Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1939-1676
Publications
Article
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in the dog and generally leads to severe clinical signs, including left-sided congestive heart failure. Historically, definitive treatment consisted of surgical ligation; however, the use of vascular occlusion devices by minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity in veterinary medicine during the past decade. Adequate vascular access is a major limiting factor for these minimally invasive techniques, precluding their use in very small dogs. The clinical management of PDA with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils in a minimally invasive transarterial technique in 10 dogs is described. The dogs were small (1.38 +/- 0.22 kg), were generally young (6.70 +/- 5.74 months), and had small minimal ductal diameters (1.72 +/- 0.81 mm from angiography). Vascular access was achieved, and coil deployment was attempted in all dogs with a 3F catheter uncontrolled release system. Successful occlusion, defined as no angiographic residual flow, was accomplished in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Successful occlusion was not achieved in 2 dogs (20%), and both dogs experienced embolization of coils into the pulmonary arterial tree. One of these dogs died during the procedure, whereas the other dog underwent a successful surgical correction. We conclude that transarterial PDA occlusion in very small dogs is possible with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils by means of a 3F catheter system and that it represents a viable alternative to surgical ligation. The risk of pulmonary arterial embolization is higher with this uncontrolled release system, but this risk may decrease with experience.
 
Article
Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically to estimate urine osmolality (UOsm). Although USG has been shown to have a linear correlation with UOsm in dogs, the relationship is altered when there are significant numbers of high molecular weight (MW) molecules in the urine. USG would no longer predict UOsm in dogs given intravenous hetastarch (670/0.75)(HES). Eight healthy employee-owned adult dogs. Prospective, controlled experimental study. USG and UOsm were measured every 30 minutes from t=0 minutes to t=360 minutes. Dogs were administered 20 mL/kg of either NaCl 0.9% (control group, n=4) or HES (treatment group, n=8) IV over 1 hour starting at t=90 minutes. There was a decrease in UOsm in both groups starting at t=120 minutes and continuing for the study duration, and there was no significant difference in UOsm between treatment and control groups across all time points. There was an appropriate decrease in USG from t=120 minutes for the control group. In the treatment group, USG increased significantly at t=120 minutes (P= .0006), t=150 minutes (P= .0002), and t=180 minutes (P= .0044). The largest increase in USG occurred at t=150 minutes with a mean USG of 1.070 +/- 0.021 (range 1.038-1.104). Urine specific gravity should not be used to estimate urine solute concentration in dogs following the administration of 20 mL/kg of HES. In a clinical setting, the evaluation of USG following this dose of HES may lead to an overestimation of urine concentration.
 
Article
This study examined the safety of intravenous hypertonic saline in cattle with experimental gram-negative endotoxemia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition was examined in five control cows and eight treated cows 24 hours after the intramammary infusion of 1 mg of endotoxin. Four of the endotoxin challenged cows were treated intravenously with isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride and four cows were treated intravenously with hypertonic (7.5%) sodium chloride. Decreased CSF osmolality, and sodium and alpha globulin concentrations and increased CSF concentrations of beta globulin were observed in both endotoxin-challenged saline-treated groups. No CSF compositional differences were observed between endotoxin-challenged cows receiving isotonic or hypertonic saline. Although no cytologic or biochemical evidence of salt poisoning was observed in cows receiving hypertonic saline, significant changes were observed in the CSF composition of both endotoxin-infused saline-treated groups.
 
Article
Hypertonic saline solution (7.2%) (HSS) can quickly replace intravascular volume deficits. HSS more recently has been advocated in the treatment of traumatic brain injury, but its use in dehydrated patients remains controversial. Hypertonic saline solution will show a significant improvement in both clinical and laboratory hydration parameters as compared to isotonic (0.9%) saline solution (ISS). Endurance horses eliminated from the 2009 Western States 100-mile (220-km) endurance ride and requiring IV fluid therapy were eligible for enrollment in the study. Twenty-two horses were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL/kg of either HSS or ISS along with 5 L lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). After this bolus, horses were treated with additional LRS in varying amounts. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after treatment. Data were compared using 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures. As compared to ISS, HSS horses showed greater decreases in PCV (P = .04), total protein (P = .01), albumin (P = .01), and globulin (P = .02) concentrations. HSS horses showed greater increases in sodium and chloride (P < .001) as compared to ISS horses. Horses receiving HSS had a shorter time to urination (P = .03) and lower specific gravity (P < .001) than those receiving ISS. Results of this study indicate that HSS may provide faster restoration of intravascular volume deficits than ISS in endurance horses receiving emergency medical treatment. More marked electrolyte changes should be expected with HSS, however, and additional fluids after HSS administration likely are needed.
 
Article
Serum lipase activities measured by catalytic assays are claimed to be of limited utility for diagnosing pancreatitis in cats. The Spec fPL assay currently is believed the most sensitive test; however, studies comparing different lipase assays are lacking. 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6'-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) assay for the determination of lipase activity has been evaluated in dogs, but no information is available in cats. To investigate the agreement of DGGR-lipase activity and Spec fPL concentration in cats with clinical signs consistent with pancreatitis. Two hundred fifty-one client-owned cats. DGGR-lipase activity and Spec fPL concentration measured from the same blood sample in cats undergoing investigation for pancreatitis. The agreement between DGGR-lipase and Spec fPL at different cutoffs was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for 31 cases where pancreatic histopathology was available. DGGR-lipase (cutoff, 26 U/L) and Spec fPL (cutoff, >5.3 μg/L) had a κ of 0.68 (standard error [SE] 0.046). DGGR-lipase (cutoff, 26 U/L) and Spec fPL (cutoff, >3.5 μg/L) had a κ of 0.60 (SE, 0.05). The maximum κ at a Spec fPL cutoff >5.3 μg/L was found when the DGGR-lipase cutoff was set >34 U/L and calculated as 0.755 (SE, 0.042). Sensitivity and specificity were 48% and 63% for DGGR-lipase (cut-off, 26 U/L) and 57% and 63% for Spec fPL (>5.3 μg/L), respectively. Both lipase assays agreed substantially. DGGR assay seems a useful and cost-efficient method compared to the Spec fPL test.
 
Article
The objective of this study was to build audiograms from thresholds of brainstem tone-evoked potentials in dogs and to evaluate age-related change of the audiogram in puppies. Results were obtained from 9 Beagle puppies 10-47 days of age. Vertex to mastoid brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in response to 5.1-millisecond Hanning-gated sine waves with frequencies octave-spaced from 0.5 to 32 kHz were recorded. Three dogs were examined at 10, 13, 19, 25, and 45 days. Four other dogs were examined at 16 days. Data from 7 dogs between 42 and 47 days of age were pooled to obtain audiogram reference values in 1.5-month-old puppies. The best auditory threshold lowered from above 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to values close to 0 dB SPL between 13 and 25 days of age and then stabilized. The audible frequency range widened, including 32 kHz in all tested dogs from the 19th day. In the 7 1.5-month-old puppies, the mean auditory threshold decreased by 11 dB per octave from 0.5 to 2 kHz. The auditory threshold was lowest and held the same value from 2 to 8 kHz. The mean auditory threshold increased by 20 dB per octave from 8 to 32 kHz. Near threshold, click-evoked potentials test only a small part of the audible frequency range in dogs. Use of tone-evoked potentials may become a powerful tool in investigating dogs with possible partial hearing loss, including during the auditory system maturation period.
 
