Journal of Urban Planning and Development

Published by American Society of Civil Engineers

Online ISSN: 1943-5444


Print ISSN: 0733-9488


Traveler Response to Innovative Personalized Demand-Responsive Transit in the San Francisco Bay Area
  • Article

January 2003


216 Reads


Urban sprawl makes conventional transit less competitive and points to the need for more innovative and flexible demand-responsive transit systems in the future. To increase their efficiency, such systems can take advantage of the emerging advanced public transportation systems technologies, e.g., vehicle location and information systems. However, little is known about how consumers might respond to such systems and what they desire. This paper explores the demand for a consumer-oriented Personalized Demand Responsive Transit (PDRT) service in the San Francisco Bay Area. Such a system could provide services to the traveling public for journeys to work and to non-work destinations. Results from six focus group meetings and a computer-assisted telephone survey of commuters and non-commuters are reported. While about 60% of those surveyed were willing to consider PDRT as an option, about 12% reported that they were "very likely" to use PDRT (N=1000). Many were willing to pay for the service and valued highly the flexibility in scheduling the service. Spatial analysis of the survey responses suggests localities where a PDRT may be field-tested.

Financing Infrastructure Over Time

December 2001


59 Reads

This paper investigates the problem of financing infrastructure over time when the number of users also changes. The problem is confronted in many fast growing communities desiring to coordinate the timing of infrastructure and development, yet still achieve economies of scale where they exist. The temporal free rider problem is defined; whereby the group that finances the construction at a given time is not identical with the group that uses it. The continuous recovery method, which effectively establishes a property rights framework for infrastructure is described. Continuous recovery enables existing residents to be appropriately compensated by new residents, independent of the number of new residents who ultimately arrive. The system is illustrated and compared with practice in a case that uses a non-continuous cost recovery system. Key Words: Infrastructure Financing, Impact Fees, Free Riders, Bonds, Pay-asyou -go Financing Financing Infrastructure over Time Levinson 2

A New Methodology for Calibrating the Lowry Model

June 1998


44 Reads

A government-funded research project was initiated to investigate the suitability and potential benefit of applying land use forecasting models in Hong Kong. Part of the project involves the development of a new technique for calibrating a Lowry model, using Hong Kong as a case study. The model contains, for each zone, a population and an employment potential that measure the relative attractiveness of the zone in the study area with respect to residents' choice of home locations and business setup (which generates employment opportunities), respectively. The calibration procedure comprises three stages. In the first stage, a genetic algorithm is employed to calibrate the population and employment potentials, together with a coefficient associated with the travel impedance function in the study area. The second stage investigates the relationships between the calibrated potentials and various land use variables, using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The significant land use variables are identified and equations relating these variables to the potentials are established. The third stage is model validation. A considerable error is accumulated after the first two stages of the model calibration. Since the applicability of the model is largely dependent on its level of accuracy, fine-tuning the model parameters is required to further minimize the discrepancy between the observed and the modeled distributions of the population and employment. A case study in Hong Kong is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Fig. 1. Flowchart of the model
Fig. 2. Disadvantaged zones and their selected characteristics
Table 3 . Major disadvantage categories
Table 5 . Regression model for trip production
Table 8 . Regression model for mode split


Integrated Modeling Approach for the Transportation Disadvantaged
  • Article
  • Full-text available

September 2007


430 Reads

Transportation models have not been adequate in addressing severe long-term urban transportation problems that transportation disadvantaged groups overwhelmingly encounter, and the negative impacts of transportation on the disadvantaged have not been effectively considered in the modeling studies. Therefore this paper aims to develop a transportation modeling approach in order to understand the travel patterns of the transportation disadvantaged, and help in developing policies to solve the problems of the disadvantaged. Effectiveness of this approach is tested in a pilot study in Aydin, Turkey. After determining disadvantaged groups by a series of spatial and statistical analyses, the approach is integrated with a travel demand model. The model is run for both disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged populations to examine the differences between their travel behaviors. The findings of the pilot study reveal that almost two thirds of the population is disadvantaged, and this modeling approach could be particularly useful in disadvantage-sensitive planning studies to deploy relevant land use and transportation policies for disadvantaged groups.

Table 1 : Roles and responsibilities for operation and maintenance
Sustainable Operation and Maintenance of Urban Infrastructure: Myth or Reality?

