The article analyzes the conceptual changes in historiographical approaches to the phenomenon of the West Ukrainian People’s Republic (the ZUNR), whose centenary is celebrated in 2018. Historiographical sources provide clear evidence of the change in the analytical paradigm: shifting from glorification or a downright defamation to a careful examination of the ZUNR’s achievements and failures; investigating the least-studied aspects of its activity; establishing the role and place of the ZUNR in the history of Ukrainian state building.
The article examines the components and importance of forming one of the key competences “initiative and entrepreneurship” in the context of reforming modern secondary education; possibilities of its introduction in school historical education are determined on the basis of development of historical competence of students. The components of historical competence by integrating the economic dimension into the content of the tasks are highlighted. The subject “History of Ukraine” is focused on the formation of competence “initiative and entrepreneurship” through integration of inter-curriculum relations at the lesson of History of Ukraine, creative and activity approaches to the educational process. It is important not the accumulation of knowledge, but the ability to identify and analyze problems (including specific economic situations), to seek ways of their rational solution, to be able to think critically and to apply the acquired knowledge, skills and expertise to solve new problems. This is largely facilitated by active teaching methods that encourage students to be initiative, sociable, personally responsible; forms skills and abilities of non-standard problem-solving, independent choice of effective life strategies. The project method, which involves the ability to creatively apply the acquired knowledge in non-standard situations to solve various educational problems, should be noted separately; ability to find the necessary information independently; to work with different sources of information; develop group collaboration skills; ability to argue their own opinion, discuss other topics. An example is the subject of 10th grade projects that shape a given competence. Thus, forming the initiative and entrepreneurship competences at the lessons of History of Ukraine will contribute to the improvement of the students' overall vital competences, form in them the ability to creatively apply the acquired knowledge, skills and expertise to solve social problems, improve their well-being in non-standard life situations and conditions in general.
The gradual Christianization of the major dynasties of so-called ‘Younger Europe’ resulted, among other things, in the activization of their matrimonial policy. Throughout Middle Ages, the most active in this regard were the Rurik and the Piast dynasties. The tradition of bilateral marriage relations among the ruling houses of Europe was established in the early 11th century and uninterruptedly continued into the mid-14th century. In the 11th century, there were registered 7 princely marriages; four of them, in Poland – three Ruthenian brides were given in marriage to the representatives of the Piast dynasty; besides, there was one case of concubinage. Two of the marriages were fertile: altogether, six children were born (five boys and a girl). One marriage proved to be infertile. On her way to her husband’s land, each Ruthenian bride was accompanied by an escort consisting chiefly of women; but there had to be some men too, a personal confessor and spiritual advisor in particular. Supposedly, their main function was to prepare the princesses for marriage; later, those persons composed their ladies’ own courts, varying in quantity and duration, within the greater courts of their husbands. In this article, I focus on the quest for probable Ruthenians within the inner circles of the Rurik dynasty princesses married into the Piast dynasty in the 11th century. The main challenges of the quest are the insufficiency of the 11th – the early 12th-century historical sources and the inaccuracy of the late medieval materials on the subject, whose evidence requires critical view and verification. Thus it appears to be almost impossible to establish the names of all those persons who accompanied the Ruthenian princesses to the Piasts’ lands, though their presence can be inferred from historical narratives.
One of the least-explored aspects of the biography of the Ruthenian Prince Rostyslav Mykhailovych, a maternal nephew of King Daniel Romanovych of Rus’, is his court in a new homeland, the Kingdom of Hungary, between 1242/43 and 1262/64. It is known from various sources that he had numerous supporters among the secular and clerical nobility not only in Hungary but also in the lands of Galicia, Chernihiv, and Bolokhov. To date, however, too little information has been obtained from historical records containing clear mention of individuals who threw in their lot with the runaway prince in the lands of King Bela IV, especially after the defeat at Yaroslav on August 17, 1245. Having verified chronicles and Hungarian charters, the author concludes that the family of Rostyslav Mykhailovych and Princess Anna might well have been related to Lev and his sons, Fedir and Stephan, who were lords of Borod Land near Mukachevo in Bereg County. These people, who must have been descended from the nobility of Chernihiv or Galicia, succeeded one another in an effort to put Prince Rostyslav himself or his second cousin Iziaslav Volodymyrovych on the Galician throne throughout the 1240s and 1250s, all to no avail. What is important is that such attempts were always timed to coincide with the Mongol threat to the lands of the Romanids, which provided the claimants to the Galician throne with additional (albeit missed) chances of success. Their loyalty to the son-in-law of the Hungarian king was rewarded by the latter’s daughter Anna (terminus ante quem 1264); she granted them lands, which were afterwards in the successive possession of the last members of the Arpad dynasty on the Hungarian throne as well as the new kings from the Anjou dynasty. Borod Land remained in the family’s possession at least until the second half of the 14th century.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the modernist poetics of Ivan Franko. It focuses on the elements of Symbolism, Expressionism, and Surrealism in the artistic legacy of the writer. Franko employed a unique synthetic method combining the conceptual achievements of Modernism with the ideological and aesthetic postulates of other literary trends. The study highlights the importance of Franko’s contribution to the development of the aesthetic system of Modernism in the context of his epoch, of the national and world literary processes.