Article
The count of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) has been considered a useful variable that reflects cellular proliferation in canine lymph nodes, but it has not been compared with other markers of proliferation. Hypothesis: Ki67 and AgNORs are equally useful as markers of tissue proliferation in fine needle aspirates of canine lymph nodes. A total of 101 dogs. Prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of dogs. Two smears were prepared for a May-Gruenwald-Giemsa stain and a Ki67/AgNOR double stain. In addition, CD3/CD79a immunostaining was performed when cytologic examination revealed a lymphoma. The dogs were grouped as normal (n = 26), reactive hyperplasia (n = 25), lymphadenitis (n = 31), and lymphoma (n = 19), based on the physical examination and the cytologic findings. The AgNOR count/cell, AgNOR area/cell and the percentage of cells staining positive for Ki67 were evaluated in 100-167 cells (median, 113 cells) by using automatic image analysis. Mean (SD) AgNOR counts/cell were 1.36 +/- 0.19 in normal dogs, 1.55 +/- 0.26 in lymphadenitis, 1.65 +/- 0.32 in reactive hyperplasia, and 3.67 +/- 1.08 in lymphoma. The percentage of Ki67 positive cells was 2.67 +/- 0.99% in normal lymph nodes, 5.04 +/- 3.34% in lymphadenitis, 5.36 +/- 2.14% in reactive hyperplasia, and 30.2 +/- 10.8% in lymphoma. All variables were significantly higher in dogs with lymphoma compared with the other groups (P < .0001). The sensitivity and the specificity of the AgNOR count for diagnosing lymphoma were 95 and 96% at a cutoff value of >2.04 AgNORs/cell. The cutoff value for the Ki67 positive cells was >10.40% (sensitivity, 95%; specificity, 98%). The results indicated that both AgNOR and Ki67 counts were good diagnostic tools for assessment of proliferation in aspirates of canine lymph nodes.
 
Article
Background: Cervical vertebral malformation (CVM) is seen in young, rapidly growing horses, and is commonly associated with a poor prognosis for racing. Hypothesis/objective: To examine the records of a population of Thoroughbreds with a presumptive diagnosis of CVM and to determine which radiographic findings and neurologic exam findings have an effect on these horses achieving athletic function when managed conservatively. Animals: One hundred and three thoroughbreds presumptively diagnosed with CVM and treated conservatively between 2002 and 2010. Methods: Racing records were reviewed in this retrospective study to determine which horses raced after treatment. Horses were separated into groups based on whether or not they raced. Medical records were reviewed, and results of neurologic examination, radiographic and laboratory findings, treatments, and outcome were assessed and compared between groups. Results: Sixteen horses were excluded because of insufficient information. Of the remaining horses, thirty-three were euthanized after diagnosis, while the remaining seventy were discharged for treatment. Twenty-one of 70 horses treated medically (30%) went on to race. Horses that went on to race had a significantly lower neurologic grade (P = .0002), with a median of 1.0 in the thoracic limbs and 2.0 in the pelvic limbs. Euthanized horses and nonstarters were more likely to have kyphosis (P = .041) or cranial stenosis (P = .041) on standing lateral cervical radiographs. Conclusions and clinical importance: Some horses can race after the diagnosis of CVM. Neurologic examination and radiographic findings can be helpful in predicting racing prognosis.
 
Article
Medical records of 104 cats with diabetes mellitus were reviewed. Information from 54 cats that had multiple blood glucose concentrations evaluated at least 5 times over a minimum of 3 months, beginning at the time insulin treatment was initiated, was used to evaluate the efficacy of insulin in treating diabetes mellitus. Fourteen of 54 cats were treated with protamine zinc insulin (PZI), 26 with ultralente insulin, and 14 with lente insulin. Six, 29, and 19 cats had good, mediocre, and poor glycemic control, respectively, based on mean blood glucose concentrations, whereas 31, 21, and 2 owners thought clinical response was good, mediocre, and poor, respectively. No significant difference was found in glycemic control among cats treated with PZI, ultralente, or lente insulin. Glycemic control was significantly (P < .05) better in 33 cats without than in 21 cats with concurrent disease. All 104 cats were used to calculate survival data. Fifty-one of 104 cats were alive at the time of the study. Mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) and median survival times were 24 (+/- 16) and 20 months, respectively, in the 51 cats still alive at the end of the evaluation, and 25 (+/- 4) and 17 months, respectively, in the 53 cats that had died during the period of evaluation. Pancreatic abnormalities identified in 37 cats that underwent necropsy included chronic pancreatitis (n = 17), acute to subacute pancreatitis (n = 2), exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 7) and adenoma (n = 1), islet cell atrophy and vacuolar degeneration (n = 27), and islet amyloidosis (n = 8). No association was found between glycemic control and islet amyloidosis or exocrine pancreatic neoplasia, or between survival time and chronic pancreatitis, islet amyloidosis, or exocrine pancreatic neoplasia. In conclusion, diabetic cats evaluated in this study showed a variable response to exogenously administered insulin, ranging from excellent to poor. By maintaining mean blood glucose concentrations under 300 mg/dL, clinical signs were improved, and owners were satisfied with insulin treatment. Concurrent potentially insulin-antagonistic diseases were common and deleteriously affected glycemic control and survival time.
 
Article
Documentation of lower respiratory tract infection has relied on microbiologic and cytologic findings in airway fluid, but there is no gold standard for making a definitive diagnosis. To report cytologic and microbiologic findings in dogs diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infection through evaluation by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 105 dogs with spontaneous respiratory disease. Retrospective case review of all dogs identified through the electronic medical record database that had bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage performed between 2001 and 2011. Results of bronchoalveolar lavage cytology and microbiology were evaluated in 510 dogs, and 105 cases with septic, suppurative inflammation or bacterial growth from cultures were examined further. Bacteria were isolated from 89/105 aerobic cultures, 18/104 anaerobic cultures, and 30/99 Mycoplasma spp. cultures. The most common isolate was Mycoplasma spp. followed by Pasteurella sp., Bordetella sp, Enterobacteriaceae, and anaerobes. A single bacterial species was cultured from 44/99 dogs (44%) and multiple bacterial species were isolated from 55/99 dogs (56%). Suppurative inflammation with intracellular bacteria was identified cytologically in 78 of 105 dogs (74%). In 27 dogs that lacked cytologic evidence of sepsis, mixed (n = 18) and neutrophilic (n = 9) inflammation was reported, and Mycoplasma spp. (13/27) or Bordetella spp. (7/27) were most commonly isolated. Most aerobic bacteria were susceptible to routinely used antimicrobial drugs. Confirmation of lower respiratory tract infection in dogs is challenging and organisms can be isolated from dogs in which bacteria are not detected on cytologic examination.
 
