Journal of Travel Research

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0047-2875
Publications
Article
Tourist demand is subject to considerable variations, a fact that aggravates the development of forecast models of sufficiently adequate accuracy. This study develops models that permit including most, if not all, factors of influence. To this end, due consideration was given to calendar effects as well as unknown special effects in time-series models and econometric approaches in an attempt to improve the quality of the forecast. Results showed that, for the data set used, a combination of complex data adjustment procedures and adequate model structures substantially improved the accuracy of the forecast, or, in other words, that simple approaches lose out to more complex ones. Accordingly, the central issue of this study, that is, whether complexity matters, can certainly be answered quite simply for the Austrian data set used by “Yes, it does.”
 
B Tourism's Forward and Backward Linkages in the Hawaii Economy: 1997
Article
This paper proposes “linkage analysis” as a complement to the traditional “tourism impact analysis” to examine tourism’s economic imprints on a destination’s economy. Although related, the two methods are not the same. The starting point of tourism “impact analysis” is “final demand”; impact analysis measures the direct and indirect impacts of tourist spending on the local economy. By contrast, the starting point of “linkage analysis” is the tourism sector; the analysis examines the strengths of the inter-sectoral forward (FL) and backward (BL) relationships between the tourism sector and the non-tourism industries in the rest of the economy. The FL measures the relative importance of the tourism sector as supplier to the other (non-tourism) industries in the economy whereas the BL measures its relative importance as demander. Directly applying conventional linkage analysis to tourism is not straightforward because tourism is not a defined industry. Thus we develop a methodology to calculate tourism’s forward and backward linkages using information from national, regional, or local input-output tables and demonstrate its utility by applying it to Hawaii.
 
Article
As of the late winter season of 2009 it has become obvious that the Austrian tourism industry can no longer escape the effects of the slowdown in international demand. Consequent to lagging adjustments to negative income and labour market expectations, the steep decline in tourism demand is expected to be further exacerbated throughout 2009. In 2009, the effects of the international credit crunch and economic crisis and the resultant slump across all sectors of the economy will cause international demand for foreign travel in the EU 15 to drop by 4.5 percent in real terms, although the decline should slow down significantly in 1010 (–1 percent).
 
Article
This article applies a combination of a diffusion model and a traditional tourism demand model for visitor demand estimation. The diffusion model assumes that information is transmitted to a society’s potential consumers through various different information channels. The traditional model suggests, however, that tourism, according to economic theory, depends mainly on fares, income, exchange rates, and dummy variables. Using data for tourists to the Balearic Islands, we found evidence that individuals undergo a prior process of acquiring information before deciding to visit a particular destination.
 
Article
Pine and Gilmore (1998) set out the vision for a new economic era: the ‘experience economy’ in which consumers are in search of extraordinary and memorable experiences. Since then, a rich body of research on applications of the experience economy concepts has appeared in the marketing literature. However, academic investigations on the measurement of tourism experiences are very recent. Drawing on Oh, Fiore and Jeoung (2007) conceptualization of tourism experiences, the purpose of this paper are twofold: to identify the underlying dimensions of cruisers’ experiences; and to investigate the relationship between cruisers’ experiences, satisfaction and intention to recommend. Overall, findings of this study enhance theoretical progress on the experiential concept in tourism and offer important implications for cruise marketers
 
Schematic representation of tourism downturn and recovery  
Direct Tourism Related Sales and Tourism Employment in the US: 2000-04 
Article
This article reviews recent trends in travel and tourism in the United States and Hawaii to ascertain how the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and subsequent terrible global events affected tourism flows. United States tourism has not recovered fully from 9/11 and other international shocks; indeed, recovery may be a long way off. By contrast, Hawaii tourism is enjoying robust growth in the aftermath of 9/11 as growth in tourist arrivals from the mainland has offset declines in international visitors. We suggest that Hawaii’s current tourism boom is explained in part by the diversion of United States travel from foreign travel. The article demonstrates the usefulness of vector error correction models to generate dynamic visitor forecasts, which we use to determine whether tourism in Hawaii has recovered fully from 9/11 and other terrible international events. The article considers policy options for facilitating the recovery of international tourism to the United States.
 
