Journal of Veterinary Medical Education

Published by University of Toronto Press
Online ISSN: 0748-321X
Publications
Continued 
Features of instruction in animal welfare-in aspects other than health alone-in veterinary training programs at 13 schools 
Article
This paper comprises brief descriptions by faculty at 13 veterinary schools in Europe, North America, South America, and Australasia that summarize undergraduate training in animal welfare at the respective schools and how students are assessed.
 
Article
Veterinary medicine is at a crossroads: the future of the profession will be determined by those who join it and by those who select who will join it. Veterinary schools are the gatekeepers of the profession, and the entire veterinary profession is responsible for ensuring that the image it presents to those who will join it matches the social needs that it must serve. The application process for a Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine (MSUCVM) academic summer camp provided an opportunity to discern attributes of the 314 eighth-grade students who attended in 2000–2002. A re-reading of their application essays allowed clustering of similar descriptions and comments about motivations to attend the camp, interests in science, interactions with animals, and exposure to veterinarians and veterinary medicine. Many veterinary camp attendees will be undergraduate students by 2005/2006 and will be applying to colleges of veterinary medicine between 2008 and 2010. Therefore, an understanding of their attributes is germane to discussions about desirable characteristics of veterinary college applicants. Although the camp was designed to attract eighth graders interested in science and curious about veterinary medicine, attendees frequently described veterinary medicine as their career goal. These students (89.5% female, 95.6% residents of Michigan) enjoyed science, but their interest in veterinary medicine related to emotions such as a love of animals and sympathy for sick or injured animals (96.1%). They discussed having pets in their homes (75.5%), involvement with horseback riding (20.7%), experiences with animal-related projects and activities in 4-H (17.2%), and husbandry experience at farms or stables (16.2%). Although 22.6% had already shadowed a veterinarian and 12.8% described receiving other forms of veterinary mentoring, 22.9% commented on their inability to gain shadowing exposures prior to age 16. Based on the results of this survey and years of working with adolescents interested in veterinary medicine, the author offers conclusions about mentoring youth with an interest in veterinary careers.
 
Article
Awareness of student learning-style preferences is important for several reasons. Understanding differences in learning styles permits instructors to design course materials that allow all types of learners to absorb and process information. Students who know their own learning style are better able to help themselves in courses taught in a non-preferred method by developing study strategies in line with their preferred learning method. We used the Felder and Solomon Index of Learning Styles to assess the learning-style profiles of 150 veterinary students in three consecutive years. Students were predominantly active (56.7%), sensing (79.3%), visual (76.7%), and sequential (69.3%). Most were balanced on the active-reflective (59.3%) and global-sequential (50%) dimensions, and 61.3% and 54% were moderately to strongly sensing and visual, respectively. Small but significant numbers of students were moderately to strongly intuitive (8.7%), verbal (13%), and global (12%). The most common patterns were active-sensing-visual-sequential (26%), reflective-sensing-visual-sequential (19.3%), active-sensing-visual-global (8.7%), and active-sensing-verbal-sequential (8.7%). Although most students (65.3%) were balanced on one to two dimensions, 77.3% had one or more strong preferences. Our results show that although people have dominant learning-style preference and patterns, they have significant minor preferences and patterns across all dimensions with moderate to strong preferences on each scale. These results indicate that a balanced approach to teaching is essential to allow all students to learn optimally.
 
Article
This fourth article in an ongoing series of articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education on veterinary education and the veterinary profession provides information on the colleges and schools that exist in the US in 2011. This article provides a brief description of the educational programs and recent accreditation of the veterinary schools at Western University of the Health Sciences and Ross University on the Island of St. Kitts. Without taking into consideration Caribbean colleges, the number of veterinary student positions in US colleges has increased by approximately 24% in the past decade. The number of students attending veterinary colleges is unevenly distributed across the country with many of the more populous states having fewer students per 100,000 people than less populous states. The percentage of veterinarians who reside in the state of their alma mater also varies widely with alumni from some colleges remaining in the state of the college from which they graduated (e.g., Texas A&M and the University of California at Davis) and the graduates of other colleges (e.g., Cornell University and the University of Pennsylvania) being more widely distributed across the country. The location of veterinarians is also provided by state and adjusted for population and state size.
 