March 2005


1,940 Reads

This article was published in the Journal of Urban Planning and Development [© ASCE] and the definitive version is available at: It has become increasingly apparent that a paradoxical situation is emerging with respect to urban services in less developed countries. On the one hand a huge demand for urban infrastructure has resulted from rapid urbanisation; on the other, existing infrastructure is falling into disrepair before completing its design life. Operation and maintenance (O&M) has been identified by commentators as the key to enhancing the sustainability of existing infrastructure and assets. However, there is a general lack of understanding by stakeholders about the role of operation, maintenance and sustainability in the context of good governance. The aim of this paper is to explore the constraints to operation, maintenance and sustainability of urban services. The findings are based on case studies from India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In each of the case locations, projects were completed more than three years ago. Data collection tools included document review, interviews and participant observations. Forums and workshops were also held. In order to distinguish between the different constraints acting upon urban services, the term ‘sustainability’ has been separated according to its technical, financial and institutional aspects. This paper demonstrates how findings from community involvement in service delivery in developing countries can be of benefit to engineers or NGOs working with communities to improve the operation and maintenance of urban services in developed countries. Traditional centralised systems for O&M, which are the responsibility of municipalities and utilities, are not delivering. Recently there has been a search for alternatives such as community-based approaches. Internationally it seems services users are being encouraged to ensure the infrastructure in their neighborhood is kept in good condition. It is hoped that getting service users involved will lead to increased efficiency, benchmarking, raise awareness/ debate, contributed to national growth, reduced waste, improved resource allocation and improved competitiveness. However, evidence of the success of such schemes is rather patchy. It has been recognised that neither community nor government alone can ensure the sustainability of infrastructure; a partnership approach is needed. The keys to improving operation and maintenance—and hence sustainability—are the availability of information and the attribution of clear roles and responsibilities. Operation and maintenance can be seen to be the most important determinant of citizens’ satisfaction with urban services; this in turn leads to better governance.

Role of Stated Preference Methods in Planning for Sustainable Urban Transportation: State of Practice and Future Prospects

December 2002


161 Reads

This paper adopts the World Bank’s 1996 definition of sustainable transportation and attempts to identify ways of improving the urban transportation planning process and methodology. After a literature review of related studies conducted in different parts of the world over the past decade or so, the major theoretical and methodological advances in stated preference (SP) surveys are summarized. Then, the paper continues to suggest ways of how SP techniques can be used side-by-side with the traditional four-stage transportation planning model. Lastly, it concludes with some future directions of change if these useful techniques are to play a more important role in planning for sustainable urban transportation.

Historic Conservation Area Policy and Partial Shrinkage in an Expanding Megacity in China: Microscale Study of 9 Jiedao with 14 Historic Conservation Areas in Old Liwan, Guangzhou, China

June 2021


39 Reads

Historic conservation is closely connected with the phenomenon of partial shrinkage in the rapidly developing megacity of Guangzhou. Nine jiedao (subdistricts) including 14 historic conservation areas in old Liwan were selected to observe the shrinkage phenomenon from four aspects, namely, the population growth rate, population aging, economic growth, and vitality of public life. The relationships between old Liwan and changes in the city's development strategy and between conservation policies and urban renewal operations were explored by tracking three stages of shrinkage. Findings show that shrinkage in jiedao with HCAs in growing megacities was not caused by historic conservation but one of the results of complicated relationship. This study played a vital role in clarifying the partial shrinkage in the historic conservation areas in developing Asian megacities at the microscale while providing a reference for urban planning and policy making.

Fig. 2. SEM model structure—detailed  
Table 4 . Structural Equations Model Results-VMT Equation
Assessing the Impact of Metropolitan-Level, County-Level, and Local-Level Built Environment on Travel Behavior: Evidence from 19 U.S. Urban Areas

October 2014


318 Reads

Research on land use and travel behavior has been mostly focused on the effects of local land use as opposed to the overall form of metropolitan area, regional employment accessibility and growth pattern, and job-housing balance in the whole metro area. The present work attempts to shed some light on the overlooked impacts of metropolitan-level built environment on travel behavior. It presents results from structural equations modeling (SEM) analysis on the basis of data from 19 metropolitan areas across the United States to construct a systematic cause-effect relationship among macrolevel land use, regional mobility, and travel behavior. The results provide evidence on the direction and magnitude of these impacts and confirm the hypothesis that changing land use policies at the neighborhood/local level alone is not followed by a significant change in people's travel behavior towards less driving. Effective land use policies are those which consider the overall form of urban areas and the composition of jobs and services in the entire region.

Fig. 1. Location of the study area (remote sensing image courtesy of Beijing Satellite Image Co. Ltd.)
Fig. 3. Distribution of urban land in 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2009, and 2013
Table 5 . Typical Theories of Urban Expansion Patterns
Fig. 7. Driving forces of urban expansion in the study area
Urban Expansion Process, Pattern, and Land Use Response in an Urban Mining Composited Zone from 1986 to 2013

April 2016


345 Reads






This paper examines features, patterns, and driving forces of urban expansion in a urban-mining composited zone from 1986 to 2013 with geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). Urban land information was extracted from remote sensing images of 1986, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2009, and 2013 to analyze the variation characteristics of urban land in quantity and spatial distribution. Expansion intensity, barycenter of urban land, and urban compactness are usedto analyze the expansion features of urban land over 27 years, describe the expansion types in each period, and discuss the expansion pattern. Additional analyses are conducted to determine the driving forces of urban expansion. The research results are as follows. Firstly, the area of urban land presented a trend of linear increase, with the expansion intensity index indicating a trend of exponential growth, and gentle expansion alternating with dramatic expansion. Secondly, urban land sprawled in a distinct concentric pattern around one center at first and two centers later. Thirdly, there were five expansion types during the 27 years, including westward-slow-concentrated expansion, westward-slow-scattered expansion, eastward-moderate-scattered expansion, eastward-moderate-concentrated expansion, and westward-dramatic-scattered expansion. Finally, the compactness of urban land fluctuated in 1986–2013, which implies that internal enrichment expansion and external extending appeared alternately. Furthermore, by analyzing natural and social economic data, four factors are considered as driving forces of urban expansion in Pingshuo mining area of China: limitation from landform, relative policies, increase of economy, and the development of mining area. Urban expansion and mining activities have resulted in dramatic landscape changes, which are studied by five landscape metrics. This study provides a typical case of urban expansion in an urban mining composited zone, and the findings can help provide better understanding of the process and mechanism of urban expansion in this kind of area.