Nowadays under the influence of external dynamic factors, the gap between Ukrainians and the spiritual traditions of the Ukrainian nation is widening. Globalization, internationalization and technologicalization are contributing to the spread of alien ideologies in the Ukrainian society that give rise to the formation of a mercantile-pragmatic outlook in the younger generations. The need for constructive-critical rethinking of the experience of the past and creative interpretation of its positive achievements in the construction of qualitatively new strategies for the spiritual healing of the Ukrainian nation is exacerbated. The aim of the article is to link the influence of the Greek Catholic Church on the formation of the national consciousness of the population of Transcarpathia between 1771 and 1867; identify the socio-historical factors behind the formation of the Greek Catholic Church in Transcarpathia in the context of nationalization; to analyze the cultural, educational and organizational-pedagogical activities of the Greek Catholic clergy. To achieve this goal, the following methods have been used: аnalytical and synthetic methods to analyze the source of the study; the problem-chronological method for the coverage of historical events and processes in the ontogenetic development of the ideology of the Greek Catholic Church; comparative-historical method for comparing historical facts and phenomena, revealing their characteristic features; manifestations in the cultural-educational, pedagogical activity of the Greek Catholic clergy. The scientific novelty of the obtained results is that the socio-political and socio-cultural conditions of the Greek Catholic Church in Transcarpathia in 1771–1867 have been revealed. The leading role of the Greek Catholic Church in national consciousness formation of Transcarpathian Ukrainians, which was structured due to the institutional design of the church, has been identified. The main ideological and political transformations of the Greek Catholic clergy in search of their national nature have been analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of historical events of the period from 1771 till 1867 in the development of the Greek Catholic Church in Transcarpathia it can be outlined the main results of the study such as the isolation of positive features, in particular, the canonization of Mukachevo and Prešov Dioceses, the increasing number of parishes and believers and the falls and negative aspects like manifestations of madyarization. It has been proved that the institutional registration of the church became an effective mechanism of self-identification of Transcarpathian Ukrainians through the preservation of the Church Slavonic language in liturgical services and its support in Hungarian environment. It has been found that national ideas crystallized in the environment of patriotic priests, which, under the pressure of socio-political influences of that era, sought to find their nationality in various ideological directions: Moscow, Austrophil, etc. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that the institutional design of the Greek Catholic Church in Transcarpathia is conditioned by socio-historical influences, the canonization of Mukachevo and Prešov Dioceses, the increase in the number of parishes and parishioners in the period 1771–1867.
The paper presents the results of the first extensive national research into the handwritten legacy of the Great Skete (Maniava Skete); it deals with historical and archeological aspects of Патерик Скитський (the Skete Patericon) and Синодик (the Synodyk, or memorial book); the latter manuscript was discovered by the author of this paper in the Romanian Academy Library. The Skete Patericon comprises ‘Житіє Іова’ (‘The Life of Job’), ‘Завіт Духовний’ (‘Spiritual Testament’) and ‘Регула’ (‘Regula’). The paper highlights a unique role of the Skete in the life of the Orthodox Church, in the religious life of the 17th-18th century Ukraine, in reviving and preserving national spiritual traditions.
The article discusses М. Hrushevskyi’s interest in Halychyna and his early association with the narodovtsi in 1885–1894 prior to his relocation to Lviv, where, in consequence of the “New Era” policy, he was invited to chair the newly created History of Ukraine Department at Lviv University. The author focuses on the young historian’s connections with the Halychian narodovtsi from the beginning of his association with the region and the publication of his first article in Dilo (The Deed), a Lviv-based newspaper, till his relocation to the capital of Halychyna
The purpose of the study is to analyze peculiarities of the historical event «The November Breakdown» («November Action») – the national democratic revolution in the Western Ukrainian lands – not as a revolution in its classical version, but a military coup with the elements of the national liberation struggle of Western Ukrainians in the autumn of 1918. On the basis of the historical and political analysis of the historiographical heritage concerning the preconditions and creation of the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic, the events of October 31 – November 1, 1918, are described as discrepancies and generalizations of their direct participants; the research also clarifies the factors of political and ideological «explanations» of the revolutionary «November Breakdown» in historiography of the Ukrainian diaspora of the 20th Century. The Soviet and contemporary Ukrainian historiography statements about the «revolutionary nature» of the events in Eastern Halychyna in 1918, and hence the November 1918 national democratic revolution, are still debatable. Halychyna Ukrainians made a legal proclaimation of the Ukrainian state within the framework of the Austrian-Hungarian state, they were waiting for a peaceful transfer of power in Eastern Halychyna, and the armed uprising of October 31 – November 1, 1918, became a military coup in the geopolitical realities of the rising tension in the Polish-Ukrainian relations. Therefore, on November 1, the Austro-Hungarian government authorized an act of transfer of the state power in Eastern Halychyna to the Ukrainian National Council, and on November 13, 1918, the Council proclaimed Western Ukrainian People’s Republic. The origins of the myth about the «revolutionary character», or «revolution» in Eastern Halychyna in 1918, are rooted in attempts to «inject» the non-existent in reality class struggle of the region population into the broader context of the Bolshevik and socialist revolution. During the Khrushchev Thaw, in 1957 this myth underwent certain modification in the famous article of historian O.Karpenko, and later on, in 1993, this myth transformation turned into a «national-democratic revolution» in Western Ukrainian lands. In fact, the memoirs of the participants and creators of the «November Action», the external sources, as well as the mass media of that, do not interpret the events under study just as “a revolution”, but only as “a coup”, “disarmament”, etc., which testifies to the militaristic nature of events.