Article
This article is the second in a series of four to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine to students in all four years of the program. The course is built in part on a series of biographies and interviews captured in a collection at http://www.vet.cornell.edu/legacy, and complemented by a growing collection of historical and public policy blogs at http://www.veterinarylegacy.blogsite.com. This article describes the development of the veterinary profession from 1940 to 1970, with particular emphasis on World War II, the Land Grant colleges established in the mid- and late 1940s, women in veterinary medicine (1910-1970), and African-Americans (ca. 1890-1945). Though the article is somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures were presented to Cornell students at their home institution, many events are representative of the broader American experience.
 
Article
This is one of a series of articles in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine. This third article in the series of six describes the development of the nine new colleges that opened between 1974 and 1981. The three colleges on or near campuses that also had medical schools are contrasted with those that focused predominantly on their agriculture base. Data are presented by species on the current employment patterns of veterinary graduates from colleges in the US and Ross University. Programs in public health, public policy, and corporate veterinary medicine are also described. This article closes with a description of the factors that led to the curriculum reform instituted at Cornell University in 1993.
 
Article
This article is the first in a series of three to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in spring 2010. The course was based in large part on an oral history collection titled "An Enduring Veterinary Legacy"(1) that captures interesting and relevant veterinary stories. The course was designed to increase awareness of the history of veterinary medicine as we approach the sesquicentennial of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in 2013 and as we join with our international colleagues in marking the 250th anniversary of the establishment of the world's first veterinary college in Lyon, France, in 2011.(2) The overarching goal of this course and the articles is to record and also to share first-person stories that describe the development of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America from the mid-1860s to the present. In the process, it is hoped that this history will encourage respect, love, and admiration for the veterinary profession and an appreciation of veterinary medicine as a versatile profession. The articles are somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures on which they are based were presented to Cornell students at their home institution. However, it is hoped that the events are representative of the broader American experience. For educators interested in the course itself, a brief synopsis and a summary of student evaluations for the first year of presentation is appended here and in subsequent articles in this series.
 
Article
The annals of veterinary medical history rarely mention the presence of African American veterinarians and other minorities. Between 1889 and 1948, records show, a meager 70 African Americans graduated from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada. It was not until the veterinary school at Tuskegee (Institute) University was established in 1945 that a significant increase in the number of African American veterinarians occurred in the United States, and over the ensuing years their participation in every facet of the profession has been striking. Their employment in various areas of the profession and their successful performance in the workforce have done much to dispel stereotypical perceptions about minorities. Despite demographic data indicating that the United States is moving rapidly toward a multicultural society, recruitment programs to increase the number of African American students and faculty at the 27 US veterinary colleges have not kept pace with the declared goals of ethnic diversity. If the needs of a changing culture are to be met, veterinary medical education must look toward more ethnic inclusion in the student body and faculty. To that end, the Iverson C. Bell Symposium has consistently advocated the adoption of new and creative methods for increasing minority student enrollment and expanding faculty opportunities in the nation's veterinary colleges.
 
Veterinary education in Cuba takes place in a variety of settings, from traditional classrooms to educational units where students engage in hands-on veterinary practice. The main facilities are located in Havana (UNAH), Guayabal, Nazareno, and Los Naranjos. 
Academic personnel and veterinary students at each veterinary faculty in Cuba
Faculty governance structure
Academic components of the integrated field study course, by year of study
Article
The development of veterinary education in Cuba has closely mirrored the political changes the nation has undergone. Veterinary studies in Cuba began in 1907, with an emphasis on clinical (individual-animal) medicine. Over time, the professional curriculum has evolved to meet the needs of the nation. Preventive medicine topics were added to the curriculum in 1959. Food-animal production was taught by a separate college until 1990. In 1991, these topics were incorporated into the professional veterinary medical curriculum, and they continue to be an area of emphasis. All veterinary colleges in Cuba follow a centrally organized, student-centered curriculum. A substantial portion of instruction is delivered at educational units, housed on livestock operations, where students participate in extensive field experiences while receiving didactic instruction. The amount of instructional time devoted to hands-on activities increases as students progress through the five-year curriculum.
 