Article
We reviewed the indications for age and breeds of dogs who received transvenous endocardial artificial pacemaker (AP) implantation (n = 105) and complications and survival thereafter at a single institution over a 6-year period. A third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (59%) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS; 27%) were the most common indications, along with a high-grade second-degree AV block (9%) and atrial standstill (5%). The most common breeds identified were Labrador Retriever (n = 16; 11 with a third-degree AV block), American Cocker Spaniel (n = 14; 10 with SSS), and Miniature Schnauzer (n = 13; all with SSS). Common presenting complaints were syncope (n = 66) and exercise intolerance or lethargy (n = 25). Half of the dogs (n = 52) had a history of acute onset of clinical signs (<2 weeks). Mean survival time for the 60 dogs who died during the study period was 2.2 years (range, 0.1-5.8 years). Major complications occurred in 13% of dogs and included lead displacement (n = 7), sensing problems that led to syncope (n = 3), infection at the pacemaker site (n = 1), bleeding (n = 1), and ventricular fibrillation during implantation (n = 1; successfully defibrillated). Minor complications occurred in 11 dogs (11%). The success rate of transvenous AP implantation was comparatively high (all dogs survived the first 48 hours), and the complication rate was comparatively low when compared with a previous multicenter study, most likely because of how commonly the procedure was performed and supervisory experience.
 
Article
The objective of the study was to test the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 192 cats with CKD with an initial plasma creatinine concentration > or = 2 mg/dL (> or = 177 micromol/L) and urine specific gravity < or = 1.025 were recruited into a double-blind, parallel-group, prospective, randomized clinical trial. Cats received daily (q24h) PO placebo (n = 96) or benazepril x HCl at a dosage of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg (n = 96) for up to 1,119 days. Most cats were fed exclusively a diet containing low amounts of phosphate, protein, and sodium. Benazepril produced a significant reduction in proteinuria, assessed by the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC, P = .005). This effect of benazepril was present in all subgroups tested, including cats with UPC <0.2, although the effect was largest in cats with higher UPCs. Plasma protein was maintained at higher concentrations with benazepril as compared with placebo during treatment in cats with initial UPC <1 (P = .038 versus P = .079 for all cats). There was no difference in renal survival time between the 2 groups when all 192 cats were compared. Mean +/- SD renal survival times were 637 +/- 480 days with benazepril and 520 +/- 323 days with placebo (P = .47). Mean +/- SD renal survival times in the 13 cats with initial UPC > or = 1 were 402 +/- 202 days with benazepril and 149 +/- 90 days with placebo (P = .27). Cats with initial UPC > or = 1 treated with benazepril had better appetite (P = .017) as compared with those treated with placebo. Benazepril was well tolerated. In conclusion, benazepril decreased proteinuria in cats with CKD.
 
Article
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias occur in association with cardiac and extracardiac disorders in many species of animals, but information identifying concurrent disorders in cats with such arrhythmias is scarce. We investigated coexisting diseases by retrospectively evaluating medical records of cats with ventricular tachyarrhythmias seen during a 51-month period at 1 institution. For comparative purposes, we evaluated records of dogs with similar arrhythmias during the same time period. All cats and dogs had premature ventricular complexes, accelerated idioventricular rhythm, ventricular tachycardia, or some combination of these arrhythmias, and all had undergone echocardiography during the same visit that led to the diagnosis of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Most (102/106; 96%) cats had at least 1 echocardiographically apparent abnormality concurrent with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cats were most commonly associated with myocardial disease (eg, left ventricular concentric hypertrophy [n = 66], restrictive or unclassified cardiomyopathy [n = 17], and dilated cardiomyopathy [n = 6]). When comparing dogs and cats that had ventricular tachyarrhythmias and were diagnosed on the same clinical service of the same institution, an echocardiographically apparent cardiac lesion was seen more often in cats (102/106, 96%) than in dogs (95/138, 69%) (P < .001).
 
Article
Esophageal obstruction is common in horses and can result in life-threatening complications. Previous studies have described clinical findings in horses with esophageal obstruction, but there are no reports that attempt to make correlations of clinical findings with outcome. Specific clinical features of horses with esophageal obstruction are associated with increased likelihood of complications. One hundred and nine horses with esophageal obstruction. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study. All clinical records of horses admitted between April 1992 and February 2009 for esophageal obstruction were reviewed. The association among 24 clinical, hematological, biochemical, therapeutic variables and the likelihood of complications was investigated by a univariable logistic regression model, followed by multivariable analysis. Results: Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that intact males (P= .02), age >15 years (P < .01), and a need for general anesthesia (P < .01) were associated with the development of complications after an episode of esophageal obstruction. Increased respiratory rate (>22 breaths/min) and moderate or severe tracheal contamination, although not associated with complications as a whole, significantly increased the risk of developing aspiration pneumonia (P≤ .01). Signalment, clinical variables, and endoscopic findings were confirmed as important tools in assessing the severity of the esophageal lesion and pulmonary involvement. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of complications will aid in making informed decisions to optimize treatment and assist in the assessment of prognosis.
 
Article
Vector-transmitted microorganisms in the genera Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Borrelia are commonly suspected in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis (MEM), but the prevalence of these pathogens in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs with MEM is unknown. To determine if DNA from these genera is present in brain tissue and CSF of dogs with MEM, including those with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE) and histopathologically confirmed cases of granulomatous (GME) and necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis (NME). Hundred and nine dogs examined for neurological signs at 3 university referral hospitals. Brain tissue and CSF were collected prospectively from dogs with neurological disease and evaluated by broadly reactive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Borrelia species. Medical records were evaluated retrospectively to identify MEM and control cases. Seventy-five cases of MUE, GME, or NME, including brain tissue from 31 and CSF from 44 cases, were evaluated. Brain tissue from 4 cases and inflammatory CSF from 30 cases with infectious, neoplastic, compressive, vascular, or malformative disease were evaluated as controls. Pathogen nucleic acids were detected in 1 of 109 cases evaluated. Specifically, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from 1/6 dogs with histopathologically confirmed GME. The results of this investigation suggest that microorganisms in the genera Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Rickettsia, and Borrelia are unlikely to be directly associated with canine MEM in the geographic regions evaluated. The role of Bartonella in the pathogenesis of GME warrants further investigation.
 
Article
Serum hypercalcemia in dogs has been reported in association with a variety of diseases. Serum-ionized calcium (iCa) concentration is a more accurate measure of hypercalcemia than total serum calcium or corrected serum calcium concentrations. The severity of hypercalcemia has been utilized to suggest the most likely differential diagnosis for the hypercalcemia. Diseases causing ionized hypercalcemia may be different than those that cause increases in total or corrected serum calcium concentrations. The severity of ionized hypercalcemia in specific diseases cannot be used to determine the most likely differential diagnosis for ionized hypercalcemia. One-hundred and nine client-owned dogs with a definitive cause for their ionized hypercalcemia evaluated between 1998 and 2003 were included in this study. Retrospective, medical records review. Neoplasia, specifically lymphosarcoma, followed by renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, and hypoadrenocorticism were the most common causes of ionized hypercalcemia. Dogs with lymphoma and anal sac adenocarcinoma have higher serum iCa concentrations than those with renal failure, hypoadrenocorticism, and other types of neoplasia. The magnitude of serum-ionized hypercalcemia did not predict specific disease states. Serum-ionized hypercalcemia was most commonly associated with neoplasia, specifically lymphosarcoma. Although dogs with lymphosarcoma and anal sac adenocarcinoma had higher serum iCa concentrations than dogs with other diseases, the magnitude of the serum iCa concentration could not be used to predict the cause of hypercalcemia. Total serum calcium and corrected calcium concentrations did not accurately reflect the calcium status of the dogs in this study.
 
