that may contribute to Asian American adolescent internalizing problems, yet there is a dearth of longitudinal studies as well as examination of cultural protective factors. Co-ethnic density, or the proportion of individuals of the same racial/ethnic background in the neighborhood that is often cited as a protective factor for racial/ethnic minority groups, has not been adequately examined in Asian American youth. This study examined the longitudinal association between cumulative neighborhood risk and internalizing behavior, and the moderating role of sex and co-ethnic density using an Asian American subsample (N = 177; 45.2% female; ages 10–12, 14–15; Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Samoan, Vietnamese, and other ethnic backgrounds) of a longitudinal panel study over a span of 6 years. Cumulative neighborhood risk during early adolescence (ages 10–14) was significantly associated with internalizing behavior at mid-adolescence (age 15) controlling for prior levels of internalizing behavior. There was no evidence of moderation by co-ethnic density or sex, indicating that reducing neighborhood disadvantage may be a promising preventive measure to address mental health problems for both sexes of Asian American adolescents.
An example of the neutral stimulus used for the picture perception task
Representative slides from the two-choice emotional oddball task
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents and is often linked to emotion dysregulation. However, it remains unknown which specific processes of emotion regulation and under what emotional context these processes are related to the risk for NSSI in samples of community-based adolescents. This study used two laboratory tasks to examine whether adolescents with a history of NSSI displayed difficulties in emotional reactivity and inhibitory control in response to negative and positive emotions. In Study 1, adolescents with/without a history of NSSI (N = 64; MAge = 13.45 ± 0.50; 53% female) completed a picture perception task in which they were asked to judge the valence and arousal of images. In Study 2, adolescents with/without a history of NSSI (N = 74; MAge = 13.49 ± 0.80; 50% female) were given a two-choice emotional oddball task that required them to differentially respond to frequent stimuli (images of an object) and infrequent stimuli (affective images). The results showed that adolescents with a history of NSSI showed decreased emotional sensitivity and lower levels of inhibitory control in response to images depicting negative emotional content but not to those depicting positive emotional content. Furthermore, affective inhibitory control problems were significantly positively related to the severity of NSSI, especially in the context of negative emotions. These findings suggest that there is a divergence between positive and negative emotions in both emotional reactivity and affective inhibitory control processes on NSSI. Specifically, relative to adolescents with no history of NSSI, adolescents with a history of NSSI showed lower emotional awareness and behavioral inhibitory control when processing negative emotions, but these distinctions were not found in contexts involving positive emotions. Additionally, the results suggest that affective inhibitory control deficits specific for negative emotions may result in vulnerability to increased NSSI severity.
Parent/Caregiver-rated Model. This figure demonstrates results for moderated mediation model simultaneously modeling parent/caregiver-rated internalizing symptoms and parent/caregiver-rated externalizing symptoms. This model examined evidence that the indirect effect of family economic status on psychopathology through adverse childhood events is conditional on family functioning, as measured by family conflict. Results are depicted as standardized regression coefficients. Indirect effects are reported with bootstrapped 95% accelerated bias-corrected confidence intervals. b = standardized regression coefficient. All covariates included in the model were measured at baseline
Youth-rated Model. This figure demonstrates results for moderated mediation models simultaneously modeling youth-rated internalizing symptoms and youth-rated externalizing symptoms. This model examined evidence that the indirect effect of family economic status on psychopathology through adverse childhood events is conditional on family functioning, as measured by family conflict. Results are depicted as standardized regression coefficients. Indirect effects are reported with bootstrapped 95% accelerated bias-corrected confidence intervals. b = standardized regression coefficient. All covariates included in the model were measured at baseline
Rising and economically disproportionate rates of adverse mental health outcomes among children and youth warrant research investigating the complex pathways stemming from socioeconomic status. While adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been considered a possible mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES) and child and youth psychopathology in previous studies, less is understood about how family environments might condition these pathways. Using data from a longitudinal, multiple-wave study, the present study addresses this gap by examining the direct relationships between family economic status and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms, if ACEs mediate these relationships, and if conflictual family environments moderate these direct and indirect relationships. The data were obtained from 5510 youth participants [mean age at baseline = 9.52 (SD = 0.50), 47.7% female, 2.1% Asian, 10.3% Black, 17.6% Hispanic, 9.8% Multiracial/Multiethnic, 60.2% White] and their caretakers from the baseline, 1-year, and 2-year follow up waves. Conditional process analysis assessed the direct, indirect, and moderated relationships in separate, equivalent models based on youth- versus caregiver-raters of ACEs and youth psychopathology to capture potential differences based on the rater. The results of both the youth- and caregiver-rated models indicated that lower family economic status directly predicted higher levels of externalizing symptoms, and ACEs indirectly accounted for higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, family conflict moderated some, but not all, of these relationships. The study’s findings highlight that lower family economic status and ACEs, directly and indirectly, contribute to early adolescent psychopathology, and conflictual family environments can further intensify these relationships. Implementing empirically supported policies and interventions that target ACEs and family environments may disrupt deleterious pathways between SES and youth psychopathology.