Ukrainian literature in emigration is part of the Ukrainian cultural heritage. Its analysis shows that, unlike Soviet Ukrainian literature, it enhanced the importance of the national idea proclaimed by T. Shevchenko. The diaspora literature of the 1920s–1950s created the mythological paradigm of the occupied nation that was superior to the invader, a ‘source code’ for a future Ukraine in its own ancestral land in the centre of Europe, not for Ukraine in exile as it was viewed by Ukrainian politicians in emigration. The literary myth of Ukraine established by the diaspora authors is a vitaistic and consolidating metaphysical phenomenon that even now has a powerful impact on national consciousness.
The article highlights the impact of Freud’s ideas on the Ukrainian prose between the Two World Wars. The analysis of the works by V. Pidmohylnyi and I. Cherniava shows that in literary texts, the erotic-death paradigm is one of the ‘modernist’ algorithms for plot development; in the novellas, this paradigm affects the process of conflict modeling and conflict development. It is rightly believed that V. Pidmohylnyi’s dominant literary interest was the ‘helplessness of human morality before the temptations of crime’. In the novella analyzed in this study, Pidmohylnyi adopts the perspective of the ontogenesis of the human soul at the age of puberty. I. Cherniava explores the theme of subconscious ‘temptation of crime’ a wicked and thoughtless children’s game is sure to unleash. The two stories have many features in common: they are thematically close; in both of them, the plot is based on the Freudian ideas; stylistically, they are realist-oriented works with certain elements of naturalism. The novellas belong to the same type of structurally modified literary works, in which the action is no more important than the resultant psychic changes in the characters. In both novellas, the plot is built around stable structural-behavioural patterns of human culture (in Vania, it is the initiation trial pattern; in The Execution, the perverse play pattern, the game of a trial transformed into a crime). Both works have rather specific expositions, which fulfill the function of ‘Vorgeschichte’ – they tell a reader about certain psychic inclinations of the characters and present the projection of the central theme. In both novellas, the plot type, which determines the development of action, is outlined in the prehistory. Structurally, the two novellas are based on parallelism of events. As to their style, both works bear the features of naturalism.
The events of recent years have shown the need for regional studies. The problems of regionalism have a deep historical retrospective. The Second Polish Republic attempted to change the map of regionalism, in particular in the Ukrainian Carpathians, inhibited by the Ukrainian ethnographic groups of Hutsuls, Boykos, Lemkos. This attempt was unsuccessful and the local population didn’t support it. How did the regional Polish government see these processes? Despite the significant amount of work on the given subject, the period of the 1920s is not sufficiently researched. This article focuses on the political sources of identification, namely the activities of parties and public organizations in the Hutsul and Boykiv regions of 1924–1929 within the Stanisłav Voivodeship, it studies them through the perception of local Polish authorities. The unpublished documents of the State Archives of the Ivano-Frankivsk region make up the source base of the study. The analysed documents prove that the Ukrainian national identity of the Galician Hutsuls and Boykos in the 1920s was real and functional. It was the active position of political parties as well as cultural-educational, cooperative and other organizations, the position with a distinct Ukrainian ethno-national character that played an important role in its "formation" and manifestation. The most popular parties were the Ukrainian National Democratic Union and the Ukrainian Socialist Radical Party, both of them clearly stated their disagreement concerning the issue of the Ukrainian lands being a part of Poland and they strived for an independent Ukraine. Pro-Polish parties were far from very popular. Compared to Hutsulshchyna, Galician Boykivshchyna was characterized by an obviously higher degree of ethnical politicization. The ethno-political processes of the 1920s in the Hutsul and Boykiv regions resulted in the establishment of the Ukrainian national self-consciousness. In practice, on the local level even Polish officials did not question the national roots of Hutsuls and Boykos and them being Ukrainian; this fact only adds to the artificial character of the following Polish policy of local "regionalisms" of the 1930s. In general, the imaginary picture of the ethnical-political process in the region, provided by the local authority documents, was objective. The question whether it influenced the political decision-making process is open and still to be studied.
The role and the place of the artistic truth and artistic speculation are a promising area of theoretical and practical explorations. The focus of this study is on the mythical-poetic hologram of the human body as a specific information carrier which comprises a range of important markers.
In this article the disintegration and integration processes in Central and Eastern Europe and their influence on the legal status of Western Ukraine are researched. Disintegration correlates with the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine, and integration correlates with the process of its joining the USSR. The historical and legal dimension of Ukraine in the European context is conceptualized by distinguishing the stages of these processes.
The paper highlights the role of communities of monks and nuns (the Third Orders) in the structure and activity of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), which functioned underground. It is emphasized that the historical roots of the Third Order are traced back to the 13th century when spiritual life of specific lay communities was regulated by the Franciscan and the Dominican Orders, and later, by the Carmelite Order. Between 1900 and 1930s lay communities of the UGCC became noticeably active. A characteristic example of their activity is the well known Rules for laypersons of the Basilian Order drawn by Metropolitan Archbishop Andrey Sheptytsky. In the 1970s (the Soviet time, when the UGCC worked underground), there appeared the Redemptorist and the Basilian Third Orders in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Their members kept in safety different cult objects, held underground Divine Services, meetings, had spiritual practices, did catechesis, etc. On the whole, these lay communities had played an important role in the UGCC underground activity up till the late 1980s.