Article
The clinical records of 11 dogs with histologically confirmed superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND) and a history of phenobarbital (PB) administration (SND/PB) were evaluated retrospectively (1995-2002). Historical, clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings were compared with those in dogs with SND without prior PB exposure (SND/No PB; n = 9) and with those dogs with PB-associated hepatotoxicity without skin disease (PB/hepatotoxicity). Dogs in the SND/PB group accounted for 44% of all histologically confirmed cases of SND that were evaluated at The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 1995 and 2002. Median age of dogs in the SND/PB group was 10 years, and median duration of PB therapy was 6 years. Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was 239 U/L, and median duration of abnormally high ALT activity was 6.25 months before SND diagnosis. Plasma amino acid concentrations measured in 1 dog were severely decreased. Ultrasonographic findings of hypoechoic nodules with hyperechoic borders corresponded to pathologic findings of nodular areas of normal hepatic tissue surrounded by zones of collapsed parenchyma with vacuolated hepatocytes. Clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and pathologic features of SND/PB and SND/No PB were similar. PB-associated cirrhosis and overt hepatic failure were not features of SND/PB. Different pathogenic mechanisms might induce SND in dogs. Chronic administration of PB requires further examination as a potential risk factor for the development of SND.
 
Article
The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship among proteinuria consisting of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), renal histopathologic findings, and routine markers of renal function in 11 dogs exposed to Leishmania infantum (n = 8), Ehrlichia canis (n = 2), and Babesia canis (n = 1). FLC proteinuria was suspected based on identification of a 22- to 27-kDa band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) and later confirmed by immunofixation electrophoresis. SDS-AGE identified an isolated band of 22-27 kDa in 8 dogs, whereas the remaining 3 had a 22- to 27-kDa band and an additional band of 67-72 kDa. The median urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio was 0.37 (range, 0.11-2.24) and increased ratios were found in 6 dogs (54.5%) (reference value, <0.7). All dogs underwent histologic examination of renal percutaneous biopsy specimens and determination of serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Tissue samples for light microscopy were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Goldners trichrome, and methenamine silver. In the study group, the glomerular tufts, mesangium, tubulointerstitium, and vessels appeared unaffected. The median serum creatinine concentration in these 11 dogs was 1.3 mg/dL (range, 0.8-1.5 mg/dL; reference range, 0.6-1.5 mg/dL), whereas the concentration for urea was 28 mg/dL (range, 22-52 mg/dL; reference range, 20-50 mg/dL). All dogs had normal renal morphology and had normal serum creatinine and urea concentrations, suggesting that immunoglobulin FLC may be detected in the urine of dogs exposed to L. infantum, E. canis, and B. canis without any apparent structural or functional renal derangement.
 
The image on the left is a normal radial nerve. The image on the right is from the distal phrenic nerve of an alpaca diagnosed with diaphragmatic paralysis. Note severe swelling and vacuolation of axons. Both sections are stained with Bielchowsky stain. × 200, bar = 40 μm.
An ultrastructural image of the distal phrenic nerve of an alpaca with diaphragmatic paralysis shows several degenerate axons within a nerve bundle. Myelin sheaths are in various stages of degeneration with vesicular splitting and coiling of myelin lamellae. Affected axons vary from intact to vacuolated and degenerate with loss of neurofilaments and collapse. Uranyl acetate and lead citrate (scale 5.0 μm. Bar = 5,000 nm).
Article
Diaphragmatic paralysis is a relatively uncommon medical condition in animals not reported in alpacas. Describe the signalment, physical examination, diagnostic testing, clinical, and histopathologic findings related to diaphragmatic paralysis in alpacas. Eleven alpacas with spontaneous diaphragmatic paralysis. A retrospective study examined medical records from a 10-year period and identified 11 alpacas with confirmed diaphragmatic paralysis admitted to Washington State University and Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospitals between September 2003 and October 2009. The 11 alpacas ranged in age from 2 to 12 months. Fluoroscopic imaging confirmed the presence of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in the 7 alpacas that were imaged. Arterial blood gas analyses showed hypercapnea, hypoxemia, and low oxygen saturation. Seven alpacas died or were euthanized between 2 and 60 days after onset of respiratory signs. Histopathologic examination of tissues found phrenic nerve degeneration in the 6 alpacas that were necropsied and additional long nerves examined demonstrated degeneration in 2 of these animals. Two animals had spinal cord lesions and 2 had diaphragm muscle abnormalities. No etiologic agent was identified in the alpacas. CoNCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The etiology for diaphragmatic paralysis in these alpacas is unknown. A variety of medical treatments did not appear to alter the outcome.
 
Article
The medical records of 11 cats with histopathologic findings consistent with central nervous system (CNS) Cuterebra larvae myiasis were retrospectively examined to determine if clinical features could identify this disorder antemortem. Young to middle-aged indoor-outdoor domestic shorthaired cats presenting with acute neurologic signs from July through September predominated. Many cats recently had clinical signs consistent with upper respiratory disease. Most cats presented for depression, lethargy, or seizures. Almost all cats had abnormal rectal temperatures, either hypethermia or hypothermia. Peripheral leukocytosis and eosinophilia were not characteristic of cats with CNS cuterebriasis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not consistently disclose evidence of inflammation. Common neurologic deficits included blindness, abnormal mentation, and signs of unilateral prosencephalic disease. No specific clinical or clinicopathologic test was diagnostic for CNS cuterebriasis.
 
Article
Plasma histamine concentrations (PHCs) were measured serially over 9 months or until death in 11 dogs with mast cell tumors (MCTs). Eight dogs had grossly visible disease and the other 3 dogs had microscopic disease. Initial PHCs in the dogs with gross disease were significantly higher than PHCs in healthy dogs (median, 0.73 ng/mL and 0.19 ng/mL respectively; P < .009), whereas initial PHCs in dogs with microscopic disease showed no difference from controls. Seven dogs subsequently had progressive increases in PHC, and developed hyperhistaminemia (median, 14.0 ng/mL; range, 5.11-30.1 ng/nL). These 7 dogs died from MCTs, and 1 had general weakness with rapid lysis of a large tumor burden after radiation therapy. PHCs of the other 4 dogs were less than 1 ng/mL during the study. These 4 dogs were still alive with adequate control of the tumor at the conclusion of the study. Four of the 11 dogs initially had gastrointestinal (G1) signs, which abated soon after administration of histamine-2 (H-2) blockers. No significant difference was found between PHCs in dogs with GI signs and those without GI signs (median, 0.86 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL. respectively). Thereafter, 7 dogs had serious GI complications for which H-2 blocker therapy was ineffective. PHCs in these 7 dogs were extremely high (median, 12.2 ng/mL; range, 3.42-30.1 ng/nL). Results of this study demonsrated that PHC was one factor related to disease progression, and indicated that marked hyperhistaminemia was associated with the GI signs refractory to H-2 blocker therapy in dogs with MCTs.
 