Article
Public health affords important and exciting career opportunities for veterinarians. The Epidemic Intelligence Service Program (EIS) of the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) is a two-year post-graduate program of service and on-the-job training for health professionals, including veterinarians, who are interested in careers in epidemiology and public health. EIS serves as a major point of entry into the public health arena. Veterinarians applying to the program must have a Master of Public Health or equivalent degree, or demonstrated public health experience or course work. EIS officers are assigned to positions at CDC headquarters or in state and local health departments. During two-year assignments, they are trained in applied epidemiology, biostatistics, conducting outbreak investigations, emergency preparedness and response, and scientific communications. They conduct epidemiologic outbreak and other investigations, perform applied research and public health surveillance, serve the epidemiologic needs of state health departments, present at scientific and medical conferences, publish in the scientific literature, and disseminate vital public health information to the media and the public. EIS officers apply their training and skills to actual public health problems and issues, establish mentorships with recognized experts from CDC and other national and international health agencies, and travel domestically and internationally. Since 1951, 195 veterinarians have graduated from the program and gone on to make substantial contributions to public health in positions with federal, state, or local governments, academia, industry, and non-governmental organizations.
 
Article
A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.
 
Article
Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.
 
Article
The NCVEI formed several subgroups, including one to study the skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes (SKAs) that will be needed for success in the broad range of today's veterinary careers. SKAs can be identified, defined, taught, learned, and experienced or selected for, and may thus, potentially, have a profound influence on the future direction of the profession. The NCVEI subgroup invited a diverse group of 45 individuals to meet from December 4 through 6 at Brook Lodge in Augusta, Michigan, to define our current professional base-line of SKAs, to begin developing a consensus of what SKAs are needed, and to deliberate about how and where to implement change. These individuals were selected on the basis of their professional and geographic diversity, leadership , and reputation for creative thinking. To assist them in this process, the participants first heard presentations by a number of invited experts and others with valuable experiences. This article contains a summary of those presentations. The participants then had an opportunity for input in small-group discussions focused on various points in a veterinary career—preveterinary, admissions, veterinary education, and post-DVM/continuing education. A future publication will present the subsequent deliberations of the group and their recommendations. Ultimately, the group will deliver these recommendations directly to NCVEI.
 
Article
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht has recently introduced two major curriculum changes in order to keep pace with developments in research (the vast increase in scientific knowledge), in society (the quality awareness of veterinary clients), and in the veterinary profession, where a species and sector differentiation can be observed. After about 15 years during which the curriculum remained more or less unchanged, a radical curriculum revision was introduced in 1995. A further revision, with the introduction of separate study tracks, began in 2001. The 2001 curriculum focuses on academic and scientific training, active learning and problem solving, training in communication and professional behavior, and lifelong learning. It is divided into a four-year core curriculum, in which a broad, cross-species pathobiological insight is central, and a two-year track curriculum, through which students achieve a starting competence in a specific species or sector. The main teaching methods are tutorials and group tasks; practical work is used mainly to achieve specific veterinary skills. Teaching hours represent 30–35% of all study hours. Self-teaching is encouraged by providing study materials, self-teaching questions, teachers assigned to assist with self-teaching, and adequate facilities. The five tracks offered are Companion Animals/Equine; Food Animals; Veterinary Public Health; Veterinary Research; and Veterinary Administration and Management. All students follow a uniform 30-week clinical rotation program, while the track program is 42 weeks. A summary of admission procedures is given, as well as the times and procedures for track selection.
 
Article
Veterinary faculty do not often get the chance to reflect on their own teaching practices. Recent circumstances dictated that the author perform such a self-analysis. This article represents the fruits of that reflection process. A personal philosophy of teaching is presented, along with impressions of the student experience. Using these as a guide, ideas are presented about the package of material that should be delivered to the students, how that package should be delivered, and some special tools to aid delivery. A personal wish list of items that might lead to a better teaching experience is also included. Although the teaching game plan presented here is unlikely to be the best strategy, it is hoped that it may provide some helpful hints for other instructors of veterinary medicine or, at least, stimulate further thinking about how the teaching and learning experience can be improved for both teacher and student.
 