2,4-dichlorphenoxicacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most widely used herbicides with well documented toxic effects on non-target organisms. In this study, the effect of low concentrations of 2,4-D on reproductive activity and resistance of yeast S. cerevisiae to oxidative stress was evaluated. Supplementation of the cultivation medium with 0.1-100 µM 2,4-D did not affect the rate of yeast growth. In early stationary phase, yeast cultures grown with 0.1 and 1 µM 2,4-D had higher number of reproductively active cells than control ones (without 2,4-D). In exponential phase, S. cerevisiae cells grown in the presence of 1-100 µM 2,4-D were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide comparing to control ones. Thus, the herbicide increased reproductive potential and cross-resistance to oxidative stress in yeast but the effective concentrations of 2,4-D were different for these phenomena. In summary, the results suggest possible involvement of certain hormetic mechanisms in the influence of 2,4-D at low concentrations on yeast.
The article deals with the three aspects of Taras Shevchenko’s artistic genius – creative mentality, dualistic world view and poetic imagery. The poet’s psychological identity predetermined a unique combination of conceptual, philosophical and aesthetic elements in his works. The analysis of Shevchenko’s poetic works, his ‘Kobzar’ collection in particular, reveals the process of merging ‘personal identity’ with ‘social identity’. At the very beginning of his creative career, the two principles developed independently – from outer macroworld and inner microworld; Shevchenko’s mature works offer evidence of their natural synthesis responsible for the phenomenon of his poetic genius. The analysis of Shevchenko’s shorter poems and his heroic poem ‘Haidamaky’ shows that dualism is the underlying principle of his poetry: Shevchenko’s ‘social identity’ is presented in terms of mythological consciousness, his ‘personal identity’ (owing to life circumstances), in terms of existential philosophy. The analysis of Shevchenko’s artistic mentality, philosophical, mythological, existential, and aesthetic concepts adds to our understanding of the unique world of the great Ukrainian poet. His poetry reflects his own knowledge of the world; at the same time, it represents this world in all the complexity of national and universal phenomena; Shevchenko could only become a great world writer by becoming a great Ukrainian writer.
In terms of the implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, the implementation of the agreements has gradually shifted from the institutional construction of the international level to the implementation of the national level. Since the Millennium Development Goals did not reach the goal of sustainable development in the year of 2015, 2030 Sustainable Development Goals had drew the lessons, put forward the goals of economic, social and environmental, and required all countries to provide their own country’s plan. As the largest developing country, China plays a decisive role in the international environmental governance. At home, China has formulated the domestic environmental governance norms for the implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and established an inter ministerial coordination mechanism for implementing the Sustainable Development Agenda composed of 43 government departments. China is also actively participating in international environmental governance, participating and promoting the conclusion and effectiveness of treaties on environmental protection at the international and regional levels, earnestly implementing and helping other countries to implement treaties, and expanding the global partnership through various formal and informal meetings and other channels.
This study involves the analysis of the overall quantitative, structural and sociodemographic characteristics of the Roman Catholic monastic Orders in Eastern Galicia as a part of the Galician Crown land of Austria-Hungary in the early 20th century. In the second half of the 19th century, the Roman Catholic monastic communities renewed their activity after a period of decline in the epoch of Enlightenment. The analysis indicates two features that characterize the contemporary Galician monastic Orders – a significant predominance of female members and active social work among the population of the region. Quantitatively, the Roman Catholic monastic structures considerably exceeded those of the Greek Catholic Church.
Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.
The review focuses on the issues addressed by the contributors to the long-standing philological journal from the ‘Precarpathian University Bulletin’ series. The themes and contents of the articles in the fields of linguistics, literary criticism and folklore studies are highlighted; the major areas of research are characterized.
The article includes the main stages of life and scientific achievements of Professor Yaroslav Stepanovych Kalakura. The executions of this prominent historian and his scientific achievements are analyzed. It is considered his personal contribution to the development of Ukrainian historical science, in particular, in historiography, source studies and archival studies.
The article is dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Vasyl Hryhorovych Kremen, Doctor of Philosophy, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, a prominent Ukrainian scholar, statesman and science manager. It highlights his main achievements and his great contribution to the development of Ukrainian education, and the development of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, where he was awarded Honorary Doctor’s Degree.
The article analyzes the works by academician Ivan Zyazyun in the framework of the teacher’s good doing. It is proved that the prominent scientist of Ukraine considered this problem on the humanistic principles of human creation and the existential nature of human existence. I. Zyazyun states that human is the only living being that does not belong to its lineage group from the moment of birth. Its human essence is acquired throughout whole life. I. Zyazyun as the philosopher and the teacher substantiated the opinion, according to which the worldview of a personality becomes determinant in the process of good going. The humanistic worldview of the personality of a teacher allows creating of his/her own activity aimed at mental, spiritual and intellectual development of students, and to treat them as active and equal subjects of the educational process. Good doing of a teacher forms the spiritual elite of the nation. The spiritual elite is distinguished by the fact that it forms the ideals of good, unites the best forces of the nation to make new cultural achievements. The scholar paid considerable attention to the issues of forming common and collective good doing. It allows all the members of the team to act responsibly, actively and productively for the approval of not only individual but also the common good and welfare.