Model for Autonomous Motivations and Parental Need Support. MNS and PNS maternal and paternal needs support; AutoMotiv autonomous motivations. The model fit was excellent, χ²(62) = 116.27, RMSEA = 0.037, CFI = 0.980, SRMR = 0.040. Inside the pink box are between-person associations while inside the green box are within-person associations. The estimates are standardized coefficients, with dotted lines representing statistically nonsignificant paths (p > 0.05) and solid lines representing statistically significant paths. Cross-lagged paths between maternal and paternal need support were estimated but omitted from these figures for simpler presentations
Parents are central figures in youth’s career decision-making processes. One of their key roles is to foster youth’s career decision-making agency by supporting their motivational resources—of autonomy and competence. While the findings on parent-driven effects (how parenting behaviors predict youth’s agency) are well documented, little is known about the opposite direction—child-driven effects (how youth’s agency predicts parenting behaviors)—and the bidirectionality, particularly during postsecondary transitions. To address this gap, the current study examined (1) reciprocal linkages between mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors (i.e., need support and control) and youth’s agency (i.e., autonomy and competence) and (2) whether such linkages are moderated by the parent’s gender and timing. Participants were 642 French-Canadian youths (54% girls; Mage = 14.2) who annually reported on parenting behaviors and career decision-making agency for 5 years, from Secondary 3 to 2 years postsecondary. For analysis, random-intercept cross-lagged panel models were estimated to disentangle the between- and within-family processes. The results showed that youth’s career decision-making competence develops in reciprocal transactions with parental need support in an upward spiral, while autonomy development is primarily driven by need support. Limited evidence was found for the moderating effects of parents’ gender and youth’s transition periods. Preregistration: the present study was preregistered (the study design, hypotheses, and target analyses). The preregistration can be found in Any deviations from the preregistration can be found in the Online Supplemental Materials.
Turkish and moroccan students-model-fit indices-latent class analysis
Adolescents’ identities are multiple, yet there is very little research that investigates the importance of intersecting identities, especially in relationship to teacher ethnic/racial discrimination and mental health. Multiplicity is often approached bi-dimensional (heritage and national identities) yet this study highlights the importance of regional identity. Regions are distinct socio-political contexts in relation to migration and integration dynamics. Hence, this study investigates for different combinations of national, heritage and regional identities (i.e. Flemish, Belgian and Turkish or Moroccan) the relationship between students’ experiences with teacher ethnic/racial discrimination and students’ depressive feelings. Latent Class Analysis of survey data involving a sample of 439 adolescents ( M age = 18, SD = 0.93; Girls = 49%) with Turkish (41%) or Moroccan origin in Flanders, shows three identification classes: full integration (35%), national integration (40%) and (weak) separation (24%). All these identity profiles had in common that heritage identification was high, yet they were highly distinct due to variation in national and regional identification. Additional, multilevel modelling showed that nationally integrated adolescents were less depressed than fully integrated adolescents. This finding illustrates the importance of adolescents’ identity multiplicity for understanding their resilience in relation to teacher discrimination.
The proposed moderated mediation model
Mediation model predicting NSSI at T2 from pre-existing vulnerabilities via COVID-19-related stress
reports bivariate correlations, means, and standard deviations for all study variables. Among adolescents who participated at both time points (N = 437), 33.10% reported NSSI at Time 1 and 34.80% at T2. Moreover, among these adolescents the frequency of NSSI did not differ
For many adolescents, the COVID-19 pandemic represents a uniquely challenging period, and concerns have been raised about whether COVID-19-related stress may increase the risk for self-injurious behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the impact of pre-existing vulnerabilities on the occurrence and frequency of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) through COVID-19-related stress, and whether the impact of COVID-19-related stress on NSSI was buffered by the perceived social support during the pandemic. Participants were 1061 adolescents (52.40% females ; M age = 15.49 years, SD = 0.76) from a two-wave longitudinal study, which included assessments before the COVID-19 onset and one year later the declaration of the pandemic. Path analyses showed that adolescents with a prior history of NSSI, higher levels of internalizing symptoms, and poor regulatory emotional self-efficacy before the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of COVID-19-related stress which in turn increased their risk to engage in NSSI. Besides, the findings did not support the role of social support as a moderator of the association between COVID-19 related stress and the occurrence/frequency of NSSI. These findings suggest that enhanced stress perception may serve as a key pathway for the continuation and development of NSSI among vulnerable adolescents facing adverse life events.