Article
While there is no evidence to suggest that the recent epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the UK and its subsequent spread to continental Europe were caused by bioterrorism, the extent of the epidemic shows that FMD could be a very powerful weapon for a bioterrorist wishing to cause widespread disease in livestock and economic disruption for the targeted country. This paper describes the epidemic. It then examines the contentious issues that arose through the use of extensive slaughter to control the epidemic and explores how, in turn, the concerns of society are being translated into a radical change in policy within the European Union with respect to the control of FMD and other foreign animal diseases. The crisis generated by the FMD epidemic in Europe in 2001 provides many lessons to be learned for the US and highlights the need for creative thinking in research and teaching within Colleges of Veterinary Medicine to more effectively address the threat of epidemic diseases under the “new world order.” There is general agreement that the veterinary profession in the US plays a unique role in protecting the nation against epidemic livestock diseases, whether caused naturally or through bioterrorism. The profession also has a significant role in protecting the public’s health, since several epidemic diseases of animals, such as Rift Valley fever, are zoonotic. However, improved financial support at the federal and state levels is urgently needed to support epidemic- diseases research and teaching in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.
 
Article
The complex and rapid-paced development of international trade, coupled with increasing societal demands for the production not only of abundant and inexpensive food, but also of food that is safe and has been raised in a humane and environmentally friendly manner, demands immediate attention from the veterinary community. The new culture of global trade agreements, spurred by the development of the WTO, dictates massive changes and increasing integration of public and private sectors. This is a huge growth area for our profession and will require individuals with a skill set we do not yet provide in our educational framework. In North America, veterinary education is parochial and focused on specialization. This strong orientation toward companion animals fails to provide adequate training for those interested in acquiring the necessary skills for the emerging area of globalization and trade. In South America, curricula are less harmonized with one another and there is tremendous variation in degree programs, rendering it difficult to ascertain whether veterinarians are prepared to assume decision-making responsibilities regarding international transport of food. If we do not begin to prepare our graduates adequately for this emerging market demand, the positions will be filled by other professions. These other professions lack broad-based scientific knowledge about animal physiology and disease causation. Decisions made without adequate background could have devastating consequences for society, including incursions of unwelcome diseases, food safety problems, and public health issues. To prepare our new veterinary graduates for the future and this emerging market, it is important to nurture a global mindset within our academic communities and to promote communications, languages, and an interdependent team mentality. Areas of technical expertise that need a place, perhaps a parallel track, in the curriculum include production medicine, public health, food safety, and international veterinary medicine. The major trade corridors of the future regarding animal-based protein flow between North and South America. It is absolutely essential that we find areas of consensus and deficiencies so that we can harmonize our trade agreements and ensure adequate flow of safe food products from one continent to the other.
 
Article
In Italy, access to the degree course in veterinary medicine is regulated each academic year by a government decree that sets the maximum student intake number for each of the 14 existing faculties. Candidates are selected by means of a multiple-choice test on the following subjects: logic and general knowledge, biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Data for the 2005/2006 academic year are presented here. Overall, 4,495 candidates took the test and 1,415 (31.5%) qualified. The questions relating to physics and mathematics were more difficult than those in other subjects (p < 0.001). Logic and general knowledge was the subject in which candidates' knowledge was best. Separate data for each of the 14 Italian faculties are presented, along with the cut-off score for admission. In addition, a "difficulty admission index" has been calculated for each faculty centre.
 