The paper aims at analyzing abbreviation as one of the most productive ways of coining neologisms in mass media. The focus is made on the study of initial abbreviation and its subtypes; the authors discover several new ways of coining abbreviations. The analysis encompasses two major characteristics of abbreviations in mass media: their form and encoded meaning
The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) provides for the rights of Indigenous people and local communities in accordance with United Nations Declaration of Rights of Indigenous People. The Parties are obliged to take legislative, administrative and technical measures to recognize, respect and support/ensure the customary laws & institutions and community protocols of Indigenous peoples and local communities (ILCs). Within the ambit of contemporary debates encompassing Indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination, this paper examines the effectiveness of international law (i.e. Nagoya Protocol) to influence existing or evolving domestic laws, policies or administrative measures of Parties on access and benefit sharing. Through opinion surveys of Indigenous organizations and national authorities of CBD’s Parties, the findings indicate that the space, recognition and respect created in existing or evolving domestic ABS measures for rights of Indigenous communities are too inadequate to effectively implement the statutory provisions related to customary laws & institutions and community protocols, as envisaged in Nagoya Protocol. As the bio-cultural rights of Indigenous people are key to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, the domestic ABS laws need reorientation to be sufficiently effective in translating the spirit of international ABS laws into domestic policies.
The article is devoted to the nature of the concepts “classic University”, “cultural and educational space of the University”, “research activity of future professional”, “researcher’s academic culture” and approach to academic culture as the basis of research culture in a university. It is defined that the concept of academic culture is complex. We are talking in general about the culture at the university, values, traditions, norms, rules of scientific research, and the scientific language culture, the culture of spirituality and morality, the culture of communication between science tutors and students, a culture of unique pedagogical action of master and his social, moral responsibility for the studying results. The formation of academic culture and own style, is better to develop on the positions of personal-activity, competence, axiological, cultural, acmeological approaches
The article deals with the scientific work of a famous Ukrainian historian and source scholar Volodymyr Hrabovetskyі. In the creative heritage of the scientist there is a series of works dedicated to the history of Galicia and Precarpathia, studies on the times of Cossacks, national struggles of liberation. Volodymyr Grabovetskyi joined the scientific paradigm as a researcher of the history of the Opryshky movement, the life and activity of Oleksa Dovbush. On the basis of archival materials and contemporaries’ memoirs the scientist wrote the history of many Precarpathian cities and villages. Volodymyr Grabovetskyi is also well-known as a researcher of the church history.
The development of civilization and technology is associated with the growing risks to the natural environment, primarily from the risks posed by industrial plants that use hazardous substances or production processes in process of production. The experience of the last few decades shows that such failures cause serious damage to the environment and material or human losses. To prevent such accidents and limit their possible consequences, legal regulations known as Seveso Directives have been developed within the European Union. They were adopted also in Poland as a EU member.
The article emphasizes the fact that the problem of providing effective pedagogical support for personal development of children with mental and physical disabilities occupies an important place in the educationa theory and practice of modern Ukraine. Among scientists there are different approaches to determining its content, purpose and objectives. Most researchers consider pedagogical support of children with special educational needs (SEN) assystematic actions and measuresaime datensuring positive results in the educational process. The main tasks of pedagogical support of children with psychophysical developmental disorders are to ensure their social adaptation and over come difficulties in communicating with peers; prevention of problems of personal development and upbringing of the child; providing assistance in solving current educational problems and socialization; implementation of psychological and pedagogical counseling for parents. The authorsempha size that art therapy is rightly considered to be an effective means of pedagogical influenceon children with SEN in an inclusive educational space. Art therapy as a method of diagnosis, change and resource development of an individual, group or team through the use of different art sand their own creative activities has a wide field of application in various areas of teaching. To achieve a positive result in the pedagogical support of children with SEN the following arttherapy means are used: drawing therapy, fairy-tale therapy, sand therapy, music therapy, photo therapy, color therapy, which can be integrated, completing each other. It is scientifically proven that theuse of different types of arts contributes to the development of a child’s emotional and communicative sphere, the establishment of interpersonal communication, taking into account emotional state of peers. During art therapy classes peculiarities of interpersonal communication are revealed, obstacles in its establishment are found and over come, and as a result the development of social-communicatives kills of children with SEN.
Slow current modernization reforms in the economic sector have significantly weakened the competitiveness of enterprises in EU; therefore, there is a great need for new tools in the managerial decision-making process. Information provision of the decision-making process on expediency of investment activity in the form of capital investments is formed within thelimits of strategic management accounting. In the research except for various analytical methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison, grouping, etc.) a “decisions tree” method is used for choosinga reasonable solution. In the study, strategic management accounting has been defined as a separate kind of management accounting, which involves generation of high-quality information. Certain tools may be applied within it for the decisions made by managers, based on established business partnership with successful implementation of business strategy. Five most widespread groups of tools of strategic management accounting are cost accounting; planning, monitoringand evaluation of effectiveness; strategic decisions; competitor accounting; customer accounting.It is recommended to complete the list of instruments integrated within the five groupsby a separate group – a specific category of supplier accounting that would contribute to the generation of more complete and qualitative information provision for the process of making managerial decisions on the appropriateness of capital investments in the investment activityof the enterprise in EU. The research made it possible to reach the following conclusions. Important components should be taken into account in order to fulfil strategic management accountingof the company in a proper way. Those are data sources choice, collecting and processing of information, choice of instruments of strategic management accounting, formation of internal regulation of strategic management accounting, development and supply of accountingand analytical information; process of solutions development, and the choice, which canprovide generation of necessary information for competitive managerial decisions made by managers. Application of advanced tools for strategic management accounting, which give information to meet issues related to the characteristics of consumers, competitors, suppliers, project costs, assessment of investment feasibility in the project, is caused by the necessity of competitive decision-making with the help of the above-offered decisions tree tool usage.