ERS messages are organized by color. Bars with black outlines correspond to ERS messages that are delivered by Black parents
Multiracial-Black youth are one of the fastest-growing populations in the U.S., but little is known about their racialized developmental experiences. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify patterns of parental racial socialization among Biracial Black-White adolescents and explore whether those profiles relate to demographics and racial identity outcomes. The sample consisted of 330 Biracial Black-White adolescents living in the U.S. (67% boys; Mage = 14.8, SD = 1.5). The analysis yielded a four-profile solution based on (1) the frequency of socialization messages youth received and (2) the concordance of those messages across both of their parents (i.e., whether socialization frequency is similar or different between Black and white parents). Profile membership differed based on youth gender and racialized appearance (i.e., whether youth presented physically as Black, white, or racially ambiguous). Ultimately, adolescents in the profile with the highest frequency and concordance of parental racial socialization reported more adaptive racial identity attitudes including a sense of pride in being Black and Biracial. Youth in that profile also felt the most comfortable navigating the intersections of their racial identities, which coupled with racial pride has promising implications for their development and wellbeing.
Conceptual framework linking cyber-victimization to suicidal ideation
The full moderated mediation model. Path coefficients are standardized regression coefficients. Dotted lines indicate non-significant relations. Sex, SES and age were all controlled on hopelessness at T2 and suicidal ideation at T3, only the significant effects of these covariates were presented. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Interactive effect of cyberbullying victimization at T1 and mindfulness at T2 on hopelessness at T2
Interactive effect of hopelessness at T2 and perceived social support at T3 on suicidal ideation at T3
Cyber-victimization is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. However, little research has studied how cyber-victimization may impact suicidal ideation over time, and little is known about what protective factors can buffer against these associations. Guided by the integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behavior, this longitudinal study inspected the mediating role of hopelessness in the relation between cyber-victimization and suicidal ideation and the moderating roles of mindfulness and perceived social support in those mediating associations. A total of 1110 Chinese early adolescents (46.1% female; Mage at Wave 1 = 12.90 years) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study with 6-month intervals. The results showed that cyber-victimization positively predicted adolescents’ suicidal ideation 1 year later, and this effect was fully mediated by hopelessness. Mindfulness buffered against the predictive effect of cyber-victimization on hopelessness, and perceived social support buffered against the predictive effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation. The results further showed that the indirect effect of hopelessness was more salient when there were lower levels of mindfulness and perceived social support. This study reveals the moderated mediation processes explaining the impact of cyber-victimization on adolescents’ suicidal ideation. Fostering youth’s mindfulness and providing social support may attenuate the effects by which cyber-victimization causes suicidal ideation via hopelessness.
The RI-CLPM for total social support. All coefficients are standardized estimates. SP social support; PTG posttraumatic growth. χ²(12) = 17.44, p = 0.13, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.06. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
The RI-CLPM for social support from parents. All coefficients are standardized estimates. SP social support; PTG posttraumatic growth. χ²(12) = 30.80, p < 0.05, CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.87, RMSEA = 0.08, SRMR = 0.06. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
The RI-CLPM for social support from peers. All coefficients are standardized estimates. SP social support; PTG posttraumatic growth. χ²(12) = 12.15, p = 0.43, CFI = 1.00, TLI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.01, SRMR = 0.07. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
The RI-CLPM for social support from teachers. All coefficients are standardized estimates. SP social support; PTG posttraumatic growth. χ²(12) = 21.03, p = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.06. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
The RI-CLPM for social support from others. All coefficients are standardized estimates. SP social support; PTG posttraumatic growth. χ²(12) = 13.41, p = 0.34, CFI = 0.997, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.02, SRMR = 0.07. *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001
Few studies have investigated the causal link between social support and posttraumatic growth. Using a four-wave longitudinal design, the present study examined the reciprocal relationship between posttraumatic growth and social support in family and school contexts. A total of 285 adolescents (61.3% female) were recruited to complete self-report questionnaires 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after the Wenchuan earthquake. The data were analyzed using a random intercept cross-lagged panel model. Results revealed a trend for total social support initially promoting posttraumatic growth, followed by no influence, and finally a hindering of growth. This pattern varied between different sources of support. Specifically, the influence of support from parents and peers was consistent with the pattern for total support, whereas that from teachers and others prevented posttraumatic growth during later stages. These results suggest that timing is an important issue in posttraumatic growth and that providing more support for a prolonged period following a traumatic event constrains adolescents’ autonomy and thus inhibits posttraumatic growth.