Article
The following paragraphs briefly summarize the 20th Anniversary Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association held in Honolulu, Hawaii. Conference registrants and members of TTRA will automatically receive a copy of the conference proceedings when they are published. Other readers who wish to receive a copy of the proceedings may order copies from Mari Lou Wood, Executive Director, TTRA, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Utah, P.O. Box 58066, Foothill Station, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158.
 
Article
Using consumer demand analysis to separate the factors affecting travel, this paper analyzes the impact of on-going and one-time events on travel from the U. S. to Europe in the summer of 1986. The results suggest that, barring the dramatic one-time deterrents to travel in that year, travel to Europe in 1986 would have exceeded 1985 levels.
 
Article
This article describes research related to the XV Olympic Winter Games to be held in Calgary. An overview of a comprehensive ideal research program is given, initial economic impacts of the games are summarized, and findings from a May 1983 survey of Calgary residents are presented.
 
Article
This study examined what impact, if any, the Yellowstone National Park fires of 1988 will have on future visitation to the park. Both on- and off-site surveys suggested that visitation levels to Yellowstone in both near and long term are likely to remain about the same or increase.
 
Article
This report presents the highlights of the conference held March 13–14, 1989 at the Gloucester Hotel in London, England, sponsored by Tourism Management and the University of Surrey. Papers presented at the conference will appear in the Fall 1989 issue of Tourism Management.
 
Article
This report briefly summarizes selected highlights of the 1998 Travel Outlook Forum, sponsored by the Travel Industry Association of America. Copies of the 1998 Outlook for Travel and Tourism are available from the Travel Industry Association, 1100 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 450, Washington, DC 20005 for $175. Tapes of the conference are available from Wells Walker and Co., Inc., 7406 Alban Station Court, B-212, Springfield, VA 22150.
 
Article
This paper examines two related methods for estimating selected environmental effects of tourism consumption associated with major events. Monitoring and evaluation procedures for major events require that event promoters and managers understand how levered tourism consumption creates both economic and environmental effects. This process is however far from straightforward. The article focuses on the case of the UK stages of the 2007 Tour de France and describes two interrelated methods for examining environmental effects. The article shows that the methods adopted can be linked to more common economic impact assessments. With respect to the Tour de France event, the paper demonstrates that the approaches when combined provide useful information for policy makers, particularly in terms of how changes in travel behavior could significantly reduce the environmental consequences of major events.
 
Article
In this article, the authors forecast Japanese international travel to 2025. In addition to the usual economic variables, their model also captures both population aging and birth cohort effects on Japanese travel abroad. They predict the number of future Japanese overseas trips for males and females separately by 5-year age groups and in 5-year increments and conclude that the Japanese will continue to travel abroad in increasing numbers but that population aging will dramatically slow the rate of growth of future Japanese overseas travel. Although the number of overseas trips taken by “seniors” is predicted to increase sharply, the authors foresee fewer trips taken by the Japanese in the 20s and early 30s age groups. Finally, they examine the responses of the industry and the public sector in Japan to implications of a rapidly aging population on future international travel.
 
Article
More than a decade has passed since the Travel Industry Association investigated adventure travel as a promising market. Despite growth in the adventure industry, studies of adventure travelers remain scarce, particularly in the identification of the psychological underpinnings of consumer adventurers. Mowen’s (2000) 3M Model of Motivation and Personality provided an organizing framework to explain the psychological roots of adventure tourism behavior. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a random sample (N = 1000) of National Geographic Adventure magazine subscribers with a response rate (n = 339) of 34%. Guttman Scaling Procedure was employed to categorize respondents in hard and soft adventure traveler categories as a context for understanding the demographic and travel behavior characteristics. The personality trait interest in cultural experiences was a consistent predictor of adventure travel propensity for hard and soft adventure traveler groups. The traits need for arousal and need for material resources were significant predictors for the hard adventure traveler group, while competitiveness was the other trait found to be a significant predictor for the soft adventure traveler group. Findings of this study enhance knowledge and understanding of the relationship between personality and tourism behavior.
 