There exists an ongoing tradition to celebrate milestone birthdays and other important anniversaries of famous scientists, who have devoted decades of their lives to fruitful scientific work. The tradition is an old one and can be traced back to the medieval Europe. Primarily, a celebration like that is held not only to glorify the birthday person as a scientist, but also to summarize their work in a particular field of scientific knowledge; it is an event open for discussions and exchange of views. Events of this kind provide young researchers with an opportunity to prove themselves to famous men of science, whose students and followers they are. We can mention the anniversary events organized to celebrate achievement of some of the prominent figures of the Ukrainian science. The list includes Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Volodymyr Vernadsky, Danylo Zabolotny, Yuriy Kondratiuk, Yevhen Paton, and other renowned personalities, whose anniversaries and milestones have been accompanied by scientific conferences, symposiums, monographs and other scientific publications.
The article is devoted to the effectiveness of the use of local lore material in mountainous terrain schools to improve student achievement in the development of their cognitive interest. In particular, the analysis of the role of the school in the development of Ukrainian Carpathian mountain areas of education and younger generation training. Attention is drawn to the fact that during the organization of the educational process in schools of mountainous terrain ,we are to take into consideration rather high level of spirituality of Highlanders, their love for their land , traditions and customs. Therefore, during the lessons of social and humanitarian course the teacher is to use local history material that will provide development of students cognitive interest. The authors in the experimental studies process demonstrated that the organization of learning the history of Ukraine in the 5th grade should be directed to the development of cognitive interest in history. So, the children in the 5th grade will not have to study the whole history. They are to be prepared to gradually assimilate to it according to the curriculum. A critical factor in successful learning is to form cognitive interest. To make the learning process easier and more interesting the teacher must offer his/her students the curriculum material which they would not only feel, but also easily understand. The students must realize that it's not about teaching something/someone unknown, but about themselves, their parents, grandparents, great grandparents, family, region, country. Therefore, the initial training should dominate local history material, allowing the development of cognitive interest in history, lay the foundations of historical knowledge and provide increasing levels of students’ achievements. This is ensured by a parallel study of the history of the native land. The authors defined teaching and learning requirements for local lore material to be used in the process of study and presented their own examples.
An ability to sense and respond to nutrient availability is an important requisite for life. Nutrient limitation is among main factors to influence the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that sense intracellular and extracellular levels of carbohydtrates, amino acids, lipids, and intermediate metabolites are integrated and coordinated at the organismal level through neuronal and humoral signals. During food abundance, nutrient-sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, whereas limitation triggers the mechanisms, such as the mobilization of internal stores including through autophagy. These processes are affected during aging and are themselves important regulators of longevity, stress resistance, and age-related complications.
The article addresses the issue of the individual’s socialization, the usage of interpretative mechanisms in order to gain sociocultural experience. The process of interiorization of cultural experience is analyzed from the perspective of the hermeneutic paradigm. The interpretative mechanisms (semiotization, narrativization) make it possible to explain the formation of the individual’s model of the world, which is, on the one hand, a representation of culture and, on the other, a reflection of the individual’s subjective experience. Reproductive interpretation is acquiring sociocultural experience that does not involve contemplation. Productive interpretation involves contemplating experience, assigning new meanings to it, which ensures the individual’s development and facilitates the process of gaining new experience.
The article is dedicated to the revealing of the problem of pedagogical psychology inresearch activities and works of Ukrainian and Polish researcher, pedagogue, psychologist,philosopher Stefan Baley (1885-1952). The relevance of the theme is conditioned by the activereforming processes of Ukrainian educational system, in which ideas of the scholar can be widelyused as well as his thoughts, ideas and research of child psyche. The article gives biographical dataof the scholar and emphasizes his field of work as well as main works. The principles, subject andaims of pedagogical psychology according to Stefan Baley are presented in the article. The articleanalyses the notion of education and educational relations according to the researcher as well asthe process of education and its types, namely: analytic and empiric education, systematic andglobal education. The problem of a child education in a group is presented in the article i.e. schoolclass. The author emphasized the actuality and expediency of practical usage of ideas and researchactivities of Stefan Baley at the current stage of Ukrainian school system reforming, according tothe results of comparison between the problematics of Stefan Baleys' research activities in thesphere of pedagogical psychology and K. Seifert and R. Sutton.
This article describes how to create retaining health educational environment as a factor of performance intended life goals and objectives, its purpose and self-improvement. The notion educative and retaining health environment is analyzed. Active position illustrated subjective, based on an understanding of their health in a residence in the mountain environment
The current problems of the advanced system, which were most often used by masters who were studying for innovation, are updated. Theoretical analysis of scientific sources with understanding of the concept of “personal approach” is carried out. Changes of important aspects that are covered by methodological research in the field of work carried out in future Master's workplaces are analyzed. The essence and peculiarities of realization of the competence approach in the system of professional preparation of future masters of elementary education for innovative activity are considered. It is noted that the competence approach is aimed at the results of education not as a sum of learned information, but as the ability of a future specialist to creatively use the acquired knowledge in practice. It is concluded that the implementation of a competent approach in the system of training of future masters of elementary education in innovation ensures the achievement of a high level of quality professional training, the result of which is the competent personality of a future specialist, competitive in the labor market, able to act in an innovative educational environment.