Effect of Urban Structure on PM 2.5 in China: A Multiscale Landscape Analysis of 362 Cities

June 2022


77 Reads

Rapid urbanization adversely impacts urban air quality, impacting human health and the ecological environment. However, few studies have systematically explored air quality from the perspective of urban structural evolution. This can be done using two scales: one focusing on microscopic patches and one focusing on the macroscopic built-up area. Based on polycentricity at a city scale, urban growth patterns at a patch scale, and other natural and socioeconomic data for 362 cities in China, this study applied spatial regression models to quantify the impact of urban structure on PM2.5. The PM2.5 data were downloaded from the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data center. The results show the following: (1) at a city scale, the polycentricity index had a significant and negative relationship with PM2.5, the development of polycentric cities supports improvements in air quality; (2) at a patch scale, three urban growth patterns (edge-expansion, outlying, and infilling) all significantly and negatively impact PM2.5. Urban growth continues to increase PM2.5 pollution in China; and (3) road density, the built-up area, population density, land-use mix, and other control variables have an influence on the PM2.5 concentration, and this study verified the existence of a scale effect. In addition, considering the different urban development trajectories of developed and developing countries, this study makes targeted recommendations for urban managers wanting to make reasonable development policies. In general, quantifying the relationship between urban structure and PM2.5 helps provide a scientific basis for city planners and managers to optimize urban layouts.

Comprehensive Evaluation Framework for Sustainable Land Use: Case Study of Hong Kong in 2000–2010

June 2016


109 Reads

Land use is a key component to the sustainability of a city. Land-use planning policy should not be based solely on the hard figures, but also needs observational insights. Existing assessment methods and corresponding indexes may not provide comprehensive evaluation on sustainability practices. Therefore, a qualitative, comprehensive method is required to supplement sustainable land-use evaluation. This study developed a comprehensive evaluation framework embracing views from experts and the public for assessing land-use sustainability and applied it to the case of Hong Kong. Experts were interviewed to explain the relationship between land-use transition and impact factors, and through questionnaire survey, residents provided their ranking scores on the economic, environmental, and social performances to land-use change. A subsequent investigation was then conducted to understand/validate the different opinions given by experts and residents on sustainability. Finally, according to the questionnaire, survey, and supplementary investigation, the evaluation results were calculated and public evaluation criteria were formulated. The result also shows that Hong Kong’s land-use change in 2000–2010 is only marginally sustainable, with Open space to the best and decreased Grassland to the worst. The primary criteria of public requirement in economic, environmental, and social aspects are promoted productivity and labor force, extended natural space, and available resources. The proposed qualitative evaluation framework could be used to obtain the public view on the whole city’s land-use performance, providing new perspectives for planners and decision makers to move a city toward more sustainable land use by mitigating negative impacts, encouraging the most sustainable land-use, and balancing economic, environmental, and social effects. In addition, criteria for land-use assessment developed from a new perspective can be applied in China’s urban systems for sustainability assessment.

Spatial-Temporal Patterns and Driving Forces of Sustainable Urbanization in China Since 2000

December 2019


108 Reads

The urbanization process can have a profound impact on economic development, human society, natural resources, and the environment, and is closely related to sustainable development. As a developing country, China has experienced rapid urbanization that has brought forth not only economic development and income growth but also environmental degradation and an urban–rural income gap. To promote sustainable development during the urbanization process, it is necessary to assess the relative status of sustainable urbanization performance in the different regions of China and explore its driving forces. This study developed an indicator system against the background of China’s urbanization and adopted an improved entropy method to assess the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of urbanization performance in China at both the national and provincial levels. The results suggest that the national sustainable urbanization performance has improved greatly since 1990, in accordance with the increase in the urbanization rate. However, the environmental and social dimensions of urbanization performance lagged greatly behind that of the economic dimension. There was a large regional disparity among the different provinces in the 2000–2014 study period, with the highest aggregate sustainable urbanization levels concentrated in the eastern coastal region, in addition to the spatial disparity decreasing over the study period. Furthermore, the panel data regression analysis indicated that the market was the leading driving force for the different dimensions of sustainable urbanization in China, followed by intrinsic and administration forces. Finally, it is recommended that differentiated strategies should be pursued in different regions. Whereas western and central China mostly need to improve the developmental level of urban sustainability by providing more infrastructure, the eastern provinces require better coordination of the different dimensions of sustainable urbanization. This study not only may provide some policy implications for China to promote its sustainable urbanization but also may serve as a reference for other developing countries.