Violent measure endorsement across the latent classes
The distal relationship between risk factors in childhood and subsequent dating violence in late adolescence has not often been explored using longitudinal data. This study aims to shed light on the problem of dating violence by examining children’s backgrounds at age 7 and the link to the future involvement in dating violence at age 17 using the first and seventh waves of the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso, n = 644). The sample consists of 644 multiethnic adolescents (57.14% female, M = 17.47, SD = 0.37), mainly Swiss-born (90%), though more than half of their parents (60%) were born in another country. A latent class analysis was applied to identify three different profiles (a) zero (or minimal) involvement in teen dating violence, (b) perpetrators/victims of controlling behaviors, and (c) perpetrators/victims of controlling behaviors and of physical violence. Participants who were corporally punished and/or victims of bullying at age 7 were significantly more likely to belong to the controlling and physical violence profile than children in the non-violent class. These results suggest a certain chronicity of the effects of violent experiences in early childhood on the patterns of romantic relationships at 17 years old.
The message that one’s contributions are devalued can be a significant way that youth experience marginalization during the transition into adulthood. Participants ( N = 298, M age = 19.47 years, 51% female) reported having their ideas, opinions, and contributions being unwelcomed due to their ethnicity and gender. African American, Latinx, and Asian American young women indicated the most frequent devalued contributions. Devalued contributions due to ethnicity and gender were most strongly linked among these groups and Multiethnic youth than European American youth. Devalued contributions predicted depressive symptoms, feeling more needed and useful by society, and a greater sense of purpose beyond a traditional measure of discrimination. Assessing experiences of devalued contributions can provide a more thorough understanding of how marginalization shapes the transition to adulthood.
Significant interactions effects with depressive symptoms as outcome variable. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Significant interactions effects with anxiety as outcome variable. ***p < 0.001
Although many studies have shown an association between peer victimization and internalizing problems, which may be buffered by friendship quality, it is unclear whether these associations apply to within-person processes as well. This would mean that at times when adolescents experience more victimization than they usually do, they also experience more internalizing problems. The current study disaggregated between- and within-person variation to examine the association between peer victimization and symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the protective effect of friend support and conflict. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (56% boys) with a mean age of 13.03 (SDage = 0.45, ranging from 11.68 to 15.56 at Wave 1). They participated in a 6-wave questionnaire study, with each wave taking place approximately one year after the previous. The results showed that peer victimization was associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety across adolescence, both between and within persons. Friend support buffered this association at the between-person level, but not the within-person level. This study highlights the impact of peer victimization and suggests that friend support may partly protect adolescents from the effects of peer victimization.
The study conceptual model
Number of days participants reported on any level of each social behavior
Across-day random slopes. Slopes were running separately and without any covariate
Across-day random slopes. Slopes were running separately and without any covariate
Research has not adequately addressed a possible mutual co-regulatory influence of prosocial and aggressive behaviors in adolescents’ daily lives. This study explored bidirectional within-person associations between prosocial and aggressive behaviors in the daily school lives of early adolescents. The sample included 242 sixth-graders [Mage = 11.96 (SD = 0.18), 50% girls] and their teachers. Adolescents reported on daily prosocial behavior and reactive and proactive aggression for ten consecutive days. Teachers and adolescents reported on adolescents’ overall prosocial behaviors. Across-day prosocial behaviors increased after days when adolescents exhibited more reactive aggression but not among self-reported low-prosocial adolescents. Increased prosocial behaviors did not mitigate aggression the next day. The findings suggest prosocial behaviors are a plausible compensatory strategy after daily aggressive reactions.