The key issue of the article is the typology of communicative acts in the texts of the New Testament; the communicative acts are discussed from mental and axiological, moral and ethical perspectives. The goal of the article is to establish, discuss and interpret the main parameters of communication between Christ, His followers and opponents. The accent is made on the components of Christian world view as a discourse factor in the New Testament’s texts. The analysis results are extrapolated to the sphere of discourse creation, its linguistic, philosophical, ethical and communicative aspects. The principles of human existence and the existence of information space in the early 21st century are discussed.
In a few last decades oxidative stress detected in a variety of physiological processes where reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a central role. They are directly involved in oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In certain concentrations they are necessary for cell division, proliferation and apoptosis. Contractile muscle tissue at aerobic conditions form high ROS flow that may modulate a variety of cell functions, for example proliferation. However, slight increase in ROS level provide hormetic effect which may participate in adaptation to heavy weight training resulted in hypertrophy and proliferation of skeletal muscle fibers. This review will discuss ROS types, sites of generation, strategies to increase force production and achieve skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
The article describes the peculiarities of the process of students' adaptation to studying at a higher education institution, emphasizes the relevance of this problem in the context of the issue of training highly qualified specialists capable of effective work in the specialty at the level of world standards, ready for continuous professional improvement and personal development. The paper emphasized that the period of adaptation is a particularly important stage of studying at a higher education institution. It is particularly relevant when higher education students adapt to the content and nature of the educational process, in the period of adoption of norms and requirements of the new social environment, inclusion in the system of interpersonal relations, formation of a system of personal orientations, values, necessary for professional activity. The relationship between students' academic success and their level of adaptation to studying at a higher education institution has been identified. The results of an experimental study are presented, where the main factors of adaptation of higher education students, affecting their activity and academic success, are identified. Among these factors, the authors singled out magnitude of educational and extracurricular workload, working capacity during the school day and week, health condition, manifestation of various signs of fatigue, self-efficacy, motivation to learning, relationships with classmates and teachers, social frustration. The researchers stressed that the first-year students' adaptation period is different, depending on their individual and psychological characteristics, the level of readiness to study at a higher education institution, the correct choice of the future profession. On the basis of the results of the experimental study, the ways and directions of successful students' adaptation are determined, which foresees, first of all, the reduction of the impact of maladaptation factors on higher education students, increase in their resistance to these factors and strengthening of those factors that are favorable to them.
The article shows that the specificity of a holistic personality adjustment process in social systems is not confined only because of the peculiarities of its elements, such as the personal maturity, changes in the social conditions of the environment, and is determined by the interaction of structural components of the adaptive capacity of the individual. This maladjustment of one of these components will inevitably impact on the integrity of the individual adaptation process. It was determined that based on the analysis of the structural components of adaptation of the person (socially adapted situation, social need for adaptive, adaptive psychological need) there is the need to clarify the role of each of these components in the process of adaptation of the person. In the context of investigations under the holistic process of social adaptation of personality in social systems we mean active mutual adaptation of the individual and the social environment to each other in order to create a harmonious cooperation for the effective functioning of the individual in these social systems. Violation of this process or the implementation of its social disapproved or antisocial ways leads to the violation of the integrity of the adaptation process and it flows in unacceptable forms of society. It is emphasized that social exclusion leads to disruption of the socialization process, reflected in the increasing complexity of learning and the use of social roles, values and attitudes. In accordance with the social work we should pay attention to the replacement of anti-social norms, values and attitudes to prosocial. This process we treat as a social reinsertion - purposefully organized restructuring of the moral and valuable personality and behavioral areas that promotes the formation of social and value orientations and behavior. It was stated that the whole process of social adaptation of the person can provide awareness and reflection of environmental changes in the social systems of the environment; activity of the person in the regulation of adaptive capacity; transformation of adaptive capacity into more complex and sophisticated forms of interaction with the surrounding reality
The present study focuses on the application of the hermeneutic method within translation process. The examination of the issue draws on the already established concepts of translational hermeneutics, which consider this method as a part of the initial phase of the translation activity. However, the study presents the approach according to which hermeneutic activity is present throughout whole translation process. The author thus examines deployment of Ricoeur’s hermeneutic concept of interpretation and understanding of the complex translation activity. Finally, a new hermeneutic-pragmalinguistic conceptualization method is introduced applying the hermeneutic approach within the complex translation process. It is noted that on a semantic level the person who pronounces the word I, which is associated with a specific name, forms personal identity. At the pragmatic level, the meaning of the word I become contextually dependent on the discourse in which it is constantly formed. On the borderline between semantics and pragmatics, a person becomes a reflexive Self, capable of hermeneutical activity of understanding. The author focuses on Ricoeur's research, which defines language as an objective system and / or code and discourse. He also argues that language as a code is collective in that it exists as a set of parallel rules (synchronous system) and is anonymous in the sense that it is not the result of any intention. The language is not conscious in terms of structural or cultural unconsciousness. The author focuses on the stages of hermeneutic activity. This indicates that the first step reveals the essence of interpretation as an important part of the hermeneutical method, which is a dynamic process that includes a non-methodological moment of understanding and a methodological moment of explanation. Characterizes the second stage of hermeneutic activity it is the stage of configuration. That is, the stage of conceptualizing meaning in language. The third stage, that is, the stage of refiguration, is a complete understanding of the discourse and its interpretation. Hermeneutic activity is fully realized in reading, which represents the space between pragmatics and semantic structure. This phenomenon is described as the stage where a person operates with all their knowledge, pragmatic language and experience, not yet structured to solve one particular cognitive-reflexive task. With regard to the thematic and non-thematic cognitive abilities of each person, the translator, as a professional user of at least two languages, has a cognitive-reflexive knowledge in which at least two language cultures interrelate and intersect. It is vaccinated that, at the interlingual and interlingual levels of hermeneutic activity (in interpretation and understanding), an individual not only uses language but also changes and transforms it.