Article
In 2002, as part of the Acadia National Park Field Operational Test, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) components were deployed to help visitors travel around Mount Desert Island and in Acadia National Park. Real-time travel information was collected and integrated with Island Explorer buses and disseminated to visitors via an automated annunciator that transmitted an audio message and displayed the next bus stop on an electronic sign within the bus. Also, electronic signs displayed real-time departure times of the next Island Explorer bus at bus stops. Visitors could also obtain real-time parking conditions at two popular destinations in the park. Using data from surveys of visitors from July 29, 2002, to September 1, 2002, this article describes visit and visitor characteristics and their experiences using the traveler information. The implications of ITS as a tool for addressing transportation problems and enhancing visitor experience with the park are discussed.
 
Variable Names and Definitions of Variables Used in the Analysis 
Estimation Results of the Bivariate Probit Model (Residents vs. Tourists) Residents Tourists Variable Coefficient t value Coefficient t value 
Estimation Results of the Bivariate Probit Model (Segmented Groups) 
Estimated Willingness-to-Pay Values and Their Comparisons (Residents vs. Tourists) Residents Tourists 
Article
In the United States, an objective of coastal states is providing sufficient access to coastal resources. To better utilize public resources for such projects, decision makers would benefit from possessing reliable estimates of economic values coastal residents and tourists place on public beach access. This study’s purpose is to estimate the economic values coastal residents and tourists assign to public beach access, and provide options for financing such projects. Estimates of these values were calculated using the doubled-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation technique. Results indicated that coastal residents were willing to pay $2.46 for additional public beach access, while coastal tourists’ mean willingness to pay was $6.33. Findings suggest additional public beach access locations are desirable to both coastal residents and tourists. Supplying coastal resource managers with these values can assist in justifying the use of public resources on beach access projects, as well as in the development of long-term policies.
 
Article
This article describes an efficient, systematic procedure for ranking the accessibility and centrality of stations, using graph theoretic methods to identify pivotal and marginal points. Alitalia Airlines' Far East route structure and South African Airlines' domestic network are used to illustrate the model and its implications on the strategic location of headquarters, technical support services, conference sites and tourist attractions. The impact on aircraft deployment is also examined. The article addresses the logistical implications of the addition or deletion of new sectors or stations by way of sensitivity analysis and anticipates the growth of hub and spoke airline networks to increase total network connectivity and accessibility.
 
Article
This article reviews the worldwide implementation of tourism satellite accounts (TSA) at the national level to examine the experiences of countries with TSA projects and to identify the problems encountered by those implementing the new 2001 international standard. The study is based on results from responses to a metadata survey sent to national tourism administrations and central statistical offices in 62 countries. The results reveal that an increasing number of countries are developing a TSA following the approach of the UNWTO Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA-RMF). Nevertheless, a number of variations exist in the implementation of the TSARMF standard, including the extent of coverage of all forms of visitor consumption and tourism supply as well as differences in the interpretation and treatment of certain key concepts such as business travel, value added, and gross domestic product. These variations limit, for now, the comparability of TSA results between countries.
 
ESTIMATED EMISSIONS AND WASTE IMPACT OF BRECON JAZZ (2000)
Article
This article demonstrates how selected environmental consequences of tourism consumption relating to carbon emissions and waste can be quantified using a tourism satel- lite account (TSA), and an environmental module associated with an input-output framework. We move beyond the basic identification of the environmental effects of tourism con- sumption and seek to measure them. We show the types of information that can be derived from the framework, the applicative difficulties of reconciling tourism consumption to environmental outcomes, and explore the practical usage of the framework adopted. We believe that steps taken in the case to examine selected environmental effects of tourism consumption have a universal relevance for tourism policy makers.
 