Vehicle Ownership Modeling Framework for the State of Maryland: Analysis and Trends from 2001 and 2009 NHTS Data

March 2013


37 Reads

This paper presents a vehicle ownership modeling framework for the state of Maryland estimated on data extracted from the 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey. The framework consists of vehicle ownership models and vehicle usage models; the models are based on a wide variety of sociodemographics, land-use variables, and operating cost. The models' results and the deriving sensitivity analyses show that changes in income and unemployment rate or compact development have little effect on vehicle ownership rates. Nevertheless, the combined effect of high density and increase in fuel cost produce a significant reduction in vehicle usage. The vehicle ownership model estimated on 2001 data has been successfully incorporated into the Maryland Statewide Transportation Model (MSTM). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000128. (C) 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Megaevents, Urban Management, and Macroeconomic Policy: 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro

June 2011


27 Reads

The growth of megaevents is related to changes within urban management paradigms and the corresponding economic analysis. As such, urban management and macroeconomic policy must be investigated together. This paper focuses on the relationships between the hosting of the 2007 Pan American (Pan Am) games, the budget management of Rio de Janeiro city, and Brazil's macroeconomic policy, considering both the economic impacts and exploring possible alternative uses of the public resources. The games required a newly built infrastructure, demonstrating that hosting megaevents in developing countries requires more sacrifices than for cities in industrialized countries. These expenditures did not change the control policy of public debt, because the city's management followed the principles of government policy. Therefore, the adjustment of the municipal budget occurred in other expenditures, especially health and education. Finally, Rio de Janeiro municipality did not have enough resources to host the Pan Am games, and the federal government had to promise financial support. Planning megaevents has a new dimension not usually discussed in the economic impact literature: the consequences of megaevents on the federalist equilibrium. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000054. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Expo 2010: Strategic Transformation of Former Industrial Areas by Means of International Events

June 2014


83 Reads

The transformation of former industrial areas is important to urban redevelopment, although such activity is often limited by possible on-site pollution, complicated ownership, and legal constraints. Rather than treating these areas as a problem, many cities recognize the advantages of redeveloping them because of their often central locations. Some are transformed through a temporary city event with the participation and support of external organizations and planned as a part of the urban development. This paper is an in-depth case study on the planning perspectives of Expo 2010, Shanghai, China, a regeneration project on a former industrial site. By scrutinizing the case with the details based on compiling information, contextualizing the project, and comparing the expectation and reality during the preevent, event phase, and postevent phase of the project, it is found that (1) governmental participation plays a key role in the transformation of former industrial area with city event, especially on the site where it has not completely finished its industrial activities; (2) the main motivation and significance of regenerating the former industrial area is to boost city redevelopment in the long term; and (3) a successful transformation is determined by not only the first stage from preevent to event phase but also the second stage from event to postevent phase. All these features provide a deep insight into the redevelopment of a former industrial area.

Using DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS Images to Analyze the Expansion of 21 Urban Agglomerations in Mainland China

September 2021


72 Reads

This study combines the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data with the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (NPP/VIIRS) nighttime light data, to research 21 urban agglomerations in China from 1995 to 2015. The expansion is described by analyzing the changes in the area, expansion intensity, and relative development speed of different urban agglomerations. First, nighttime light image from different sensors are mutually corrected according to eight partitions. Then, the built-up areas are extracted. Lastly, the brightness is calculated to analyze the distribution and characteristics of urban agglomeration. This paper reveals the following results: (1) Urban expansion in the northern and western regions is lagging that of the eastern and southern regions. The eastern region shows the most obvious change for all regions; (2) The Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei have changed the most. Central Guizhou, Chengyu, and Poyang Lake Ring are growing the fastest. Jinzhong, Harbin-Daqing-Changchun, and the Pearl River Delta have the slowest growth intensity; (3) The internal characteristics of urban agglomerations are measured by internal development differences and relative development rates. Moreover, they can be divided into “single-core,” “dual-core,” “group,” or “striped” development modes.

Participatory Landscape Design of New Cities in Egypt: Correlation Model of Related Variables, Case of 6th of October City

March 2014


93 Reads

Participatory landscape has become a strategic concern for achieving sustainable environments and in enhancing the social awareness within the external context of residential neighborhoods. However, few studies have explored the right methodologies for implementing such approaches, and none of them have presented a detailed model that can guide decision makers during its application, especially in the Egyptian communities with their different income and social levels. The paper thus presents a statistical approach for the measurement of the residents' willingness to participate in such processes in comparison with the degree of involvement proposed by practitioners in three neighborhoods of different income and social levels in 6th of October City, as a remarkable example of one of the new Egyptian cities. It deduces statistical correlations between each of the variables representing the degree of residents' participation once according to their willing and another according to practitioners' recommendation for their degree of involvement as compared to the other stakeholders, with the functional, environmental, aesthetical, economic, maintainability, and sociability quality aspects of the landscape that would be achieved upon participation processes. Results highlighted the fact that levels of participation and significance of the roles of other stakeholders vary from one neighborhood to another and also vary according to their impact on the different functional, environmental, aesthetical, economic, maintainability, and sociability landscape qualities. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct such action-oriented research before applying any participatory landscape approaches as there is no single unique model for successful participatory landscape approaches, which should be rather viewed as a dynamic transformation sustained by the local identity of the community, to overcome the contradiction between the recognition of the diversity of cultural practices and the problematic selection criteria of "outstanding universal value."