The article deals with the features of tax control in the system of tax administration. The main stages and peculiarities of implementation of tax control are highlighted on each of them. The principles and functions of tax control which will ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of this process are determined. The main forms and peculiarities of tax control are described.
The article presents the conceptual approaches to the upbringing in the education of life-meaningful values of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. The definition of life-meaningful values has been given up. The major problems and contradictions in the upbringing of the Ukrainian children were paid attention to. The dependence of the result of upbringing, from the desire and the participation of all actors: children, parents, teachers is pointed out. Conceptual approaches to education of life values meaning are analyzed on the methodological, theoretical and practical levels. The aspects of the previous researches have been underlined. In this context, a systematic approach determines the integrity of the educational process in primary and high school. Synergetic approach combines the organization and self-organization of the growing personality. Humanistic approach recognizes each child's highest value at school, family, and society. Personal-centered approach provides individual attention to him, to free choice of that or other life-meaningful values. Activity approach provides practice and deed activity of children and shows how the value of the meaning of life affects the behavior of the individual. The theoretical level of substantiation of the concept of education of children of teenagers and early youth gives ability to define key points and concepts. Practical level implies the corresponding experimental activity, the determination of propriate pedagogical conditions, the selection of content, forms and methods of education of teenagers and early adolescence. Conceptual approaches offer the opportunity to develop a modern system of education of the values of the meaning of life of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. Implementation of conceptual approaches aimed at qualitative changes in the education of life-meaningful values among of teenagers and early adolescence.
The modern world puts great demands on people when it comes to understanding its purpose and meaning, which undoubtedly changes the lives of individuals and social groups. People are particularly concerned about the possibility of freeing themselves from imposed group ties, enjoying the rights of a citizen and a member of a community, and the way in which freedom is exercised without restrictions. What has so far been a well-established basis for human activity and the maintenance of the existing order is now losing its importance, and is being replaced by new life opportunities. The authority of traditional social structures such as the social class, local community or family has declined. Normative and axiological systems, and consequently the quality of functioning of the contemporary family, its structure, scope of performed duties and relations within a family, have also undergone transformations. It is becoming increasingly common for adults who form the main axis of the family to decide on a divorce. This is not conducive to the optimum development of children, as they lose the sense of security, trust in adults, fail to fulfil their own lives and even doubt about the existence of true unselfish love. Parents' divorce decisions often result in emotional and motivational disorders which are manifested by difficulties in establishing social contacts, building profound relationships and coping with difficult situations. The paper shows the results of exploratory research on how adults brought up in divorced single-parent families can function in the social and professional environment. The research employs the diagnostic survey method using the auditorium questionnaire and the “100 Sentences – 100 Opinions” tool by Mirosław J. Szymański. The results of the research clearly show that adults brought up in single-parent families are involved very differently in social and professional life. They build their short- and long-term professional and personal goals in distinct ways. Personal and social characteristics of the respondents are the factors determining the observed activity. The research results are in line with the relevant literature and prove the impact of growing up in a single-parent family on children's activity in adult life.
Economic textbooks relate the principle of comparative advantage using examples of two products and two countries, the 2x2 case. We shall suggest an approach describing any finite number of products m and countries n, the mxn case, where m>2, n>2. For this purpose the linear programming will be used
Tourism as a social phenomenon has attracted the attention of marketers throughout all stages of its development. Successful cooperation between tourism entities and customers is based on communication. The persuasive power of advertising language is very much experienced today. The same happens in relation to tourism marketing materials. In fact, in order to attract the attention of the viewers, the travel companies choose various signs to express their notion of the brand. Hence, there exist different approaches in tourism marketing to attract and convince potential tourists to book a tourism product. The present article elucidates and discusses important aspects in relation to the language of tourism and the ways of its analysis for detecting persuasive techniques that are used to allure potential tourists. In this regard, the speech impact on travel advertising is realized by convincing a potential customer of the need for service / product. When advertising a travel product, the advertiser influences the consumer, attracting various effective means to intensify his desire to purchase travel services (travel product). The paper reviews the elements of persuasive tourism marketing such as structured communication, storytelling, copywriting, neuromarketing; Cialdini’ (2001) persuasion techniques to influence people, namely, reciprocation, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity. The article also highlights gender-targeting factors as important components in selecting an appropriate persuasive strategy when designing tourism promotional materials. The result section provides the real examples of deployment of the mentioned strategies in influencing the audience by the websites of “Karpaty” and “Solva” resorts. All these techniques form a theoretical framework for researches on persuasiveness and are worth attention as they play a main role in promotion of any kind. The data collection of this study will provide updated information in relation to rhetoric of tourism.
The article deals with verbal means of persuasion in English advertising. It investigatesmanipulation tactics and features of persuasion in the English ad. Linguistic and cultural aspects ofstyle formation in English and Ukrainian ads are compared in the article
Intergenotypic differentiation of trophic niche was studied in the system “apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) - Cacoecia podana Sc.”. C. podana larvae, carried alternative Aes-1 genotypes, were found to prefer host plant leaves, differing by length and stiffness, in their diets. Trophic micro-niches for each genotype coincided with the whole population niche in width, but differed by their optimums. There data are discussed in respect to the herbivore food specialization and population dynamics.