Article
Definitive diagnosis of feline pancreatic disease is dependent on histologic examination of biopsies. Laparoscopic punch biopsy of the pancreas does not significantly affect pancreatic health or clinical status of healthy cats, and provides an adequate biopsy sample for histopathology. Eleven healthy female domestic shorthair cats. Effects of laparoscopic pancreatic visualization alone in 5 cats compared with laparoscopic pancreatic visualization and punch biopsy in 6 cats were studied. Temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate, physical examination, and daily caloric intake were evaluated for 1 week before and 1 week after the procedure. Pain scores (simple descriptive score and dynamic interactive visual assessment score) were evaluated hourly during the 1st 6 hours postprocedure. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and urine specific gravity were evaluated before the procedure and at 6, 24, and 72 hours postprocedure. One month postprocedure, during sterilization, the pancreas was reassessed visually in all cats, and microscopically in the biopsy group. For all variables evaluated, there were no significant differences between biopsy and control cats. Re-evaluation of the pancreatic biopsy site 1 month later documented a normal tissue response to biopsy. The laparoscopic punch biopsy forceps provided high-quality pancreatic biopsy samples with an average size of 5 mm x 4 mm on 2-dimensional cut section. Laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy is a useful and safe technique in healthy cats.
 
Article
Brainstem dysfunction resulting from central extension of infection is a life-threatening complication of otitis media/interna (OMI) that has been described infrequently in dogs and cats. We review the clinical signs of disease, diagnostic findings, and results of surgical and medical treatments of brainstem disease attributable to otogenic intracranial infection in cats and dogs. Eleven cats and 4 dogs were examined because of acute, subacute, or chronic clinical signs of brain disease including central vestibular signs, altered mentation, abnormal posture/gait, cranial nerve deficits, and seizures. Results of a minimal database (CBC, serum biochemical panel, urinalysis, thoracic radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonographic images or radiographs) were within reference intervals in all animals. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the head were acquired for all animals, and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 9 of 11 cats and 3 of 4 dogs was examined. Surgical exploration and ventral bulla osteotomy were done for 12 of 15 animals, followed by 1-3 months of antibiotic therapy; the remaining animals were euthanized before treatment. In all animals, MR imaging was effective in characterizing the location and extent of the pathologic changes intracranially as well as within middle/inner ear structures. Results of CSF analysis were characteristic of bacterial infection in most of the animals with acute or subacute disease. Since long-term outcome in all treated animals was very good to excellent, it was concluded that dogs and cats with intracranial disease secondary to extension of otitis media/interna have a good-to-excellent prognosis when the condition was diagnosed and was treated by surgical exploration and appropriate antibiotic therapy.
 
Article
Determine the efficacy and safety of a linear-accelerator-based single fraction radiosurgical approach to the treatment of pituitary tumors in cats. Retrospective study. Eleven client-owned cats referred for treatment of pituitary tumors causing neurological signs, or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) secondary either to acromegaly or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocortism. Cats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to manually plan radiation therapy. After MRI, modified radiosurgery was performed by delivering a single large dose (15 or 20 Gy) of radiation while arcing a linear-accelerator-generated radiation beam around the cat's head with the pituitary mass at the center of the beam. Eight cats were treated once, 2 cats were treated twice, and 1 cat received 3 treatments. Treated cats were evaluated for improvement in endocrine function or resolution of neurological disease by review of medical records or contact with referring veterinarians and owners. Improvement in clinical signs occurred in 7/11 (63.6%) of treated cats. Five of 9 cats with poorly regulated DM had improved insulin responses, and 2/2 cats with neurological signs had clinical improvement. There were no confirmed acute or late adverse radiation effects. The overall median survival was 25 months (range, 1-60), and 3 cats were still alive. Single fraction modified radiosurgery is a safe and effective approach to the treatment of pituitary tumors in cats.
 
Article
Hemangiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of horses and hemangiosarcoma in young horses might behave differently than in mature horses. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of hemangiosarcoma occurring in horses < or = 3 years of age. Medical records from 1982 to 2004 were searched for horses < or = 3 years of age with a histopathologic diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma. Eleven records were identified. Thoroughbred and Thoroughbred crosses predominated. Age ranged from 9 days to 3 years. All horses presented with cutaneous or leg swellings or joint effusion. Physical examination findings included tachycardia, fever, and depression. Laboratory abnormalities included anemia (5/11), hyperfibrinogenemia (4/11), hypofibrinogenemia (3/11), thrombocytopenia (2/11), and neutrophilic leukocytosis (1/11). Ultrasonographic and radiographic evaluation was not diagnostic in any case. Antemortem histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 10 cases. Six of 11 horses were euthanized. Surgical resection was performed in 5 horses, 2 of which were later euthanized. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically at postmortem examination in all euthanized horses. Two cases resolved spontaneously. Early histopathologic diagnosis may allow cure if the mass is localized and amenable to surgical resection. In cases where the horse is medically stable, and masses are not interfering with quality of life, a period of observation may be warranted.
 
Article
Lymphosarcoma in adult cattle has multiple manifestations. To describe the signalment, clinical complaints, and tumor location, and to evaluate utility of diagnostic tests in cattle with lymphosarcoma. Adult cattle admitted to Cornell University between January 1980 and December 2008 with a definitive diagnosis of lymphosarcoma. Retrospective case study was conducted with a search of all medical records at Cornell University for cattle diagnosed with lymphosarcoma. Categorical data were analyzed with a Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Sensitivities of diagnostic tests were calculated. There were 106 cows and 6 bulls (median age 5 years) examined for anorexia (34%), weight loss (16%), and fever (14%). The sensitivities of antemortem diagnostic tests performed were peripheral lymph node (PLN) wedge biopsy, 100%; surgical exploration and biopsy, 100%; pleurocentesis, 80%; pericardiocentesis, 67%; PLN fine-needle aspirate, 41%; abdominocentesis, 33%; and cerebral spinal fluid tap, 19%. Median peripheral blood lymphocyte count was 4,900 cells/muL, 10% of cattle were leukemic and 25% had lymphocytosis according to the Bendixen Key. The most frequently identified tumor locations (% of cattle) were the heart (66%), abomasum (61%), uterus (38%), kidney (32%), and epidural space (26%). Predilection sites were similar to previously reports but we found a higher incidence of renal tumors and lower incidence of retrobulbar tumors. Knowledge of common clinical presentations, organ involvement, and sensitivities of diagnostic tests will aid informed decisions on the most appropriate tests and interpretation of their results in clinical cases of bovine lymphosarcoma.
 
Article
Intracranial meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors in dogs. Classification of meningiomas by tumor grade and subtype has not been reported, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics for predicting tumor subtype and grade has not been investigated. Canine intracranial meningiomas are a heterogenous group of tumors with differing histological subtypes and grades. Prediction of histopathological classification is possible based on MRI characteristics. One hundred and twelve dogs with a histological diagnosis of intracranial meningioma. Retrospective observational study. Meningiomas were overrepresented in the Golden Retriever and Boxer breeds with no sex predilection. The incidence of specific tumor grades was 56% benign (Grade I), 43% atypical (Grade II), and 1% malignant (Grade III). Grade I histological subtypes included meningothelial (43%), transitional (40%), microcystic (8%), psammomatous (6%), and angiomatous (3%). No statistically significant (P < .05) associations were found among tumor subtype or grade and any of the MRI features studied. Meningiomas in dogs differ from their counterparts in humans mainly in their higher incidence of atypical (Grade II) tumors observed. MRI characteristics do not allow for prediction of meningioma subtype or grade, emphasizing the necessity of histopathology for antemortem diagnosis. The higher incidence of atypical tumors in dogs may contribute to the poorer therapeutic response in dogs with meningiomas as compared with the response in humans with meningiomas.
 