Participatory Landscape: Better Scenario for Poor Egyptian Urban Settings in Existing and New City Districts—Case of Monshaet Nasser and 6th October City

March 2015


64 Reads

Participatory landscape approaches are currently being positioned as the essential basis for sustainable landscape development. However, with the current democratic transform and the consequent decentralization of the spatial planning policy in Egypt, no practices have been conducted in this field. Accordingly, there is a vital need for coherent and integrated approaches for the practical application of participatory landscape. This paper represents one of a series of research papers targeting this aim. It focuses on poor urban settings in existing informal areas and in new cities' districts, represented by the case studies of Monashaet Nasser and the sixth district in the 6th of October city, respectively, which are used to carry out the questionnaires, followed by a statistical analysis and illustrative causal loop diagrams. The questionnaire integrates measuring local residents' willingness and participation methods together with the practitioners' recommendations for their degree of involvement as compared with the other stakeholders, with the functional, environmental, aesthetical, economic, maintainability, and sociability quality aspects of the landscape that would be achieved. The tests undertaken in this research were carried out through a statistical analysis using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) program, followed by an illustrative analysis for the results represented by the causal loop diagrams, which show a clear representation for the roles of each of the residents and stakeholders in the process. The results illustrate the fact that although the two case studies were from the same economic level, there were variations among most of the findings concerning the local residents' participation method. They indicated that the local residents in existing poor urban settings prefer to participate with their effort only, whereas those living in the poor new cities' districts are willing to participate with their money, time, and effort. Moreover, it was found that the landscape aspects that would be positively affected are the maintainability aspects for the existing area and the sociability aspects for the relatively new district, with traces of negative effects on the functional and aesthetical landscape qualities. This highlights the challenges for the decision makers when constructing their implementation plans, to achieve the balance among all roles of stakeholders to avoid any negative effects and overcome the distrust landscape problems that have been compositely formed upon past participatory experiences, especially in existing poor settings.

Does Land Finance Contraction Accelerate Urban Shrinkage? A Study Based on 84 Key Cities in China

December 2020


68 Reads

After approximately 30 years of sustained and rapid development, some Chinese cities have seen urban shrinkage marked by a decreasing population size. Land finance, which is the second public finance of local governments in China, influences urban development through capital and land supply. It is the primary source of funds for urban infrastructure construction and the driving force behind promoting urban boundary expansion. In the context of the overall downturn of domestic land finance, land finance contraction for shrinking cities may accelerate the further decline of population in these cities. This paper investigated 84 key cities across China between 2008 and 2015 and found that (1) the contraction of land finance has heterogeneous impacts on shrinking cities and nonshrinking cities, which, in turn, has significant catalytic effect on population loss in shrinking cities; and (2) the insufficient replenishment of capital caused by the contraction of land finance in shrinking cities has a more significant impact than the insufficient supply of land. Infrastructure investment has a complete mediation effect in this influencing mechanism.

Fig. 1. Land cover distributions of vacant land: (a) residential land cover [data from City of Baltimore (2015)]; (b) small parks [data from City of Baltimore (2008)]; (c) residential land is subdivided into three density classifications, indicated by shades of gray [data from City of Baltimore (2015)]; (d) locations of point count surveys conducted in 2004-2009 and 2012 in Baltimore
Table 2 . Top Models Affecting the Abundance of Four Focal Species within Baltimore City, Evaluated by Akaike's Information Criterion (Refer to Supplementary Table S2 for All Model Results)
Avian Abundance Patterns in Relation to the Distribution of Small Urban Greenspaces

March 2015


838 Reads

Small urban greenspaces, such as neighborhood parks and private gardens, have often been overlooked or considered unlikely habitat sources owing to their small size, even though they may still provide important nesting and food resources for common songbirds. The objective of this study was to determine the role of small greenspaces, comprising a variety of land-use types, by assessing the distribution and abundance of four common songbird species. Point count data collected by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study were analyzed for four common urban songbirds: American robin (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Vacant land, small parks, and residential land cover within a 200 m radius for each point count location were calculated as a proxy for private lawns and gardens,. Abundance modeling was conducted to determine which land-cover types best predicted the abundance values of each species and the distribution of each species across the city was mapped. American robin abundance was positively associated with small parks and negatively associated with vacant land, indicating that some form of greenspace management might be necessary for American robin use, specifically for foraging in short grass or nesting in younger trees. European starlings were negatively associated with small parks and had the greatest occurrence probability within the densely developed areas of downtown Baltimore. Results from this study can inform landscape planners of the benefits of certain spatial configurations and land uses that could increase urban biodiversity and sustainability.

Explaining Differences in Acceptance Determinants Toward Congestion Charging Policies in Indonesia and Japan

September 2016


83 Reads

Comprehensive stated choice (SC) experiments were conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia, and Nagoya, Japan, where proposals for congestion charges have been introduced and remain under consideration as a way to reduce acute car dependence, particularly in Jakarta. Causal paths among psychological determinants and their strengths are measured and analyzed along with proposal acceptability from a cross-country perspective based on the similar context of the SC experiments. The findings from analysis with a multiple-sample, multipleindicator, multiple-cause (MS-MIMIC) model show that a number of psychological determinants provide an explanation for the acceptability of the proposed scheme in both cities. Psychological motivations, including awareness of the city’s environment and awareness of the problem of cars in society, appear to be the most important direct determinants leading to recognition of the effects of a congestion charging scheme and they are indirect determinants of policy acceptance in both cities. However, the proposed scheme is found to be more correct and acceptable in Jakarta. Findings from analysis further discloses that Nagoya is slightly more car dependent than Jakarta even though congestion is recognized worse in Jakarta. The effect of the specific measure indicator trust in government policy on the perception of correct and acceptable policies is investigated, revealing a negative determinant for Nagoya and vice versa for Jakarta. This indicates the important role of current government performance for achieving acceptability for these proposals. Moreover, findings from analysis with a hybrid discrete choice (HDC) model further suggest that tangible determinants, such as charge scenarios and individual mobility attributes can be a barrier to acceptance in both cities, along with the intangible determinant of inhibition of freedom of movement (IFM). On the other hand, the key intangible determinants recognition of the scheme’s effects (REC) and trust in government policy (TGP) might enhance acceptability of the scheme in Jakarta, while TGP may form a considerable barrier in the case of Nagoya.