Hypothesized model. The effect of parenting/family variables (assessed at T1) was examined on bedtime media use (T2, controlling for T1 levels) and sleep outcome variables (T2, controlling for T1 levels). Covariates (assessed at T1) were regressed on sleep outcomes (T2). These pathways are omitted for clarity
Final model with standardized regression estimates corresponding to significant pathways of influence. Model covariates, including age, sex, race-ethnicity, family SES, and perceived stress, were regressed on each of the three sleep outcomes. These pathways have been omitted for clarity. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
Inadequate sleep in adolescents has been linked to an increase in screen-based media use, especially at bedtime. Parents can play a critical role in regulating adolescent media use and promoting healthy sleep, yet few studies have evaluated parental effects on these outcomes. This study examined the effects of general and media-specific parenting behaviors and family conflict on adolescent sleep outcomes, both directly and indirectly through bedtime media use. Data were collected from 345 middle-schoolers (Mage = 12.65 ± 0.67 years; 47% female; 59% White) at two time points, six months apart. The findings revealed that parental involvement had a significant positive effect on sleep duration that was mediated by bedtime media use. Family conflict had a direct positive effect on daytime sleepiness. Adolescent sleep interventions could benefit from a parenting component focused on positive involvement and fostering a family climate conducive to sleep.
Histogram of 12 Month Frequency of NSSI
Interaction between experience seeking and search for meaning
Interaction between cognitive impulsivity and search for meaning
Previous research indicates that sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity are predictive of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A body of research supports that meaning in life predicts improved mental health and well-being, including fewer suicidal thoughts and attempts, yet no research has examined the moderating effects of meaning in life on the relations between personality and temperament and NSSI. Given the growing incidence rates of NSSI among adolescents and the potential lifelong consequences of NSSI, it is imperative to better understand the factors that reduce the rates at which adolescents in a clinical sample engage in NSSI. The present study investigates if the protective factors of meaning in life moderate the relation between personality and temperament variables and NSSI among 126 adolescents (71% female, Mage = 16.1, SD = 1.1, range 13–18, 80% White) residing in an inpatient psychiatric hospital who endorsed NSSI in the last 12 months. Results from hurdle modeling indicate that two subtypes of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning of life, may serve as robust protective factors against engagement in NSSI among a clinical sample of adolescents. Additionally, results suggest that search for meaning, but not presence of meaning in life, variables moderate the relations between personality and temperament and NSSI. Results provide evidence that meaning in life is an understudied variable of importance in understanding how to prevent or treat NSSI. It also underscores the need to develop, refine, and test meaning-making interventions.
Interaction between the HPA-axis multilocus genetic profile score and maternal/paternal parenting quality on adolescent anxiety symptoms. Adolescent sex and age were controlled for. As only two participants scored 6, this group was grouped together with 5-score group in the figure (Belsky & Beaver, 2011). The frequencies of HPA-axis multilocus genetic profile score was coded as follows: 0 susceptibility alleles (N = 48, 6.2%), 1 susceptibility allele (N = 139, 18.0%), 2 susceptibility alleles (N = 226, 29.3%), 3 susceptibility alleles (N = 226, 29.3%), 4 susceptibility alleles (N = 108, 14.0%) and 5–6 susceptibility alleles (N = 25, 3.2%)
Research suggests that genetic variants that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function moderate the association between parenting and anxiety symptoms, but these studies have primarily focused on (i) individual genes with very small and unreliable effect and (ii) the role of mothers as opposed to fathers. Using a multilocus genetic profile score approach, the current study is the first to examine the moderation effect of HPA-axis multilocus genetic variants on the associations of both maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent anxiety symptoms. In a sample of Chinese Han adolescents (N = 772; 50.1% girls; Mage = 16.48 ± 1.40 years, range: 15–20 years), a theory-driven multilocus genetic profile score was computed by counting the numbers of alleles that were previously linked to heightened stress reactivity in six HPA-axis related genes. This HPA-axis related multilocus genetic profile score equivalently interacted with both maternal and paternal parenting in the prediction of adolescent anxiety symptoms. Consistent with cumulative polygenic plasticity hypothesis of differential susceptibility model, adolescents with more versus low alleles linked to heightened stress reactivity not only suffered more from poor maternal or paternal parenting quality, but also benefited more from high maternal or paternal parenting quality. However, none of the individual HPA-axis genes within this multilocus genetic profile score yielded a significant gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction when examined in isolation. The findings survived after internal replication analysis and a novel, valid influence statistic DFBETAS analysis, demonstrating the robustness of the results. The current study highlights the potential value of using a multilocus approach to understand G × E effects underlying anxiety symptoms and emphasizes the role of both mothers and fathers in such gene-parenting interactions, especially in Chinese families.
Top-cited authors
Wim H J Meeus
  • Utrecht University
Susan Branje
  • Utrecht University
Ron H J Scholte
  • Radboud University
Stephen Thomas Russell
  • University of Texas at Austin
Alex R Piquero
  • University of Texas at Dallas