A 2-dimensional echocardiogram (right parasternal 4-chamber view) obtained from a dog with chordae tendineae rupture. The flail anterior mitral valve leaflet (arrow) is pointing back toward the left atrial chamber during systole. C, chordae tendineae; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle.
Survival curves obtained in the entire population of dogs diagnosed with chordae tendineae rupture (A) and according to International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council class (B): classes I (solid line), II (dashed line), and III (dotted line). CTR, chordae tendineae rupture.
Survival curves for dogs diagnosed with chordae tendineae rupture with (dotted line) or without (solid line) dyspnea (A), and with (dotted line) or without (solid line) ascites at presentation (B). CTR, chordae tendineae rupture.
Epidemiologic characteristics of dogs with ruptured chordae tendineae (n 5 114).
Article
Degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) is the most common heart disease in small breed dogs, and chordae tendineae rupture (CTR) is a potential complication of this disease. The survival time and prognostic factors predictive of survival in dogs with CTR remain unknown. The prevalence and prognosis of CTR in dogs with MVD increases and decreases, respectively, with heart failure class. This study used 706 dogs with MVD. The diagnosis of CTR was based on a flail mitral leaflet with the tip pointing into the left atrium during systole, which was confirmed in several 2-dimension imaging planes using the left and right parasternal 4-chamber views. CTR was diagnosed in 114 of the 706 dogs with MVD (16.1%) and most of these (106/114, 93%) had severe mitral valve regurgitation as assessed by color Doppler mode. CTR prevalence increased with International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) clinical class (i.e., 1.9, 20.8, 35.5, and 69.6% for ISACHC classes Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively [P < .05]). Long-term follow-up was available for 57 treated dogs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics) and 58% of these (33/57) survived > 1 year after initial CTR diagnosis (median survival time, 425 days). Clinical class, the presence of ascites or acute dyspnea at the time of diagnosis, heart rate, plasma urea concentration, and left atrial size were predictors of survival. CTR is associated with a higher overall survival time than previously supposed. Its prognosis mostly depends on a combination of clinical and biochemical factors.
 
Article
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the MOPP chemotherapy protocol (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) as a rescue regimen in dogs with lymphoma. One hundred seventeen dogs that had resistance to previously administered chemotherapy were evaluated. Before treatment with MOPP, all dogs received a median of 6 chemotherapy drugs for a median duration of 213 days. Thirty-one percent (36 of 117) had a complete response (CR) to MOPP for a median of 63 days, and 34% (40 of 117) had a partial response (PR) for a median of 47 days. Sixteen percent (19 of 117) had stable disease (SD) for a median of 33 days. Predictors for response to MOPP were not identified. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity occurred in 28% (33 of 117) of the dogs, and 13% (15 dogs) required hospitalization. Five dogs developed septicemia, and 2 died as a result. MOPP was an effective treatment for dogs with resistant lymphoma and was well tolerated by the majority of affected dogs.
 
Article
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases in the aging human kidney, but limited data exist in dogs. There is an effect of age and body size on estimated GFR in healthy dogs. One hundred and eighteen healthy dogs of various breeds, ages, and body weights presenting to 3 referral centers. GFR was estimated in clinically healthy dogs between 1 and 14 years of age. GFR was estimated from the plasma clearance of iohexol, by a compartmental model and an empirical correction formula, normalized to body weight in kilograms or liters of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). For data analysis, dogs were divided into body weight quartiles 1.8-12.4, 13.2-25.5, 25.7-31.6, and 32.0-70.3 kg. In the complete data set, there was no trend toward lower estimated GFR/kg or GFR/ECFV with increasing age. GFR decreased with age in dogs in the smallest weight quartile only. A significant negative linear relationship was detected between body weight and estimated GFR/kg and GFR/ECFV. Reference ranges in different weight quartiles were 1.54-4.25, 1.29-3.50, 0.95-3.36, and 1.12-3.39 mL/min/kg, respectively. Standardization to ECFV rather than kilogram body weight did not produce substantial changes in the relationships between GFR estimates and age or weight. Interpretation of GFR results for early diagnosis of renal failure should take into account the weight and the age of the patient for small dogs.
 
Article
Chronic idiopathic enteropathies (CIE) in dogs are complex diseases of unknown origin. AST-120 is a spherical carbon adsorbent preparation with a high adsorption ability for low molecular substances. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of AST-120 in dogs with CIE. Ten client-owned dogs with mild (n = 7) to moderate (n = 3) CIE. Explorative, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded pilot study. Dogs with chronic diarrhea and no or insufficient response to an elimination diet were included. The dogs received either AST-120 (n = 5) or placebo (n = 5) for a duration of 21 days. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) was used to assess disease severity at baseline and clinical outcome after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, changes in body weight and the parameters stool consistency and frequency were compared within and between groups. The mean CIBDAI score decreased from 5.6 (SD 1.5) to 2.0 (SD 1.2) in the AST-120 group (P = .125) and from 4.8 (SD .8) to 3.6 (SD 2.3) in the placebo group (P = .688). Compared with baseline, posttreatment CIBDAI scores decreased more than 60% in 4/5 dogs treated with AST-120 and in 1/5 dogs treated with placebo (P = .206). Changes in CIBDAI scores, body weights, stool consistency, and frequency within and between groups did not achieve statistical significance after 3 weeks of treatment. No adverse effects of AST-120 were noted. This study investigated potential efficacy of AST-120 as an alternative therapy in dogs with mild-to-moderate CIE.
 
Article
The goal of this study was to evaluate plasma-ionized magnesium (iMg2+) concentration in a large group of dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus and to determine whether dogs with diabetes mellitus have hypomagnesemia, as reported in diabetic humans and cats. Plasma iMg2+ concentrations were retrospectively evaluated at the time of initial examination of 122 diabetic dogs at the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Diabetic dogs were defined as having uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (DM, 78 dogs) diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA, 32 dogs), or ketotic nonacidotic diabetes mellitus (DK, 12 dogs) on the basis of presence or absence of metabolic acidosis or ketonuria. Twenty-two control dogs were used to determine reference values for plasma iMg2+ concentration in healthy dogs. Plasma iMg2+ concentration also was evaluated in 19 nondiabetic dogs with acute pancreatitis because many of the dogs with DKA had concurrent acute pancreatitis. Plasma iMg2+ concentration was significantly higher in dogs with DKA (median 0.41 mmol/L, reference range 0.14-0.72 mmol/L) than in dogs with DM (0.33 mmol/L, 0.17-0.65 mmol/L; P = .0002) or the control group (0.32 mmol/L, 0.26-0.41 mmol/L; P = .006). There were no significant differences between plasma iMg2+ concentrations in dogs with DM or DK compared with control dogs. We conclude that dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus do not have marked hypomagnesemia on initial examination at a tertiary care center.
 