Improving Acceptance of More Sustainable Technologies: Exploratory Study in Brazil

June 2017


111 Reads

Several studies on sustainable technologies for the built environment (e.g., green roofs, green walls, etc.) have been carried out. Many of these focus on the technical performance of such technologies. Nonetheless, it also becomes necessary to examine how the public perceives such technologies. This understanding is clearly important to support their widespread use. More specifically, such perception can be incorporated into product design to increase people's acceptance. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it presents results of a survey examining the perception of people from a small city in the Southern region of Brazil (Feliz, RS) regarding three sustainable technologies: green roofs, green walls, and composting (or dry) toilets. Second, it proposes a set of preliminary design guidelines to improve acceptance of more sustainable technologies based on people's perception: (1) make the technology look good; (2) make visible the benefits provided by the technology; and (3) design the technology to avoid misunderstandings and concerns.

Empirical Analysis of a Mode Shift to Using Public Bicycles to Access the Suburban Metro: Survey of Nanjing, China

October 2015


250 Reads

The combined use of a public bicycle system (PBS) and transit is considered a green and efficient travel mode, yet few studies have focused on users' perceptions of this integrated mode. This study investigated commuters who recently began using PBS to access the metro, referred to herein as the metro-PBS, and commuters who drive to work in suburban Nanjing, China, which is an area where PBS is in early developmental stages. First, a survey was conducted to obtain the personal characteristics of the metro-PBS users and their before-andafter commuting experiences. Then, a comparative analysis was performed, which revealed that saving time, energy, and money are the critical motivating factors of their mode shift behavior. The users' personal characteristics vary with their previous modes, but the users are generally characterized as well educated with regard to environmental protection. In contrast to many other bike sharing investigations, the results showed a significant motor vehicle trip substitution. Another survey was conducted to investigate drivers' perceptions of the metro-PBS. Of the respondents, 62.8% exhibited a willingness to change to metro-PBS. A binary logit model was built to reveal the factors affecting mode selection behavior, and the key factors identified were gender, employment status, and the comfort level associated with travel experiences. Male motorists who are lower-level employees or have unpleasant commute experiences are more likely to be attracted to metro- PBS. Based on the findings, suggestions are presented for building a user-friendly metro-PBS system that attracts motorists. This case study concludes that metro-PBS can be an ideal travel mode for suburban commuters and thus can contribute to reducing car travel under some circumstances.

Review of Policies on Access to Transportation Planning Data and Models: Implications for Transportation Planning Agencies

December 2011


28 Reads

Transportation planning agencies receive requests from both public and private entities to share their transportation planning data, models, and model output. In addition, some agencies receive requests from these entities to undertake special model runs on their behalf. Planning agencies have to respond to these requests with consideration, first, of state laws governing access to public information and, second, of the professional staff time required and the significant monetary expenses incurred in the process. Given the adverse state of public finances, planning agencies may face resource challenges in responding to such requests. This paper, first, presents the results of a literature review on data sharing/release policies for the transportation sector. Second, results of a nationwide survey of transportation planning agencies, conducted to identify primary concerns related to data release and cost recovery, are presented. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of these findings for public agencies seeking to develop policies. The literature review points to the need to develop data release and sharing arrangements so that limited public resources can be maximized and to ensure data that is released is well documented so that misuse does not occur. The survey findings indicate that the area of greatest concern for most planning agencies in sharing information is the potential for misinterpretation or misuse of data or models because they have found that often, requesters do not understand the limitations or appropriate uses of the data or models. To address these concerns, this paper makes a strong case for agencies to develop formal data and model release policies and to define a specific cost recovery structure if the agency intends to charge for services.

Relationship of Walk Access Distance to Rapid Rail Transit Stations with Personal Characteristics and Station Context

December 2013


110 Reads

This paper explores the relationship of walk access distance to rapid rail transit (RRT) stations with personal characteristics and station context, specifically in regard to an operated RRT system in the city of Nanjing, China. Both descriptive analysis and regression analysis on the commuter survey are conducted to reveal the association. Descriptive analysis indicates that the walk access distance in the morning peak is longer than that in the afternoon peak. Young commuters walk farther to access to RRT stations than children and older people. The walk access distance decreases with increasing household income. Regression analysis, in particular, on the association between walk access distance and station context suggests that commuters walk farther to reach a terminal station but walk a shorter distance to arrive at a transfer station than to a typical station. The walk access distance to an elevated station is longer than that to an underground station, and an approximately 100-m distance premium does seem to exist. In addition, the radius of the pedestrian catchment area (PCA) of an underground RRT station is about 200-300 m longer than the PCA of bus rapid transit station. Implications of the present study include defining flexible rail transit station's PCAs in estimating urban rail transit (URT) ridership at the station level, optimizing the house location and price premium analysis around URT stations, and identifying the opportunities for transit-oriented development in the PCA of rail stations.