Article
Using the concepts of Ecological Systems Theory and Density of Acquaintance, this study was developed to explore the relationship between rural North Carolina residents’ characteristics and their perceptions of entrepreneurial climate (e-climate). The North Carolina Community Assessment for Tourism and Entrepreneurial Climate Study was developed to determine which factors influence how residents view their community e-climate, an important antecedent to tourism success, in their community. Four categories of hypotheses were developed focusing on a resident’s (1) residential tenure and nativity, (2) community involvement through volunteerism, (3) employment, and (4) entrepreneurial self-perception were developed. The first three categories included variables measuring residents’ Density of Acquaintance; the fourth category addressed residents’ perceptions of themselves concerning entrepreneurial activity in both their paid and volunteer work. Findings indicated that residential tenure and amount of volunteerism had the greatest influence on perceived e-climate. The most commonly differentiated factor of e-climate was consistently Training and Assistance.
 
Article
Understanding family/spousal vacation decision making is important to tourism marketers. Twenty-five years ago, Jenkins divided the process into multiple subdecisions, such as where to visit or how much to spend, and studied how a sample of U.S. families allocated their decision-making responsibility for these decisions between the spouses. The current research, based on Jenkins’s work, uses recent data extracted from two sample populations, one from the United States and the other composed of Singaporean couples, to revisit the question. Whereas Jenkins found a large percentage of decision making to have been “husband-dominant,” the current studies each found a significant trend toward joint decision making. The article discusses the apparent trend and suggests, a generation after Jenkins’ work, how these new findings may be of value to tourism marketers promoting the family vacation product.
 
Article
South Dakota and three other states may lose 10% of their federal aid highway funds for 1978 and 1979 due to their noncompliance with the provisions of the 1965 Federal Highway Beautification Act. This article describes a study undertaken at the request of the South Dakota legislature to determine the economic impact on South Dakota and its regions of removal of outdoor advertising signs which are nonconforming under Federal statute. Economic regions are defined, survey methodology described, and results and limitations of the study discussed.
 
Article
Market segmentation is a very popular and broadly accepted way of increasing profitability. The number of reports published on a posteriori market segmentation studies has rapidly increased since Russel Haley’s milestone publication on benefit segmentation in 1968. Nevertheless, it is common practice in market segmentation to use a single segmentation base only, thus choosing the main dimensions of interest a priori, and to run a single calculation of a single algorithm, which dramatically increases the chance of building an entire marketing plan on a random solution of the algorithm chosen. The application presented constructs winter vacation styles on the basis of Austrian Guest Survey data, avoiding both weaknesses mentioned before. Through the replicative framework provided by bagged clustering, potentially suboptimal random solutions are avoided. Independent partitioning of vacation activities and travel motives leads to more holistic market segments. By looking for over- and under-representation of all combinations of the behavioral and psychographic segmentation, vacation styles are identified and studied in detail.
 
Article
Cluster analysis of survey responses from 804 visitors to national parks in Australia’s Gold Coast hinterland indicated variable proclivity to participate in diverse site enhancement activities. The “enthused” (8%) are willing to engage in focused activism such as planting trees, and incidental activism such as opportunistic litter removal. Willingness to donate and pay an entry fee is also evident. Conversely, the “disengaged” (17%) are mostly unsupportive. Intermediate “incidentally enthused” (12%), “amenable” (25%), “casual” (12%), and “incidental” (26%) clusters display decreasing enthusiasm for focused activism but sustained support for incidental activism. Enthusiasm associates with altruistic values, environmental concern, self-empowerment, moral obligation, hard ecotourism tendencies, site loyalty, local residence, and age. The results suggest a small core of potential engagement with conventional volunteer tourism activity, but widespread support for unconventional and convenient activities that may serve as a platform for higher engagement with site enhancement.
 
Article
Intention to return is often used as a surrogate measure for actual repeat propensity, especially in loyalty studies. A direct, predictive correlation is assumed to exist between intention and actual repeat visitation rates in accordance with the principles of the theory of planned behavior. However, the existence of such a relationship has rarely if ever been tested empirically in a tourism context, and as such, the validity of this assumption is open to question. This article examines that relationship through an analysis of secondary data provided by a number of National Tourism Organizations. Two tests are conducted, one using longitudinal data from 30 markets that visited either Hong Kong or New Zealand, and a second one using cross-sectional data from 152 markets that visited 16 destinations. The study determined that no statistically significant correlation exists between intention and actual repeat visitation rates, primarily because intention is typically measured as a vague aspiration and not in a probabilistic manner.
 