Article
Most information about spinal arachnoid diverticula (SADs) in dogs has been retrieved from relatively small case series. The aim of this study was to describe this disease in a larger number of dogs. Description of the signalment, clinical presentation, and imaging findings of a large number of dogs with SADs. One hundred and twenty-two dogs with SADs. Retrospective case series study. All medical records were searched for a diagnosis of SAD. The diagnosis was made based on myelography, computed tomography myelography (CT-m), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the 122 dogs, 125 SADs were identified. Sixty-five were located in the cervical region and 60 in the thoracolumbar region. A higher body weight was significantly associated with a cervical localization of the SAD (P < .001). Ninety-five dogs were male and 27 dogs were female. Male dogs were significantly overrepresented (P < .0001). The most commonly affected breed was the Pug dog. Previous or concurrent spinal disorders, in the near proximity of the diagnosed SAD, were seen in 26 dogs. Eight of 13 French Bulldogs and 7 of 21 Pug dogs with SADs had a previous or concurrent spinal disease, whereas other spinal disorders occurred in only 1 of 17 Rottweilers with SADs. Pug dogs and French Bulldogs might have a predisposition for SAD development. In a large percentage of these dogs, a concurrent spinal disorder, which might predispose to SAD formation, was diagnosed. The high prevalence in male dogs warrants further investigation.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to retrospectively describe the outcome of 127 dogs with naturally occurring diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and to examine the association between outcome of canine DKA and clinical and clinicopathologic findings. Eighty-two (65%) dogs were diagnosed with DKA at the time of initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Eighty-seven dogs (69%) had one or more concurrent disorders diagnosed at the time of hospitalization. Commonly identified concurrent conditions included acute pancreatitis (52, 41%), urinary tract infection (21, 20%), and hyperadrenocorticism (19, 15%). Dogs with coexisting hyperadrenocorticism were less likely to be discharged from the hospital (P = .029). Of 121 treated dogs, 89 dogs (70%) survived to be discharged from the hospital, with a median hospitalization of 6 days. Nonsurvivors had lower ionized calcium concentration (P < .001), lower hematocrit (P = .036), lower venous pH (P = .0058), and larger base deficit (P = .0066) than did survivors. Time from admission to initiation of subcutaneous insulin therapy was correlated with lower serum potassium concentration (P = .0056), lower serum phosphorus concentration (P = .0043), abnormally high white blood cell count (P = .0060), large base deficit (P = .0015), and low venous pH (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that base deficit was associated with outcome (P = .021). For each unit increase in the base deficit, there was a 9%) greater likelihood of discharge from the hospital. In conclusion, the majority of dogs with DKA were not previously diagnosed with DM. Concurrent conditions and electrolyte abnormalities are common in DKA and are associated with length of hospitalization. Survival was correlated to degree of anemia, hypocalcemia, and acidosis.
 
Article
Records of 127 cats with arterial thromboembolism (ATE) were reviewed. Abyssinian, Birman, Ragdoll, and male cats were overrepresented. Tachypnea (91%), hypothermia (66%), and absent limb motor function (66%) were common. Of 90 cats with diagnostics performed, underlying diseases were hyperthyroidism (12), cardiomyopathy (dilated [8], unclassified [33], hypertrophic obstructive [5], hypertrophic [19]), neoplasia (6), other (4), and none (3). Common abnormalities were left atrial enlargement (93%), congestive heart failure (CHF, 44%), and arrhythmias (44%). Of cats without CHF, 89% were tachypneic. Common biochemical abnormalities were hyperglycemia, azotemia, and abnormally high serum concentrations of muscle enzymes. Of 87 cats treated for acute limb ATE, 39 (45%) survived to be discharged. Significant differences were found between survivors and nonsurvivors for temperature (P < .00001), heart rate (P = .038), serum phosphorus concentration (P = .024), motor function (P = .008), and number of limbs affected (P = .001). No significant difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors when compared by age, respiratory rate, other biochemical analytes, or concurrent CHE A logistic regression model based on rectal temperature predicted a 50% probability of survival at 98.9 degrees F (37.2 degrees C). Median survival time (MST) for discharged cats was 117 days. Eleven cats had ATE recurrences, and 5 cats developed limb problems. Cats with CHF (MST: 77 days) had significantly shorter survival than cats without CHF (MST: 223 days; P = .016). No significant difference was found in survival or recurrence rate between cats receiving high-dose aspirin (> or = 40 mg/cat q72h) and cats receiving low-dose aspirin (5 mg/cat q72h). Adverse effects were less frequent and milder for the lower dosage.
 
Article
Fifteen dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism diagnosed at the University of California Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were compared with 13 previously reported cases. Age, sex, breed, and historical and physical findings were similar in both groups of dogs. Middle-aged females were affected primarily. A history of neurologic or neuromuscular disease was present in all 28 dogs, with 18 dogs having seizures. Posterior lenticular cataract formation secondary to hypocalcemia was suspected in six dogs. The most characteristic biochemical finding in all dogs was profound hypocalcemia (less than 6.5 mg/dl) and mild hyperphosphatemia. Serum magnesium concentrations were decreased in two dogs. Serum parathyroid hormone concentrations were consistent with the diagnosis of primary hypoparathyroidism in eight of nine dogs. Lymphocytic parathyroiditis was diagnosed in the 12 dogs from which tissue was submitted for histopathology. Successful management of the patient depended on frequent monitoring of the serum calcium concentration during initial and maintenance therapy.
 
Article
Transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure in the dog was first reported in 2005. Describe the technique and both short- and mid-term outcome of transcatheter ASD closure with the Amplatzer atrial septal occluder (ASO). Thirteen client-owned dogs with ASD. Records of the initial 13 dogs in which transcatheter ASD closure was attempted at Texas A&M University were reviewed. All dogs had hemodynamically relevant septum secundum ASD. Two dogs had concurrent congenital abnormalities. ASOs were deployed in 13 dogs and released in 12. Eleven were released by a right jugular approach and 1 by a transatrial approach through a right lateral thoracotomy. Transthoracic echocardiographic estimates of ASD size were 14.0 + or - 5.4 mm (mean + or - 1 standard deviation) with a range of 7-22 mm. Accidental right atrial release occurred in 1 dog and embolization after release occurred in 2 dogs. Transcatheter ASD closure was successful in 10 dogs. Transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography the day after ASD closure indicated complete occlusion in 5 dogs, trivial to mild residual shunting in 4 dogs, and moderate residual shunting in 1 dog. Follow-up echocardiograms (mean of 12.4 + or - 7.4 months postprocedure) were available for 9 dogs. There was no residual ASD shunting in 6 dogs. In 3 of the 5 dogs with postoperative residual shunting it was judged to be decreased and hemodynamically unimportant relative to the dogs' postoperative evaluations. The mean length of event-free survival in the 10 dogs that underwent successful transcatheter ASD closure was 22.2 + or - 10.2 months.
 
Article
A retrospective analysis was performed of the effect of VP-16 (etoposide) in the treatment of 13 dogs with lymphoma. Twelve dogs had achieved partial (two) and complete (ten) responses to combination chemotherapy, but all were out of remission at the time of the trial. One dog had not previously had chemotherapy. There was minimal response to VP-16 chemotherapy in the 13 dogs studied, and only two of 13 dogs had some response to treatment. For one dog, complete and partial remission durations were one and three months, respectively. In another dog, there was partial remission of eight days. There were no responses in the other 11 dogs. The most serious adverse reaction after administration of VP-16 was an acute pruritic cutaneous reaction that occurred in 11 of the 13 dogs, which may have been associated with the vehicle of VP-16, polysorbate 80. Results showed that VP-16 has minimal activity for treatment of dogs with lymphoma that have experienced relapses after treatment with other anti-cancer drugs. More trials are needed with higher dosages and the oral form of the drug, which does not contain polysorbate 80.
 