Distribution of the socio-occupational categories of the parents of those students who responded to the survey 
Most frequent father/mother occupation combinations
Choice of school groups at time of entrance examination 
The 15 most cited themes, after grouping
The relationship between the main factors listed and the first-ranked practice area that students are contemplating upon graduating a
Article
Concerns about new trends in the veterinary profession in several industrialized countries have received significant attention recently. We conducted an online survey among first-year veterinary students enrolled between 2005 and 2008 in France's four National Veterinary Schools (Ecoles Nationales Vétérinaires [ENV]) to inquire into what determined future graduates' practice-area interests and how they built a concept of their future work. A total of 1,080 students-or 70% of first-year students-responded to the survey. These students were predominantly of middle and higher social classes and most of them lived in urban areas. About 96% of the respondents had made the ENV their first choice when taking the entrance examination. In total, 39.7% declared "vocation" as the leading factor influencing their career choice. Together, the three leading practice types (wild animals, pets, and mixed) contemplated by students after graduating amount to 64.7% of the points awarded. Practice types that are not directly related to animal health were disregarded in this analysis. The results convey both how early and how firmly the choice of the veterinary career is made. They highlight the preponderance of the image of the veterinarian as an "animal doctor," the gap between the respective proportions of practice areas in the current employment pattern of veterinarians, and the aspirations of students upon admission to the ENV. A longitudinal study after one year is needed to test whether or not these career choices change during the five years of the ENV program under the influence of teaching and extramural studies.
 
Article
The present paper analyzes the admission test administered to candidates to the veterinary medicine program in Italy for the academic years 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 nationwide as well as the University of Pisa student intake from 2001-2002 through 2009-2010, comparing the relationship between the admission test and students' academic careers at Pisa. This paper finds that the Italian system of a locally enforced fixed intake number does not select the best possible candidates for admission because (1) there are significant variations in the candidates' preparation among the different locations where the test is held, (2) the subjects tested are not equally selective in identifying the best candidates, and (3) there is a very strong relationship between candidates' performance on the admission test and the subsequent academic career of the admitted candidates. In its findings, this study in part contradicts what is commonly believed by the Italian veterinary medicine community, and, as a result, it is extremely important that care is taken in the decision-making process-in the process, that is, of identifying a fixed intake number and of selecting the subjects to be tested on the admission test.
 
Article
I was honored to receive the 2007 National Carl J. Norden-Pfizer Distinguished Teacher Award. This award reflects the impact that my mentors and students have had on my teaching. I have been fortunate to have dedicated mentors and wonderful students. It is through the support and guidance of colleagues and students that I have been able to grow as a teacher. My students have taught me a lot about being an effective teacher. I will share some key principles that I try to follow in my teaching. These principles can be used in any teaching situation in any discipline.
 
Article
The purposes of this Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) study was to develop a profile of deans to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that current deans of schools and colleges of veterinary medicine consider important to job success and to inform the association's leadership development initiatives. Forty-two deans responded to an online leadership program needs survey, which found that knowledge, skills, and abilities related to communication, finance and budget management, negotiation, conflict management, public relations, and fundraising were recommended as the most important areas for fulfilling a deanship. Most respondents speculated that the greatest challenges for their institutions will be in the areas of faculty recruitment and retention and financing veterinary education. Reflecting on their experiences, respondents offered an abundance of advice to future deans, often citing the importance of preparation, communication, and leadership qualities as necessary for a successful and satisfying deanship. More than three-quarters of the respondents indicated moderate to high interest in an AAVMC multi-phase leadership training program to develop administrative leaders. A nearly equal number also indicated support for formal leadership training for current veterinary medical college and school deans. The study suggests leadership development topics that AAVMC could provide at existing meetings or through new programming. The study also suggests directions for individual institutions as they seek to implement leadership development activities at the local level.
 
Article
This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the spring of 2001 to assess international activities at colleges of veterinary medicine in North America. A questionnaire was sent to all 31 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada, of which 22 responded. Of those schools responding to the survey, 86% have International Veterinary Medicine (IVM) programs and most have faculty involved in internationally oriented research (95%), in teaching IVM (74%), in mentoring veterinary students in IVM (84%), and in international consultancies (84%). Funding sources for faculty international activities include foundations, intramural funds, curriculum development grants, endowment/development funds, and sabbaticals. Foreign animal diseases are the most commonly taught international topic. The increasing importance of international veterinary issues is leading to the internationalization of the veterinary education in North America. Most IVM programs include activities of both faculty and students. Greater collaboration between faculty and programs across schools would allow schools to benefit from each other's strengths in IVM education.
 