Article
This article reports consumer behavior literature pertaining to the absolute size of evoked sets; the concept is broadened to inept and inert sets within the awareness sets perceived by potential buyers. The concept is further broadened from products to nonproduct classes. The paper describes a study of travel destination choice behavior undertaken among a sample of visitors to Tennessee, comparing those results with a similar study of visitors in South Carolina reported earlier in this journal. Suggestions for further research arise from these efforts.
 
COMPOSITE DOMINANT NONTRAVEL-RELATED CONSTRAINT PATH FOR ANDY HILL
Article
Ecological systems theory and research focus on describingand explaining the thoughts and actions of individuals and groups within specific contexts of their lives. This article applies ecological systems theory to examine the contextual facilitating and constraining factors in the thoughts and actions of individuals regarding work, leisure, and travel alternatives. The article presents the results of a case research study of five Australian households with thought protocol data on these households’ lived experiences in work, leisure, and travel, and learning how they compare “ noncomparable” leisure expenditure options; the discussion leads to advancing macroecological and microecological systems theory in leisure travel behavior. The article includes suggestions for future research and implications for tourism marketing strategy.
 
Article
This survey study examines whether tourism businesses that have developed systematic processes and procedures for new product development (i.e., firms that have new product development [NPD] proficiencies) perform better than those that do not. The study outlines the concept of NPD proficiency, which is conceptualized as a second-order reflective construct, whose first-order facets include opportunity analysis, technical development, product testing, and product commercialization. A model is developed in which product advantage is hypothesized to be a key mediating variable between NPD proficiency and three important indicators of tourism business performance—price premium, capacity utilization, and profitability. The model is tested using data collected from the Norwegian hotel industry. The findings provide support for the view that NPD proficiency influences positively product advantage, which, in turn, both directly and indirectly influences tourism business performance.
 
Article
Two imagery-evoking strategies are examined to determine their effectiveness for producing an elaborate consumption vision. Specifically, a 3 x 3 factorial experimental design is employed to examine the effects of pictures and text as advertising stimuli to evoke elaborate consumption visions among the participants, within the context of holiday decision-making. A MANOVA revealed a main effect for each of the two stimuli. The presence of more concrete pictures contributed to the extent of elaboration and quality of consumers' consumption visions. Furthermore, the addition of concrete words together with instructions to imagine increased the elaboration and quality of the consumption vision. A significant interaction effect between the picture and text variables demonstrated that combining instructions to imagine with concrete pictures is the most efficacious strategy. The paper discusses the implications of the findings for theory as well as offering an application of the results for tourism destination marketers. Yes Yes
 
Article
Limited emphasis has been placed upon empirically verifying the relationship between destination image and tourist patronage behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of city destination image along with other important variables on the travel behavior of near-home tourists living in small communities. The findings of this study show destination image, distance, family income, perceived expensiveness, and age to be influential factors on near-home travel. As well, the multiattribute attitude model has been used to calculate an image score of city destinations for near-home tourists. Substitution of this score for the unidimensional measure of image in the model causes no major changes in the findings of this study.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to better understand factors underlying local residents’ responses to mega event development. The authors suggest that residents’ intention to give or withhold support of hosting an event in the community can be viewed as a social dilemma and examine the effects of event publicity, perceived fairness of event portrayal, and residents’ commitment to the event. In a field study that assesses the impact of 2012 Olympic and Paralympic sailing events on residents at Weymouth and Portland, United Kingdom, the study finds that event publicity is linked to residents’ supporting behaviors indirectly through commitment. Perceived fairness of event portrayal is identified as a moderator of the event publicity effect. Specifically, when media reports of the event are considered biased or unfair, the effect of both positive and negative event publicity is attenuated. The findings have implications for event organizations and local authorities in stakeholder relationship management.
 