Article
To determine if concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by semi-automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) correspond to FT4 determined by equilibrium dialysis (ED) in hypothyroid dogs positive for thyroglobulin antibody (TGA). Thirteen TGA-positive dogs classified as hypothyroid based on subnormal FT4 concentrations by ED. Qualitative assessment of canine TGA was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum total thyroxine and total triiodothyronine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum FT4 concentration was determined by ED, and also by semi-automated CLIA for human FT4 (FT4h) and veterinary FT4 (FT4v). Canine thyroid stimulating hormone concentration was measured by semi-automated CLIA. Each dog's comprehensive thyroid profile supported a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. For detection of hypothyroidism, sensitivities of CLIA for FT4h and FT4v were 62% (95% CI, 32-85%) and 75% (95% CI, 36-96%), respectively, compared to FT4 by ED. Five of 13 (38%) dogs had FT4h and 2 of 8 (25%) dogs had FT4v concentrations by CLIA that were increased or within the reference range. Percentage of false-negative test results for FT4 by CLIA compared to ED was significantly (P < .0001 for FT4h and P < .001for FT4v) higher than the hypothesized false-negative rate of 0%. Caution should be exercised in screening dogs for hypothyroidism using FT4 measured by CLIA alone. Some (25-38%) TGA-positive hypothyroid dogs had FT4 concentrations determined by CLIA that did not support a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
 
Article
Ectopic ureters (EUs) associated with varying combinations of urinary incontinence, hydronephrosis, and urinary tract infection have been identified in related North American Entlebucher Mountain Dogs. To characterize the disease phenotype in affected dogs and evaluate possible modes of inheritance. Twenty client-owned Entlebucher Mountain Dogs. Nine dogs had clinical signs of urinary tract disease. Prospective case series in which 17 dogs were evaluated with excretory urography, ultrasonography, and urethrocystoscopy. Three additional dogs were evaluated by necropsy alone. Clinical and pedigree histories from 165 North American Entlebuchers were compiled for analysis. Eleven female and 2 male dogs were found to have EUs. Six females and 1 male were continent. Bilateral intravesicular ectopic ureters (IVEUs) were identified in 9 dogs, bilateral extravesicular ectopic ureters (EVEUs) in 3 dogs, and 1 dog had IVEU and EVEU. Hydronephrosis was identified in 5 dogs, 3 of which had bilateral IVEUs. Two necropsied dogs had bilateral hydronephrosis with presumed ureterovesical junction obstruction associated with chronic granulation tissue or lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Twenty-six dogs with EUs were identified in the pedigree. Because of incomplete penetrance, mode of inheritance could not be determined. Ureteral ectopia is common in North American Entlebucher Mountain Dogs and clinical signs alone could not reliably predict disease phenotype. EVEUs were associated with urinary incontinence and occasionally hydronephrosis. IVEUs were clinically silent or associated with hydronephrosis. Further analyses are necessary to confirm and characterize the hereditary nature of the disorder.
 
Article
Thirteen dogs with cardiac tamponade resulting from pericardial effusion were prospectively evaluated to determine feasibility and outcome of thoracoscopic partial pericardiectomy. A lateral thoracoscopic approach allowed adequate exposure to remove a 4- to 5-cm-diameter section of pericardium in all dogs. Complete resolution of cardiac tamponade occurred in all dogs for which there was follow-up (11 dogs). Ten of 13 dogs (76.9%) had neoplastic pericardial effusion. One of these dogs remains alive at 220 days postoperatively and is asymptomatic. The mean survival of the remaining 9 patents with neoplastic effusion was 128 days (range, 14-544 days; median, 38 days). Three of 13 patients (23.1%) had idiopathic pericardial effusion. Two of these dogs remain alive at 585 and 1,250 days postoperatively. One dog with idiopathic pericardial effusion developed cardiomyopathy and was euthanized 18 days after the procedure. Results indicate that the procedure was technically successful in all dogs. No anesthetic complications occurred. Procedural complications included phrenic nerve transection (1 dog), lung laceration (1 dog), and moderate intraoperative bleeding (1 dog). No adverse clinical manifestations of the complications were apparent. We conclude that thoracoscopic partial pericardiectomy is technically feasible and offers several advantages over conventional open thoracic surgical pericardiectomy.
 
Article
There are few reports on the clinical appearance, prognosis, and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in dogs. To describe the clinical characteristics of GDM in dogs. Thirteen dogs with GDM. Retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed and owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information. Nordic Spitz breeds (11/13 dogs) were overrepresented in the case material. Diagnosis was established at a median of 50 days after mating (range, 32-64). Median glucose concentration at diagnosis was 340 mg/dL (18.9 mmol/L) (range, 203-587). One dog was euthanized at diagnosis, 5 bitches were treated with insulin until whelping, and in 7 dogs, pregnancy was terminated within 4 days of diagnosis. One dog died after surgery. Tight glycemic control was not achieved in any of the insulin-treated dogs during pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus (DM) resolved in 7 dogs at a median of 9 days after the end of their pregnancies and DM was permanent in 4 dogs. Puppy mortality was increased compared with offspring of healthy dams. This report suggests that GDM affects mainly middle-aged bitches in the 2nd half of pregnancy with a breed predisposition toward Nordic Spitz breeds. GDM may resolve within days to weeks after pregnancy has ended. Further research is needed to investigate optimal treatment regimens for dogs with GDM and risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.
 
Article
Hypothyroidism has been cited as a cause of infertility, abnormal semen quality, and poor libido in people and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism on variables indicative of reproductive function in adult male dogs. Nine normal dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Hypothyroidism was induced with 131I in 6 dogs. Three dogs remained untreated, normal, and euthyroid. Thyroid hormone concentrations, body weight, clinical signs, and reproductive function were determined for each dog every 3 months for 2 years. Reproductive function was assessed by determining daily sperm output, total scrotal width, spermatozoal motility and morphology, libido, and serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentration responses to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The 131I-treated dogs developed clinical and laboratory signs of hypothyroidism. In the hypothyroid dogs, serum concentrations of thyroid hormones were consistently below the reference range and were significantly lower than that in the euthyroid dogs. There was no difference in reproductive function between the hypothyroid and euthyroid dogs. The results of this study show that 131I-induced hypothyroidism does not affect indices of reproductive function in adult male dogs.
 
Article
Two hundred thirty-one cats treated with radioactive iodine at the Texas Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were followed for a median of 25 months by means of an ambidirectional (prospective, retrospective) cohort study design. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine predictors of survival based on data at the time of hyperthyroid diagnosis (collected retrospectively) and found that only age at diagnosis and sex of the cat were predictors of survival. Increasing age (for each year of age, relative risk [RR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-1.3) and being male (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9) increased likelihood of death. Tables predicting survival after diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism for various age and sex combinations were created. In addition, Cox proportional hazard models were run with all data available at the end of the study (collected retrospectively and prospectively) including number and type of major health problems reported at the time of death or censoring. In this model, significant factors were age at diagnosis, sex, and either type of major health problem or number of health problems. Cats with renal disease or cancer were more likely not to survive and increasing from none to 2 health problems also decreased survival. Renal problems and cancer were the most common health problems at the time of death or censoring. This study provides estimates of duration of survival for cats successfully treated for hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, which can be useful in assisting with client treatment decisions.
 
Top-cited authors
Edward B Breitschwerdt
  • North Carolina State University
Jens Haggstrom
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Paul S Morley
  • Texas A&M University
Philip H Kass
  • University of California, Davis
Mark G Papich
  • North Carolina State University