Article
All who work in veterinary education must recognize the breadth of their responsibilities. We are at a time in veterinary history where the profession must look how to meet a global standard for veterinary education and the global recognition of our basic qualification. There is a societal expectation that a professional approach is being taken to managing food security and food safety, as welsl a the environment and biodiversity. Within our profession, we need to recognize our obligation to fulfill this role. Society and regulators will seek those who have the capacity to provide for society’s needs. It is no longer a case of relying on the reputation of our profession alone. There is a significant disparity in universal recognition of the veterinary qualification between the major blocs of the developed world and the developing world. Graduates from developing countries are not widely recognized, and they and their countries may therefore be at a significant disadvantage. There will be significant costs involved in raising the standards of veterinary education. A lead must be taken by a global body such as the World Veterinary Association to develop a long-term strategy toward global recognition of the veterinary qualification.
 
Article
The needs for public health education are addressed based on papers presented at the 27th World veterinary Congress held in Tunis, Tunisia, on September 25–29, 2002. The article first summarizes the public health problems presented from developing countries, followed by the problems from developed countries. A summary of the solutions proposed or practiced by each group of speakers is presented. On the basis of the problems and solutions presented, the author suggests how education can address the problems and their solutions. The dichotomy between developed and developing countries is not new, but educational advances in veterinary public health (VPH) are required to provide the citizens of all countries with safe food and less risk of zoonotic diseases. This is true when a country is too poor to have adequate veterinary services for good food safety and preventing major zoonoses, or is a wealthy country plagued by the emerging pathogens associated with modern intensive agriculture systems.
 
Article
The hypothesis for the research described in this article was that viewing an interactive two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic pre-laboratory video would improve efficiency and learning in the laboratory. A first-year DVM class was divided into 21 dissection teams of four students each. Primary variables were method of preparation (2D, 3D, or laboratory manual) and dissection region (thorax, abdomen, or pelvis). Teams were randomly assigned to a group (A, B, or C) in a crossover design experiment so that all students experienced each of the modes of preparation, but with different regions of the canine anatomy. All students were instructed to study normal course materials and the laboratory manual, the Guide, before coming to the laboratory session and to use them during the actual dissection as usual. Video groups were given a DVD with an interactive 10-12 minute video to view for the first 30 minutes of the laboratory session, while non-video groups were instructed to review the Guide. All groups were allowed 45 minutes to dissect the assigned section and find a list of assigned structures, after which all groups took a post-dissection quiz and attitudinal survey. The 2D groups performed better than the Guide groups (p=.028) on the post-dissection quiz, despite the fact that only a minority of the 2D-group students studied the Guide as instructed. There was no significant difference (p>.05) between 2D and 3D groups on the post-dissection quiz. Students preferred videos over the Guide.
 
Article
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is one of the most important orthopedic diseases taught to veterinary undergraduates. The complexity of the anatomy of the canine stifle joint combined with the plethora of different surgical interventions available for the treatment of the disease means that undergraduate veterinary students often have a poor understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of CCL rupture. We designed, developed, and tested a three dimensional (3D) animation to illustrate the pertinent clinical anatomy of the stifle joint, the effects of CCL rupture, and the mechanisms by which different surgical techniques can stabilize the joint with CCL rupture. When compared with a non-animated 3D presentation, students' short-term retention of functional anatomy improved although they could not impart a better explanation of how different surgical techniques worked. More students found the animation useful than those who viewed a comparable non-animated 3D presentation. Multiple peer-review testing is required to maximize the usefulness of 3D animations during development. Free and open access to such tools should improve student learning and client understanding through wide-spread uptake and use.
 
Article
Traditional methods of teaching intracellular biological processes and pathways use figures or flowcharts with the names of molecules linked with arrows. Many veterinary students, presented with such material, simply memorize the names or chemical structures of the molecules and are then likely to forget the material once the examination is completed. To address this problem, the authors designed, created, and field-tested new teaching media that incorporate realistic three-dimensional (3D) animations depicting the dynamic changes that occur in intracellular molecules during cellular activation. Testing found that veterinary students taught using traditional teaching media (e.g., lectures, handouts, textbooks) are proficient in memorizing the names and order of intracellular molecules but unable to appreciate the interactions between these elements or their spatial relationships within cells. In contrast, more than 90% of veterinary students taught using 3D animations not only recall the facts about the intracellular elements but also develop accurate mental images of the interactions among these molecules and their spatial relationships. These findings strongly suggest that the comprehension of complex biological processes by veterinary students can be enhanced by the use of dynamic 3D depictions of these processes in the classroom.
 