Article
As an instrument of economic development, tourism is a highly competitive industry intranationally and internationally. Its primary economic impacts are the generation of revenues and employment. Mensurational problems complicate analysis of tourism, e.g., separating the impacts on employment of business-related versus recreational travel. The study analyzes the influence of various factors on the level of travel employment by state. Employment figures are seasonally adjusted to allow valid comparison of states. Identifying the variables that correspond with high levels of travel employment may explain regional variations in such employment. It may also help distinguish between states with high rates of business-related travel employment versus true tourism employment. The study also examines the effectiveness of states' promotional advertising expenditures in generating employment. A multiple linear regression model is used for the statistical analysis.
 
Article
The destination image and positioning studies in tourism have been limited to those dealing with the image's perceptual or cognitive component. This study examined the applicability of Russel and his colleagues' proposed affective space structure to large-scale environments (i. e., tourism destination countries) as well as its potential as a positioning structure to study affective images of tourism destinations. The multidimensional scaling analysis of 11 Mediterranean countries along with proposed affective space structure indicated that Russel and his colleagues' proposed affective space can also be applied to places that are not perceived directly. It also showed potential for studying the affective image positioning of tourism destinations. The article concludes with some theoretical and practical implications and future research areas regarding tourism destination images.
 
Russel, Ward and Pratt's (1981) Affective Response Grid
PA Matrix
Four Factor IPA
Affective Response Matrix
Article
There has been exponential growth in the number of studies of destination image appearing in the tourism literature. However, few have addressed the issues of destination positioning analysis and the role of affective perceptions. This paper analyses the market positions held by a competitive set of destinations, through a comparison of cognitive, affective and conative perceptions. Cognition was identified by trialing a factor analytic adaptation of importance-performance analysis. Affect was measured using an affective response grid, while conation was gauged by stated intent to visit. The alignment of the results from these techniques identified leadership positions held by two quite different destinations on two quite different dimensions of destination attractiveness. It is suggested this method of positioning analysis offers a practical means for destination marketers faced with the challenge of identifying the one or few features from their diverse and multi-attributed product range that could be developed by to differentiate their destination in a meaningful way to consumers.
 
Article
This study examines attitudes and opinions of local residents regarding place marketing and identifies the role of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components in residents’ positive or negative attitudes toward place marketing. The conceptual model is developed based on attitude, reasoned action, and social exchange theories. Data are collected across several destination areas at different levels of tourism development to test Doxey’s Irridex model. Results show an adequate role of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components on positive or negative attitude formation in place marketing. Personal benefit from tourism is relevant for moderating the relationship between the three components and attitudes toward place marketing. Results imply residents from the least developed tourism county are more optimistic about increasing the local tourism economic growth as they are in the beginning stage of tourism development compared with the moderately and most developed counties, where some residents openly express a strong dislike of tourists.
 
Article
This article reports the details of an investigation into tourists’ responses to poverty in four Southern African countries. The study was guided by concepts from positive psychology, notably discussion on the value of emotions and emotional experiences. Initially, nearly 300 Internet travel stories were coded. These stories were drawn systematically from more than 5,000 stories about Southern Africa. Observations about poverty occurred in 11.5% of all stories. In a second phase of the work, the emotions expressed in the poverty-oriented accounts were used to guide the construction of a taxonomy of tourists’ responses. These response types were defined as disengagement, compartmentalization, the lucky self, sympathy/empathy, and corrective action. The value and complexities of using travel Internet stories as data were considered. Further pathways between the present work and the complex issue of poverty alleviation through tourism were noted.
 
Article
Local arts agencies have entered the local ecology of destination management in the United States as part of the network of organizations seeking to attract cultural tourists. This role has been virtually ignored in both the tourism and the community arts literatures. A national survey of local arts agencies reflects a substantial proportion that report involvement in cultural tourism development. Narrative analysis of descriptions of cultural tourism strategy reveals a range of activities, especially strategic marketing, development of products, and organizational learning through collaborative partnerships. Unexpected among destination management organizations, we learn that local arts agencies are substantially involved in the development of cultural products geared toward facilitating tourism. We propose that future research on destination management should recognize the position and value of local arts agencies in community-level development of cultural tourism.
 