Fig. 2. Analysis area: a 400-m (0.25-mi) buffer zone
Fig. 8. Potential connectivity versus connectivity index
Fig. 10. Ridership variable distributions versus (a) CI category; (b) SAQI category
Explanatory Variables
Features and Aims of NAI, SAQI, PC, and CI
Measuring Walk Access to Transit in Terms of Sidewalk Availability, Quality, and Connectivity

October 2015


1,129 Reads

Walking as the major transit access mode confers health benefits to the public while presenting planners with the challenge of overcoming walk-accessibility costs which deter mass-transit use. The literature indicates sidewalk quality, availability, and street network connectedness are crucial access factors in walking to transit stations. However, the literature has not yielded a pragmatic tool for planners to assess walk access to transit stations in these terms. This paper offers a sidewalk availability and quality index (SAQI) and a connectivity index (CI) which grant insight into the pedestrian-rider's ability to access mass transit through the built environment. The methods are presented through an analysis of the Orange Line bus rapid transit (BRT) in the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles. The analysis of the Orange Line using the SAQI and CI method determines which stops are least accessible to riders and indicates access solutions by identifying the overriding problem along the axes of quantity, quality, and design. Regression analysis concludes that there is a significant positive relationship between sidewalk connectedness and the use of public transportation, indicating the indices are useful as measures of walk-access costs and predictors of ridership.

Spatial Access to Metro Transit Villages and Housing Prices in Seoul, Korea

September 2019


43 Reads

As many cities face traffic congestion, pollution, and urban sprawl, transit villages with transit-oriented development (TOD) and higher ridership have been a core theme for academics and professionals. Evaluating access to metro transit villages with higher transit demand is critical to assess how TOD and changed transit demand affect neighborhoods. Few studies have measured spatial access to metro transit villages by combining street configuration and metro ridership to identify its effects on property prices. This study used five newly developed accessibility and centrality measures to simultaneously capture street configuration and metro ridership within a neighborhood. The empirical models confirmed the effects of accessibility and centrality to metro transit villages on housing prices considering multiple walkable neighborhood scales. The models revealed that accessibility and centrality to metro transit villages with higher ridership were capitalized in higher housing prices within a 2-km network radius. However, prices of houses that were too close to metro stations obtained weaker premiums due to negative externalities such as crowdedness, congestion, and noise. Residents value housing in walkable neighborhoods with dense, interconnected streets directly routed to metro stations, and transit-oriented communities with higher metro ridership.

Valuing Spatial Access to Types of Retail and Effects on the Housing Price in Seoul, Korea

June 2018


48 Reads

The debate over the effects of retail on neighborhoods attracts considerable attention in urban development, land-use planning, and urban design. Particularly, two conflicting theories provide empirical evidence on the positive or negative effects of commercial property on the housing price. Notably, most empirical studies relevant to these theories miss two critical factors, namely, street configuration and types of retail. Thus, this study tests how spatial access to different types of retail affects the housing price within walkable neighborhoods by concurrently considering street configuration and the floor areas of retail types. The empirical models of this study show that access and relative location to local and regional retail stores along streets generate either a housing premium or discount across different neighborhood scales. Specifically, the spatial trade-off between the effects of proximity and disamenity depends on the value residents attach to access different retail types along specific street network configurations.

Interchange between Metro and Other Modes: Access Distance and Catchment Area

April 2016


261 Reads

As a mass transit mode, the metro attracts passengers from a vast area around its stations through various feeding modes such as walking and cycling. This catchment area is important in interchange planning, transit integration and implementation, and demand forecasting, but the conventional airline buffer greatly overestimates the service area. Moreover, other access modes such as cycling and bus have seldom been considered. It is significant to delineate service areas for multiple modes using the network distance. To this end, an approach of determining the access distances and delineating the service coverage for metro stations was established for multiple feeding modes using a network approach. The proposed method was applied to the Beijing metro based on a large survey sample of trip origins. Data on more than four thousand metro trips were collected in a field survey, and the trip origins were retrieved and visualized in a geographic information system (GIS). Using the geocoded information of the metro, bus lines, and road networks of Beijing, the trip distances were calculated for the corresponding networks for all of the trips investigated. The shares of access modes and the distributions of access distances were analyzed. The service areas of all the metro stations were delineated for each mode and visualized in the downtown and suburban areas through a network analysis. The possible applications of the geocoded service areas drawn in this work, such as optimizing the location of the interchange facilities and boosting the cooperation of different transit modes, are discussed.

Impact of Improved Accessibility on Shopping Activity: Person-Based Measure

March 2016


54 Reads

Accessibility has long been considered as an important factor that influences activity generation, especially nonwork activities. However, the conclusions on whether greater accessibility leads to more travel have been mixed. One reason for the conflicting results is that individual heterogeneity is not taken into account in the previous location-based accessibility measures. This paper fills this gap by operationalizing a person-based space-time accessibility (STA) measure based on the individual's spatial-temporal constraints. A discrete-continuous model of shopping activity participation and duration is developed incorporating this STA measure in order to investigate the influences of accessibility on activity generation. Using data from a global positioning system (GPS)-based activity travel survey from the Shangdi area of Beijing, China, this paper confirms that accessibility remains a significant positive effect on shopping activity generation. This implies that an individual's spatial-temporal constraints should be taken into consideration to explore the effect of land use on travel behavior.