Article
Six years of experience at Washington State University's College of Veterinary Medicine using an online, asynchronous, problem-solving small animal case simulation tool are presented. Student satisfaction with the online problem-solving experience was high, and the majority of students felt that the experience was realistic and worthwhile. The effort required to keep the experience realistic required a large investment of time by instructors, which ultimately led to discontinuation of the online course. A summary of features to consider when creating case simulations is presented.
 
Article
Our purpose in this study was to determine professional development needs of faculty in the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' (AAVMC's) member institutions, including those needs associated with current and emerging issues and leadership development. The survey asked respondents to report their level of job satisfaction and their perceptions of professional development as they related to support and resources, teaching, research, career planning, and administration. Five hundred and sixty-five individuals from 49 member institutions responded to an online professional development needs survey. We found that job satisfaction was associated with a variety of workplace variables correlated with academic rank, with those of higher academic rank expressing greater levels of satisfaction. Respondents with tenure also expressed generally higher levels of satisfaction. Most of the respondents expressed interest in learning more about topics related to teaching (e.g., effective questioning, giving feedback, principles of learning and motivation), research (e.g., research design, writing grants), career planning (e.g., mentoring, time management), and administration (e.g., fostering innovation, enhancing productivity, improving the work environment). Just more than half of the respondents indicated moderate to high interest in an AAVMC multi-phase leadership training program. The study suggests topics for which AAVMC should provide professional development opportunities either at existing meetings or through new programming. The study also suggests directions for individual institutions as they seek to implement professional development activities at the local level.
 
Article
Over a period of 10 years, first-year students from 11 consecutive veterinary classes conducted a self-assessment using a natural abilities survey. The present study analyzes the data compiled from students' self-assessment results. As a group, veterinary students are exceptional problem solvers, either through inductive or deductive reasoning, and have strong spatial relations capacities. Veterinary students have a range of learning styles with design memory being the primary vehicle for information delivery and tonal memory being the least frequently used style overall. Information gained on each student's natural abilities can be used to guide effective career decision making and enhance prospects for long-term career satisfaction.
 
Article
The present study evaluated the impact of final-year clinical practice-based training on veterinary students' perceptions of competence in "Day One" abilities by administering a pre- and post-training self-assessment checklist. This study also investigated the influence of student demographics on their perceptions of satisfaction about their own knowledge and skills and preparedness for practice. Perceptions regarding the usefulness of the checklist as a self-audit tool were also sought. Final year students (N=85) were surveyed on commencement and upon completion of the training using a checklist that had been adapted from the list of essential new-graduate abilities that was developed by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons and adopted by the Australasian Veterinary Boards Council. Significant improvements in student perceptions of competence were observed for 38 of the 41 abilities. Students' satisfaction with their knowledge and skill base and their perceptions of preparedness for practice were only weakly correlated with overall perceptions of competence for individual ability items and did not vary significantly with student age, gender, background, intended field and location of work, or with their work experience as veterinary nurses-if any-while studying. Two thirds of students believed that access to the self-assessment checklist on commencement of the training helped them identify areas for improvement before graduation. This article concludes that clinical practice-based training results in considerable improvement in senior veterinary students' perceptions of competence in Day One abilities and that a self-assessment checklist may help students guide their learning. Results from the present study may be useful for veterinary schools as they develop or enhance strategies used for outcomes assessment.
 
Article
Veterinarians play an important role in educating the public about emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. This article investigates the ability of third-year veterinary students (N=31), from a veterinary school in the USA, to respond to an actual client's question about an emerging disease. In an open-book, take-home examination, students were asked to respond to a nurse's concern that she could bring home influenza from work and infect her macaw. While 75% of the students answered the question correctly, only 51% demonstrated that they understood that this question came from the ongoing publicity about the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Additional information that would have decreased the client's concern and provided the client with a better understanding of this disease outbreak was lacking in many of the answers. The results of this study suggest that greater emphasis should be applied to exercises requiring veterinary students to research, carefully study, and formulate answers to applied topics that are novel to them.
 