Descriptors in relation to inclusion of travel agencies 
Article
This article provides insight into alternative strategies for travel agencies in a matured travel market with a high Internet penetration. Discounting arguments that claim that there will be no need for travel agents in the future, two possible roles for travel agents can be derived from theory and prior studies in the field: travel agents can survive if they focus on specific specialized services, such as travel consultation (specialization; hypothesizing that systematic differences exist between the usage of travel agents for different travel contexts); and travel agents can survive if they focus on specific segments of the market, such as older travelers (segmentation; hypothesizing that systematic differences exist between the usage of travel agents depending on the personal characteristics of travelers). Results indicate that the use of travel agencies is indeed associated with specific services related to package holidays, transport services, beach or city holidays, as well as destinations travelers are not familiar with. In contrast, no clear association between travel agent use and sociodemographic characteristics of travelers exists. Hence, the findings from this study support the notion that the most promising future for travel agents will lie in specializing in travel contexts and travel components where other booking channels and media are unlikely to be able to offer a full substitute for travel agent services.
 
Results of Mystery Shopping Exercise
Model Indicating the Role and Influence of the Travel Agent in the UK  
Article
The objectives of this study were to understand the factors that influence travel agency recommendations in the U.K. The objectives were achieved using a mixture of focus groups, interviews and Mystery Shoppers. Exploration into the process of choosing a holiday showed that the brochure plays an important role for many consumers. However, for the travel agent the brochure is low priority, and even when the brochure is used, the travel agent often has a considerable amount of influence. Whether or not the agency is vertically integrated has considerable influence on the recommendation process. Based on analysis of the interviews and focus groups, a model was developed, and tested using Mystery Shoppers. Results from investigating 156 travel agents across the U.K. indicate that many travel agents owned by large tour operators, will attempt to push the holidays of their parent company rather than give impartial advise to consumers. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
 
Article
This article reports the findings of a British study of criteria for selection of a travel agency for a foreign package tour. Respondents were divided into two age groups—those under 45 and those 45 and over—and the differences in preferences between age groups are described.
 
Top Five Nominal Order-Ranked Management Research Priorities-TTRA Conference Dialogue Participants 2011 
Article
The Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) creates networking opportunities to share perspectives on research issues related to the planning and marketing of travel and tourism. While its publications offer numerous suggestions for case- and context-specific research, rarely have attempts been made to develop a membership-wide agenda of priority topics. In an age of increasing resource scarcity and calls for accountability, the need for such an agenda is growing. This study prioritizes management- and method-related research topics deemed by TTRA members to be critical to travel and tourism decision makers over the next decade. It describes the member-based process used to establish these priorities, and suggests specific directions for investigations associated with each of them. It calls for greater dialogue around the relative priority placed on these topics by practitioners and academics within TTRA, as well as extending the discussion to other influential industry and professional travel and tourism organizations.
 
Article
The 1991 conference of the Canada Chapter of the Travel and Tourism Research Association was designed to facilitate the development of an initial research agenda for tourism, sustainable development and the environment. By the selection of topics and the format of the panels and workshops, the conference was organized to allow for a broad exchange of experience, opinion and contrasting views on the state of research now and to suggest needs for the future. The agenda which follows is an attempt to synthesize the material brought before the conference into a proposal that will act as a starting point for future research. It is based on the assumption that there will not be more research money: existing or reduced resource levels will be the norm in both the public and the private sectors. It is also based on the assumption that all parts of tourism must be involved and that the information produced by the research must lead to action.
 