Developing Methods for Grading the Accessibility of a Communality’s Infrastructure

September 2012


83 Reads

For people with disabilities, accessibility is a critical aspect of infrastructure that influences their health, quality of life, and ability to participate in community life. Currently, no standard methods exist for assessing a community's accessibility or for accumulating such data across communities. ASCE's report card on the status of America's infrastructure offers a framework for collecting and aggregating data on accessibility, and for using it to advocate for community improvement. In the present study, an assessment for estimating a community's accessibility was developed and pilot tested. The feasibility of the assessment method was tested by observing 297 randomly selected businesses in a city. Aggregated across nine access categories, the city scored 3.32 on a four-point scale, the equivalent of a grade of "B" on ASCE's scale. However, 28 (10%) businesses met "access failure" criteria-having at least one barrier that precluded access to a person using a wheelchair. On average, infrastructure maintained by private businesses was more accessible than the same observed elements maintained by the municipality. This approach could be expanded to include other elements of community accessibility-transportation, housing, and information-to develop report cards on community accessibility atthe local and state levels. Data on accessibility collected systematically and longitudinally would benefit policy makers, planners, and disability advocates. Achieving and maintaining the infrastructure's accessibility would benefit everyone.

Impact of Feeder Accessibility on High-Speed Rail Share: Wuhan–Guangzhou Corridor, China

December 2018


229 Reads

The location of a high-speed rail (HSR) station influences passenger flow distribution, land use pattern, and the ridership of a HSR. Therefore, the planning of HSR routes and stations requires special attention. This study aims to investigate the impact of feeder accessibility on HSR share along the Wuhan-Guangzhou corridor and explore individuals' willingness to pay for feeder and trunk service. Moreover, characteristics of people who are inclined to choose HSR and air are studied. Because mixed logit (ML) can accommodate population heterogeneity, it is used to explain passenger behavior. Estimation results indicate that a lognormal ML model is significantly better than multinomial logit (MNL) and normal ML models in terms of goodness of fit. The value of willingness-to-pay from the lognormal ML model is also more reasonable. One Chinese yuan of feeder cost equals around CNY 5 of trunk cost, which can provide some implications for price decision-making. Finally, the sensitivity of intercity mode share change is tested. Sensitivity analysis also suggests that feeder accessibility is crucial in enhancing the ridership, and no winner is produced in the price battle between HSR and air.

Accessibility of Multimode Transport Facilities to Suburban Tourist Attractions: Analysis Based on Meso- or Microcommunity Scale in Beijing

September 2021


60 Reads

This paper aims to evaluate the accessibility of multimode transport facilities to suburban tourist attractions, under the background of detailed needs of tour transportation planning and urban development. Accessible, convenient, and sustainable tour transportation network is the prerequisite for tourists entering tourist attractions and completing activities. Based on multisource data and the GIS network analysis method, an accessibility model of suburban tourist attractions at community scale was constructed combining population with average shortest travel distances (ASTD) or the average minimum travel time (AMTT) by auto, public transport, and bike. Taking Beijing as an empirical analysis, the main conclusions are as follows. (1) The spatial distribution of suburban tourist attractions is fan-shaped with tourism resources mainly gathering on the north, west, and south of Beijing. (2) The ASTDs of tourist attractions and communities are 73.11 and 69.40 km, respectively. The average nonlinearity coefficient of ASTD of tourist attractions is divided into three categories including high, medium and low convenience, accounting for 0%, 78.57%, and 21.43%, respectively. (3) The accessibility of suburban tourist attractions has obvious spatial difference under multimode traffic network, showing an attenuation phenomenon of diffusion from the city center to suburbs. A total of 98.21% of them can be reached within 2 h by auto, while that number drops to 37.50% by public transport, and 32.14% by bike. The proposed model applicable for the accessibility of suburban tourist attractions provides reference for in-depth description and optimization of the actual traffic accessibility, as well as tourism transportation planning within the city region.

Trail Network Accessibility: Analyzing Collector Pathways to Support Pedestrian and Cycling Mobility

July 2016


52 Reads

Opportunities for trail development are emerging as pedestrian and cycling mobility is in demand. Similar to the arterial, collector, and local road classifications, pathways can also be analyzed to support network connectivity. A trail can be considered an arterial, while segments providing direct access to the trail represent collectors. Analyzing high priority collector pathways can provide accessibility and expansion in network connectivity for nonvehicular modes. This research aims to address this need through two objectives: (1) the development of the trail collector analysis (TCA) methodology; and (2) the application of TCA to the Buffalo Valley Rail Trail in Union County, Pennsylvania, as a case study. The method is based on identifying existing demand and applying factors based on mobility, location, infrastructure condition, and safety. Local recommendations are provided based on the results of the TCA case study including possible improvements to four collector pathways. Recommendations are also provided based on the implementation of the method so that the TCA tool can support transportation planners, specifically with regard to trail network decision-making to promote sustainable mobility.