Article
The ability to characterize disease of the respiratory tract accurately based on breathing pattern is helpful for the development of differential diagnoses and an efficient diagnostic plan and critical for the stabilization of patients in respiratory distress. Veterinary students do not have sufficient clinical experience to observe personally all types of respiratory diseases and their resultant abnormal breathing patterns. We developed a teaching tool, the animated breathing pattern videotape (ABV), to fill this gap. The ABV is a collection of video clips of small animal patients with normal and abnormal breathing patterns on a conventional videotape of approximately 20 minutes duration. Each video clip is shown for 20 to 40 seconds, followed by the same clip with superimposed animation of rib and diaphragm motion, followed by the initial clip again, without overlying animation. The ABV has since been used in teaching third-year veterinary students, interns, residents, practicing veterinarians, and veterinary technicians. Student evaluations and responses to questionnaires by interns, residents, practicing veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and peer reviewers have been uniformly positive.
 
Article
Many studies have consistently indicated that the educational outcomes of Black men and boys are not on par with those of their White and female counterparts. Recent data suggest the same holds true for Black men in veterinary medicine. Drawing on national statistics and findings from an analysis of National Educational Longitudinal Study data, I present several recommendations for future policy and practice that can help combat the absence of Black men in the profession.
 
Article
A review of abstracts presented at nine annual meetings of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists was undertaken to determine the average time to publication and the differences found between conference abstracts and final publications. Concerns about and advantages of using such abstracts in our teaching are considered. Conference proceedings during the years 1990 through 1999 were considered. Key word and author searches using two common search engines were carried out to find whether abstracts presented had been published. The original article or its abstract was reviewed for consistency with the conference abstract. Of 283 abstracts examined, 73.5% were published in journals as full articles. The overall delay (+/-SD) in publication was 24.3 +/- 21.0 months. Common reasons for not publishing included too little time, more interest in carrying out the work than in writing it up, and other more demanding tasks. Authors indicated the intention of completing a submission on approximately 10% of the unpublished abstracts. The final articles reviewed showed major differences in key aspects from the abstract presented in 7% of the cases. In half of these cases, clinical action could have been affected by a change in emphasis of the conclusions. Because of the delay in publication of research, peer review of standardized abstracts should be encouraged. This material can be used to introduce students to new drugs, techniques, and results that may not otherwise become available until after their graduation. However, caution must be exercised in using this information, both because significant differences were noted in final publications and because unpublished research may be poorly interpreted at the time of presentation. This study emphasizes the value of critical review and lifelong learning in our careers.
 
Article
During the past century, reductions in animal diseases have resulted in a safer, more uniform, and more economical food supply. In the United States, the passage of the 1906 Federal Meat Inspection Act mandated better sanitary conditions for slaughter and processing, as well as inspection of live animals and their processed products. Following World War II, Congress passed the Poultry Products Inspection Act. Both acts are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for regulations governing the health of live animals prior to slaughter. This article is a brief overview of the ways in which the current predominance of zoonotics among emerging diseases underscores the importance of veterinary health professionals and the need for continued coordination between animal-health and public-health officials. Examples of intersections between animal- and public-health concerns include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Johne's disease, as well as extending beyond food safety to diseases such as avian influenza (AI). In the United States, we have in place an extensive public and private infrastructure to address animal-health issues, including the necessary expertise and resources to address animal-health emergencies. However, many challenges remain, including a critical shortage of food-animal veterinarians. These challenges can be met by recruiting and training a cadre of additional food-supply veterinarians, pursuing new technologies, collaborating with public-health officials to create solutions, and sending a clear and consistent message to the public about important animal-health issues.
 
Top-cited authors
Stephen Anthony May
  • Royal Veterinary College
Bonnie Rush
  • Kansas State University
Sarah Baillie
  • University of Bristol
Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher
  • North Carolina State University
Donald M. Broom
  • University of Cambridge