Article
"The purpose of this study was to explore the potentially gendered nature of motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship among Virginia farm families. Three elements of Chaippe and Flora's [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372–393] modification of Beus and Dunlap's [Conventional versus alternative agriculture: The paradigmatic roots of the debate. Rural Sociology, 55(4), 590–616] alternative agricultural paradigm were tested as a possible theoretical framework for agritourism motivation. Chiappe and Flora [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372–393] found that overall the alternative agriculture goals of men and women were similar: for example, both men and women were seeking independence, an opportunity to contribute to the community, and diversity of product. However, there were very different meanings and contexts attached to each of these ideas. For example, when discussing independence, women were more focused on ''expense reducing'' rather than the ''income-inducing'' activities preferred by their male counterparts. Results of this study indicate that women were found to have higher motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship in all categories, but not consistently significant or in ways that necessarily supported the framework." Yes Yes
 
Article
DOI: 10.1177/0047287504268235 The linear almost ideal demand system (LAIDS), in both static and dynamic forms, is examined in the context of international tourism demand. The superiority of the dynamic error correction LAIDS compared to its static counterpart is demonstrated in terms of both the acceptability of theoretical restrictions and forecasting accuracy, using a data set on the expenditure of U.K. tourists in 22 Western European countries. Both long-run and short-run demand elasticities are calculated. The expenditure elasticities show that traveling to most major destinations in Western Europe appears to be a luxury for U.K. tourists in the long run. The demand for travel to these destinations by U.K. tourists is also likely to be more price elastic in the long run than in the short run. The calculated cross-price elasticities suggest that the substitution/complementarity effects vary from destination to destination.
 
Article
Using a modified version of the Technology Acceptance Model, this study examines travelers’ voluntary adoption of registered traveler biometric systems. Such systems have important consequences for general air travel security, while improving the experiences of registered travelers. This study shows that air travelers’ intentions to use registered traveler biometric systems are influenced by their attitudes toward these systems, which in turn are strongly affected by their perceptions of usefulness, privacy, and to a lesser extent, by ease of use. This study also establishes the critical roles of perceived security and innovativeness toward information technology as indirect antecedents of travelers’ intentions to use registered traveler biometric systems.
 
Article
We estimate the impact of additional costs imposed on airlines by the European Union (EU) Emissions Trading System (ETS) on tourist arrivals in 26 Caribbean states. At an EU emission allowance price of €10, we find that the policy will, on average, increase return airfares from Europe to the Caribbean by $17 for indirect flights and $21 for direct flights. These price changes reduce region-wide arrivals to the Caribbean from the EU by between 1.4% and 2%, and decrease total arrivals (from all regions) by less than 0.4%. The decrease in total arrivals is the largest for Martinique (1.7%), and relatively large decreases are also predicted for Antigua and Barbuda, Bonaire, Barbados, Curacao, and Suriname. We conclude that the EU ETS will have a moderate impact on visitor arrivals relative to the United Kingdom’s Air Passenger Duty (APD) and the European financial crisis.
 
Article
This article examines the international and national regulatory measures relating to the carriage of elderly and disabled persons by air that have been adopted, and recommends proposals and guidelines that air carriers and airport administrations throughout the world could follow, so that such carriage can be facilitated.
 
The hypothesized model  
The price fairness model
Structural Paths of Structural Model 2 
Article
Charging airline fees has recently been a controversial issue in terms of price fairness. Nonetheless, few researchers have studied price fairness in the tourism literature. This study aimed to examine the antecedents and consequences of tourists’ perceived price fairness of ancillary revenues. From an attributional perspective, a conceptual model was expected to complement shortcomings of the traditional dual entitlement principle. Data were collected from U.S. domestic airline passengers through an online survey (n = 524) and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results suggest that price comparison and cognitive attribution influence price fairness, which, in turn, leads to emotional response and behavioral intentions. Results provide potentially important directions for the development of a theoretical framework of price fairness in a tourism context. It is further expected that the findings of this study provide managerial guidance for the utilization of marketing strategy for airline management.
 
Article
Demand and revenue management are critical to achieving financial success in the competitive airline industry. This article examines the optimal allocation of available seats to different classes of airfare and provides hypothetical and numerical examples that illustrate the mathematical models.
 
Top-cited authors
John Crompton
  • Texas A&M University
James Petrick
  • Texas A&M University
D.R. Fesenmaier
  • Temple University
Muzaffer Uysal
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Abraham Pizam
  • University of Central Florida